Laser dye structures and synonyms

Laser dye structures and synonyms
Joel M. Kauffman
Laser dyes are organic chemicals whose systematic names are lengthy and confusing. Other names-some
come into everyday use, but there is no consistency, and sometimes research workjargon, some trade-have
This
ers will have dyes from different suppliers that are identical in structure although different in name.
paper tabulates laser dyes by a characteristic identification number.
Laser dyes are organic chemicals whose systematic
names are lengthy and confusing. Jargon names have
come into use which do not indicate the structure of the
dyes. Commercial suppliers of laser dyes have different
systems of trade names, and the Naval Weapons Center
developed a system of its own for bicyclic dyes.
Structures for a given dye in the literature often dis-
agree, and researchers may be unaware that they have
dyes from different suppliers which are identical in
structure despite a difference in name. Physicists are
generally unaware that there is an easy computer-based
method to search the literature for a given laser dye by
a characteristic identification number.
Table I shows the structural formulas of 30 laser dyes
of current interest that have two or more popular names.
The dyes are numbered 1-30 for easy reference, but they
are arranged in order of increasing untuned peak laser
output wavelength. While this wavelength can vary
greatly depending on dye concentration, cell dimensions, and solvent, the wavelengths selected for Table
I place the dyes in the correct relative order for similar
conditions. The structural formulas are drawn in
similar orientations so that related dyes may be compared easily. Note that dyes 15 and 16 differ by just one
methylene (CH 2 ) group; this is the reason for inclusion
of dye 16, which has only one jargons name. An alpha-
betic/numeric index is provided in Table II to aid in
locating dyes in Table I.
Chemical Abstracts indexes many applied physics
journals citing performance of laser dyes as well as
The author is with Philadelphia
College of Pharmacy & Science,
43rd Street & Kingsessing Mall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.
Received 25 June 1980.
0003-6935/80/203431-05$00.50.
© 1980 Optical Society of America.
chemistry journals that may describe syntheses of the
dyes. The Chemical Abstracts Registry Number, when
available, has been included in Table I for each dye.
This number may be used to search the literature for
citations past or future to each dye in Table I with the
qualifier laser by accessing one of the appropriate
computer-based chemical dictionaries. Examples are
Chemdex (System Development Corp.), Chemname
and Chemline
(Lockheed Missiles & Space Corp.),
(National Library of Medicine).'9
15 October 1980 / Vol. 19, No. 20 / APPLIED OPTICS
3431
TableI. Structures
andSynonyms
of LaserDyes
Dye
Laser
no.
Xa
1
386 nm
Structural formula
Common names
of dye
~,
of dyeb
/=
CH3ICH1)1CHCHO0i
4\ ,,\ C.C.(~}H.
(H 2) 3CH3 "C'H
\"
\
I
\\ I
2CH3
BIBUQ (EM Labs)
- -.Filot 386 (N)
Chem. Abst.
reg. no.c
Literature
references
18434-08-7
1,2
26078-25-1
3-6,18
BBQ (X)
CH3
2
446
C 2 HsC3(A0
CH
Coumarin 2 (K)
Coumarin 450 (X)
H
3
H
4
BMU
CH3
Beta-methylumbelliferone
456
CH3
h
C2 H5
C2 H-
5 466
C2Hs
7,18
91-44-1
3-6,8,11,18
Coumarin 4 (K)
Pilot 447 (N)
OJg$1O
460
90-33-5
J(
o
Coumarin 1 (K)
MDAC
Pilot 449 (N)
7DEA4MC (W)
Coumarin 460 (X)
C1H (W)
LD 466 (X)
57597-38-3
3,5,9
Q6F (W)
LD 473 (X)
58721-74-7
3,5,9,18
Coumarin 102 (K)
Coumarin 480 (X)
41267-76-9
3-6,8-11,18
Coumarin 35 (K)
Pilot 481 (N)
C1F (W)
Coumarin 481 (X)
41934-47-8
4,5,11,12
Coumarin 151 (K)
C3F (W)
Coumarin 490 (X)
53518-15-3
4-6,11,18
C6H (W)
LD 490 (X)
58336-35-9
3,9,18
Coumarin 307 (K)
Coumarin 503 (X)
55804-70-1
4,6,18
Coumarin 314 (K)
Coumarin 504 (X)
55804-66-5
4,6,8,18
C2 H5
6
CH
n-CH3
473
CF3
3
H3
7
480
8
481
CH3
CF3
C2H5j
j
C2 H5
9
CF3
490
H2 NJI
10
490
11
503
12
506
O
CF3
3432
C
2
HsJ
OCH5
APPLIED OPTICS/ Vol. 19, No. 20 / 15 October 1980
Table 1. Structuresand Synonymsof Laser Dyes (continued)
Dye
Laser
Structural formula
no.
Xa
of dye
13
515 nm
N
Common names
Chem. Abst.
Literature
of dyeb
reg. no.c
references
Coumarin 30 (K)
Coumarin 515 (X)
41044-12-6
3,5,6,9,10,18
Coumarin 152 (K)
C2F (W)
Coumarin 485 (X)
53518-14-2
4-6,11,18
C8F (W)
Coumarin 522 (X)
53518-19-7
5,9,11,18
Coumarin 355 (K)
C15H14 F3 NO2 C
Coumarin 7 (K)
Coumarin 535 (X)
27425-55-4
6,18
Coumarin 6 (K)
Coumarin 540 (X)
38215-36-0
3-6,8,10,18
Coumarin 153 (K)
Pilot 495 (N)
C6F (W)
Coumarin 540A (X)
53518-18-6
4-6,8,9,11,12,18
Rhodamine 110 (K)
Rhodamine 560 (X)
13558-31-1
8,23
C2 H(S
CF3
14
519
CH3 '
CF3
15
522
CH3
CF3
16
522
4
C2H5
17
535
C
2
H,
H
I
C2 H5
N9Z
18
540
C2
0
%H~JoI7Io
C2H5
19
543
20
570
H N2
H
2
0
CC02H
21
590
H5
CH
r- CNHHC
COH
CC
+,C2Hs
C2H5
22
H
590
CO
c 2 C 2 H5
-
C
2 C104-
C. I. Basic Red 1
Rhodamine 5GDNd
(D)
Rhodamine 6G (D,K)
Rhodamine 6GDN
(D)
Rhodamine 69DN
(D)
Pilot 559 (N)
Rhodamine 590
Chloride (X)
989-38-8
Rhodamine 6G
Perchlorate (K)
Pilot 559P (N)
Rhodamine 590
Perchlorate (X)
13161-28-9
8,11,13
8,22
15 October 1980 / Vol. 19, No. 20 / APPLIED OPTICS
3433
Table 1. Structuresand Synonymsof Laser Dyes (continued)
Dye
Laser
Structural formula
no.
\a
of dye
23
610 nm
1
C2 H5 11
2 H5
2H
-C
24
Common names
Chem. Abst.
Literature
of dyeb
reg. no. C
references
C. I. Basic Violet 10
C. I. Food Red 15
Rhodamine B (D,K)
Pilot 578 (N)
Rhodamine 610 (X)
cl-
620
!HS
C. I. Acid Red 52
81-88-9
8,13,14
2609-88-3
13,14
41175-43-3
8,15
60311-02-6
20,21
41830-80-2
8,16
53340-16-2
8,16
Oxazine 170
Perchlorate (K)
Oxazine 720 (X)
62669-60-7
6,8
Oxazine 1
24796-94-9
8,24
Kiton Red S
Kiton Red 620 (X)
Sulforhodamine B
(K)
Xylene Red B
25
640
Rhodamine 101 (K)
Rhodamine 640
Perchloratee (X)
26
648
Sulforhodamine 101
(K)
Sulforhodamine 640
(X)
27
670
C
25
H2N°H2
Cresyl Violet 670 (X)
Cresyl Violet
C N0
28
690
c
Oy%NN
>
H2
Nile Blue 690 (X)
Nile Blue A
K J L0 Nt
H-f
-C(
C2H5%
29
Perchlorate (K)
+
Perchlorate (K)
Pilot 730f (N)
C2H5
720
C H
aN
MCH
Cl04-
30 725
C
2
H+C2
C2HS"'
'-II
H
5
C2 H5
Cloz
Perchlorate (K)
Oxazine 725 (X)
Pilot 740 (N)
The untuned laser output wavelength maximum is given, usually in ethanol.
Abbreviations: D = DuPont; K = Eastman Kodak; N = New England Nuclear; W = Naval Weapons Center; C.I. = Colour Index1 7; X
Exciton Chemical Co.
a
b
=
c Where the Chemical Abstracts registry number was not available, the empirical formula is given.
d
The dye known as Rhodamine 6G is a mixture whose major component is the structure shown, available from Du Pont as Rhodamine
GDN
Extra. The chloride portion of the structure is actually included in the name Rhodamine 6G (or GDN Extra), thus the common name Rhodamine 6G Perchlorate is a misnomer.
e Rhodamine 101 is actually a chloride as shown. Rhodamine 640 has a perchlorate in place of a chloride. Its registry number is not available;
the empirical formula is C 3 2 H31ClN207 .
f Pilot 730 is actually the chloride, registry number 2381-85-3, also called C.I. Basic Blue 12.
3434
APPLIED OPTICS/ Vol. 19, No. 20 / 15 October 1980
Index
TableII. Alphabetic/Numeric
Dye
no.
Name
1
2
1
2
5
8
14
9
19
10
15
24
21
23
23
4
2
3
18
17
13
8
7
9
14
19
11
12
BBQ
Beta-methylumbelliferone
BIBUQ
BMU
ClH
ClF
C2F
C3F
C6F
C6H
C8F
C.I. Acid Red 52
C.I. Basic Red 1
C.I. Basic Violet 10
C.I. Food Red 15
Coumarin 1
Coumarin 2
Coumarin 4
Coumarin 6
Coumarin 7
Coumarin 30
Coumarin 35
Coumarin 102
Coumarin 151
Coumarin 152
Coumarin 153
Coumarin 307
Coumarin 314
Dye
no.
Name
16
2
4
7
8
14
9
11
12
13
15
17
18
19
27
27
4
24
24
5
6
10
4
28
28
30
29
29
Coumarin 355
Coumarin 450
Coumarin 460
Coumarin 480
Coumarin 481
Coumarin 485
Coumarin 490
Coumarin 503
Coumarin 504
Coumarin 515
Coumarin 522
Coumarin 535
Coumarin 540
Coumarin 540A
Cresyl Violet 670
Cresyl Violet Perchlo.
7DEA4MC
Kiton Red S
Kiton Red 620
LD 466
LD 473
LD 490
MDAC
Nile Blue 690
Nile Blue A Perchlo.
Oxazine 1 Perchlo.
Oxazine 170 Perchlo.
Oxazine 720
Name
.
Oxazine 725
Pilot 386
Pilot 447
Pilot 449
Pilot 481
Pilot 495
Pilot 559
Pilot 559P
Pilot 578
Pilot 730
Pilot 740
Q6F
Rhodamine 5GDN
Rhodamine 6G
Rhodamine 6G Perchlo.
Rhodamine
Rhodamine
Rhodamine
Rhodamine
Rhodamine
Rhodamine
6GDN
69DN
101
110
560
590 Chlo.
Rhodamine 590 Perchlo.
Rhodamine 610
Rhodamine 640 Perchlo.
Rhodamine B
Sulforhodamine
Sulforhodamine
Sulforhodamine
Xylene Red B
101
640
B
Dye
no.
30
1
3
4
8
19
21
22
23
28
30
6
21
21
22
21
21
25
20
20
21
22
23
25
23
26
26
24
24
The encouragement of S. E. Neister of Phase-R Corporation and
of R. W. Terhune of Optics Letters, and the help given by
R. Steppel of Exciton Chemical Corporation and by P. Campbell
and
P. Doherty
of this College are gratefully
recognized.
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(1975).
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15 October 1980 / Vol. 19, No. 20 / APPLIED OPTICS
3435
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