District Profile of Rupandehi

RUPANDEHI DISTRICT PROFILE
±
±
Rupandehi
Nepal
0
175
350 Kilometers
a
Rivers
Highways
Roads
Municipalities
Village Development Committees
a District Agriculture Development Office
1
Table of Contents
1.
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 4
2.
Natural Resources ........................................................................................................... 4
3.
2.1.
Land Resources........................................................................................................ 4
2.2.
Water Resources ...................................................................................................... 5
2.3.
Agriculture ............................................................................................................... 6
2.3.1.
Crops .................................................................................................................... 6
2.3.2.
Livestock ............................................................................................................ 12
Climate and Weather Information ................................................................................ 13
Temperature: .................................................................................................................... 13
Precipitation: .................................................................................................................... 13
Humidity: ......................................................................................................................... 15
Sunshine Duration:........................................................................................................... 16
Evaporation: ..................................................................................................................... 16
Soil Temperature:............................................................................................................. 16
Extreme events documented: drought, flood, hail ........................................................... 16
Flood events: .................................................................................................................... 17
4.
5.
Institutional Framework ................................................................................................ 18
4.1.
District Agriculture Development Office ............................................................. 18
4.2.
District Livestock Services Office ......................................................................... 20
4.3.
Nepal Agricultural Research Council .................................................................... 21
4.4.
Department of Hydrology and Meteorology ......................................................... 21
4.5.
Other Relevant Organizations ............................................................................... 21
Infrastructures ............................................................................................................... 22
Communication:............................................................................................................... 22
Electricity: ........................................................................................................................ 22
Transportation: ................................................................................................................. 22
Financial Institutions:....................................................................................................... 22
6.
Other Information ......................................................................................................... 23
Population: ....................................................................................................................... 23
Languages: ....................................................................................................................... 23
Education: ........................................................................................................................ 23
References ........................................................................................................................ 24
2
List of Tables
Table 1 Irrigation channels and area covered in VDCs ............................................................. 6
Table 2 Crop Rotations Followed .............................................................................................. 8
Table 3 Major Diseases and documented incidences ................................................................ 9
Table 4 Major pests and documented incidences .................................................................... 10
Table 5 Agricultural Inputs Suppliers ...................................................................................... 11
Table 6 Temperature averaged over 30 years up to 2013 (degree Celsius) ............................. 13
Table 7 Precipitation in mm received in Rupandehi from 1973through 2012 ........................ 14
Table 8 Human Resources in DADO Rupandehi .................................................................... 19
Table 9 Roads to major market centers.................................................................................... 22
List of Figures
Figure 1 Land use distribution ................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2 Land area distribution among land holders ................................................................. 5
Figure 3 Size of land holding ..................................................................................................... 5
Figure 4 Rivers in Rupandehi .................................................................................................... 5
Figure 5 Production trend of major crops in Rupandehi (tons) ................................................ 7
Figure 6 Agricultural Pocket Areas ........................................................................................... 7
Figure 7 Agriculture commodity markets ................................................................................ 11
Figure 8 Price Trend of staple food (Rs/Quintal) .................................................................... 12
Figure 9 Temperature observed from 1971 through 2013 (Degree Celsius) ........................... 13
Figure 10 Annual Rainfall Variability (mm) ........................................................................... 13
Figure 11 Precipitation received over months (mm/day) ........................................................ 14
Figure 12 Precipitation received in wetter months (mm/day) ................................................. 14
Figure 13 Precipitation received in drier months (mm/day) .................................................... 14
Figure 14 Relative Humidity 1976-2013 (%) .......................................................................... 15
Figure 15 Humidity in the most humid months (%) ................................................................ 15
Figure 16 Humidity in the least humid months (%) ................................................................ 15
Figure 17 Humidity in moderately humid months (%) ............................................................ 15
Figure 18 Sunshine hours over a year ...................................................................................... 16
Figure 19 Evaporation over months (mm) ............................................................................... 16
Figure 20 VDCs at Risk of Flooding ....................................................................................... 17
Figure 21 VDCs covered by Agriculture service centers and contact points .......................... 18
Figure 22 Road Network in Rupandehi ................................................................................... 22
3
1. Introduction
Rupandehi is agriculturally important south western district of Nepal bordering India in
South, and Palpa, Nawalparasi and Kapilvastu in the North, East and West respectively. The
district is divided into sixty-nine village development committees (VDCs) and two
municipalities. More than half of the land in the district (58.45 per cent or 82,622ha) is under
cultivation and 70 per cent (98,956) of population are engaged in agriculture (Census, 2013).
The diverse geography of the district attributed to a combination of Terai plain (100 m msl)
and Chure hills region (1219m msl) within an area of 1360 sq. Km provides a basis for
diverse agriculture in the district. It is a food surplus district with about 57 per cent of cereals
produced available for export (District Report, 2011/12). While about half of the vegetables,
pulses, and oilseeds consumed are produced within the district, unmet increasing demands for
the commodities are addressed through imports, mostly from India.
2. Natural Resources
2.1.Land Resources
Land use: In Rupandehi, 87.37 per cent of land is under agriculture, forests, and pastures and
a little more than ten per cent of land
4.62
1.74 1.62 0.15 0.29
Cultivated
is allocated for other purposes
Forests
6.28
including residential and real state
4.21
Pasture
(Figure 1). All of the 85,122 ha of
Rivers
cultivable land is khet (low-land)
22.64
58.45
Residential
and is under cultivation. While 56
Real State
per cent (3387.80 ha) of the
Industrial
cultivable land is seasonally
Rocky Area
irrigated, only 3.98 per cent of the
Figure 1 Land use distribution
Others
land is covered by year round
irrigation, and the rest (34067.20 ha)
is rain-fed. Irrigation facilities and infrastructures in the district are discussed shortly.
Forests cover 21.56 percent (30484 ha) of the district. Major timber of the district are Sal,
Khayar, Satisal, Jamun, Karma, Sankhu, Teak, Bombax, Marmelos, Tooni, RajaBrikshya,
Botadhyaro, Sirish, Kadam, Saaj, Fadiyor, Asna, Sisaun, Chanp, and Sahadavan. Non-timber
forest products in the district include Harro, Barro, Bijayasal, Khajurpatta, Naagbeli,
Sarpagandha, Tejpaat, Eucalyptus, Gumba, Variyara, and Bojho. Forest area in the district is
declining; the district lost 6,000 ha of forests in last 21 years. Currently 49 community forests
groups are active in the district.
4
Land holding structure:
40000
30000
20000
5 to 10
3to5
1to3
0.5-1
0.1-0.5
upto 0.1
0
More…
10000
Land is common asset among the Rupandehis; 85 per
cent of population holds land. About two third (68.27
per cent) of them hold less than 1 ha of land, which
demonstrates the dominance of small holder farmers in
the district (Figure 2). Another larger group (27.62 per
cent) hold one to three ha of land. Only 0.1 per cent of
population holds more than 10 ha of land in the district.
Figure 2 Land area distribution among land holders
In terms of size of land holding, 47.08
per cent of land is fragmented into 1-3
ha per household and 30 per cent of the
land is fragmented into land area of 0.1
to 1 ha. In Rupandehi, significant
portion (22.32 per cent) of land belongs
to medium (3ha to10ha or more) to
larger size land holding (Figure 3).
8.87%
11.33%
2.12%
0.41%
11.02%
19.17%
upto 0.1
0.1-0.5
0.5-1
1to3
47.08%
3to5
5 to 10
Figure 3 Size of land holding
More than 10
2.2.Water Resources
±
Major rivers of Rupandehi districts are
Tinau, Rohini, Daanav, Kothi, Mahav,
Baghela, Danda, Ghagara, Koyilijhang.
The rivers flows through 52 VDCs
(Figure 5) providing access to some
forms of irrigation to the farmers while
also putting them at the risk of flooding
(details on flood risks is discussed
shortly).
Irrigation infrastructure: Irrigation
infrastructure is developed in the district
through various projects. Currently,
more than 180 Km of irrigation channels
provide irrigation facilities to 13406 ha
of ha of land in 25 VDCs (Table 1).
0
5
10 Kilometers
Rivers
VDCs with Rivers
Village Development Committees
Figure 4 Rivers in Rupandehi
5
Table 1 Irrigation channels and area covered in VDCs
Rivers/Lake
Irrigation
channel Km
4.9
61.5
Area
covered Ha
850
3500
VDCs covered
Project
Basantpur
Sipwa, Majhgaon,
Bairghat
Semara
Bishnupura
Danda IP
Gaidahawa
Gaidahawa
Lake
Ghaghari
Gkothi
Inguriya
Jharan River
Jharan River
Kajarar
Khapar River
Lausi
Lausi
3
6.66
94
312
9.5
9.125
3.5
XX
XX
11.173
XX
3.11
10.80
2000
200
250
400
130
300
500
200
300
Ghaghara IP
Kothi IP
Iguriya IP
Tenuhawa IP
Kunjalapur IP
Dhunge Badh IP
Parroha IP
Lausi IP
Lausi IP
165
400
800
1200
Hathibangi
Rudrapur
Dudhrakshya
Tenuhawa
Anandban
Devdaha, Kerwani
Parroha
Padsari
Madhauliya,
Gangolia
Hatipharsatikaer
West Amuwa
Amuwa, Mainahiya
Kamhariya
Lausi
Siyari
Siyari
Siyari &
Khadwa
Siyari River
3
4.9
16.8
10
15
1700
Harnaiya
Sukhali
4
105
Manpakadi,
Manmaeriya
Siyari Harnaiya
Irrigation Project (IP)
Purniya Bandh
Irrigation Sub project
Total
176.97
13406
Danda
Dano/Tinua
Gaidahawa Nala IP
Gaindahawa Tal IP
Dumdumuwa IP
Gothawa Bhumka IP
Siyari IP
Khadwa Motipur IP
2.3.Agriculture
2.3.1. Crops
Production: Rupandehi is a food sufficient district. Cereal production in the district was 0.4
million tons in 2012-13 (District Report 2012/13) while the requirement for the year was
estimated at 0.16million tons. Rupandehi produced the highest amount of rice in 2011 sharing
15.7 per cent of total production of the country (Annual Reports, M&E Division, MoAD).
According to the reports, the district is ranked 3rd in average rice production for 5 years
(2007-2009).
Major Crops: Major cereal crops produced in the district are paddy, wheat, corn, and finger
millet; pulses are kidney bean, black gram, and soybean; and oilseed crops are mustard,
sunflower, and peanuts. Among horticultural crops, the major fruits are mango, banana, litchi,
jackfruit, and guava and the major vegetables are onion, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower,
tomatoes, radish, cucumber, ole, bottle gourds, and pumpkin. In addition to that, some spices
6
and condiments are grown in the district such as turmeric, chili, and garlic. Tulsi is the major
herb of the district.
Productivity of rice is increasing
(2.88t/ha in 2001 to 4.6t/ha in
2013 and is among the top ten
districts with highest
productivity (MoAD Reports).
Rupandehi produces 6.1 per
cent (0.1 million tons) of total
national wheat production.
Productivity and production of
major cereal crops is increasing
in the district (Figure 5). Total
pulses and oilseed production in
the district was 4164 and 2180 tons
Figure 5 Production trend of major crops in Rupandehi (tons)
respectively in 2012/13. Total
vegetables production in the district including onion and potatoes was 0.1 million tons.
±
_
^
Successfully developed pocket areas for
various agricultural commodities are in
Figure 6. Onion and seeds pockets have
been developed across the district.
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
0
4
_
^
_
^
8
Vegetables_Pockets
FishPockets
Banana
Highway
Roads
Rupandehi_Rivers
Agricultural Commodities Market
16 Kilometers
Vegetables_Pockets
FishPockets
Banana
Highway
Roads
Rupandehi_Rivers
Agricultural Commodities Market
Figure 6 Agricultural Pocket Areas
Cropping patterns and crop calendar: Main crop of Rupandehi is rice and is rotated with
wheat, oilseeds, or vegetable crops. In irrigated land generally three crops are taken per year
while in semi-irrigated land and land without irrigation facilities, two crops are cultivated.
Some of the crop rotations followed are in Table 2.
7
Table 2 Crop Rotations Followed
Irrigated
Paddy-Paddy- Potato
Paddy-Paddy-Wheat
Paddy-Potatoes-Fallow
Paddy-Wheat- Green gram
Paddy-Wheat-Summer Paddy
Paddy-Vegetables
Paddy-Wheat-Fallow
Paddy-Onion-Fallow
Semi-irrigated
Paddy-Wheat-Fallow
Paddy-Oilseeds- Fallow
Paddy-Potato-Fallow
Paddy-Fallow-Fallow
Paddy-Onion-Fallow
Paddy-Pulse-Fallow
Paddy-Vegetables-Fallow
Unirrigated
Paddy-Onion-Fallow
Paddy-Fallow-Fallow
Paddy-Pulse-Fallow
Paddy-Potato-Fallow
Paddy-Vegetables-Fallow
Paddy-Oilseeds- Fallow
Cropping Calendar
Crops
Sowing
(Month)
Other Operations
Activities
Months
Rice
Wheat
8
Harvest
(Month)
Diseases and pest management: DADO coordinates with farmers, line agencies and
private sector in addressing pests and diseases in the district. Major diseases and pests and
frequency of their occurrences are in Table 3 and 4. DADO runs integrated pest management
schools every year and has developed 20 IPM facilitators in the district. Discuss- Monthsdiseases and pests incidences and common diseases and pests control methods followed.
Table 3 Major Diseases and documented incidences
SN Group
Crops
1
Rice
2
Cereals
Name
rice blast
bacterial blight
sheath blight
brown leaf spot
false smut
khaira disease
Wheat
yellow rust
loose smut
blight
Maize
leaf blight
maize rust
Oilseed
alternate leaf spot
crops
powdery mildew
Vegetables Tomato
wilt
damping off
late blight
early blight
Potato
late blight
early blight
ring rot
Cabbage & damping off
Cauliflower alternate leaf spot
Cucurbit
powdery mildew
downy mildew
virus
Fruits
Mango
anthracnose
Banana
bunchy top
banana wilt
leaf spot
heart rot
9
Severity (in 2011/12)
High
Medium Low
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 4 Major pests and documented incidences
SN Group
Crops
Insects
Name
high
1 Cereals
Paddy
rice bug
rice stem borer
rice leaf roller
bph
Wheat
termite
aphid
Maize
cutworm
stem borer
maize aphids
2 Oil Crops Mustard
aphid
3 Vegetables Potato
potato tuber moth
cut worm
Tomato
tomato fruit borer
Cabbage
cabage butterfly
&Cauliflower aphid
red pumpkin
Cucurbits
beetle
fruit fly
spot and fruit
Brinjal
borer
4 Fruits
Mango
mango hopper
mango millibug
mango fruit fly
banana stem
Banana
weevil
Litchi
leaf and fruit
searing beetle
rhizome weevil
leaf curl mite
Severity
medium low
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Soil type Most of the area in Rupandehi has loamy soil. Area near Chure area is made up of
highly sensitive and easily erodible sandstone, siltstone, shell and conglomerates.
Production Costs
Marketing
Marketing Infrastructure: Rupandehi has well developed facilities for procuring and
agricultural inputs and marketing outputs. Road networks including agricultural roads
10
developed in the district facilitates marketing operations. There are 358 registered agricultural
inputs suppliers in the district (Table 5).
Table 5 Agricultural Inputs Suppliers
SN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Agricultural Inputs Suppliers
Retail pesticides suppliers
Fisheries source centers
Flower nursery
Post harvest bins suppliers
Fertilizer suppliers
Total
Total
237
14
12
1
94
358
Twenty six markets are identified in the district that deals with agricultural commodities
(Figure 7). Three agricultural
markets are operating at wholesale
level, one in Butwal and two in
_
^
_
^
_
^
Sidhdhartha Nagar municipality.
_
^
_
^
There are 11 agricultural
_
^
_
^
commodities collection centers
_
^
_
^
_
^
across the district. In addition to
_
^
_
^
that, Haat bazaars (farmers’
_
^
_
^
market) operate at 12 to 17
_
^
locations per day in the district and
_
^
_
^
_
^
_
^
runs throughout the week at
_
^
various locations.
±
_
^
_
^
0
_
^
_
^
5
10
20 Kilometers
Main Markets for Agricultural Commodities
Roads
Highway
VDCs and Municipalities
Figure 7 Agriculture commodity markets
Prices: Food prices in Nepal are driven by food price in India and the availability of food in
Nepal. Since food production and supply is largely dependent on precipitation, prices depend
upon rainfall quantity and timing. Prices of staple food has been increasing steadily until
2005/2006 and then followed the increasing rate thereafter. Annual price increase for rice for
1994-95 through 2004/05 was 1.6 per cent and 3.17 per cent for wheat for the same period. In
2005/06, rice price increased by 28.05 per cent on an average (averaged over three rice types)
and thereafter increased at 18.07 per cent per annum for until 2011/12. Maximum increase of
32.49 per cent was observed in 2005/06 as compared to previous fiscal year followed by
another jump of 28.36 per cent in 2011/12. Precipitation received in 2005/06 was 1081.6mm ,
that is 60 percent of the average rainfall in the district.
11
Similarly, in case of wheat, annual rate of price increase was 3.28 per cent from 1994/95
through 2004/05, which increased to 10.36 per cent per annum. This is predominantly led by
a 40.50 per cent hike in F.Y 2007/08 and 10.54 percent hike in 2009/10.
Figure 8 Price Trend of staple food (Rs/Quintal)
2.3.2. Livestock
Major livestock of the district
Major fodder produced
Diseases Recorded
Market Infrastructure and Price
Livestock Insurance
12
3. Climate and Weather Information
Temperature: Temperature in Bhairahawa fluctuates from 7.10°C (in January) to 40.20°C
(in May) based on DHM
temperature records for
Rupandehi for the past 30
years. December, January and
February are the coldest
months: the minimum
temperature ranges from
7.10°C to 10.50°C and the
maximum temperature ranges
from 21.26°C to 27.9°C during
these months. April, May and
June are the hottest months
Figure 9 Temperature observed from 1971 through 2013 (Degree Celsius)
and the maximum temperature
recorded over past 30 years ranges from 35.61°C to 40.20°C while the minimum temperature
recorded during these months ranges from 16.40°C to25.56°C (Table 6). Monthly
temperature variability (for years 1971- 2013) is illustrated in Figure 9.
Table 6 Temperature averaged over 30 years up to 2013 (degree Celsius)
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Maximum
Average
Maximum
Average
Minimum
24.30
27.90
33.80
39.70
40.20
38.30
35.00
34.50
34.50
33.90
30.80
27.20
21.26
25.68
31.43
36.19
36.55
35.61
33.27
33.43
33.04
32.55
29.44
24.36
8.55
10.50
14.00
19.03
23.37
25.56
25.99
25.94
24.76
20.49
14.46
10.22
Minimum
7.10
8.10
11.70
16.40
19.20
24.00
24.40
23.60
23.60
18.70
11.90
8.90
Source: Based on DHM Observations at Bhairahawa station.
Precipitation: Precipitation in the district is predominantly led by monsoon in Nepal.
Average annual rainfall
received in the district is
1808.33mm and DHM records
shows the lowest of 1081.6mm
in 2005-2006 and a maximum
of 2797.4mm in 1998 (Figure
10). Precipitation data for the
past 15 years show increasing
annual rainfall variability.
Figure 10 Annual Rainfall Variability (mm)
13
Monthly average rainfall received
ranges from a minimum of 5.75
mm in the driest month November
to 1079 mm in the wettest month,
July (Figure 11). Maximum rain
falls in the months of June and July
that ranges from 115 to 1079.9mm.
Average rainfall observed over
1973through 2012 ranges from
405.97 to 587.54mm (Table 7).
Figure 11 Precipitation received over months (mm/day)
(Based on precipitation data DHM recorded from 1973-2012)
Table 7 Precipitation in mm received in Rupandehi from 1973through 2012
Year
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Min
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
77.60
178.10
115.00
60.40
0.00
0.00
0.00
Max
76.30
68.70
103.10
100.50
335.60
1034.50
1079.90
970.90
550.00
359.60
75.00
117.10
Mean
15.87
18.42
17.66
23.96
86.34
274.15
587.54
405.97
283.56
75.76
5.75
13.70
Source: Based on DHM Observations
Pre-monsoon precipitation of 274.15mm on an average is received in June and the maximum
rainfall received for the observed period is 1034.5mm. Similarly, post monsoon month
September is comparatively wet month that receives an average of 283.56mm rainfall.
Monthly rainfall variability over the years in wetter months and drier months are in Figures
12 and 13.
Figure 12 Precipitation received in wetter months
(mm/day)
Figure 13 Precipitation received in drier months
(mm/day)
14
Humidity: Bhairahawa observes most humid mornings in January and December and most
humid evenings in July and August (Figure 14). Humidity records for the period of 37 years
shows a minimum of 44.23 per cent and maximum of 98.48 per cent in the mornings and a
minimum of 25.12 per cent and maximum of 93.63 per cent in the evenings. Average
morning humidity is the lowest at 58.10 per cent in April and highest at 94.74 per cent in
January while average evening humidity is minimum in April (44.92 per cent) and maximum
in August and September at 79.18 and 79.46 per cent respectively. Detailed trends of
humidity over the period in most humid and least humid months are illustrated in Figures 15,
16, and 17.
Figure 14 Relative Humidity 1976-2013 (%)
Figure 16 Humidity in the least humid months (%)
Figure 15 Humidity in the most humid months (%)
Figure 17 Humidity in moderately humid months (%)
Note: Based on DHM data from 1976
through 2013
15
Sunshine Duration: Sunshine
duration in Bhairahawa ranges from
4.76 hours (July) to 9.09 hours (April)
based on the DHM observation from
1987 to 1992. March, April, May,
October and November enjoy more than
eight hours of sunshine in the district
(Figure 18).
Figure 18 Sunshine hours over a year
Evaporation: Evaporation
measurement provides information on
combined effect of temperature,
humidity, rain fall, drought dispersion,
solar radiation, and wind and thus is a
key variable for farmers in deciding
irrigation requirement for crops.
According to the evaporation
measurement at DHM Agro-met
station at Bhairahawa from 1976
through 2013, maximum evaporation is
observed in the months of April and
May that ranges from 4.02 mm to
11.69 mm while minimum evaporation is observed in December, January and February that
Figure 19 Evaporation over months (mm)
ranges from 0.09mm to 4.18mm. Average
evaporations observed were 1.45 mm for
January and 6.11mm for May.
Soil Temperature:
Extreme events documented: drought, flood, hail
16
Flood events: Rupandehi has nine major rivers that run through 52 VDCs. According to
±
0
5
disaster preparedness response plan for
Rupandehi 2011/121, thirty one VDCs are at
risk of flooding: twelve VDCs at high risk,
nine VDCs at moderately high risk and eight
VDCs at moderate risk of flooding (Figure 19).
Ten VDCs in Marchwar area and four in
Lumbini area are identified as potentially
highly inundated. The document identified
eight VDCs at moderate risk of soil erosion.
10 Kilometers
VDCs at Moderate Risk of Flooding
VDCs at Moderately High Risk of Flooding
VDCs at High Risk of Flooding
Figure 20 VDCs at Risk of Flooding
1
MoHA requires districts to develop disaster response preparedness plan (DPRP) at district level following the
Guidelines for preparing disaster preparedness and response plan, 2011. The Dostrict lead support agencies
World Vision International and Butwal A.D.P. developed the DPRP for Butwal.
17
4. Institutional Framework
District Agriculture Development office, Rupandehi works closely with Rupandehi district
administration office and under supervision of Western Region Regional Agricultural
Directorate, Kaski. The MOAD and DOA periodically monitor the districts activities.
National Wheat Research program of NARC is located at Rupandehi district and DADO
coordinate with them for the crop varieties as well as plant protection practices. In addition to
that regional plant quarantine office, regional seed laboratory offices of MoAD are located in
the district. Similarly, national seed company limited, and division cooperative office are
other MoAD organizations under in Rupandehi. Agro-meteorological station of DHM is
located at the district that provides meteorological information and close coordination is
required among the offices. Other relevant government and nongovernment organizations are
District women development program, Li-Bird, Agriculture development Bank, ………..
4.1. District Agriculture Development Office
Rupandehi DADO is headed by senior agriculture
development officer and has six units for
horticulture, agriculture extension, plant protection,
crop development, fisheries development, and
agriculture economics and marketing disciplines.
The DADO is supported by forty-seven employees
including seven technical officers and twenty three
technicians in the district office and field offices
(Table 8).
±
!
.
k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j
k
j
District agriculture development office Rupandehi
implements its programs through four agriculture
service centers and seven contact points. The field
offices are designated to serve farmers in three to
ten VDCs/municipalities depending upon the size,
population of farmers in their jurisdiction (Figure
!
.
!
[
!
.
!
.
k
j
0
5
10
20 Kilometers
20).
Figure 21 VDCs covered by Agriculture service centers and contact points
!
[
k
j
!
.
k
j
k
j
!
.
k
j
!
.
k
j
k
j
!
.
k
j
District Agriculture Development Office
Debdaha Contact Point
Dhakadhai Agriculture Service Center
Karahiya Contact Point
Gajedi Contact Point
Parroha Agriculture Service Center
Manpakadi Contact Point
Majhgawa Agriculture Service Center
Rayapur Contact Point
Suryapuraa Contact Point
Bhagwanpur Agriculture Service Center
Basantpur Contact Point
Basantpur Contact Point
Municipalities
VDCs
Debdaha Contact Point
Karahiya Contact Point
Gajedi Contact Point
Parroha Agriculture Service Center
Manpakadi Contact Point
Majhgawa Agriculture Service Center
Rayapur Contact Point
Suryapuraa Contact Point
Bhagwanpur Agriculture Service Center
Dhakadhai Agriculture Service Center
18
Table 8 Human Resources in DADO Rupandehi
SN
Positions
i.
Senior Agriculture Development officer
Technical Units
ii.
Horticulture development officer
iii.
Agriculture extension officer
iv.
Plant protection officer
v.
Planning officer
vi.
Crop development officer
vii.
Fisheries development officer
viii.
Technical assistants
ix.
Deputy technical assistants
Administration Unit
x.
Non Gazetted first class
xi.
Accountant
xii.
Typist
xiii.
Non-gazetted second class
xiv.
Drivers
xv.
Messengers
Infrastructure
SN Property/equipment
1
Building
2
Laboratory
3
Computers
4
Telecommunication
5
Video conferencing
6
Monitors (for displaying
advisory)
7
8
9
10
Remarks
19
Numbers Remarks
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
13
1
1
1
1
1
12
4.2.District Livestock Services Office
Human Resources
Infrastructure
Livestock Service Centers and Service Sub-Centers
20
4.3. Nepal Agricultural Research Council
National wheat research program (NWRP) office is located in Rupandehi district. The
program is mandated to conduct research on increasing wheat productivity and production,
developing improved wheat varieties, wheat production technologies, multiplying wheat
breeder seed and disseminating wheat related information. The program conducts applied
research for developing superior varieties resistant/tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses for
different agro-climatic conditions in collaboration with related national and international
organizations. Detection of major diseases and insects on wheat, estimation of their damage,
identification and development of insects and disease resistant wheat varieties and disease
management techniques is another major research area of the program. The program has
developed and released 29 improved varieties (details in appendix) and the yield has
increased to 2.15 tons/ha (http://www.narc.org.np/org/wheat_research_program.php). Two
senior scientists, .. scientists, ………… technical officers, and … support staffs are working
at the program office in Rupandehi.
Agro-meteorological station is located within the NWRP Office campus and is supported by
NWRP staff for data collection.
4.4.Department of Hydrology and Meteorology
Agro-meteorological station at Rupandehi has equipment in working condition for measuring
all the agro-meteorological parameters such as precipitation, temperature, evaporation,
sunshine duration, wind speed and direction, and soil temperature. Data recorded for the
parameters are available from 1968 onwards for most of the parameters and complete daily
data for all the months are available from 1973 onwards.
The station is manned station that has an observer hired from NARC NARP office to collect
data daily, record them and send the monthly record to Western Regional office, Pokhara
where the data is digitized. Meterological Network division, planning and network section
receives the data from regional office in digitized form.
In addition to that, an aeronotical synoptic station at Bhairahawa airport sends real time
temperature and precipitation data to the central DHM office. The station has a non-gazetted
first class, two non-gazetted second class staffs in addition to two part-time data observers
hired on daily wage basis.
A hydrological station is located at Tinau River in Butwal. A gauge reader is hired on daily
wage basis to record the observations three times a day at the station and to send the monthly
data to Karnali basin office, Nepalgunj. The data is digitized at the basin office and is sent to
central hydrological data management section at DHM. Flash flood hazard area downstream
of Tinau river include ……..VDCs; however lead time is too short for developing warning
system. Hence, other measures need to be developed to manage the flood hazards.
4.5.Other Relevant Organizations
(Government/ Non-government/Community Based/ Private)
Discussion on current situation of their collaboration/coordination at district level
21
5. Infrastructures
Communication: Rupandehi has well developed communication facilities. Two telephone
offices serve the district in establishing more than 21,000 telephone lines. About 0.17 million
people use mobile phone. All the VDCs have telecommunication services. Post offices
services are available for 64 VDCs out of 69 VDCs. Internet facilities is available in…….
VDCs. There are six FM stations broadcasting radio programs in the district in addition to
national and regional radio services.
Electricity: Twenty-five megawatt of electricity is generated in the district. All VDCs and
Municipalities of Rupandehi district have access to electricity. There are 77,000 domestic
consumers and 2300 industrial/commercial consumers registered in the district. However,
load-shedding in the district restricts electricity supply from XX hours to XX hours.
Transportation: Rupandehi has well-developed transportation facilities. A regional
Bhairahawa airport is located in the district.
The East-West Highway runs through 8 VDCs
and a municipality and Sidhartha Highway
connects two municipalities of the district.
Altogether 1092 km of road including
highways, graveled roads, municipal roads,
and temporary roads runs in the district.
District headquarter Bhairahawa is connected
to major market centers through roads (Table
9).
±
Table 9 Roads to major market centers
SN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Bhairahawa to
Butwal
Lumbini
Devdaha
Parroha
Manigram
Saljhandi
Suryapura
Majhgawa
Semara Marchwar
Road length (KM)
22
22
37
34
11
44
23
15
27
0
7.5
15 Kilometers
Highways
Roads
Village Development Committees
Municipalities
Figure 22 Road Network in Rupandehi
Financial Institutions: A branch office of central bank, Nepal Rastra Bank, 27
commercial bank branch offices, and 32 development banks provides banking services in
Bhairahawa. Additionally few finance companies are operating in the district.
22
6. Other Information
Population: About 1 million people inhabit Rupandehi and 49 per cent of population is
female (census data). There are about 117,000 households with average size 6.01. In
Rupandehi, 37.75 per cent of population belongs to the age group of 20 through 50, while
39.5 percent are children aged 14 and under. The city is comparatively young city.Population
over 50 and senior citizens share 7.84 and 4.23 per cent respectively. Population growth rate
is 3.05 per cent.
Languages: Majority of the population speak Nepali and Bhojpuri languages. Other major
languages used in the district are Tharu, Magar, Newar, Gurung, and Urdu.
Education:
23
References
24
`