T Wastewater Treatment In Kenosha

Wastewater Treatment
In Kenosha
he treatment of waterborne waste in Kenosha
began in 1938 when the City and Federal
Public Works Administration agreed to construct a
treatment plant. The plant was completed and put
into service in 1940. The community’s share of the
cost was provided from Water Utility funds because
at that time, the City had no money set aside for
that purpose.
Primary Clarifiers
To Our Customers
enosha is the gateway to Wisconsin.
Located on the shores of Lake
Michigan, a virtually unlimited supply of
water, it is ideal for industry and recreation.
The Kenosha Water Utility Provides water
and wastewater service to nearly 110,000
people in the greater Kenosha metropolitan
area. We have kept pace with the growth
and needs of the community and have
constructed water and wastewater facilities
to adequately serve the area until the year
2020 and beyond.
We are proud to explain to you how we
protect Lake Michigan by our systematic
treatment and control of wastewater.
We wish you, our friends and customers, to
know that behind the marvel of machines
and materials, there are people, trained in
their special fields, who devote their skill
and experience in providing and protecting
Kenosha’s greatest natural resource—
Before discussing treatment capabilities of the
original plant and its later expansions, it is
necessary to understand that pollutants appear
both as solids and in solution in the water. Relative
strengths of wastewaters are measured by the
amount of solids and the amount of oxygen
required to stabilize the waste. This latter measure
is called the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
Stronger wastes, of course, require more oxygen
than weaker ones. Added to these major measures
of pollution are measurements for phosphates,
mercury and other toxins, oils and greases,
insecticides and pesticides, and a host of other
discards of modern living.
Treated Water
Secondary Treatment
Final Clarifier
econdary treatment facilities were added in
1967, along with additional primary
treatment capacity. Secondary treatment
removes 90 to 95 percent of suspended solids
and BOD, thus substantially reducing the amount
of pollutants reaching Lake Michigan.
Kenosha’s type of secondary treatment is an
activated sludge process wherein bacteria and
microorganisms use the pollutants as food in a
carefully controlled biological environment.
he original treatment plant consisted merely
of controlling flows to allow for the settling of
solids carried into suspension. This is called
primary treatment and plants of this type have a
capability to remove only about 50 percent of the
suspended matter and 30 percent of the BOD.
Thus until 1967, a major portion of pollutants were
discharged to the lake as treatment plant effluent.
The rest of the treatment process consisted of
provisions for removing solids from the flow. These
were held for a period of time and digested to
change them from an unstable and degradable
form to one which could be dried for disposal on
farm land or in a landfill without creating a
The most recent expanded additions, completed
in 1985, are designed for an average daily flow
of 28 million gallons per day (MGD). Capacity is
provided for a maximum daily flow up to 68 MDG
with a peak hourly capacity of 85 MGD.
Activated Sludge Filter Press
The expanded facility has allowed the Kenosha
Water Utility to meet or exceed the Environmental
Protection Agency and Department of Natural
Resources effluent limitations 30 milligrams per
liter of BOD and suspended solids (SS) and 1
milligram per liter of phosphorous (P) for a design
population of 135,000.
Administration and Maintenance Buildings
Raw Wastewater Pump Station
Grit Removal
Primary Clarifiers
Activated Sludge Process
(aeration tanks and blowers)
Final Clarifiers and Activated Sludge Pumps
Aerial Photograph
The Kenosha Wastewater Treatment
Facility is designed to treat an average
daily flow of 28 million gallons per day.
Kenosha has treated its wastewater since
1940. The administration building shown
on the cover was part of the original
Chlorination System and Chlorine Contact
Sludge Handling System
(thickening, digestion, and dewatering)
Pickle Liquor Building
Piping Tunnel
Major Process Elements
Kenosha plant
Sludge Storage
Pumping—average flow of 22 million gallons per day.
Grit Removal—removes 54 cubic feet per day of
inorganic sand, gravel and other heavy material.
Primary Settling—produces 50,000 gallons of sludge
per day.
Aeration—requires 18 million cubic feet per day of
compressed air.
Anaerobic Digestion—produces 150,000 cubic feet
per day of methane gas used to power pump engines.
7835 Third Avenue
Kenosha, Wisconsin
Sludge Thickening—uses air floatation to thicken
waste activated sludge from 1 percent solids to 4
percent solids to conserve digester space.
Sludge Dewatering—employs plate and frame filter
presses to dewater digested sludge to 40 percent
solids. Nearly 80 tons of sludge per day are hauled
to a solid waste landfill to be used as top cover.
Final Clarification—separates the activated sludge
from the final effluent through sedimentation.
Approximately 7.6 million gallons of sludge gets
returned to the aeration basins.
Disinfection—final effluent travels through chlorine
contact tanks for disinfection prior to being dechlorinated and discharged 1,200 feet into Lake