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1. Yes or No depending on what your hypothesis was to begin with. (Answers will vary for
the second part of the questions).
2. Leaves changing colors during autumn, forest fires caused by lightning or careless
humans, dead animals decaying after they die, digestion of food by animals,
photosynthesis by plants and algae, metals rusting or oxidizing when they come in
contact with oxygen (and water), sulfuric acid in acid rain dissolving limestone, etc.
3. Here are the 12 substances:
a) baking soda b) Borax c) pink lemonade d) corn starch e) KCl f) CaCl2
1) vinegar 2) carbonated soda 3) iodine 4) water 5) PVA 6) washing soda solution
*(some of the liquids contained the universal indicator solution and turned a certain color due to their pH)
4. The mass of the PRODUCTS that formed will be the same as the REACTANTS that
were mixed together at the start of the chemical reaction. Remember, matter cannot be
created of destroyed. If you start with 101 grams of reactants then you will end up with
101 grams of products. Sometimes the products might be in the form of a gas which
might cause your mass to be less after the reaction has taken place (this is due to the
gases escaping the container or bag you performed that experiment in).
How do you know a chemical reaction has taken place when reactants are mixed together?
Answers will vary, but should include evidence of a chemical reaction (color change,
heat increase, became colder, precipitate formed, gas produced, pH changed (determined
by color change), or a new substance was formed.
1. The copper wire is dissolving into the solution of silver nitrate AgNO3. The solution is
turning blue because the copper is dissolving into the solution.
2. Silver (yes silver) is collecting on the copper wire. It is coming from the silver nitrate
solution. Copper is being dissolved into the solution,
3. It is a single replacement reaction. This is due to Cu (copper) and Ag (silver) trading
places. The copper is being replaced by silver. Copper is now bonding with NO 3 and silver
is all by itself forming “silver” crystals on the copper wire.
4. Test tube #1 has the most silver because it is more CONCENTRATED. This means it has
more silver to react with the copper wire. This is because test tube “A” was not diluted with
water like test tube “B”.
5. I could add more copper, more silver nitrate (AgNO3), increase the surface area of the
copper (coil it like in the book’s example), increase the temperature of the solution or use a
more concentrated silver nitrate solution and not dilute it with H2O like I did.
6. Sketches and explanations will vary.
1. The solvent was the water (it dissolved most of the boric acid) and the boric acid was the
2. Some of the boric acid mixed with the water, but not all of it because the solution was
SATURATED (full, no more room, no occupancy, please wait for the next elevator because
this one is FULL).
3. Yes, boric acid is slightly soluble in water. There was less viable boric acid crystals in the
water compared to the amount before the water was added. Since matter cannot be destroyed
some of the boric acid must have dissolved into the water to form a boric acid solution.
4. More boric acid crystals would be on the bottom of the bottle. The added boric acid would
not dissolve in the water (see #2).
5. I could have increased the temperature of the water (stuff dissolves better in hot water vs.
colder water because the water molecules spread out when heated – more room for boric acid
to dissolve), added more water (in a bigger bottle of course), or some other ways (stir or
shake more vigorously), but the first two are the best.
6. Since not all the boric acid was able to dissolve, we would say the solution is SATURATED
and that is why some solute was left on the bottom.
7. See # 5 above or not add as much boric acid in the first place. * Note: by adding more water I
am diluting the concentrated boric acid solution and I am also changing its
8. Sketches and explanations will vary.
Disappearing Water (Electrolysis) Lab
1. Oxygen collects at the positive electrode (anode) because oxygen is negatively charged
(it takes away electrons from the hydrogen). Oxygen is more electronegative and is
missing two valence electrons so it more aggressive at taking the electrons away from
hydrogen. Since oxygen is negatively charged (an ion) it is attracted to the “positive”
electrode (opposites attract in nature).
2. Hydrogen collects at the negative electrode (cathode) because the hydrogens are
positively charged (they lose their electrons to the more electronegative oxygen). Since
hydrogen is positively charged (an ion) it is attracted to the “negative” electrode
(opposites attract in nature).
3. How much hydrogen should you have theoretically you should collect twice the amount
of hydrogen compared to oxygen (because it is H2O – two hydrogens for every one
oxygen). Some reasons it was not exactly 2 to 1 are:
i. The gases could have dissolved in the water bath and not completely
collected in the test tube
ii. The oxygen reacts with the electrode and causes some rust – this means
some of the oxygen is lost to the formation of another product (Fe2O3) that
is taking place with another reaction.
iii. The test tub graduations are sometimes challenging to read (not very
iv. Some of the gases might have escaped from test tubes depending on
position over the electrodes.
v. Anything else that you uncovered from your research.
4. By lighting a wooden splint and placing it in each test tube. If there was a “pop” or little
explosion it was the test tube with the hydrogen. If the wooden splint reignited or the
flame got more intense or bigger it was the test tube with the oxygen.
5. Most likely not. The ocean is HUGE and the amount of energy would be enormous
(more than all the 6V batteries we have).
The reaction is a decomposition reaction. If you have enough oxygen, hydrogen and
energy (example: lightning) the reaction would result in the synthesis reaction of water
(H + O).
Even if students did this hydrogen being so unstable would likely react with other
elements (one of them being oxygen) and synthesis water that would return back to the
sea (as rain).
6. The reaction stopped because the water was no longer in contact with one of the
electrodes. This means the electrical current could no longer “flow”. This causes the
reaction to stop because all the reactants at the one electrode where finished reacting to
form products (it is similar to running out of gas in your car). The solution would be to
expose the electrode to the water bath to restart the reaction and flow of electrical current
through the water.
A. Vinegar
B. Apple Juice
C. Banana Juice
D. H2O (neutral pH)
E. Soap
F. Ammonia H. NaOH
2. Yes. First, there was a physical change (the color changed). Second, the reason the color
changed is because the universal indicator works by forming bonds differently (good sign
of a chemical reaction) with the chemicals in the solution depending on the pH of the
solution. This means that there is a chemical change depending on the pH.
3. It stays reddish. It did not go to purple because test tube “A” was more concentrated.
4. The color goes from orange to blue. After I add “A” it turns back to orange or red. It actually
goes back to orange and not very red because the solution was not as concentrated as the
basic solution that was added. All the solutions are relatively dilute compared to the
concentrated liquids I made them from originally.
5. Yes, these reactions are reversible. That means they can go back and forth to form new
products. You could have taken any of the test tubes and added the opposite pH chemical
(acid to a base and base to an acid) and the color would have kept changing depending on the
overall solution pH.
6. Not ALL reactions are reversible. When you burn a tree down (hopefully you are not going
to do this), the reaction only goes one way. You cannot easily take all the ashes, smoke and
gases you produced in the reaction and put the poor tree back together again.
7. I have to neutralize the acid so it does not eat away and destroy the drain (metal pipes) and
all the pretty little fish in the ocean (that would be bad, very bad).
8. The color turns to a green/blue. It is due to their being more concentrated basic solutions.
Post Lab Questions:
1. Yes, a chemical reaction occurred. New products were formed. The new product was a
long chained polymer worm that allowed many sodium alginate monomers to crosslink
and form calcium alginate long chained polymer worms. The product (the worms) had
different physical and chemical properties compared to the sodium alginate and
calcium chloride solution.
2. A polymer is a substance that consists of small, repeating patterns of structural units
3. A polymer is like when you take paper clips and attach them together. They each are one
simple part, but can become something very large and complex as more and more pieces
are added together.
Other analogies will work as well.
4. They are smooth, wet and slippery. It will stretch a little, but will break if you stretch it
too far. This is because the crosslinks will break with too much tension. When you
stretch it the force on the crosslinks is too great and the worm breaks into two pieces.
5. Polymers are used in clothing (thread), plastics, glues, latex paint, silk worm and spider
silk, and many other products that are a result of long chains. Much of ourselves are
polymers (muscle tissue, carbohydrates, DNA, RNA, etc).
One example of a polymer in the real world is Kevlar. It is used in bullet proof vest and
other protective equipment (motor cycle protective wear). It is a thread that is extremely
strong and can be woven into a very long chain for use in clothing to make them more
resistant to bullets.
6. Answers and pictures will vary.
7. Wet, smooth, colors, amorphous solid, slippery, fun to play with, break if stretch too far,
jumble up if squished together, etc.
Polyvinyl Alcohol Slime All Over
Post Lab Questions:
1. Yes, a chemical reaction occurred. A new product was formed that had different
physical and chemical properties. The new product was a long chained polymer slime
that acted like a very viscous (thick) liquid and a solid. I guess you could say it was an
amorphous solid.
2. After mixing all the reactants a material that could be drawn out into a long, pliable
(malleable) material formed. It was similar to the polymer worms made earlier.
3. They are smooth, wet and slippery. It will stretch a little, but will break if you stretch it
too far. This is because the crosslinks will break with too much tension. When you
stretch it the force on the crosslinks is too great and the slime blob breaks into two pieces.
It feels cool to the touch because of the high moisture content. The moisture removes
heat from your hands as it evaporates away.
4. It is both a solid and a liquid. We tend to call matter that is both an amorphous solid.
5. DNA, RNA, muscle tissue, plastics, slime, carbohydrates, Kevlar, clothing threads
(Nylon, polyester, cotton, etc.) and many, many more.
6. Yes. It contains carbon atoms. Compounds that are organic contain carbon. Organic
compound have two unique properties: they are or once came from living organisms and
they burn. Inorganic means a substance does not contain carbon and is of a non-living
7. Answers and pictures will vary.
8. Wet, smooth, colors, transparent, amorphous solid, slippery, fun to play with, break if
stretch too far, glows in the dark* (with zinc sulfide).