0 4-YEAR DIPLOMA-IN-ENGINEERING PROGRAM FOOD TECHNOLOGY SYLLABUS THIRD SEMESTER 1 2931 CATERING MANAGEMENT T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • To develop knowledge and skill on institutional catering , catering equipment and systems , industrial sanitation & safety. • To provide understanding of food production, food storage and food services. • To develop skill in preparing different food products, suitable to use in catering establishment. • To provide understanding of cleaning, cost concept and personnel management in catering. SHORT DESCRIPTION Introduction to institutional catering; Catering science; Use of heat in Catering; Refrigeration and thermostat control in catering; Hygiene and sanitation in catering; Catering equipment; Combined system of catering equipment; Kitchen planning; Storage spaces; Spaces for service areas; Food management; Meal planning; Food production; Food services; Cleaning & washing; Financial management in catering; Cost concept in catering; Personnel management in catering; Safety in catering. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : 1 Understand the concept of catering management. 2 1.1 State the meaning of catering management. 1.2 Mention the principle of catering management. 1.3 List the catering management resources. 1.4 Mention the tools of catering management. Understand the basic concepts of institutional catering. 3 2.1 State what is meant by institutional catering. 2.2 Mention different types of catering institutions. 2.3 Outline the importance of institutional catering. Understand the aspects of catering science. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Define food and nutrition. Mention the constituents of food. Explain the nutrient requirements for human body. Calculate the daily requirements of nutrients for the people of different age group and sex. 2 3.5 3.6 Explain the effects of cooking on nutritional value of food. Mention the nutritional targets for caterers. 4 Understand the use of heat in catering. 4.1 Explain the steam heating, roasting and baking. 4.2 Explain the method of cooking in forced convection ovens. 4.3 State the meaning of frying. 4.4 Explain the infrared heating. 4.5 Explain the microwave heating. 5 Understand the application of refrigeration and thermostat control in catering. 4.1 Outline the importance of refrigeration in catering system. 4.2 Mention the optimum condition for the cold storage of different types of food. 4.3 Mention the application of freezing in catering operation. 4.4 Mention the application of thermostat control in catering system. 6 Understand the hygiene and sanitation in catering. 6.1 Define hygiene and sanitation. 6.2 Explain “pathogenic bacteria are capable of causing food poisoning”. 6.3 Explain the method of prevention of spoilage and contamination of food. 6.4 Explain the environmental hygiene and sanitation in catering institution. 6.5 Explain the hygiene in food handling. 6.6 Explain the personal hygiene in catering. 6.7 Explain the use of chemical antiseptics in the maintenance of sanitation environment. 7 Understand the application of catering equipment. 7.1 Identify the catering equipment. 7.2 Mention the grouping of the catering equipment. 7.3 Illustrate the catering equipment : Traditional oven ranges, Forced air convection ovens, Steamers and boilers, Water boiler and urns, Fryers, Grills and salamanders, Bain-maries, Microwave ovens, etc. 8 Understand the combined system of catering equipment. 8.1 State the meaning of combined system of catering equipment. 8.2 Mention the development of combination catering systems. 8.3 Explain the work study within the kitchen. 8.4 Explain the following modern catering service systems using tray : (a) “Helitherm” system employing heat conservation by insulation. 3 (b) “Ganymede” system using the thermal capacity of a hot metal disc. 9 10 11 12 13 (c) “Stellex” system using a tray service with individual electrical heating of separate plates. (d) “Regethermic” chilled meal system. 8.5 Mention the function of vending machine as catering equipment. 8.6 Identify the automatic vending machine of hot and cold beverages. 8.7 Explain the systems for vending meals, snacks, confectionery and packed articles. 8.8 Explain the composite systems for vending meals. Understand the concept of convenience food for catering system. 9.1 Explain the term convenience food. 9.2 Outline the importance of following categories of food in catering systems. (a) Canned catering packs. (b) Dehydrated food products. (c) Frozen foods manufactured for caterers (d) Synthetic and artificial foods. Understand the concept of kitchen planning. 10.1 Explain the term kitchen planning. 10.2 Mention the important principle of kitchen planning. 10.3 Identify the kitchens of different shape (U-shaped, L-shaped, squareshaped and rectangular shaped). 10.4 Show the layout plan of kitchen for different categories of catering establishment. 10.5 Mention the safety measures in kitchen planning. 10.6 Identify the work center in the kitchen layout. 10.7 List 12 important modern kitchen equipment. 10.8 Describe a well equipped kitchen. Understand the features of storage spaces for catering establishment. 11.1 Identify the ideal location of storage space for catering. 11.2 Mention the types of stores for catering. 11.3 Explain the sanitation of stores for catering. 11.4 Explain the storage planning. 11.5 Outline the importance of safety in storage. 11.6 Explain the security of stores for catering. Understand the aspects of spaces for service areas. 12.1 Identify the ideal location of service area for catering establishment. 12.2 Explain the planning of service areas for catering establishment. 12.3 Outline the necessity of decoration in service and dinning areas of a catering establishment. Understand the food management in catering institution. 13.1 Identify different types of food. 13.2 Explain the sensory evaluation of food. 13.3 Explain the nutritional quality of food. 13.4 Identify the food recommended for servicing in canteens, lunch rooms and kiosks. 4 13.5 Explain the receiving and storage of food raw materials. 14 Understand the aspects of meal planning or menu planning. 14.1 Explain the menu or meal planning. 14.2 Mention different factors to be considered in menu planning. 14.3 Identify different types of menu. 14.4 Explain the method of menu planning. 14.5 Identify the daily menu. 14.6 Mention the cyclic menu. 14.7 List the advantages of menu planning. 14 Understand the aspects of food production. 14.1 Define cooking. 14.2 List different methods of cooking. 14.3 Explain different methods of cooking. 14.4 Mention the effect of cooking on the nutritional value of food. 14.5 Explain the techniques of large quantity cooking. 14.6 Mention the effective use of leftovers. 14.7 Explain the holding techniques of food. 15 Understand the aspects of food service systems. 15.1 Mention different food service systems. 15.2 Explain the method of waiter service. 15.3 Explain the method of self service. 15.4 List the advantages and disadvantages of waiter service system and self service system. 16 Understand the cleaning and washing in catering establishment. 16.1 Outline the importance of cleaning and washing in catering establishment. 16.2 Explain the use of water in dish washing. 16.3 List the detergents used in cleaning and washing. 16.4 Mention the uses of abrasives in catering establishment in cleaning and washing. 16.5 Explain the dish washing processes. 16.6 Explain the pan washing. 16.7 Explain the process of ultrasonic cleaning. 16.8 Describe the working of a dishwashing machine. 17 Understand the financial management in catering. 17.1 Explain the term financial management in catering. 17.2 Mention the application of management accounting in catering operation. 18 Understand the cost concepts in catering. 18.1 Mention the components of costs in catering. 18.2 Explain the cost control of food. 5 19 20 18.3 Mention the factors responsible for financial losses. 18.4 Explain the method of controlling food costs. 18.5 Explain the costing of dishes, meals and events. 18.6 Explain the method of pricing food. Understand the personnel management in catering. 19.1 Explain the term personnel management in catering. 19.2 State the development of personnel management. 19.3 Outline the importance of training and development of employees in catering. Understand the safety in catering. 20.1 Define safety in catering. 20.2 Mention the causes of accidents in catering institution. 20.3 Mention the causes of accidents due to structural inadequacies in catering establishment. 20.4 Mention the safety procedure in catering establishment. Practical : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Perform the kitchen planning. Practice different types of services. Clean and prepare the vegetables, meat and fish products. Prepare the food in pressure cooker. Perform the housekeeping. Prepare the bakery products. Prepare the beverages. Prepare the foods for lunch. Prepare the milk products for catering service. Serve food in a dinner by American system. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Catering Science and Technology − Magnus Pyke Catering Management − Mohini Sethu and Surject Malhan Modern Cookery Book − Asha Rani Vahra Hotel Management and Catering Course − Humayun Kabir A Practical Guide to Restaurant Management − Belal Hossain Joy ivbœv, Lv`¨ I cywó − Wt wmwÏKv Kwei Hand Book of Bakery Product − S M Arora 6 2932 APPLIED NUTRITION T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • To be able to understand the basic concepts of nutrition. • To be able to understand the digestive enzymes and metabolism. • To be able to perform the experiments of applied nutrition. SHORT DESCRIPTION Basic concepts of food and nutrients; Nutritive processes; Carbohydrates in nutrition; Proteins & amino acids and their functions; Fats and oils in nutrition; Vitamins and their functions; Vitamin-A; Vitamin-D; Vitamin-E and Vitamin-K; Vitamin-B complex; Vitamin-C; Functions of minerals; Function of water in human nutrition; Dietetics and diet planning; Diet planning for different age group people; Diet for the patients; Nutritional deficiency diseases. Role of hormones in metabolism; inter relation ship between Nutrients , Nutrition of expectant and Nursing mother. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : 1 Understand the basic concepts of food and nutrients. 1.1 Define food and nutrients. 1.2 Describe the term nutrition. 1.3 Explain the concept of health. 1.4 Discuss the role of food in the maintenance of good health. 1.5 Mention the classification of food. 1.6 Describe the function of nutrients. 1.7 Describe the function of food. 2 Understand the nutritive processes. 2.1 Describe digestion system. 2.2 Describe protein digestion. 2.3 List the digestive enzymes. 2.4 Explain metabolism. 3 Understand the carbohydrates in nutrition. 3.1 Define carbohydrate. 3.2 Describe the sources of carbohydrate in food. 3.3 Discuss the functions of carbohydrate in human body. 3.4 Explain the dietary requirement of carbohydrates. 3.5 Explain the protein sparing action of carbohydrate. 7 4 Understand the proteins & amino acids and their function. 4.1 Define proteins. 4.2 Define essential amino acids. 4.3 Describe the chemical construction of protein. 4.4 Describe the animal protein and vegetable protein. 4.5 List the essential amino acids. 4.6 Describe the essential amino acids. 4.7 Describe the functions of proteins and amino acids in human body. 4.8 Discuss the daily requirements of protein in food. 4.9 Describe the effect of protein deficiency in food in human body. 5 Understand the the functions of fats and oils in nutrition. 5.1 Define fats and oils. 5.2 List the sources of fats and oils in food. 5.3 Mention the animal fat and vegetable fat. 5.4 Describe the functions of fats and oils in nutrition. 5.5 Mention the daily requirements of fats and oils for a normal weight industrial worker. 5.6 Describe the effect of deficiency of fats and oils in food. 6 Understand the vitamins and their function in nutrition. 6.1 Define vitamins. 6.2 Classify the vitamins. 6.3 List the fat soluble vitamins. 6.4 List the names of water soluble vitamins. 6.5 Explain the function of vitamins in human body. 7 Understand the functions of vitamin-A. 7.1 Define vitamin-A 7.2 Mention the functions of vitamin-A in human body. 7.3 Describe the diseases caused due to the deficiency of vitamin-A in human body. 7.4 Mention the food which are rich in vitamin-A. 7.5 Explain the hypervitaminosis of vitamin A. 8 Understand the vitamin-D. 8.1 Define vitamin-D. 8.2 Explain the function of vitamin-D in human body. 8.3 Discuss the sources of vitamin-D in food. 8.4 Discuss the diseases due to vitamin-D deficiency. 8.5 Explain the hypervitominosis of vitamin-D. 8 9 Understand the vitamin-E and vitamin-K. 9.1 Define vitamin-E. 9.2 Explain the function of vitamin-E in human body. 9.3 Define vitamin-K 9.4 Explain the function of vitamin-K in human body. 10 Understand the vitamin B complex and their function in human body. 10.1 Define vitamin B-complex. 10.2 State thiamin or vitamin-B1 10.3 Describe the functions of thiamin or vitamin-B1 in human body. 10.4 Describe the diseases due to thiamin deficiency in human body. 10.5 List the sources of riboflavin or vitamin-B2 in food. 10.6 Explain the function of riboflavin in human body. 10.7 Explain the function of niacin or nicotinic acids in human body. 10.8 Describe the sources of niacin or nicotinic acid in food. 11 Understand the function of vitamin-C in nutrition. 11.1 Define vitamin-C. 11.2 Explain the functions of vitamin-C in human body. 11.3 Describe the diseases due to the deficiency of vitamin-C. 11.4 Discuss the sources of vitamin-C in food. 12 Understand the function of minerals in human nutrition. 12.1 List the different minerals which are important in human nutrition. 12.2 Describe the functions of calcium in human nutrition. 12.3 Describe effect of calcium Deficiency in human body. 12.4 Describe the function of potassium and sodium in human body. 12.5 Describe the function of iron in human nutrition. 12.6 Describe the effect of iron deficiency in human body. 12.7 Describe the function of iodine in human nutrition. 12.8 Mention the diseases due to deficiency of iodine in human body. 13 Understand the functions of water in human nutrition. 13.1 Define metabolic water. 13.2 Mention the functions of water in human nutrition. 13.3 Mention Distribution of water in the body. 13.4 Explain the daily requirement of water in human body. 13.5 Describe water intoxication. 13.6 Mention the functions of water in salt balance of human body. 13.7 Describe water excretion the kidney Role of hormones. 14 Understand the dietetics and diet planning. 14.1 Define dietetics. 9 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 Explain the term standard diet. Describe balanced diet. Describe the basic food groups. Discuss the food value of different foods available in the locality. Mention the importance diet planning. Describe the method of diet planning. 15 Understand the diet planning for different age group people. 15.1 Describe balanced diet for infants. 15.2 Describe Nutritional Requirements of intants. 15.3 Describe the balanced diet for school going children. 15.4 Describe the balanced diet for young man of normal health. 15.5 Mention diet for older people. 15.6 Describe diet during pregnancy. 15.7 Describe diet for lactating woman. 15.8 Explain malnutrition due to defective feeding of infants. 16 Understand the diet for the patients. 16.1 Describe therapeutic diets. 16.2 Discuss convalescent diet. 16.3 Describe diet for constipation. 16.4 Explain diet in diabetes. 16.5 Explain diet in tuberculosis. 16.6 Discuss diet in food allergy. 16.7 Describe diet in acute indigestion and dysentery. 17 Understand the nutritional deficiency diseases. 17.1 Explain protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). 17.2 Explain the causes of vitamin A malnutrition. 17.3 Explain the causes of anemia and its effect. 17.4 Discuss the causes of “goiter” and it effect. 17.5 Explain the causes of “beriberi” and its effect. 17.6 Explain the diseases scurvey and its causes. 18 Understand the role of Hormones in metabolism. 18.1 Describe mode of Action of Hormones. 18.2 Explain Action cell membranes and action on cell nucleus. 18.3 Explain the effects of Hormones on protein metabolism. 18.4 Explain the effects of Hormones on Fat metabolism. 19 Understand inter relationship between Nutrients. 19.1 Describe protein Energy inter relationaship. 19.2 Explain the effect of calorie restriction on protein content of the body./ 19.3 Explain Vitamin-Vitamin inter relationship. 10 19.4 20 Explain the effect of carbohydrates, Fats and proteins on vitamin requirements. Understand Nutrition of expectant and Nursing Mother. 20.1 Describe physiological Adjustments during pregnancy. 20.2 Explain the factors affecting the course and outcome of pregnancy. 20.3 Explain Nutritional requirements during pregnancy. 20.4 Explain the effect of malnutrition and socio-economic factors on the Nutritional status of pregnant women. Practical : 1 2 Assess the nutritional health of an infant by measuring the height and weight. Assess the nutritional health of a child by measuring weight, height, upper arm circumfercuse and mix fold. 3 Develop a questionnaire for family food pattern and collect data from random samples and find out the defects of that ranily food pattern if any. 4 Calculate the fat percentage of a man. 5 Determine the nutritional status of a group of children. 6 Determine the percentage of fat in a sample of milk. 7 Prepare the balance diet by local ingredients. 8 Determine the percentage of protein in a sample of food. 9 Determine the presence of aftatoxin in a sample of food. 10 Calculate the total energy present in a supplied quantity of food. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Principles of Nutritions by Wilson Fisher and Fugug. Nutrition in Developing Countries by King M. Human Nutrition and Dietetics by Sir Stanley Davidson Principles of Nutrition by Wilson Fisher and Fuqua. cywó I Lv`¨ e¨e¯’v Wt wmwÏKv Kwei Lv`¨ I cywó bvivqb emy wecvK I cywó weÁvb ˆmq`v nvwg`v ingvb Advanced Text Book on Food and Nutrition. By- Dr.M. Swaminathan 11 2332 GENERAL CHEMISTRY T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • • To provide advanced concepts of quantum numbers, chemical bonds, size of atoms and ions, periodic classification of elements, acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, kinetic theory of gases, solutions, chemical equilibria, ionic equilibria and chemical kinetics. To develop skill in qualitative analysis of known salts, systematic qualitative and quantitative analysis of unknown inorganic salts, preparation and standardization of standard solution, etc. SHORT DESCRIPTION Modern concept of atomic structure. Significance of quantum numbers; Chemical bonds; Size of atoms and ions; Periodic classification of elements; Acids and bases; oxides and hydroxide,Chemical reactions; Oxidation and reduction; Kinetic theory of gases; Solution and its colligative properties; Chemical equilibria; colloids. DETAILED DESCRIPTION Theory : MODERN CONCEPT OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. Understand the modern concept of atomic structure. 1.1. Explain the different components of nucleus. 1.2. Explain the fundamental particles of atom. 1.3. Describe Rutherford`s atomic model. 1.4. Explain defects of Rutherford`s atomic model. 1.5. Describe Bohr`s atomic model. 1.6. Explain limitation of Bohr`s atomic model. 1.7. Describe Bohr-Sommer felds atomic model. SIGNIFICANCE OF QUANTUM NUMBERS 2 Understand the aspects of quantum number. 2.1 Explain the significance of the four quantum numbers. 2.2 Explain the Pauli’s exclusion principle. 2.3 Explain the probability distribution of electrons round the nucleus. 2.4 Mention the shape of s-orbitals . 2.5 Mention the shape of p-orbitals. 2.6 Mention the shape of d-orabitals. 12 3 Understand the features of energy level diagram. 3.1 Explain energy level diagram. 3.2 Explain the order of filling of various orbitals. . 3.3 State the Hund’s rule on distribution of electrons. 3.4 Explain shape and size of orbital. 3.5 Difference between orbit and orbital. 3.6 Show the distribution of electrons of Li(2), Be(4), N(7), O(8), Ne(10), Na(11), Mg(12), Al(13), S(16), Cl(17), K(19), Ca(20), Cr(24), Mn(25), Ni(28), Cu(29), Ce(58) and Ar(18). 3.7 Mention the reason for being 4S orbital lower in energy than 3d orbital. CHEMICAL BONDS 4 Understand the modern concept of ionic bond. 4.1 Explain the electronic theory of ionic bond. 4.2 Mention the factors that influence the formation of ionic bond. 4.3 Mention the general characteristics of ionic compounds. 4.4 Explain the reason for the radius of a cation being smaller and that of an anion bigger than that of the atom. 4.5 Explain the variable ionic bonds. 4.6 Mention the radius ratio rules. 4.7 List the limitation of various radius ratio rule. 5 Understand the modern concepts of covalent bond. 5.1 Explain the term covalent bond. 5.2 Explain the valency bond theory. 5.3 Explain the terms resonance and resonance energy. 5.4 Mention the necessary condition for writing resonating structures. 5.5 Explain the σ (sigma) bond and π (pi) bond. 5.6 Explain the hydrogen bond. 5.7 Explain Metallic bond. 6 Understand the concept of hybridization. 6.1 Explain the hybridization of orbitals. 6.2 List different types of hybridization. 6.3 Explain the SP hybridization of beryllium fluoride. 6.4 Explain the SP2 hybridization or trigonal hybridization. 6.5 Explain the reason for BF3 being triangular in shape while BeF2 linear. 6.6 Mention the shape of Sodium chloride molecule. 13 SIZE OF ATOMS AND IONS 7 Understand the size of atoms and ions. 7.1 Explain the atomic and ionic radius. 7.2 Explain the terms (i) Ionization potential (ii) Electron affinity (iii) Polarization of ions (iv) Electronegativity (v) Dipole movement (vi) Bond length (vii) Bond angle (viii) Bond energy. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS 8 Understand the periodic classification of elements. 8.1 Explain the periodicity of elements. 8.2 Explain the modern long periodic table. 8.3 Describe the different blocks constituting the long form periodic table. 8.4 Explain the following periodic properties of the elements with reference to the modern long form periodic table: (i) Ionization potential (ii) Electron affinity (iii) Electronegativity (iv) Atomic radii (v) Ionic radii (vi) Atomic volume (vii) Oxidation number (viii) Oxidation and reduction (ix) Valency (x) Metallic character (xi) Hydration of ion. 8.5 Mention the limitations of periodic table. 8.6 Identify the position of hydrogen in the periodic table. 8.7 Identify the position of transitional elements in the periodic table. 8.8 State the diagonal relationship in the periodic table. 8.9 Explain the position of inert gases in the modern long periodic table. 9 Understand the general characteristics of elements with reference to modern long periodic table. 9.1 Name the elements of first group along with their electronic configuration. 9.2 Name the alkaline earth metals along with their electronic configuration. 9.3 Identify the p-block elements in the modern long periodic table. 9.4 Mention colors imparted to the flame by s block elements. 9.5 Mention the variation of ionization energy in a group and along a period in p-block elements. 9.6 Mention the electronic configuration of d-block elements. 9.7 List the general properties of d-block (transition) elements. 9.8 Identify the position of f-block elements (lanthanides and actinides) in the modern long period table. 9.9 List the inert properties of zero group elements. ACIDS AND BASES 10 Understand the modern concepts of acids and bases. 10.1 Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases with examples. 10.2 Explain the Bronsted theory of acids and bases with examples. 14 10.3 10.4 Explain the Lewis theory of acids and bases with examples. Mention the method of determination of relative strength of acids and bases. OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES 11 Understand oxides and hydroxides. 11.1 Define oxides and hydroxides. 11.2 Describe the classification of oxide with examples. 11.3 Describe the classification of hydroxides with examples. CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND CATALYST 12 Understand different types of chemical reaction. 12.1 Explain different types of reactions with examples. 12.2 Define Catalyst and Catalysis. 12.3 Explain different types of Catalyst with examples. 12.4 Explain Catalyst promoter and Catalyst poison. 12.5 Explain the uses of Catalyst in Industry. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION 13 Understand the aspects of oxidation and reduction. 13.1 Mention the modern theory of oxidation and reduction with examples. 13.2 State the meaning of the oxidizing agents and reducing agents with example. 13.3 Explain “oxidation and reduction takes place simultaneously”. 13.4 Explain the term oxidation number and oxidation state. 13.5 Mention the modern oxidation number concept of oxidation and reduction. 13.6 Explain the term oxidation-reduction potentials. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 14 Understand the kinetic theory of gases. 14.1 State the postulates of kinetic theory of gases. 14.2 Mention the kinetic theory of gases. 14.3 Mention the deviation from gas laws for real gases. 14.4 Explain the Van der Waals equation. 14.5 Solve the mathematical problems on kinetic theory of gases. SOLUTIONS 15 Understand the aspect of solution. 15.1 Define solution. 15.2 Explain the terms (i) Molarity (ii) Molality (iii) Normality (iv) Mole fraction. 15.3 Explain the relation between molarity, molality and normality. 15 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Mention the Dalton’s law of partial pressure for gases. State the Henry’s law. Mention the validity and limitations of Henry’s law. Solve the mathematical problems on solution. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF DILUTE SOLUTION 16 Understand the colligative properties for dilute solutions. 16.1 Define dilute solutions. 16.2 Write the colligative properties of dilute solutions. 16.3 State the Roault’s law of lowering vapor pressure. 16.4 Solve the simple mathematical problems on lowering vapor pressure. 16.5 Define the boiling point of a liquid. 16.6 Mention the Raoult’s laws of elevation of boiling points. 16.7 State the Raoult’s laws of depression of freezing point. 16.8 Mention the laws of osmotic pressure. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 17 Understand the aspects of chemical equilibrium. 17.1 Define Reversible reaction. 17.2 Define chemical equilibrium. 17.3 Mention the mathematical expression of equilibrium constant. 17.4 Explain the term activity and activity co-efficient. 17.5 State the law of mass action. COLLOIDS 18 Understand the concept of colloids and emulsion. 18.1 Define colloids. 18.2 Explain the size of colloidal particle. 18.3 Explain classification of colloids. 18.4 Explain difference between lyopholic and lyophilic colloid. 18.5 Define emulsion. 18.6 Explain classification of emulsion. 18.7 Explain preparation of an emulsion. Practical : QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF KNOWN SALTS 1 Perform the qualitative analysis of known salts. (dry tests for known basic radicals) 1.1 Perform the test tube test for the salt samples (Antimony salt, Copper salt, Iron salt, Zinc salt, Ammonium salt, etc.) 1.2 Perform the charcoal reduction test for the salt samples (Lead salt, Copper salt, Iron salt, Zinc salt, Ammonium salt, etc.). 16 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Perform the charcoal oxidation test for the salt samples (Lead salt, Copper salt, Iron salt, Calcium salt, Magnesium salt, etc.). Perform the Cobalt nitrate test for the supplied salts (Aluminium salt, Zinc salt, Magnesium salt, Calcium salt, etc.). Perform the flame test for the supplied sample of salts (Copper salt, Sodium salt, Potassium salt, Calcium salt, etc.). Perform the Borax bead test for the supplied sample of salts (Copper salt, Iron salt, etc.). 2 Perform the individual wet test for known basic radicals. 2.1 Detect the group − I radicals (eg. Ag, Pb, etc.) by wet test. 2.2 Detect the Hg (ic) radical of group − II by wet test. 2.3 Detect Fe(ic) and Fe(ous) radicals of group − III A by wet test. 2.4 Detect the Zn- radical of group − III B by wet test. 2.5 Detect the Ca- radical of group − IV by wet test. 2.6 Detect the Ca, Mg, NH4+, K+ radicals of group − V by wet test. 3 Perform the dry test for known acid radicals. Detect the Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3−, CO3−2, S−2 radicals by dry test. 4 Perform the wet test for known acid radicals. Detect the Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3−, CO3−2, S−2 radicals by wet test for each. SYSTEMATIC QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF UNKNOWN INORGANIC SALTS 5 Identify the basic radicals of supplied inorganic salt samples by dry tests. 5.1 Perform the dry test for the basic radicals of the supplied sample. a. Dry test tube test. b. Charcoal reduction test. c. Charcoal oxidation test. d. Cobalt nitrate test. e. Flame test. f. Borax bead test. 6 Perform the wet test for basic radicals. 6.1 Prepare the stock solution of the supplied unknown sample for the detection of basic radicals by wet tests and use this solution for group analysis. 6.2 Analyze the Group − I, Group − II, Group − III A, Group − III B, Group − IV and Group − V to detect the basic radicals by wet tests. 17 7 Perform the dry test for acid radicals in unknown supplied sample. 7.1 Perform three dry tests for the detection of acid radical of the supplied sample. 7.2 Perform three confirmatory wet tests for the acid radical. IDENTIFICATION OF SUPPLIED KNOWN ACIDS 8 Identify the known acid sample. 8.1 Perform the HCl test with NaCl solution. 8.2 Perform the HBr test with solid KBr and KBr solution. 8.3 Perform the HI test with solid KI and solution of KI. 8.4 Identify the H2S using solid Na2S and Na2S solutions. 8.5 Perform the H2CO3 test with Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 solutions. PREPARATION OF STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS 9 Prepare the standard solutions for volumetric analysis. 9.1 Prepare 250 cc of standard N/10 Na2CO3 solution. 9.2 Prepare 250 cc N/10 H2SO4 solution and standardize. 9.3 Prepare N/20 sodium hydroxide solution. 9.4 Prepare N/10 Oxalic acid solution. 9.5 Prepare N/10 HCI oxalic and solution and standardize. 9.6 Find the strength of different solutions by the titration with standard solution. PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF SOLUTION FOR VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS BASED ON OXIDATION & REDUCTON 10 Prepare the standard solutions based on oxidation and reduction for volumetric analysis. 10.1 Prepare 0.1 N KMnO4 solution and standardize. 10.2 Prepare N/10 K2 Cr2O7 solution and standardize. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A‰Re imvqb − b~iyj nK I gwnDwÏb e¨envwiK imvqb (mœvZK) − b~iyj nK I gwnDwÏb ‰e‡k−wlK imvqb − nvRiv Inorganic Chemistry − S. Z. Hyder Simplified Course of Inorganic Chemistry − R.L. Madan K.G.D.Tuli 18 3032 MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE – I T 1 P C 6 3 OBJECTIVES • To enable to recognize commonly used machine tools. • To provide understanding of functions of commonly used machine tools. • To develop skills in setting and operating of the machine tools. • To provide ability to set and operate commonly used allied tools and accessories. SHORT DESCRIPTION Machine tools: Lathe machine; Drilling machine; Shaper and planer; Grinding machine; Measuring techniques. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : 1 Understand the concept of machine tools. 1.1 State what is meant by machine tools. 1.2 Classify commonly used machine tools. 1.3 List essential features of commonly used machine tools. 1.4 State general safety precautions to be observed in machine shop. 2 Understand the application of lathe machine. 2.1 Identify different types of lathe machines. 2.2 Identify major components of lathe machine. 2.3 Explain the function of different parts and attachments of lathe machine. 2.4 Carry out basic calculations for speed and feed for lathe works. 2.5 State safety precautions during working on a lathe. 2.6 Identify single point cutting tools, materials, cutting angles and their relevant functions. 3 Understand the application of drilling machine. 3.1 Identify different types of drilling machine. 3.2 Explain the function of different drilling machines. 3.3 Identify major components of drilling machine. 3.4 Illustrate workholding methods. 3.5 Carry out basic calculations for speed and feed. 3.6 State safety precautions during working on a drilling machine. 19 3.7 Identify different types of twist drill, materials, cutting angles and their relevant functions. 4 Understand the application of shaper and planer. 4.1 Identify the shaping and planing machines. 4.2 Identify major components of shaping machine. 4.3 Describe the quick return mechanism and ram adjustments. 4.4 Explain how to set a workpiece on the machine table of shaper. 4.5 Compare the differences between a shaper and planer. 4.6 Identify typical operations for both shaper and planer. 4.7 State safety precautions during working on the shaper. 5 Understand the application of grinding machine. 5.1 Identify different types of grinding machines. 5.2 Distinguish surface grinder, cylindrical grinder and pedestal/bench grinder. 5.3 Explain the need for grinding wheel balancing. 5.4 Identify typical operations for the pedestal and surface grinder. 5.5 State safety precautions during working on grinding machine. 5.6 Identify grinding wheel types, bonds and uses. Practical : 1 Demonstrate the setting and operating of lathe machine. 1.1 Perform simple setting up of machine, workpiece, tool bit and setting machine speed and feed. 1.2 Carry out machining operations for facing, parallel turning, center drilling. 1.3 Produce a job to an engineering drawing specification. 1.4 Carry out additional machining operations of knurling, taper turning, drilling, parting off, simple screw cutting and boring. 1.5 Sharpen a number of commonly used single point cutting tools using pedestal grinder. 1.6 Observe workshop safety precautions. 2 Demonstrate the setting and operating of shaping machine. 2.1 Perform simple setting up of machine, workpiece, tool bit, speed and feeds, ram position and stroke. 2.2 Carry out machining operation for parallel shaping and vertical face shaping. 2.3 Produce a simple job to an engineering drawing specification. 2.4 Observe workshop safety precautions. 20 3 Demonstrate the setting and operating of a drilling machine. 3.1 Perform simple setting up of machine, workpiece, drill bit, speeds and feeds. 3.2 Sharpen a twist drill on the pedestal grinder. 3.3 Drill a number of holes with appropriate drill bit. 3.4 Observe workshop safety precautions. 4 Demonstrate the setting and operating of a grinding machine. 4.1 Determine type of wheel, grit, bond, balance and soundness by ringing. 4.2 Mount grinding wheel on machine spindle. 4.3 Use the pedestal grinder to grind single point tools and drill bits. 4.4 Perform simple setting up of surface grinding machine workpiece, magnetic chuck, hydraulic system of machine feed. 4.5 Produce a job to an engineering drawing specification. 4.6 Observe ground surface finish, grain direction, bouncing of wheel. 4.7 Carry out wheel dressing exercise on both pedestal grinder and surface grinder. 4.8 Observe workshop safety precautions. 5 Demonstrate workshop maintenance practice. 5.1 Produce a maintenance schedule common used in machine shop. 5.2 Carry out simple maintenance procedures, including lubrication. 5.3 Observe workshop safety precautions. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 2 3 4 5 Basic Machine Shop Practice I & II ⎯ V. K. Tejwani Workshop Technology I, II & III ⎯ W. A. J Chapman Machine Shop Practice I & II ⎯ Berghardt Machine Shop Practice ⎯ Somenath De Sheet Metal Work ⎯ Blackburn & Cassidy 21 MATHEMATICS − III 1431 T P C 2 3 3 AIMS • • • • To enable to use the knowledge of gradient of a straight line in finding speed, acceleration etc. To enable to use the knowledge of conic in finding the girder of a railway bridge, cable of a suspension bridge and maximum height of an arch. To provide ability to apply the knowledge of differential calculus in solving problem like slope, gradient of a curve, velocity, acceleration, rate of flow of liquid etc. To enable to apply the process of integration in solving practical problems like calculation of area of a regular figure in two dimensions and volume of regular solids of different shapes. SHORT DESCRIPTION Co-ordinate Geometry Differential Calculus Integral Calculus : Co-ordinates of a point, locus and its equation, straight lines, circles and conic. : Function and limit of a function, differentiation with the help of limit, differentiation of functions, geometrical dy interpretetion of dx , successive differentiation and Leibnitz theorem, partial differentiation. : Fundamental integrals, integration by substitutions, integration by parts, integration by partial fraction, definite integrals. DETAIL DESCRIPTION CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY 1 Apply the concept of co-ordinates to find lengths and areas. 1.1 Explain the co-ordinates of a point. 1.2 State different types of co-ordinates of a point. 1.3 Find the distance between two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2 ). 1.4 Find the co-ordinates of a point which divides the straight line joining two points in certain ratio. 1.5 Find the area of a triangle whose vertices are given. 1.6 Solve problems related to co-ordinates of points and distance formula. 2 Apply the concept of locus. 2.1 Define locus of a point. 22 3 2.2 Find the locus of a point. 2.3 Solve problems for finding locus of a point under certain conditions. Apply the equation of straight lines in calculating various parameter. 3.1 Describe the equation x=a and y=b and slope of a straight line. 3.2 Find the slope of a straight line passing through two point (x1, y1,) and (x2, y2 ). 3.3 Find the equation of straight lines: i) Point slope form. ii) Slope intercept form. iii) Two points form. iv) Intercept form. v) Perpendicular form. 3.4 Find the point of intersection of two given straight lines. 3.5 Find the angle between two given straight lines. 3.6 Find the condition of parallelism and perpendicularity of two given straight lines. 3.7 Find the distances of a point from a line. 4 Apply the equations of circle, tangent and normal in solving problems. 4.1 Define circle, center and radius . 4.2 Find the equation of a circle in the form: i) x2 + y2 =a 2 2 ii) (x − h) + (y − k) 2 =a 2 iii) x 2 + y 2 + 2gx + 2fy + c=0 4.3 Find the equation of a circle described on the line joining (x1, y1) and ( x2, y2). 4.4 Define tangent and normal. 4.5 Find the condition that a straight line may touch a circle. 4.6 Find the equations of tangent and normal to a circle at any point. 4.7 Solve the problems related to equations of circle, tangent and normal. 5 Understand conic or conic sections. 5.1 Define conic, focus, directrix and eccentricity. 5.2 Find the equations of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. 5.3 Solve problems related to parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS FUNCTION AND LIMIT 6 Understand the concept of functions and limits. 6.1 Define constant, variable, function, domain, range and continuity of a function. 23 6.2 6.3 6.4 Define limit of a function. Distinguish between and f(a). f(x) tanx sinx lim Establish i) lim , x =1 ii) x =1. x∏0 x∏0 7 Understand differential co-efficient and differentiation. 7.1 Define differential co-efficient in the form of limf(x+h)−f(x) dy = x∏0 h dx 7.2 Find the differential co-efficient of algebraic and trigonometrical functions from first principle. 8 Apply the concept of differentiation. 8.1 State the formulae for differentiation: i) sum or difference ii) product iii) quotient iv) function of function v) logarithmic function Find the differential co-efficient using the sum or difference formula, product formula and quotient formula. 8.2 Find the differential co-efficient function of function and logarithmic function. dy 9 Apply the concept of geometrical meaning of dx dy 9.1 Interpret dx geometrically. dy 9.2 Explain dx under different conditions 9.3 Solve the problems of the type: A circular plate of metal expands by heat so that its radius increases at the rate of 0.01 cm per second. At what rate is the area increasing when the radius is 700 cm ? 10 11 Use Leibnitz’s theorem to solve the problems of successive differentiation. 10.1 Find 2nd, 3rd and 4th derivatives of a function and hence find n-th derivatives. 10.2 Express Leibnitz’s theorem. 10.3 Solve the problems of successive differentiation and Leibnitz’s theorem. Understand partial differentiation. 24 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Define partial derivatives. State formula for total differential. State formulae for partial differentiation of implicit function and homogenous function. State Euler's theorem on homogeneous function. Solve the problems of partial derivatives. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 12 Apply fundamental indefinite integrals in solving problems. 12.1 Explain the concept of integration and constant of integration. 12.2 State fundamental and standard integrals. 12.3 Write down formulae for: i) Integration of algebraic sum. ii) Integration of the product of a constant and a function. 12.4 Integrate by method of substitution, integrate by parts and by partial fractions. 12.5 Solve problems of indefinite integration. 13 Apply the concept of definite integrals. 13.1 Explain definite integration. 13.2 Interpret geometrically the meaning of 13.3 Solve problems of the following types: i) ∫ π 2 0 2 cos xdx ii) ∫ 1 (sin x ) 0 −1 1− x2 ∫ f (x )dx b a 2 dx P* =Practical continuous assessment 1432 PHYSICS–II T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • • • To provide a foundation in scientific principles and processes for the understanding and application of technology. To develop an understanding of fundamental scientific concepts through investigation and experimentation. To provide a common base for further studies in technology and science. 25 • • To develop a working knowledge of physical properties, behavior and uses of common engineering materials. To develop basic knowledge of the effects of energy on the properties of common engineering materials. SHORT DESCRIPTION Heat Light : Thermometry; Calorimetry, Expansion of materials (effect of heat); Heat transfer; Nature of heat and its mechanical equivalent; Engine. : Principles of light and Photometry; Reflection of light; Refraction of light ; Optical instruments; Dispersion of light, color and spectrum; Nature and theories of light. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : HEAT 1 THERMOMETRY Understand the basic concept of thermometry. 1.1 Define heat and temperature. 1.2 Mention the units of measurement of heat and temperature. 1.3 Distinguish between heat and temperature. 1.4 Mention the kinds of heat. 1.5 Identify the sources of heat. 1.6 Explain the effects of heat on a body. 1.7 Solve problems relating to thermometry. 1.8 Identify the range of the Celsius scale determined by the boiling point and melting point of water 1.9 Compare the Celsius scale, Roamer scale, Fahrenheit scale, Kelvin scale and Rankin scale of temperature measurement. 2 Understand the features of thermometers. 2.1 State the construction and graduation of a mercury thermometer. 2.2 Describe the operation of different types of thermometers (e.g., maximum and minimum thermometer, clinical thermometer). 2.3 Mention the application of different types of thermometers (e.g., maximum and minimum thermometer, clinical thermometer). HEAT CAPACITY OF MATERIALS (CALORIMETRIC) 26 3 4 Understand the concept of specific heat. 3.1 State the heat as a form of energy. 3.2 Define specific heat capacity. 3.3 State SI units of measurement of specific heat capacity as J/Kgc0 or J/Kgk0. 3.4 Define thermal capacity and water equivalent. 3.5 Differentiate between thermal capacity and water equivalent. 3.6 Mention the specific heat capacity of different materials. 3.7 Prove the total heat gained by an object is equal to the sum of the heat lost by all the surrounding objects. 3.8 Identify the total heat gained and the total heat lost in a given system. 3.9 Solve the problems relating to specific heat. Understand the concept of latent heat. 4.1 Identify specific latent heat as the energy consumed or liberated when water vaporizes or condenses and when ice melts or freezes. 4.2 Explain the effects of a change in pressure on the melting point and boiling point of water. 4.3 Define various kinds of specific latent heat. 4.4 Determine the latent heat of fusion and vaporization from given data. 4.5 Solve problems relating to latent heat. EFFECTS OF HEAT ON DIMENSION OF MATERIALS 5 Understand the effects of heat on solids. 5.1 Show that different materials change in size at different amounts with the same heat source. 5.2 Explain the meaning of differential expansion in bimetallic strip, thermostats, compensated pendulum etc. 5.3 Describe the capacity of bimetallic strip, thermostats and compensated pendulum. 5.4 Explain the methods of overcoming problems caused by the expansion of materials in buildings, machinery, railway lines and bridges. 5.5 Define the co-efficient of linear, superficial and cubical expansion of solids. 5.6 Mention the units co-efficient of linear, superficial and cubical expansion of solids. 5.7 Mention the linear, superficial and cubical expansion of a range of common engineering materials. 5.8 Solve problems related to effect of heat on solids. 27 6 Understand the effect of heat on liquids. 6.1 Define real and apparent expansion of liquid . 6.2 Define the co-efficient of real and apparent expansion of liquid. 6.3 Explain the effect of real and apparent expansion of liquid. 6.4 Distinguish between the co-efficient of real and apparent expansion of liquid. 6.5 Determine the co-efficient of real and apparent expansion of liquid. 6.6 Solve problems relating to effects of heat on liquids. HEAT TRANSFER 7 Understand the of fundamental principles of heat transfer. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Identify the phenomenon of heat transferring from hot bodies to cold bodies. Explain the methods of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation with examples of each type of transfer. Define thermal conductivity (K) & rate of heat transfer. State the SI units of thermal conductivity as w w mk or mc List the factors which determine the quantity of heat (Q) flowing through a material. Show that the quantity of heat flowing through a material can be found KA (θH − θC)t from Q = d Outline the properties of materials which give thermal insulation. List practical examples of the application of thermal insulation properties (e.g., refrigerators, vacuum flasks and building insulation). Solve problems related to heat transfer. NATURE OF HEAT AND ITS MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT 8 Understand the aspects of mechanical equivalent of heat. 8.1 Describe the caloric theory and kinetic theory of heat. 8.2 State the drawbacks of the caloric theory of heat. 8.3 Explain the mechanical equivalent oh heat. 8.4 Mention the mechanical equivalent of heat. 8.5 Explain the first law of thermodynamics. 28 8.6 Solve problems relating to the mechanical equivalent of heat. HEAT ENGINE 9 Understand the concept of heat engine. 9.1 State what is meant heat engine. 9.2 Explain the principle of work of a heat engine. 9.3 Identify thermal efficiency of a heat engine. 9.4 Explain the working principles of internal combustion and external combustion engines (with fair sketches). 9.5 Distinguish between internal combustion engine and external combustion engine. 9.6 Distinguish between steam engine and petrol engine. LIGHT PRELIMINARIES OF LIGHT AND PHOTOMETRY 10 Understand the concept of preliminary light & photometry. 10.1 Define light, medium (transparent, translucent, opaque), luminous & non-luminous bodies, parallel, convergent & divergent rays, beam. 10.2 Show the travel of light in straight line. 10.3 Define photometry, luminous intensity, luminous flux, brightness and illuminating power. 10.4 Mention the units of luminous intensity, luminous flux, brightness and illuminating power. 10.5 Mention relation between luminous intensity & illuminating power. 10.6 Explain inverse square law of light. 10.7 Describe the practical uses of light waves in engineering. 10.8 Solve problems relating to photometry. REFLECTION OF LIGHT 11 Understand the features of reflection of light at plane and spherical surfaces. 11.1 Define mirror (plane & spherical ), image (real & virtual) and magnification of images. 11.2 Describe the reflection of light. 11.3 State the laws of reflection of light. 11.4 Express the verification of laws of refraction. 11.5 Define pole, principle axis, center of curvature, radius of curvature, principal focus in case of concave & convex mirrors. 29 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 Find the relation between focal length & radius of curvature of a concave & convex mirror. Express the general equation of concave and convex mirror. Determine the position , nature and size of the images of an object formed by a spherical mirror when the object is moved from infinity towards the pole of the mirror. Solve problems relating to reflection of light at plane and spherical surfaces. REFRACTION OF LIGHT 12 Understand the concept of refraction of light at plane surfaces. 12.1 Define refraction of light. 12.2 Give examples of refraction of light. 12.3 State the laws of refraction. 12.4 Express the verification of laws of refraction. 12.5 Define absolute and relative refractive index. 12.6 Relate absolute and relative refractive index. 12.7 Explain the meaning of total internal reflection and critical angle. 12.8 Relate total internal reflection and critical angle. 12.9 Give examples of total internal reflection. 12.10 Describe refraction of light through a prism. 12.11 Express the deduction of the relation between refractive index, minimum deviation and angle of the prism. 12.12 Solve problems related refraction of light at plane surface. 13 Understand the concept of refraction of spherical surface. 13.1 Define lens. 13.2 Identify the types of lens. 13.3 Define center of curvature, radius of curvature, principal axis, 1st and 2nd principal focus, optical center and power of lens. 13.4 Express the deduction of the general equation of lens (concave & convex). 13.5 List uses of lens. 13.6 Find the position, nature & sizes of Image at different position of an object formed by a lens (convex & concave) when the object is moved from infinity towards the optical center of the lens. 13.7 Solve the problems relating to refraction of spherical surface. OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 30 14 Understand the features of telescope & microscope. 14.1 Explain the construction of light ray patterns for simple & compound microscope (with diagram). 14.2 Explain the construction of light ray patterns for Astronomical & Gallillian telescope (with diagram) 14.3 Describe the common defects of eye. 14.4 Describe the remedy of common defects of eye. 14.5 Distinguish between eye and camera. DISPERSION OF LIGHT, COLOR AND SPECTRUM 15 Understand the concept of dispersion of light, color and spectrum. 15.1 Describe dispersion of light & spectrum. 15.2 Define pure & impure spectrum. 15.3 Describe the production of pure spectrum. 15.4 Identify different types of spectra. 15.5 Explain emission spectra, absorption spectra and color of bodies. 15.6 Identify the results of adding primary and secondary color. 15.7 Explain absorption, reflection and filtration of color light. Practical: Heat 1. Compare the operation of common thermometers. 2. Determine the co-efficient of linear expansion of solid by Pullinger’s apparatus. 3. Measure the specific heat capacity of various substances. 4. Investigate the latent heat of fusion and vaporization of water. 5. Investigate the effect of heat on the dimensions of solids and liquids. 6. Measure the different rates of expansion of common metals. 7. Determine the water equivalent by calorimeter. LIGHT 8. Compare the luminous intensity of different light sources. 31 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Establish the characteristics of various shaped mirrors by investigating the behavior of light rays reflected from the mirrors. Verify the laws of reflection. Find out the focal length of a concave mirror. Study the behavior of light patterns passing through various lenses for characteristics of the lenses and nature & position of the produced imaged. Determine the refractive index of a material medium. Find out the focal length of a convex lens. BANGLA − III 1131 T P 2 C 2 3 D‡Ïk¨ 1 evsjv mvwnZ¨ I evsjv fvlvi cÖwZ mwVK `„wófw½ m„wó Kiv| 2 evsjv mvwnZ¨ cVb-cvV‡bi gva¨‡g RvZxqZv‡eva, †`k‡cÖg, ˆbwZKZv, gy³wPšÍv I g~j¨‡ev‡ai D‡b¥l NUv‡bv| msw¶ß weeiYx 32 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i hyM wefvM, evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ mgvR I gvbyl, evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i gva¨‡g RvZxqZv I RvZxqZv‡ev‡ai D‡b¥l I weKvk| wek` weeiYxt ZvwË¡K t 1 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i hyM wefvM 2 3 1.1 cÖvPxb hyM| 1.2 ga¨ hyM 1.3 AvaywbK hyM (gy³ wPšÍv, gvbeZv, †`k†cÖg, Av`k©, ˆbwZKZv, g~j¨‡eva, †mŠ›`h©¨‡eva )| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ mgvR I gvbyl 2.1 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ I mgv‡R †i‡bmuvi cÖfve| 2.2 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ I mgv‡R wkí-wec‡ei cÖfve| 2.3 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ I mgv‡R Dcgnv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv I evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡×i cÖfve| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i gva¨‡g RvZxqZv I RvZxqZvev‡`i D‡b¥l I weKvk 3.1 evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i µgweKvk t ivRv ivg †gvnb ivq †_‡K AvaywbK Kvj (ivRv ivg‡gvnb ivq, Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi, gvB‡Kj gaymy`b `Ë, gxi †gvkviid †nv‡mb, ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg, KvRx Avãyj I`y`, †gvZv‡ni †nv‡mb †PŠayix , Aveyj †nv‡mb)| 33 e¨envwiK t 1. e³…Zv (cvV¨cy¯Í‡K ewY©Z welqvw`) 2. weZK© (welqe¯‘ Db¥y³) 3. Ave„wË (welqe¯‘ Db¥y³) cvV¨cy¯ÍK t 1 Dcb¨vmt cjx mgvR − kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq 2 Kve¨t AwMœexYv − KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg wbe©vwPZ KweZv t 3 • we‡`ªvnx • †Lqvcv‡ii ZiYx • gniig| bvUK t gvbyl (GKvswKKv ) − gybxi †PŠayix gšÍe¨ t GB cvV¨m~wPi (ZvwË¡K) 1, 2 I 3 -G ewY©Z welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© mg¨K aviYv †i‡L †kªYxK‡¶ cvV¨cy¯ÍKwfwËK †kLv-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z n‡e| we. `ª. P* t e¨envwiK avivevwnK| 34 1132 English – III T P 2 3 C 2 AIMS After the completion of the course, learners will be able to develop∗ Communication ∗ Correspondence ∗ Drafting letters of quotations, tenders, and letter of enquiry ∗ Responding to advertisement, notice, memo, posters ∗ Speak in English with confidence ∗ Communicate with target person(s) effectively ∗ Understand the speech of English users ∗ Achieve better professional performance Communication 1. 2. 3. Style of letters- full blocked, blocked, semi-blocked Parts of writing official letters- Techniques of writing (Heading, Reference, date, inside address, topic, greetings, complementary closing, Signature, Supplements) Types of formal documentation-(in English) ∗ Application with CV ∗ Appointment letter ∗ Joining report ∗ Letter of enquiry, orders, cancellation ∗ Letter of compensation and complaint ∗ Letter to the Print and Electronic media ∗ Application for Opening a Bank Account ∗ Application for Bank Solvency Certificate ∗ Application for bank loan * Official note ∗ Memorandum ∗ Notice Writing 35 Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. CONTENTS FOR ORAL PRACTICE Conversational Situations Meeting Someone Parting Daily Activities Asking About Activities Evening Activities Asking about Buses Travelling by Bus Going by Taxi Meeting at the Train Station Asking Questions at the Train Station Meeting at the Airport Getting Information at the Airport Getting to the Hotel Asking Directions Getting Information Finding One’s Way Asking the Time - 1 Arriving Early or Late Time and the Calendar Living in an Apartment Using the Telephone Talking about Shopping Sending and Receiving Letters Talking about the weather Trips and sight-seeing Talking about Eating Dinner Conversations Common Health Problems Quitting and Finding Jobs Office Details Office Conversations 36 Practical • • • • • • • • • • • • • Making a report visiting different business firms and facilitate the techniques of sales communication Giving advertisement in the dailies on necessary commodities Making attractive posters for new products Resume writing Formation of writing letters Speaking on a specific situation Public speaking Exchanging views with target person(s) Introducing oneself Describing and Narrating events, place, object etc Producing the meaning of given words (by the teacher) Prepared Speech Role playing on telephonic communication 37 1133 D‡Ïk¨ • • SOCIAL SCIENCE – III (BANGLADESH : HISTORY & CULTURE) T 2 P C 0 2 cÙv-†gNbv-hgybv eØxc Aayy¨wlZ †fŠ‡MvwjK AÂ‡j ev½vjx mgvR MVb Ges bvbv HwZnvwmK weeZ©‡bi ch©vq †cwi‡q MwVZ AvaywbK evsjv‡`k m¤ú‡K© wk¶v_©x‡`i h_v_© AeMZ Kiv‡bv Ges Zv‡`i mwVK †eva m„wóKiY| cÖvK…wZK I A_©‰bwZK KvVv‡gvi cwigÛ‡j evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK weKv‡ki mv‡_ wk¶v_©x‡`i D¾xweZ K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki †hvM¨ I cwikxwjZ bvMwiK wnmv‡e h_v_© weKwkZKiY| msw¶ß weeiYx BwZnvm • • • evsjv‡`‡ki AvenvIqv I Awaevmx| • evsjvq BD‡ivcxq ewYK‡`i AvMgb; bevex Avg‡j evsjvi kvmb e¨e¯’v; evsjvq Bs‡iR kvmb ¶gZv jvf I cÖwZôv| • weªwUk we‡ivax mk¯¿ cÖwZ‡iva Av‡›`vjb; ms¯‹vi Av‡›`vjb I RvZxqZvev‡`i weKvk Ges evsjvi beRvMiY; e½f½ I e½f½ DËiKv‡j evsjvi ivRbxwZ I †`k wefvM| • cvwK¯Ívb Avg‡j evsjv‡`k Ges evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³ msMÖvg I hy×| cÖv‰MwZnvwmK I cÖvPxbKv‡j evsjv‡`k | evsjvq gymjgvb‡`i AvMgb, cÖwZôvjvf I kvmb − LjRx I ZzK©x kvm‡b evsjvq ¯^vaxb myjZvbx cÖwZôv; evsjv‡`‡k kvnx Avgj, AvdMvb I †gvNj Avg‡j evsjvi kvmb| ms¯‹…wZ Avw`hy‡M evsjvi mgvR-ms¯‹…wZi iƒc‡iLv, myjZvbx, †gvNj I bevex Avg‡ji evsjvi mgvR ms¯‹…wZ; Bs‡iR Avg‡j evsjvi mgvR I ms¯‹…wZ| iex›`ª I bRi“j hyM Ges iex›`ª I bRi“j DËi evsjvi mgvR I ms¯‹…wZ; cvwK¯Ívb Avg‡j evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK iƒc‡iLv; ¯^vaxbZvDËi evsjv‡`‡ki ms¯‹…wZ| wek` weeiYx BwZnvm 1. evsjv‡`‡ki AvenvIqv I Awaevmx m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 1.1 evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb Rbc` D‡j−L Kiv| 1.2 e½ ev evsjv bv‡gi DrcwË e¨vL¨v Kiv| 1.3 e‡½i mxgv‡iLv wPwýZ Kiv| 1.4 evsjvi AvenvIqv I Gi Awaevmx‡`i Pwi‡Î AvenvIqvi cÖfve wee„Z Kiv| 38 2. cÖv‰MwZnvwmK Avg‡ji evsjv‡`k m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv 2.1 `ªvweo RvwZi evsjv‡`‡k wePi‡Yi BwZe„Ë eY©bv Kiv| 2.2 fvi‡Z Avh©‡`i AvMgb Ab¨vb¨‡`i cvkvcvwk Ges evsjv‡`‡k G‡`i †MvovcËb I cÖfve e¨³ Kiv| 2.3 evsjvq †gŠh©¨ es‡ki BwZe„Ë e¨³ Kiv| 2.4 cÖv‰MwZnvwmK I cÖvPxb evsjvi Av_©mvgvwRK e¨e¯’v eY©bv Kiv| 3. evsjv‡`‡k ¸ß, ivRv kkv¼, cvj I †mb Avgj m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 3.1 ¸ß kvmb Avg‡j evsjvi kvmbe¨e¯’v eY©bv Kiv| 3.2 ivRv kkv‡¼i ivR¨ weRq I kvmb eY©bv Kiv| 3.3 evsjvi AivRKZv I wnD‡qbmvs Gi Avg‡j evsjvi Ae¯’v eY©bv Kiv| 3.4 †Mvcvj KZ©„K AivRKZvi Aemvb NUv‡bvi K…wZ‡Z¡i eY©bv Kiv| 3.5 †mb ivR es‡ki kvmb Avgj D‡j−L Kiv| 4. evsjv‡`‡k gymwjg kvmb m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 4.1 evsjv‡`‡k gymjgvb‡`i AvMgb I eLwZqvi LjRxi evsjv weRq eY©bv Kiv| 4.2 evsjv‡`‡k ¯^vaxb myjZvbx kvmb cÖwZôv wee„Z Kiv| 4.3 Bwjqvm kvnx I †nv‡mbkvnx hy‡Mi evsjvi wPÎ wbg©vY Kiv| 4.4 evsjvq AvdMvb kvmb Ges †gvNj kvm‡bi BwZe„Ë e¨vL¨v Kiv| 4.5 beve wmivRD‡ÏŠjv I gxi Kvwkg Avg‡j evsjvi kvmb e¨e¯’v cwieZ©‡bi mwÜ¶‡Yi e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb (cjvkxi hy× I Zvi cieZ©x evsjv‡`k)| 5. cjvkxhy× cieZ©x Ae¯’vq B÷ BwÛqv †Kv¤úvbxi AvwacZ¨ we¯Ívi m¤ú‡K© © ÁvZ nIqv| 5.1 †`Iqvbx, ‰ØZkvmb I evsjvi `ywf©¶ eY©bv Kiv| 5.2 Bs‡iR‡`i wPi¯’vqx e‡›`ve¯Í Ges e„wUk we‡ivax mk¯¿ cÖwZ‡iva Av‡›`vjb Ges Gi djvdj eY©bv Kiv| 5.3 evsjv‡`‡k Rwg`vi, cÖRve¨e¯’v cÖwZôv Ges Av_©-mvgvwRK e¨e¯’vq Rwg`vi‡`i f‚wgKv I cÖRvKz‡ji mvwe©K Ae¯’v D‡j−L Kiv| 5.4 e½f½ I ZrKvjxb wn›`y-gymwjg ivR‰bwZK cÖwZwµqvmn ¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vjb, wLjvdZ I Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb e¨vL¨v Kiv| 6. e½f½DËi ivRbxwZ I †`k wefvM m¤ú‡K© © AewnZ nIqv| 6.1 1937 Gi wbe©vPb I Gi ˆewkó¨ D‡j−L Kiv| 6.2 jv‡nvi cÖ¯Íve e¨³ Kiv| 6.3 1943 Gi evsjvi `ywf©‡¶i KviY I Gi c~e©vci Ae¯’v D‡j−L Kiv| 6.4 cvwK¯Ív‡bi c~e©vÂj wnmv‡e 1947 mv‡j c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi cÖwZôv e¨vL¨v Kiv| 7. cvwK¯Ívb Avg‡j evsjv‡`‡ki (ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯Ívb) ivRbxwZ, A_©bxwZ I mvgvwRK Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 7.1 fvlv Av‡›`vjb I mgKvjxb ivR‰bwZK I mvgvwRK †cÖw¶Z e¨³ Kiv| 7.2 AvIqvgxjxM cÖwZôv, hy³d«›U I 21 `dv `vexi wfwË‡Z wbe©vPb Abyôvb Ges hy³d«‡›Ui gwš¿mfv MVb I evwZj Av‡jvPbv Kiv| 39 7.3 7.4 7.5 8. 9. cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvgwiK Afz¨Ìvb, AvBqye we‡ivax Av‡›`vjb I 6 `dv `vex, AvMiZjv gvgjvi BwZe„Ë eY©bv Kiv Ges c~e©-cwðg cvwK¯Ív‡bi A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i LwZqvb D‡j−L Kiv| 1969 mv‡ji MYAfz¨Ìvb Ges Gi avivevwnKZvq evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy× I ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`k cÖwZôv Kivi cUf~wg I NUbv cÖevn eY©bv Kiv| 1971 mv‡ji HwZnvwmK gyw³hy× Ges ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki Afz¨`q eY©bv Kiv| ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki ivRbxwZ I Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 8.1 hy‡×vËi ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK cybM©Vb Kg©ZrciZv eY©bv Kiv| 8.2 1973 mv‡ji wbe©vPb Ges 1974 mv‡j msweav‡bi 4_© ms‡kvabxi gva¨‡g miKvi c×wZi cwieZ©b e¨³ Kiv| 8.3 1975 mv‡ji 15 AvM÷ e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb -Gi wbnZ nIqv Ges cieZ©x ivR‰bwZK cUcwieZ©‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U RvZxqZvev`x `‡ji Afy¨`q Ges †`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi cybtcÖwZôvi cÖqvm e¨vL¨v Kiv| 8.4 1981 mv‡j ivóªcwZ wRqvDi ingv‡bi kvnv`vZ eiY, 1982 mv‡ji mvgwiK Afz¨Ìvb Ges ivR‰bwZK cUf‚wg cwieZ©‡b RvZxq cvwU©i D™¢e| 8.5 1990 mv‡ji RvZxq cvwU©i miKv‡ii cZb Ges ZË¡veavqK miKvi c×wZ Abyms‡M 1991 m‡bi wbe©vPb Ges MYZvwš¿K Abykxj‡bi m~Pbv| ms¯‹…wZ cÖvPxb I ga¨hyMxq evsjvi ms¯‹…wZ I mvwnZ¨ PP©v m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 9.1 cÖvPxb evsjvi fvlv mvwnZ¨ I ms¯‹…wZi iƒc‡iLv eY©bv Kiv| 9.2 myjZvbx I bevex Avg‡j evsjvi Av_©-mvgvwRK e¨e¯’v Ges wkí-mvwnZ¨Kg© eY©bv Kiv| 9.3 ev½vjx ms¯‹…wZ wbg©v‡Y gwm©qv I cyuw_ mvwn‡Z¨i cÖfve eY©bv Kiv| 10. AvaywbK hy‡M evsjv‡`‡ki ms¯‹…wZ I evsjvfvlvi AvaywbK iƒcjvf m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 10.1 Bs‡iR kvmb Avg‡j mvgvwRK Kzms¯‹vi `~ixKi‡Y ev½vjx mgvR ms¯‹viK‡`i Avwef©ve Ges Zv‡`i Kg©ZrciZv e¨vL¨v Kiv| 10.2 K¨vwi mv‡ne Ges ‡dvU© DBwjqvg K‡jR/ms¯‹…Z K‡jR ¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g evsjvi bZzb ms¯‹…wZi iƒcjvf eY©bv Kiv| 10.3 Bs‡iR‡`i wk¶vbxwZ cÖeZ©b e¨vL¨v Kiv Ges KwjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq I Bmjvwgqv gv`ªvmv ¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g evsjvi ms¯‹…wZi weKvk e¨³ Kiv | 10.4 XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖwZôvi BwZe„Ë e¨vL¨v Kiv| 11. evsMvjx mgvR Ges ms¯‹…wZi iƒcjv‡f iex›`ªbv_ I mgKvjxb gbxlx‡`i Ae`vb m¤ú‡K© Rvbv| 11.1 iex›`ª mvwnZ¨ ej‡q ev½vjx ms¯‹…wZ, evsjvfvlv I mvwn‡Z¨i cwic~Y©Zv jvf e¨vL¨v Kiv| 11.2 iex›`ªhy‡M bRi“‡ji Avwef©ve Ges Zvi fvlv I mvwnZ¨Kg© e¨vL¨v Kiv| 12. 1947 Gi †`k wefvM I mvs¯‹…wZK Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 12.1 ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi ZgyÏyb gRwj‡mi f‚wgKv D‡j−L Kiv| 12.2 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mvs¯‹…wZK ¸i“Z¡ D‡j−L Kiv| 12.3 XvKv †Kw›`ªK wkíx-mvwnwZ¨K‡`i evsMvjx ms¯‹…wZ wewbg©v‡Yi f‚wgKv cvjb D‡j−L Kiv| 12.4 Õ69 Gi MY Av‡›`vj‡b mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©x‡`i f‚wgKv D‡j−L Kiv| 40 12.5 13. 14. evOjv GKv‡Wgxi cÖwZôv Ges evsjv fvlv I mvwn‡Z¨ Gi f~wgKv D‡j−L Kiv| ¯^vaxbZv DËi evsjv‡`‡k mvwnZ¨ I mvs¯‹…wZK Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 13.1 evsjv‡`‡k Mí, Dcb¨vm I KweZvi PP©v D‡j−L Kiv| 13.2 evsjv‡`‡k bvU¨ PP©v D‡j−L Kiv| 13.3 wPÎ, msMxZ, bvU¨ wk‡íi PP©vq ‡`wk-we‡`wk DcKi‡Yi mswgkªY D‡j−L Kiv| 13.4 AvšÍR©vwZK gvZ…fvlv w`em wn‡m‡e 21 †deª“qvwii Zvrch© e¨³ Kiv| 13.5 fvlv, wkí mvwnZ¨ PP©vq msev`cÎ I B‡jKUªwbK wgwWqvi f‚wgKv D‡j−L Kiv| ms¯‹…wZi Dci MÖvgxY A_©bxwZi cÖfve AeMZ nIqv| 14.1 ZuvZ wkí I gmwjb Drcv`‡bi BwZe„Ë e¨vL¨v Kiv| 14.2 bxj Pvl I cvU Pv‡li A_©‰bwZK cÖfve e¨³ Kiv| 14.3 ev½vjx ms¯‹…wZi Ask wn‡m‡e `y»RvZ wgóvbœ mvgMÖxi (wgwó, gvLb, `wa, wcVv-cywj cÖf…wZ) cÖfve e¨³ Kiv| 14.4 †`kxq †gjv I cve©‡bi mvs¯‹…wZK ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Kiv| 14.5 MÖvgxY †ckvRxwe‡`i (Kvgvi, Kzgvi, ZuvZx, †R‡j, QyZvi, BZ¨vw`) mvs¯‹…wZK ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Kiv| mnvqK cy¯ÍK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. iwng, †PŠayix, gvngy` I Bmjvg, Òevsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm (cwiewa©Z I cwigvwR©Z)Ó ; bI‡ivR wKZvwe¯Ívb, AvM÷, 1999| ‡K, Avjx Òevsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvmÓ; AvwRwRqv eyK wW‡cv, 2001| wmivRyj Bmjvg, Òevsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm-1704-1971Ó; 1g, 2q I 3q LÛ; evsjv‡`k GwkqvwUK †mvmvBwU, †deª“qvwi 2000| †Kv-Av‡šÍvbfv, wcÖ, K‡Zvfw®‹, ÒfviZe‡l©i BwZnvmÓ; cÖMwZ cÖKvkb, 1988| †Mvcvj nvj`vi; Òms¯‹…wZi iƒcvšÍiÓ; gy³aviv, †g 1984| †gvZv‡ni †nv‡mb †PŠayix, Òms¯‹…wZ K_vÓ; bI‡ivR wKZvwe¯Ívb, Rvbyqvwi 1998| †Mvcvj nvj`vi, Òevsjv mvwn‡Z¨i iƒc‡iLv-1g I 2q LÛÓ; gy³aviv, RyjvB 1978| 41 4-YEAR DIPLOMA-IN-ENGINEERING PROGRAM FOOD TECHNOLOGY 42 SYLLABUS FOURTH SEMESTER 43 2941 FOOD CHEMISTRY – I T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • To provide knowledge of food, nutrients, water and its activities, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, proteins, vitamins, enzymes, food additives, etc. • To develop skill in studying fats and oils, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, etc. SHORT DESCRIPTION Food & nutrients; Water in nutrition of food; Water activity in food spoilage & food packaging; Composition of lipids; Fatty acids; Rancidity of lipids; Analysis & hydrogenation of fats & oils; Emulsion & emulsification; Proteins and nonenzymatic browning; Carbohydrates; Minerals; Vitamins; Enzymes; Food additives. DETAIL DESCRIPTION FOOD & NUTRIENTS 1 Understand the composition of foods. 1.1 State the meaning of food. 1.2 Mention the major components of foods. 1.3 Explain the meaning of nutrients. 1.4 Mention the energy producing nutrients. 1.5 Mention the body building nutrients. 1.6 Mention the protective nutrients. WATER & WATER ACTIVITY 2 Understand the functions of water in nutrition and food. 2.1 Mention the necessity of water in human body. 2.2 List the types of water in foods. 2.3 Mention the structure of water molecule. 2.4 Define sorption phenomena. 2.5 Mention the sorption phenomena in the maintenance of quality of foods. 2.6 Mention the triple point of water. 2.7 State the role of triple point of water in freeze drying. 3 Understand the aspects of water activity in food spoilage and food packaging. 3.1 Define water activity. 3.2 Explain the role of water activity in food spoilage. 3.3 Explain the water activity in food packaging. 44 LIPIDS 4 Understand the composition of lipids. 4.1 Define lipids and fatty acids. 4.2 Mention the constituent of lipids. 4.3 Mention the physical and chemical properties of lipids. 4.4 Explain the term glyceride and phospholipids. 4.5 List the uses of glyceride and phospholipids. 5 Understand the features of fatty acids. 5.1 Define fatty acids. 5.2 Mention saturated and unsaturated acids. 5.3 Mention essential fatty acids. 5.4 List 5 saturated, 5 unsaturated and 5 essential fatty acids. 6 Understand the rancidity of lipids. 6.1 Define rancidity of lipids. 6.2 State the meaning of oxidative rancidity and hydrolytic rancidity. 6.3 Mention the effects of oxidative rancidity and hydrolytic rancidity. 6.4 Explain the mechanism of auto-oxidation. 6.5 Explain the inhibition of oxidative rancidity. 7 Understand the analysis of fats and oils. 7.1 State the meaning of the terms acid value, peroxide value, saponification value of fats and oils. 7.2 Explain the determination of acid value of fats and oils. 7.3 Explain the determination of peroxide value of fats and oils. 7.4 Explain the determination of saponification value of fats and oils. 8 Understand the hydrogenation of fats and oils. 8.1 Define hydrogenation. 8.2 Explain the hydrogenation of fats and oils. EMULSION 9 Understand the concept of emulsion and emulsification. 9.1 State the meaning of emulsion. 9.2 Explain the method of emulsification. 9.3 Mention the functions of emulsifiers. 9.4 List the commonly used emulsifiers in food industry. PROTEINS 10 Understand the features of proteins. 10.1 Define proteins. 10.2 Mention the primary and secondary structure of protein. 10.3 Define simple proteins, conjugation proteins and derived proteins. 10.4 Explain the denaturation of proteins. 10.5 Mention the amino acid composition of proteins. 45 10.6 10.7 Mention the chemical structure of essential amino acids. State the chemical changes in food proteins during processing and storage. 11 Understand the concept of nonenzymatic browning. 11.1 State the meaning of the term nonenzymatic browning. 11.2 Explain the mechanism of Maillard reactions. 11.3 Mention the beneficial and non-beneficial effects of Maillard reaction on processed food. 11.4 Explain the prevention methods of non-enzymatic browning. 12 Understand the difference in proteins obtained from different sources. 12.1 Mention the milk proteins, egg proteins, wheat proteins and soybean proteins. 12.2 Differentiate between essential amino-acids and limiting amino acids. CARBOHYDRATES 13 Understand the features of carbohydrates. 13.1 Define carbohydrates. 13.2 List the important types of carbohydrates. 13.3 State the meaning of mutarotation, isomerization, polymerization and caramelization 13.4 Write the chemical structures of glucose, fructose, cellulose, starch, hemicellulose, amylose, glycogen, sucrose, lactose and maltose. 13.5 List the properties of gum arabic, locust bean gum, guar gum, agar, algin, carrageenan and modified cellulose. 13.6 Mention the uses of gum arabic, locust bean gum, guar gum, agar, algin, carrageenan and modified cellulose. 13.7 Mention the role of crystallisation of sugars in food. 13.8 Outline the importance of gel formation in food processing. MINERALS 14 Understand the features of minerals in foods. 14.1 List major minerals in foods. 14.2 State what is meant by trace elements in food. 14.3 List the trace elements in foods. 14.4 Mention the importance of Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Copper, Cobalt, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Iodine, Fluorine and Molybdenum for human nutrition. 14.5 Identify the minerals in milk and meat. 14.6 Identify the minerals in plant product. 14.7 Explain the metal uptake in canned foods. VITAMINS 15 Understand the importance of vitamins in foods. 15.1 State the meaning of vitamin. 15.2 Explain the fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. 15.3 Give examples of fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. 15.4 Write the chemical structures of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Nicotinamide, Pyridoxine and folic acid. 15.5 List different vitamin deficiency diseases. 46 15.6 15.7 State the heat stability of vitamin C, vitamin B1, B2 and B6 during food processing. Mention the physiological functions of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Nicotinamide, Pyridoxine, folic acid and vitamin K. ENZYMES 16 Understand the nature and function of enzymes. 16.1 Define enzymes. 16.2 List the name of enzymes used in the processing of different types of foods. 16.3 State the meaning of immobilized enzyme. 16.4 Mantion the activities of Amylases, Esterases, Proteases, Pectinases, Phenolases, Glucose oxidise, Catalyse, Peroxides, Lipoxy genase and Santhine oxidase. FOOD ADDITIVES 17 Understand the functions and uses of food additives. 17.1 State what is meant by additives. 17.2 List the important incidental food additives. 17.3 List the important intentional food additives. 17.4 State the contaminate of foods by incidental additives. 17.5 Outline the important purposes served by the use of food additives. 17.6 List 5 agents of bread improvers, emulsifiers, flavors, sweeteners, colors, nutrient supplements, preservatives and antioxidants. Practical : 1 Determine the moisture in foods. 2 Determine the fat and oils in foods. 3 Determine the percentage of carbohydrates present in foods. 4 Determine the percentage of proteins present in foods. 5 Determine the percentage of minerals present in food. 6 Determine the hardness of tap water. 7 Determine the enzyme activities in fruits, vegetables and milk qualitatively. 8 Determine the presence of preservatives in foods. 9 Determine the presence of SO2 in orange squash. 10 Determine the presence of Vitamins C in food sample. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. 2. 3. 4. Principles of Food Chemistry − John M. Deman Food Chemistry − Mayer Food Science (Vol I, II & III) − Owen Fennema Lv`¨ weÁvb − †gvnv¤§` BDbym 47 2942 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY – I T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • To acquaint with microbial species and microbial contamination, and spoilage of food. • To enable to adopt safety measures from the microbial hazards. • To develop skill in detecting isolation and preservation of microbial cultures and microbial species by laboratory test (examination). SHORT DESCRIPTION Basic concepts of microbiology; Classification of micro-organisms; Microscopy; Staining of bacteria; Staining techniques and pure culture techniques; Morphology and physiology of microorganism; Growth curve; Interpretation of log curve; Cell anatomy; Cell division. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : INTRODUCTION 1 Understand the basic concepts of microbiology. 1.1 Define microbiology. 1.2 State the meaning of microorganisms. 1.3 Give two examples of microorganisms. 1.4 List ten branches of applied microbiology. 1.5 Mention the development of tools and techniques in microbiology. 1.6 State the Kock’s pustulates. 1.7 Outline the economic importance of microorganisms. CLASSIFICATION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS 2 Understand the classification of microorganisms. 2.1 State the objects of classification of microorganisms. 2.2 Explain the taxonomy and classification of microorganisms. 2.3 Describe five major characteristics of microorganisms. 2.4 Describe the binomial system of nomenclature of microorganisms. 2.5 Mention the units (categories) of classification of microorganisms. 3 Understand the features of bacteria. 4.1 Define bacteria. 4.2 Explain the kingdom Protista. 48 4.3 4.4 Give the schematic diagram of classification of microorganisms belonging to the kingdom Protista. Mention the classification of bacteria according to cell shape and sizes, systematic classification, nutritional requirements, oxygen requirements, temperature requirements, formation of flagella and formation of spores. 5 Understand the features of yeasts. 5.1 Define yeasts. 5.2 State the class name of yeasts. 5.3 Name three genera of each of Ascosporogenous and Ballistosporogenous yeasts. 5.4 State the meaning of Thallophyta. 5.5 Give a schematic representation of the Thallophyta in relation to other plants. 6 Understand the features of fungi. 6.1 Define fungi. 6.2 Explain four classes of fungi. 6.3 Give example of the four classes of fungi. 7 Understand the features of algae. 7.1 Define algae. 7.2 Name eight classes of algae with specific example of each . 7.3 Mention five points of distinction between algae and fungi. 8 Understand the features of protozoa and viruses. 8.1 Define protozoa. 8.2 Name four classes of the phylum protozoa. 8.3 Give example of four classes of the phylum protozoa. 8.4 Name the division and class of viruses. 8.5 Name the classes of viruses which are used now a days. 8.6 Explain the multiplication of viruses. 8.7 Mention the function of viruses. MICROSCOPY AND STANDING OF BACTERIA 9 Understand the aspect of microscopy. 9.1 Identify microscope, simple microscope, compound microscope and electron microscope. 9.2 Identify different parts of a compound microscope. 9.3 List five types of compound microscope. 9.4 Outline the necessity of microscope. 9.5 Mention the classification of the electron microscope. 49 9.6 9.7 10 Explain the cleaning methods of different parts of a compound microscope. Distinguish between compound and electron microscope. Understand the staining of bacteria. 10.1 Explain the preparation of smear for simple staining. 10.2 Mention the procedures of the bacteria staining techniques : simple staining, gram staining, flagella staining, spore staining and capsule staining. PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES 11 Understand the aspects of pure culture and culturing techniques. 11.1 Define culture, pure culture, mixed culture, plate culture, stab culture, liquid culture, slant culture and shake culture. 11.2 Name three methods employed for inoculation of media for a pure culture of bacteria. 11.3 Explain the meaning of sterilization. 11.4 List four methods of sterilization. 11.5 Mention the methods of isolation of species in a pure culture. 11.6 Explain the streak plate methods of isolation of pure culture. 11.7 Discuss briefly five methods of preservation of microbial culture. 11.8 Mention the safety precautions in the microbiological laboratory. 11.9 Explain the measurement of pH of a microbial culture medium. MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS 12 Understand the morphology of microorganisms. 12.1 List the types of microorganisms important in food microbiology. 12.2 Mention the morphological characteristics of molds. 12.3 List five genera of molds of industrial importance. 12.4 Name different structures of a typical bacterial cell with a neat sketch. 12.5 State the meaning of the bacterial cell structures : cell wall, flagella, nuclear material, capsule, fimbriae, mitochondria, plasmids and vacuole. 12.6 State the protoplast, spheroplast and L-form growth of bacteria. 12.7 Distinguish between gram (+ve) and gram (−ve) bacterial cell wall. 13 Understand the bacteria reproduction. 13.1 Explain the bacterial reproduction. 13.2 List different types asexual reproduction of bacteria. 13.3 Mention the binary fission types of bacterial reproduction. 13.4 State the reproduction of bacterial spores (endosperm). 13.5 Mention the genara of family enterobacteriance important in food microbiology. 50 14 15 16 13.6 Mention the important characteristics of the genus pseudomonas. Understand the features of yeast cell. 14.1 Define yeasts. 14.2 Sketch different structures of a yeast cell. 14.3 Explain the reproduction of yeasts by budding. 14.4 Explain the parthenogemsis and chlamydospores of yeast cell. 14.5 Mention five genera of yeasts of industrial importance. Understand the heat resistance of microorganisms. 15.1 Explain the heat resistance of microorganisms. 15.2 Explain the heat resistance of bacterial spores. 15.3 Explain the heat resistance of mold spores. 15.4 Explain “moist heat is more effective than dry heat in killing the microorganisms”. Understand the physiology of microorganism. 16.1 Define aerobic, anaerobic and microaerophilic types of microorganisms. 16.2 Define psychrophilic, mesophilic and themophilic types of microorganisms. 16.3 Define photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, saprophytic and parasitic types of bacteria. GROWTH CURVE 17 Understand the growth curve of microorganism. 17.1 Define growth, growth curve, thermal death time, thermal death point and thermal death rate. 17.2 Identify different phases of the growth curve of a microbial culture. 17.3 Explain the terms symbiosis, metabiosis and antibiosis. CELL ANATOMY AND CELL DIVISION 18 Understand the aspect of cell anatomy. 18.1 Define cell. 18.2 Describe different parts of a plant cell with a neat sketch . 18.3 Distinguish between plant cell and bacterial cell. 18.4 Explain the functions of cell wall, plasmids, nucleus, flagella, vacuoles and mitochondria. 19 Understand the concept of cell division. 19.1 Define cell division. 19.2 Mention different methods of cell division. 19.3 Describe the mitosis process of cell division. 19.4 Explain the process of meiosis cell division. 19.5 Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis cell division. MICROBIOLOGY OF WATER 20 Understand the microbiology of water. 20.1 Define potable, non-potable and contaminated water. 20.2 Name the bacteria presents in natural water. 51 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 21 Define pathogen, parasite and host. Explain four water borne bacterial diseases of human. Mention the sources of contamination of water. Explain five precautionary measures for the collection of water sample for bacterialogical analysis. 20.7 Explain two standard techniques for bacteriological examination of water. 20.8 Mention the characteristics of Coliform bacteria. 20.9 Explain the standard membrane filter techniques for the identification of Coliform bacteria in water. Understand the microbial water activity (aw). 21.1 Explain the water activity (aw). 21.2 List the chief compositional factors of a food that influence microbial activity. 21.3 Mention the way of making water unavailable to microorganisms. 21.4 Mention the factors that may effect water activity requirements of microorganisms. 21.5 Explain the methods for the control of water activity. 21.6 Compare the water activity requirements (value) of bacteria, yeast and molds. Practical : 1 Study the working of a compound microscope. 2 Perform the staining of bacteria. 3 Prepare the sterilization and adjustment of pH of media for culturing the microorganisms. 4 Determine the morphological and physiological characters of microorganisms. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 Food Microbiology 2 3 4 5 6 − W.C Frazis & D.C. Westhoffs Modern Food Microbiology − James M. Jay Microbiology − Pelczar & Reid Laboratory Technique Food and Dairy Microbiology − Harrigan and Mc Cance Bacteriology − Humphrey gvB‡µvevBIjwR − Wt Gm. G. Lv‡jK 52 2342 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – I T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS • To provide a foundation in organic chemistry for further studies in technology. • To enable to understand the preparation, properties, reactions and uses of common aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds. • To develop skill in analyzing organic compounds. SHORT DESCRIPTION Classification of organic compounds; Saturated hydrocarbons; Unsaturated hydrocarbons; Halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons; Alcohols; Ethers; Aldehydes and ketones; Fatty acids and their derivatives; Dibasic acid; Hydroxy acids ; Carbohydrates; Aromatic compounds; Benzene; Toluene; DETAILED DESCRIPTION Theory : CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1 Understand the features of organic compounds. 1.1 State the meaning of organic compounds. 1.2 Mention the classification of organic compounds. 1.3 Explain the homologous series of organic compounds. 1.4 Explain the alkyl radicals. 1.5 Explain the functional group of organic compounds. 1.6 Mention the nomenclature of organic compounds by different system. 1.7 State the IUPAC system of nomenclature of organic compounds. ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 2 Understand the features of saturated hydrocarbons. 2.1 State the meaning of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. 2.2 Identify the alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. 2.3 Explain the preparation of methane and ethane. 2.4 List the physical and chemical properties of methane and ethane. 2.5 Write the uses of methane and ethane. 2.6 Mention the general properties of paraffins. UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS 3 Understand the features of unsaturated hydrocarbons. 3.1 Mention the classification of unsaturated hydrocarbons. 53 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Give examples of different unsaturated hydrocarbons. Explain the alkenes and alkenyl radicals. Mention the nomenclature of alkenes. Explain the preparation of alkenes. Explain the preparation of ethylene from ethyl alcohol, ethyl halide, natural gas and acetylene. Mention the physical and chemical properties of ethylene. Write the uses of ethylene. 4 Understand the features of alkyne. 4.1 State the meaning of alkyne. 4.2 Explain the electronic concept of triple bond. 4.3 Mention the nomenclature of alkynes. 4.4 Explain the alkynyl radicals. 4.5 Explain the preparation of alkynes. 5 Understand the features of acetylene. 5.1 Explain the preparation of acetylene. 5.2 Mention the physical and chemical properties of acetylene. 5.3 List the uses of acelylene. 5.4 Distinguish the physical and chemical properties of ethane, ethylene and acetylene. HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF HYDROCARBONS 6 Understand the features of halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons. 6.1 State the meaning of the term “alkyl halide”. 6.2 Give examples of alkyl halide. 6.3 Mention the nomenclature of alkyl halides. 6.4 Explain the preparation of methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, chloroform, iodoform and grignard reagent. 6.5 Mention the properties of methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, chloroform, iodoform and grignard reagent. 6.6 List the uses of methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, chloroform, iodoform and grignard reagent. ALCOHOLS 7 Understand the features of alcohol. 7.1 State what is meant by the alcohols. 7.2 Explain the functional group of alcohol. 7.3 Mention the classification of alcohols. 7.4 Mention the nomenclature of alcohols. 7.5 Mention the structural formulae of five alcohols. 7.6 Explain the term isomerism. 54 7.7 Identify the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. 8 Understand the features of methyl alcohol. 8.1 Explain the preparation of methyl alcohol. 8.2 Write the physical and chemical properties of methyl alcohol. 8.3 Write the uses of methyl alcohol. 8.4 Mention three important tests for methyl alcohol. 9 Understand the features of ethyl alcohol. 9.1 Explain the manufacturing of ethyl alcohol. 9.2 Write the physical and chemical properties of ethyl alcohol. 9.3 State the meaning of the term methylated sprit. 9.4 Mention two important tests for ethyl alcohol. 9.5 Distinguish between methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol. 9.6 Explain the conversion of methyl alcohol to ethyl alcohol and vice versa. 9.7 Explain the conversion of methyl alcohol to acetic acid and vice versa. 10 Understand the features of di- and trihydric alcohols. 10.1 Define dihydric alcohols. 10.2 Give examples of dihydric alcohols. 10.3 Define trihydric alcohols. 10.4 Give examples of trihydric alcohols. 10.5 Explain the preparation of ethylene glycol and glycerine. 10.6 List the uses of ethylene glycol and glycerine. ETHERS 11 Understand the features of ethers. 11.1 State the meaning of ethers. 11.2 Mention the nomenclature of ethers. 11.3 Explain the preparation of diethyl ether. 11.4 Write the physical properties of diethyl ether. 11.5 Mention the important chemical reaction of diethyl ether. 11.6 Write the uses of diethyl ether. 11.7 Explain the term “functional group isomerism”. ALDEEYDES AND KETONES 12 Understand the aldehydes and ketones. 12.1 State the meaning of aldehydes and ketones. 12.2 Explain the carbonyl group. 12.3 Mention the structure of functional groups of aldehydes and ketones. 12.4 Mention the nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones. 55 12.5 12.6 12.7 Mention the chemical formulae of five aldehydes and five ketones. Mention the properties of aldehydes and ketones. Mention the uses of aldehydes and ketones. 13 Understand the features of formaldehyde. 13.1 Explain the preparation of formaldehyde. 13.2 Write the properties of formaldehyde. 13.3 Mention the physical and chemical properties of formaldehyde. 13.4 Mention the important tests of formaldehyde. 13.5 Write the uses of formaldehyde. 13.6 Explain the preparation of methane from formaldehyde. 13.7 State the meaning of formalin. 13.8 List the uses of formalin. 14 Understand the features of acetaldehyde. 14.1 Explain the preparation of acetaldehyde. 14.2 Write the important properties of acetaldehyde. 14.3 Mention the chemical reactions of acetaldehyde. 14.4 Mention the important tests for acetaldehyde. 14.5 Write the uses of acetaldehyde. 14.6 Explain the conversions of formaldehyde to acetaldehyde and vice versa. 14.7 Mention the holoform reaction. 15 Understand the features of acetone. 15.1 Explain the preparation of acetone. 15.2 Write the physical and chemical properties of acetone. 15.3 Explain the terms polymerisation and condensation. 15.4 Mention the similarities and dissimilarities in chemical reaction between acetone and acelaldehyde. 15.5 Mention the test for distinguishing between formaldelyde and acelaldehyde. FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 16 Understand the features of fatty acids. 16.1 State the meaning of the term carboxylic acid. 16.2 Mention the classification of carboxylic acids. 16.3 Explain the acyl group. 16.4 Mention the reason for carboxylic acid being called fatty acids. 16.5 Mention the nomenclature of fatty acids and their derivatives. 16.6 Mention the chemical formulae of five fatty acids. 56 17 Understand the features of formic acids. 17.1 Explain the preparation of formic acid. 17.2 Write the properties of formic acid. 17.3 Mention the chemical reactions of formic acid. 17.4 Write the uses of formic acid. 17.5 Mention the important tests for formic acid. 18 Understand the features of acetic acid. 18.1 Explain the industrial manufacturing of acetic acid. 18.2 Mention the physical and chemical properties of acetic acid. 18.3 Write the uses of acetic acid. 18.4 Mention the important tests for acetic acid. 18.5 Explain the conversion of formic acid to acetic acid. 18.6 Mention the test for carboxyl group. 18.7 Mention different tests to distinguish between formic acid and acetic acid. 19 Understand the features of derivatives of fatty acids. 19.1 List the derivatives of fatty acids. 19.2 Explain the process of esterification. 19.3 Mention the structural formulae of three drivatives of fatty acids. 20 Understand the features of ethyl acetate. 20.1 Explain the preparation of ethyl acetate. 20.2 Mention the properties of ethyl acetate. 20.3 Write the uses of ethyl acetate. DIBASIC ACIDS 21 Understand the featurse of dibasic acids. 21.1 Explain the meaning of dibasic acids. 21.2 Mention the structure of dibasic acids. 21.3 List the chemical formula of dibasic acids. 21.4 Explain the preparation of oxalic acid. 21.5 Write the chemical reactions of oxalic acid. 21.6 Mention the uses of oxalic acid. HYDROXY ACID 22 Undrestand the features of lactic acid and citric acid. 22.1 Explain the preparation of lactic acid. 22.2 Write the physical properties of lactic acid. 22.3 Mention the uses of lactic acid. 22.4 Explain the manufacturing of citric acid. 57 22.5 22.6 Write the physical properties of citric acid. Mention the uses of citric acid. CARBOHYDRATES 23 Understand the features of carbohydrates. 23.1 Explain the term carbohydrate. 23.2 Write the general formula for carbohydrates. 23.3 Mention the classification of carbohydrates. 23.4 List ten examples of carbohydrates. 24 Understand the features of glucose. 24.1 Explain the preparation of glucose. 24.2 Write the physical properties of glucose. 24.3 Mention the important chemical reactions of glucose. 24.4 Mention the structure of glucose. 24.5 List the uses of glucose. 24.6 Mention the important tests for glucose. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 25 Understand the features of aromatic compounds. 25.1 State the meaning of aromatic compounds. 25.2 List the important aromatic compounds. 25.3 Mention the important characteristics of aromatic compounds. BENZENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES 26 Understand the features of benzene. 26.1 Explain the preparation of benzene. 26.2 Mention the important reactions of benzene. 26.3 Write the uses of benzene. 26.4 Explain the structure of benzene. TOLUENE 27 Understand the features of toluene. 27.1 Explain the preparation of toluene. 27.2 Write the physical properties of toluene. 27.3 Mention the important reactions of toluene. 27.4 Write the uses of toluene. 27.5 Mention the conversions of benzene to toluene and vice versa. 28 Understand the features of 2-4-6 tri-nitro toluene (TNT). 28.1 Explain the preparation of 2-4-6 tri-nitro toluene (TNT). 28.2 Write the structural formula of 2-4-6 tri-nitro toluene (TNT). 58 28.3 28.4 Mention the physical properties of tri-nitro toluene (TNT). Write the uses of tri-nitro toluene (TNT). Practical : PURIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1 Determine the melting point and boiling point of organic substances. 1.1 Determine the melting point of glucose, urea, oxalic acid, salicylic acid and benzoic acid by capillary tube method. 1.2 Determine the melting point of an unknown supplied solid sample using melting point apparatus. 1.3 Determine the boiling point of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, benzene, acetic acid and formic acid using boiling point apparatus. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 2 Detect the elements in organic compounds. 2.1 Detect the presence of carbon in a supplied organic sample. 2.2 Detect the presence of hydrogen in a supplied organic sample. 2.3 Detect the presence of nitrogen in a supplied organic sample. 2.4 Detect the presence of phosphorus in a supplied organic sample. 2.5 Detect the presence of halogens in a supplied organic sample. 3 Identify the unknown organic substance. 3.1 Note the following physical characteristics of the supplied unknown liquid organic substance. a) Color b) Crystalline c) Amorphous d) Solubility 3.2 Perform the following tests of the supplied unknown solid/syrup residue. a) heated in a dry test tube b) heated with soda-lime c) heated with conc. H2SO4 d) warmed with Na2CO3 solution 3.3 Prepare the solution of supplied unknown solid/liquid sample for wet test. 3.4 Perform a test for acids and their salts. 3.5 Perform three tests for acids. 3.6 Identify the supplied solid/liquid organic sample performing three confirmatory tests. HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF ALKANES 4 Perform the qualitative analysis of halogen derivatives of alkanes. 4.1 Perform the isocyanide test, reduction test and Nessler regent test for chloroform. 59 ALCOHOLS 5 Perform the qualitative analysis of alcohols. 5.1 Perform the oxidation test, ester test, morphin test, negative test and flashing test for methyl alcohol. 5.2 Perform the oxidation test, ester test, morphin test, iodoform test and flashing test for ethyl alcohol. 5.3 Perform the heat test, acrolein test and Dunstan’s test for glycerine. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 6 Perform the qualitative analysis of aldehydes and ketones. 6.1 Perform the Schiff’s test, mirror test and Nessler’s reagent test for formaldehyde. 6.2 Perform the Schiff’s test, mirror test and Nessler’s reagent test for acetaldehyde. 6.3 Perform the Rothera’s test, iodoform test, Gunning’s test and flashing test for acetone. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 7 Identify the carboxylic acids. 7.1 Perform the litmus paper test for the supplied free acid sample. 7.2 Prepare a neutral solution of formic, acetic, citric, oxalic, salicylic and benzoic acid. 7.3 Identify the formic acid by the following confirmatory tests: FeCl3 test, HgCl2 test, AgNO3 test, cone, H2SO4 test and KMnO4 test. 7.4 Identify the acetic acid by the following conformation tests: HgCl2 test, AgNO3 test, KMnO4 test and Ester test. 7.5 Identify the oxalic acid by the following confirmation test: Conc. H2SO4 test, AgNO3 test and Denige’s test. 7.6 Identify the citric acid by the following confirmation tests: Conc. H2SO4 test, AgNO3 test and Denige’s test. 7.7 Identify the salicylic acid by the following confirmation tests: Ester test, Sodalime test, AgNO3 test and Dil. HCI test. 7.8 Identify the benzoic acid by the following confirmation tests: Ester test, Sodalime test, AgNO3 test and HCI test. CARBOHYDRATES 8 Identify the glucose. Identify the glucose by the following confirmation tests: Concentrated H2SO4 test, Osazone test, Fehling’s solution test and Barfaeds solution test. 60 AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 9 Identify the aromatic compounds. 9.1 Identify the following aromatic compounds by proper confirmation tests. i) Benzoic acid ii) Salicylic acid iii) Aniline. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 ˆRe imvqb (‰Re ‰‰Re imvqb (mœvZK) − byi“j nK I gwnDwÏb 2 Organic Chemistry 3 Organic Chemistry 4 − Sarker Elements of Organic Chemistry − S. H. Richards, D. J. Cram & G. S. Hammond − Finar 61 2343 ENGINEERING MECHANICS T 2 P C 3 3 AIMS To provide the students with an opportunity to acquire knowledge, skill and attitude in the area of engineering mechanics with special emphasis on : • force system, moment and couple • center of gravity • moment of inertia • friction • stress & strain • shear force & bending moment • work, power and energy SHORT DESCRIPTION Force system; Moment and couple; Center of gravity & centroid; Moment of inertia; Motion; Simple harmonic motion; Friction; Stress & strain; Shear force and bending moment; Work, power & energy; Gear trains. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : FORCE 1 Understand the composition and resolution of forces. 1.1 State the effect of forces. 1.2 Mention the characteristics of a force. 1.3 Define resultant force and composition of forces. 1.4 Find the resultant force graphically and analytically. 1.5 Define resolution of a force. 1.6 State the principle of resolution of force. 1.7 Express the deduction of the formula for finding the resolved part of a force. 1.8 Sign convention of resolved forces. 1.9 Deduce the formula of resultant force from resolved part of the force. 1.10 Write the laws of forces. 1.11 Solve problems related to resultant force. 62 2 Understand the aspects of equilibrium of forces. 2.1 Mention different system of forces. 2.2 State the principles of equilibrium of forces. 2.3 State the Lami’s theorem. 2.4 Express the derivation of Lami’s theorem. 2.5 Describe different methods of the equilibrium of coplanar forces. 2.6 Explain the conditions of equilibrium. 2.7 Mention the various types of equilibrium of forces. 2.8 Solve problems related to equilibrium of forces. MOMENT 3 Understand the aspects of moment of forces. 3.1 Define moment of force. 3.2 Represent the moment of a force geometrically. 3.3 Mention the units of moment. 3.4 Identify the clockwise and anticlockwise moment. 3.5 State the Varignon’s principle of moments. 3.6 State the laws of moments. 3.7 State what is meant by the lever. 3.8 Identify the types of lever. 3.9 Solve problems related to moment of forces. COUPLE 4 Understand the aspects of couple. 4.1 State what is meant by the couple. 4.2 Define like forces and unlike forces. 4.3 Explain the methods for finding out the resultant force of parallel forces. 4.4 Distinguish between clockwise couple and antniclockwise couple. 4.5 Solve problems on parallel forces and couples. CENTER OF GRAVITY 5 Understand the concept of center of gravity. 5.1 Define center of gravity and centroid. 5.2 Distinguish between center of gravity and centroid. 5.3 Explain the methods of finding out center of gravity of simple geometrical figure. 5.4 Determine the center of gravity of simple geometrical figure geometrically and by integration. 5.5 Identify the axis of reference and axis of symmetry. 5.6 Determine the center of gravity of plain geometrical figure by first principle of moments. 63 5.7 5.8 Calculate the center of gravity of compound geometrical figure or areas by moments. Calculate the center of gravity of solid bodies. MOMENT OF INERTIA 6 Understand the application of moment of inertia. 6.1 Explain the term moment of inertia. 6.2 Mention the units of moment of inertia. 6.3 Express the derivation of the formulae for moment of inertia of an area. 6.4 Describe the methods for finding out the moment of inertia. 6.5 Find the moment of inertia of simple areas by the method of integration. 6.6 State the theorem of perpendicular axis as applied to moment of inertia. 6.7 Show the proof of the theorem of perpendicular as applied to moment of inertia. 6.8 State the parallel axis theorem in the determination of moment of inertia of areas. 6.9 Explain the radius of gyration and section modulus. 6.10 Calculate the moment of inertia and section modulus of composite sections and simple solid bodies. 7 Understand the principles of mass moment of inertia. 7.1 Explain the mass moment of inertia 7.2 Mention the units of mass moment of inertia. 7.3 State the formulae for finding out the mass moment of inertia of uniform rod, circular ring, circular lamina and solid sphere. 7.4 Calculate the mass moment of inertia of simple solid bodies. FRICTION 8 Understand the principles of friction. 8.1 Define friction. 8.2 State the laws of static and dynamic friction. 8.3 Identify the types of friction. 8.4 Explain the angle of friction. 8.5 Explain coefficient of friction. 9 Understand the application of friction. 9.1 Determine the frictional force of a body lying on an inclined plane. 9.2 Identify the ladder and wedge. 9.3 Identify the methods of solving the problems on wedge and ladder friction. 9.4 Solve problems relating to the application of friction. 64 STRESS AND STRAIN 10 Understand the aspect of stress and strain. 10.1 Define stress, strain, modulus of elasticity, Poison’s ratio and principle of shear stress. 10.2 Explain the stress in composite bar. 10.3 Describe the linear and lateral strain. 10.4 Explain the stress-strain diagram. 10.5 Solve problems on stress and strain. SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT 11 Understand the fundamentals of shear force and bending moment. 11.1 Define beam. 11.2 Identify the types of beam. 11.3 Identify the types of loading on beam. 11.4 Determine the support reactions of different types of beam under different loading conditions. 11.5 Define shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM). 11.6 Differentiate shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM). 11.7 Explain the sign convention and characteristics of S.F and B.M diagram. 11.8 Draw S.F and B.M diagram of cantilever beam with point load and distribute load. 11.9 Draw S.F and B.M diagram of simply supported beams and over hanging beams with point load and distributed load. LAWS OF MOTION 12 Understand the laws of motion. 12.1 State Newton’s three laws of motion. 12.2 Explain Newton’s three laws of motion. 12.3 Solve problems on laws of motion. 13 Understand the principle of simple harmonic motion. 13.1 Describe simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.). 13.2 State the general condition of simple harmonic motion. 13.3 Describe the terms relating to S. H. M. such as (a) amplitude (b) oscillation (c) beat (d) periodic time and (e) frequency. 13.4 Express the derivation of velocity and acceleration of a particle moving with S. H. M. 13.5 Express the derivation of maximum velocity and acceleration of a particle moving with S. H. M. 13.6 Solve problems related to simple harmonic motion. 65 14 Understand the aspects of work, power and energy. 14.1 Define work, power and energy. 14.2 State the units of work, power and energy. 14.3 Explain the work done in rotation. 14.4 Mention the types of engine power. 14.5 State the meaning of the engine efficiency. 14.6 Mention the types of engine efficiency. 14.7 Mention types of energy. 14.8 Express the derivation of the equation of kinetic energy. 14.9 State the law of conservation of energy. 14.10 Solve problems related to work, power and energy. GEAR TRAINS 15 Understand the various aspects of gear trains. 15.1 State what is meant by gear. 15.2 Identify the types of gears. 15.3 Identify the simple gear drive. 15.4 Express the derivation of the equation of velocity ratio of simple gear drive. 15.5 Identify the compound gear drive and gear train. 15.6 Identify the equation of power transmitted by simple and compound train. 15.7 Identify the epicyclic gear train. 15.8 Express the derivation of the velocity ratio of an epicylic gear train. 15.9 Solve problems related to gear trains. Practical : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Verify the parallelogram law of forces. Verify the triangle law of forces. Verify the polygon law of forces. Show the resultant of forces by using the force board. Proof Lami’s theorem by using the force board. Determine the coefficient of friction of timber, concrete and mild steel. Determine the tensile stress-strain by testing a mild steel specimen (also draw stress-strain diagram). Determine the compressive stress of a timber specimen. Determine the mechanical advantage of a screw jack. Determine the center of gravity of a wooden block. Determine the reaction of beam by using spring balance. Solve problems on force system, moment, moment of inertia, center of gravity, friction, stress & strain, shear force and bending moment, work, power, energy, gear trains. 66 REFERENCE BOOKS 1 Structural Mechanics − W. Morgan and D.T. Williams − Singer/Popov 2 Structure Mechanics 3 Applied Mechanics 4 − Mechanics of Materials − 5 R. S. Khurmi Philip Guatave Laurson Williams Junkin Cox Analytical Mechanics − Virgil Moring Faires 67 2344 CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES – I T 1 P C 3 2 AIMS • To enable to understand the basic concepts of water treatment, manufacturing of pigments, paints and varnishes, manufacturing of refractory, insulating material and abrasive products, leather processing and glue & gelatine manufacturing. • To develop skill in water treatment, paint manufacturing, varnish manufacturing, chrome and vegetable tanning, glue and gelatine making . SHORT DESCRIPTION Water treatment; Manufacturing of pigments, paints and varnishes; Manufacturing of refractory, insulating material and abrasive products; Leather processing; Manufacturing of glue and gelatine. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : WATER TREATMENT 1 Understand the concept of water treatment. 1.1 List the impurities in water. 1.2 Outline the importance of purity of industrial water and drinking water. 1.3 Explain the treatment of water for municipal purpose. 1.4 Explain the softening of water by lime-soda process. 1.5 Explain the softening of water by Permutit or Zeolite process. 1.6 Explain the softening of water by organic ion exchanger. 1.7 Describe the demineralization of water. 2 Understand the treatment of water for high pressure boiler. 2.1 Outline the importance of treatment of water for high pressure boiler. 2.2 Explain the process of water treatment for high pressure boilers. 2.3 Mention the specification of boiler feed water. 2.4 Explain the process of deoxidation in boiler feed water. 3 Understand the analysis of water. 3.1 Mention the water analysis for industrial water. 3.2 Explain the determination of temporary hardness of water. 3.3 Explain the determination of permanent hardness of water. 3.4 Solve the problems on hardness of water. PIGMENTS 4 Understand the aspects of pigment manufacturing. 4.1 Define pigments. 68 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Mention the color of 10 pigments. Explain the manufacturing white pigment (white lead and zinc oxide). Explain the manufacturing of ultramarine. Explain the manufacturing of carbon black. Explain the manufacturing of lithophone. Explain the manufacturing of red lead. Explain the manufacturing of chrome green. PAINTS 5 Understand the aspects of paint manufacturing. 5.1 Define paint. 5.2 Mention the required properties of a good paint. 5.3 Explain the meaning of pigment. 5.4 List the constituents of paint. 5.5 Mention the functions of the paint constituents. 5.6 Explain the general method of manufacture of paint. 5.7 Outline the importance of pigment volume concentration in paint industries. VARNISHES 6 Understand the aspects of varnishes, enamels and lacquers manufacturing. 6.1 State the meaning of varnishes, enamels and lacquers. 6.2 List the raw materials used for the manufacturing of varnishes. 6.3 Mention the uses of varnishes. 6.4 Explain the manufacturing of enamels . 6.5 List the constituents of lacquers. 6.6 Explain the manufacturing of lacquer. 6.7 Mention the uses of lacquer. REFRACTORIES 7 Understand the aspects of manufacturing refractory products. 7.1 Define refractories. 7.2 Mention the properties of refractories. 7.3 Explain the manufacturing of clay refractories. 7.4 Write the uses of fire bricks. 7.5 Explain the manufacturing of silica bricks. 7.6 Explain the manufacturing of magnesite brick. 7.7 Explain the manufacturing of chromite brick. 7.8 Write the uses of silica bricks, magnesite bricks and chromite bricks. INSULATING MATERIALS 8 Understand the aspects of manufacturing insulating materials. 8.1 Define insulating materials. 8.2 Mention the characteristics of an ideal insulator. 8.3 Identify the heat insulating materials. 8.4 Identify the sound insulating materials. 8.5 Identify the electrical insulating materials. 69 8.6 8.7 Explain the manufacturing of glass wool. Explain the manufacturing of thermocole. ABRASIVES 9 Understand the aspects of manufacturing abrasive products. 9.1 Define abrasives. 9.2 Mention the properties of abrasives. 9.3 List ten important abrasives. 9.4 Explain the preparation of silicon carbide (SiC), fused alumina (Al2O3) and boron carbide (B4C). 9.5 Explain the manufacturing of grinding wheels. 9.6 List the uses of silicon carbide, fused alumina and boron carbide. LEATHER PROCESSING 10 Understand the aspects of leather processing. 10.1 Define tanning. 10.2 Explain the vegetable tanning process for the manufacture of finished leather. 10.3 Explain the chrome tanning process with flow chart for the manufacturing of finished leather. 11 Understand the aspects of glue and gelatine manufacturing. 11.1 Define glue and gelatine. 11.2 Explain the manufacturing of glue. 11.3 Explain the manufacturing of gelatine. Practical : 1. Determine the temporary hardness of water. 2. Determine the permanent hardness of water. 3. Treat the hard water by lime-soda process. 4. Treat the water by Zeolite process. 5. Treat the drinking water by filtration and sterilization process. 6. Prepare the distemper. 7. Prepare the white, red and black enamel paint. 8. Prepare the light green and line blue distemper. 9. Prepare the wood varnish. 10. Prepare the sample of glue. REFERENCE BOOKS 1 2 3 4 Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries − George T. Austin Dryden’s Outlines of Chemical Technology − M. Gopala Rao and Marshall Sitting Industrial Chemistry (Vol I & II) − R.K. Das Modern Applied Chemistry − A.N. Zamre, V.G. Ratolikar 70 2746 AIMS • • • • • • ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND MACHINES T 2 P C 3 3 To provide understanding and skill on AC circuits. To develop concept on polyphase system. To familiarize with the construction and operating principle of transformer. To develop understanding on the principles of DC motor. To develop knowledge and skill on 3-phase and 1-phase induction motor. To develop understanding on the principle of synchronous motor. SHORT DESCRIPTION Complex algebra − application to AC circuits; RLC series and parallel circuits; Polyphase system; Star and delta connection; Transformer; Rotating electrical machines; DC motor; 3-phase induction motor; 1-phase induction motor; Synchronous motor. DETAIL DESCRIPTION Theory : 1 Understand the application of complex algebra to AC circuit. 1.1 Describe the notations of rectangular co-ordinate system for multiplication and division of complex algebra. 1.2 Describe the form of notation of polar co-ordinate system for multiplication and division of complex algebra. 1.3 Solve problems on RLC series circuit in rectangular co-ordinate system and polar co-ordinate system. 1.4 Draw vector diagram of RLC series circuit. 1.5 Compute the results of RLC parallel circuit in cartesian from of notation and polar form. 1.6 Draw vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit. 1.7 Compute the results of series parallel AC circuit in cartesian form of notation & polar form. 1.8 Solve problems on series parallel AC circuit in cartesian form of notation and polar form. 2 Understand the application of complex algebra for power calculation. 2.1 Calculate power employing complex form. 2.2 Calculate VAR employing complex form. 2.3 Describe the conjugate method of calculating real power. 71 2.4 Describe the conjugate method of calculating reactive power. POLYPHASE SYSTEM 3 Understand the concept of poly-phase system. 3.1 State the term poly-phase system. 3.2 List the advantages of poly-phase system over single phase system. 3.3 State the generation of poly-phase emf. 3.4 Sketch the phase voltage wave diagram. 3.5 Identify the phase sequence of poly-phase system. 3.6 State the effects of reverse phase sequence. 3.7 Explain the methods of checking phase sequence. 3.8 Sketch the phase sequence diagram of 3-phase voltage. 4 Apply the concept of polyphase for interconnection. 4.1 Write down possible ways of interconnection of three phase system. 4.2 Draw the circuit diagram of star connected 3-phase, 3-wire system. 4.3 List the application of 3-phase, 3-wire, star connected system. 4.4 Sketch 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system. 4.5 List application of 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system. 4.6 Draw the vector diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system. 4.7 Interpret the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 3-wire, star connection system. 4.8 Simplify the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system. 5 Understand the function of 3-phase star connection system. 5.1 Identify neutral wire in a 3-phase star connection system. 5.2 Evaluate the current in the neutral wire in an unbalanced 3-phase, 4wire, star connected system. 5.3 Draw the phasor diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire star connected system. 5.4 Discuss the formula IL = IP and VL = 3 Vp 5.5 Calculate volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3phase, 4-wire star connected system. 5.6 Solve problems on star connected (balanced and unbalanced) power system. 6 Understand the features of 3-phase delta connection system. 6.1 Draw the circuit diagram of a 3-phase delta connected system. 6.2 Draw the phasor diagram of delta connected system. 3 IP for 6.3 Express the deduction of the formula VL = VP and IL = connected system. 6.4 Simplify the relation between line and phase current & voltage in a balanced delta connected system. 6.5 Calculate the volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3phase, delta connected system. 72 6.6 6.7 Solve problems on delta connected balanced system. Compare the advantages of star connected system with those of delta connected system. TRANSFORMER 7 Understand the principle of operation of transformer. 7.1 Define transformer. 7.2 Explain the working principle of transformer. 7.3 Explain the emf equation of a transformer. 7.4 Solve problems relating to emf equation of transformer. 8 Understand the constructional features of transformer. 8.1 Describe the constructional features of transformer. 8.2 Identify different types of transformer. 8.3 List the uses of transformer. 8.4 Explain transformation ratio (voltage, current and turns). 8.5 Solve problems on transformation ratio. 9 Understand the concept of losses, efficiency and voltage regulation of transformer. 9.1 Explain different losses in transformer. 9.2 Explain the factors affecting core loss and copper loss. 9.3 Explain the equation for maximum efficiency. 9.4 Solve problems on efficiency and maximum efficiency. 9.5 Explain the equation for voltage regulation of transformer. 9.6 Solve problems on voltage regulation of transformer. ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINE 10 Understand the principle of rotating electrical machines. 10.1 Describe the principle of electromechanical energy conversion. 10.2 Explain the torque due to alignment of magnetic field and torque angle. 10.3 Describe electromotive force. 10.4 Explain the principle of motor action and generator action of rotating electrical machines. 10.5 Explain the essential points of difference between motor action and generator action. DC MOTOR 11 Understand the principle of DC motor. 11.1 Explain the working principle of DC motor. 11.2 Explain generator action of motor. 11.3 Explain the term torque, running torque and break down torque. 73 11.4 11.5 11.6 12 Explain the torque equation of motor. Describe the constructional features of DC motor. Explain the function of commutator. Understand the characteristics of DC motor. 12.1 Identify different types of DC motor. 12.2 Explain the performance characteristics of different types of DC motor. 12.3 Describe starting methods of DC motor. 12.4 Describe speed control of DC motor. INDUCTION MOTOR 13 Understand the principle of induction motor. 13.1 Explain the general principle of induction motor. 13.2 Distinguish between the principles of induction motor and conduction motor. 13.3 Define sleep and sleep speed. 13.4 Identify the types of induction motor. 13.5 List the uses of induction motor. THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 14 Understand the working principle of 3-phase induction motor. 14.1 Explain the construction of 3-phase induction motor. 14.2 Explain the construction of squirrel case induction motor. 14.3 Explain the construction of wound rotor induction motor. 14.4 State the production of rotating magnetic field in a 3-phase induction motor. 14.5 Describe the methods of starting 3-phase induction motor. 14.6 State the principles of speed control of 3-phase induction motor. SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR 15 Understand the working principle of 1-phase induction motor. 15.1 Explain working principle of 1-phase induction motor. 15.2 Mention the methods of single phase motor self starting. 15.3 Describe the principles of operation of standard split phase motor. 15.4 Describe the principles of operation of capacitor motor. 15.5 Describe the principles of operation of shaded pole motor and repulsion motor. 15.6 Identify hysteresis motor, universal motor, reluctance motor and AC series motor. 15.7 Mention the methods of speed control of single phase induction motor. 74 SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 16 Understand the working principle of synchronous motor. 16.1 Explain the principle of operation of synchronous generator and synchronous motor. 16.2 Describe the constructional features of synchronous motor. 16.3 Describe the starting methods of synchronous motor. 16.4 State the characteristics of synchronous motor. 16.5 List the application of synchronous motor. Practical : 1 Determine the value of resistance, inductance & capacitance and draw vector diagram of RLC series circuit. 1.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC series circuit. 1.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 1.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram. 1.4 Check all connection points before energizing the circuit. 1.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit. 1.6 Find the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data. 1.7 Verify the impressed voltage is equal to the vector sum of voltage drops in each parameter. 1.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the help of relevant data as obtained. 2 Determine the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and draw the vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit. 2.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC parallel circuit. 2.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 2.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram. 2.4 Check all connection points before energize the circuit. 2.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit. 2.6 Find the value of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data. 2.7 Verify the line current is equal to the vector sum of branch currents. 2.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the relevant data as obtained. 3 Demonstrate poly-phase power system and identify phase sequence. 3.1 Sketch the circuit diagram of a poly-phase power system showing phase sequence. 3.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 3.3 Study and connect the poly-phase system. 75 3.4 3.5 3.6 Observe the voltages by voltmeter. Observe the phase voltages by oscilloscope. Compute phase sequence. 4 Measure line and phase voltage & current in a 3-phase star connected inductive load. 4.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase star connected load. 4.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 4.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram 4.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply. 4.5 Record the readings of instruments. 4.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values. 4.7 Note down the observations remarks. 5 Measure line and phase current & voltage in 3-phase delta connected inductive load. 5.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase delta connected load. 5.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 5.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram. 5.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply. 5.5 Record the readings of the instruments. 5.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values. 5.7 Note down the observations. 6 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase star connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram. 6.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3 watt meters of a 3-phase system. 6.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 6.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram. 6.4 Check all connection points and equipment & instruments before actual operation. 6.5 Record the readings from the meters in the circuit. 6.6 Calculate the power from the formula Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and 3VpIp Cos θ 6.7 Draw the vector diagram using relevant data as obtained. 6.8 Note down the observations. 7 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase delta connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram. 7.1 Draw the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3-watt meter method of 3-phase delta connected load. 7.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment. 76 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram. Check all connections, equipment and instruments before actual operation. Record the reading from the meters used in the circuit. Calculate the power from the formula Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and Pt = 3 VILLLI Cosθ Draw the vector diagram using obtained data. Note down the observations. 8 Find the transformation ratio of a transformer. 8.1 Develop a circuit to perform the experiment. 8.2 Select required equipment and materials. 8.3 Connect the components according to the circuit diagram. 8.4 Check the connections. 8.5 Record the primary (EP) and secondary (ES) voltages. 8.6 Calculate the transformation ratio using the relation ES NS EP = NP = K 8.7 Note down the observations. 9 Perform open circuit test of a single phase transformer. 9.1 Select the circuit diagram for the experiment. 9.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials. 9.3 Connect all the equipment according to the circuit diagram. 9.4 Connect the low side to its rated voltage to the power supply keeping high side open. 9.5 Record instrument readings. 9.6 Calculate required data. 9.7 Draw no load vector diagram with the data obtained. 9.8 Note down the observations. 10 Perform short circuit test of a single phase transformer. 10.1 Select the required circuit diagram for the experiment. 10.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials. 10.3 Connect the equipment according to the circuit diagram. 10.4 Energize the circuit by applying reduced voltage. 10.5 Record copper loss and calculate R′e , X′e and Z′e. 10.6 Note down the observations. 11 Construct load versus speed characteristic curve of DC shunt motor. 11.1 Draw the required circuit diagram for the experiment. 11.2 Select the instrument and materials required. 11.3 Connect all the instrument’s according to diagram. 11.4 Take the necessary data from the connected instruments. 77 11.5 11.6 Draw the required curve. Note down the observations. 12 Study the components/parts of a 3-phase induction motor. 12.1 Prepare a list of the parts of a 3-phase induction motor. 12.2 Dismantle the components/parts of the motor. 12.3 Develop sketches of each part. 12.4 Sketch the developed diagram of the windings of the motor. 12.5 Assemble the dismantled parts. 12.6 Note down the observations. 13 Operate a 3-phase induction motor. 13.1 Sketch the circuit diagram. 13.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials. 13.3 Connect starter with motor. 13.4 Connect power supply to the circuit. 13.5 Observe the operation. 13.6 Measure the speed of the rotor. 13.7 Note down the observations. 14 Start a 1-phase capacitor type motor/ceiling fan with regulator. 14.1 Select the equipment and tools required for the experiment. 14.2 Sketch a working diagram. 14.3 Identify the two sets of coils. 14.4 Connect the capacitor with the proper set of coil. 14.5 Connect power supply to the fan motor. 14.6 Test the rotation of the motor opposite direction by changing the capacitor connection. 14.7 Note down the observations. 15 Operate a synchronous motor by changing field excitation. 15.1 Select required equipment, tools, machine and materials. 15.2 Sketch the circuit diagram. 15.3 Connect the instrument according to the diagram. 15.4 Check the circuit. 15.5 Change the field excitation. 15.6 Record armature and field current. 15.7 Draw the ‘V’ curve. 15.8 Note down the observations. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Electrical Technology − 2. Electrical Machine B. L. Theraja − Siskind 78 2621 SPREADSHEET ANALYSIS T 0 P C 3 1 AIMS • To provide skill on spreadsheet applications. • To develop skill on database management. • To develop skill in creating graphs. SHORT DESCRIPTION Spreadsheet fundamentals; Applications of spreadsheet; Using worksheet; Apply formula and functions in worksheet; Database management, Creating & printing graphs; Create simple macros. DETAIL DESCRIPTION [ THE FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTS ARE GIVEN IN IBM COMPUTERS. SIMILAR EXPERIMENTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE PERFORMED IN APPLE MACINTOSH COMPUTERS ] 1. Apply the basic skills of a spreadsheet software package 1.1. Run a spreadsheet software package. 1.2. Identify and use different areas (working area, border area, control panel, mode indicator, status indicator, date & time indicator) of the worksheet screen. 1.3. Identify the function of different keys (typing key, calculator key, text key, cursor key and function key, etc.) of the keyboard. 1.4. Move around the worksheet using keys and combination of key. 1.5. Identify and use the on-screen help facility. 1.6. Identify and use the types of data, numbers, labels and formula. 1.7. Discover menus, submenus, pop-up menu, etc. 2. Manage workbooks and windows. 2.1. Make and use workbooks. 2.2. Access different types of files. 2.3. Open files as read only. 2.4. Demonstrate the options for saving files. 2.5. Display a workbook in more than one window 2.6. Work with more than one workbook. 2.7. Close a workbook. 79 3. Create a worksheet and use simple commands. 3.1. Activate entries in a worksheet. 3.2. Use edit key (F2) to correct or to modify entries. 3.3. Activate the command menus and select commands. 3.4. Save the work sheet. 3.5. Exit from spreadsheet and return to DOS. 3.6. Retrieve a previously saved worksheet. 3.7. Modify the worksheet. 3.8. Save a modified worksheet. 3.9. Print the worksheet. 4. Apply formulae and functions. 4.1. Use simple formulae to solve arithmetical computation. 4.2. Use arithmetical operators in formulae and logical formulae. 4.3. Edit formulae. 4.4. Use mathematical functions to solve simple equations. 4.5. Change the evaluation order. 4.6. Control the worksheet calculation. 5. Solve engineering problems using formula and functions. 5.1. Use mathematical functions to compute trigonometric values, absolute values, random number, square root, logarithmic values, etc for solving engineering problems. 5.2. Use logical functions to perform an operation depending on a condition in engineering problem. 5.3. Use statistical functions to compute summation, average, minimum value, maximum value, etc in engineering problem. 6. Show skill in using templates. 6.1. Open new files based on templates. 6.2. Make and use workbook templates. 6.3. Make changes in existing workbook templates. 6.4. Validate numbers, dates, times & text. 6.5. Show custom validation. 7. Work with cell addresses and cell ranges. 7.1. Use GOTO key to move the cell pointer to a particular cell. 7.2. Use the ABSOLUTE KEY to change cell addresses from one form to another in formulae or in functions. 7.3. Enter range in formulae or in functions by typing directly or by using cell pointer. 7.4. Produce a named range. 7.5. Use named range in formulae or functions. 80 7.6. 7.7. 7.8. Copy cell ranges (one to one, one to many and many to many) with special attention for copying formulae and functions. Move cell ranges. Erase cell ranges. 8. Format a worksheet. 8.1. Change the width of a column, a range of column, and change the columns width globally. 8.2. Insert blank columns and blank rows in a worksheet. 8.3. Delete columns and blank rows in a worksheet. 8.4. Format the display of data of a worksheet globally or by referring a range of cells (e.g. currency format, exponential format, comma format, etc.). 8.5. Format the display of date and time of a worksheet globally or referring a range of cells. 8.6. Protect worksheet functions, formulae/important text and unprotect a range for entering entries. 8.7. Work with window for viewing a worksheet in different ways and freeze rows or columns to use them as titles. 8.8. produce, change and delete a style. 9. Exercise on setting up worksheet for printing. 9.1. Show the look of printed pages. 9.2. Change or adjust margins. 9.3. Produce and use page headers of footers. 9.4. Set print area, print titles and different print options. 9.5. Print sections of a worksheet formulae and few pages. 9.6. Print ranges from different worksheets on the same pages. 10. Solve simultaneous linear equations using matrix multiplication. 10.1. Multiply two matrices. 10.2. Compute the inverse of a matrix. 10.3. Solve simultaneous equations (from 2 to 5 equations) with the help of matrix applied in engineering subjects). DATABASE MANAGEMENT 11. Use database management. 11.1. produce a database program. 11.2. Sort a database in different ways. 11.3. Search a record from the database using a search criteria. 11.4. Extract records from the database that match a given criteria. 11.5. Delete records that match a given criteria from the database using available database commands. 81 CREATING & PRINTING GRAPHS 12. Create graphs. 12.1. Produce bar, line, X-Y and pie graphs. 12.2. Add color, titles, legend, grid and data levels to the graph. 12.3. Add visual impact with colors. 12.4. Produce linked pictures. 12.5. Save the graphs and assign names to different graphs of a single worksheet. 13. Print graphs. 13.1. 13.2. 13.3. Print graphs (low or high quality graphs). Plot graphs using a plotter using different colors. Change graphs size, print & plot them. MACROS & MACRO COMMAND LANGUAGES 14. Create macros. 14.1. Produce simple macros (e.g. to change the width of a cell, to format a cell display, to erase a range of cells, etc.) using keystroke commands. 15. Create macros using macro command languages. 15.1. Produce a macro to convert values into labels and vice versa. 15.2. Produce a macro for inserting alternate blank rows between two rows of data in a worksheet. 15.3. produce a macro for deleting the inserted blank rows in a worksheet. 82 1441 APPLIED MATHEMATICS − I T P 2 C 3 3 AIMS • • • • • To enable to solve the simultaneous equations with the help of matrix. To make understand the basic concept and techniques of composition and resolution of vectors and computing the resultant of vectors. To enable to apply knowledge of differential calculus in solving minimum cost of production, maximum bending moment, rate of flow of liquids, efficiency when motor does maximum work. To enable to apply the process of integration in solving practical problems like calculation of area of regular figures in two dimensions and volumes of regular solids of different shapes. To enable to use the knowledge of differential equations to solve problems of SHM, fluid mechanics, strength of materials, work, energy, power, impedance and reactance. SHORT DESCRIPTION Algebra : Matrix. Trigonometry : De Moiver’s theorem. Geometry: Three dimensional rectangular co-ordinate system and plane. Vector : Addition and subtraction, dot product and cross product. Calculus : Expansion of function by Maclaurin’s and Taylor’s Theorem, tangent and normal, maximum and minimum, application of integration for finding area and volume. Differential Equations: First order and first degree differential equations, Fourier’s series . ALGEBRA 1 Solve simultaneous equations with the help of matrix. 1.1 Define matrix, null matrix, unit matrix, square matrix, column matrix, row matrix, inverse matrix, transpose matrix, adjoin matrix, rank of a matrix, singular matrix. 1.2 Explain equality, addition and multiplication of matrix. 1.3 Find the rank of a matrix. 1.4 Solve the problems of the following types : i) Solve the given set of linear equations with the help of matrix. 83 ii) Find transpose and adjoin matrix of a given matrix. TRIGONOMETRY 2 Apply De Moiver’s theorem to solve the problems linking with the complex roots. 2.1 State and prove De Moiver’s theorem for positive, negative and fractional index. 2.2 Find the complex roots applying De Moiver’s theorem of the type: i) x7 + 1 = 0, ii) (1 + i ) 3 GEOMETRY 3 Understand three dimensional co-ordinate system. 3.1 Discuss the co-ordinate axes (three dimensional). 3.2 Find the distance between two points whose co-ordinates are given. 3.3 Find the co-ordinates of a point dividing the join of two points in a given ratio. 3.4 Explain direction cosines and direction ratios . 3.5 Define orthogonal projection . 3.6 Find the projection of two points on a line. 3.7 Find the angle between two lines. 3.8 Find the condition of perpendicularity and condition of parallelism. 3.9 Find the area of a triangle. 3.10 Solve the problems involving 3.2 to 3.8 1 4 Understand the plane. 4.1 Define the plane. 4.2 Show that the general equation of first degree in x, y, z represents a plane. 4.3 Reduce the general equation of the plane in the intercept and normal form. 4.4 Find the equation of the plane through three given points. 4.5 Find the angles between two planes whose equations are given. 4.6 Find the length of the perpendicular from a point to a given plane. 4.7 Solve the problems related to plane and it’s equations. VECTOR 5 Apply the theorems of vector algebra. 5.1 Define scalar and vector. 5.2 Explain null vector, free vector, like vector, equal vector, collinear vector, unit vector, position vector, addition and subtraction of vectors, 84 5.3 5.4 5.5 6 linear combination, direction cosines and direction ratios, dependent and independent vectors, scalar field and vector field. Prove the laws of vector algebra. Resolve a vector in space along three mutually perpendicular directions . Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of vectors. Apply the concept of dot product and cross product of vectors. 6.1 Define dot product and cross product of vectors. 6.2 Interpret dot product and cross product of vector geometrically. 6.3 Deduce the condition of parallelism and perpendicularity of two vectors. 6.4 Prove the distributive law of dot product and cross product of vector. 6.5 Explain the scalar triple product and vector triple product. 6.6 Solve problems involving dot product and cross product. CALCULUS 7 Apply Maclaurin’s Theorem and Tailor’s Theorem to expand function. 7.1 State Maclaurin’s and Tailor’s theorem. 7.2 Expand the function of the following types by Maclaurin’s Theorem and Tailor’s theorem : ln(1+x), sinx, cosx, etc. 8 Apply the concept of tangent and normal to a curve in solving problems. 8.1 Deduce the equation of tangent and normal in the form: dy dy i) Y - y = dx (X - x) ii) (X - x) + (Y - y) dx =0 8.2 Find the formula for angle between two curves. 8.3 Define sub-tangent and sub-normal. 8.4 Find the length of sub-tangent and sub-normal . 8.5 Solve the problems involving tangent, normal, sub-tangent and subnormal. 9 Apply the knowledge of derivatives in finding the maximum and minimum values of a function. 9.1 Define increasing and decreasing function . 9.2 Understand the maximum and minimum values of a function. 9.3 Discuss the working rule to find the maximum and minimum values of a function. 9.4 Solve the problems involving maximum and minimum values. 85 10 Apply the concept of integration to find out area and volume. 10.1 Find the area between two lines. 10.2 Find the area i) of a circle ii) Bounded by parabola y 2 = 4ax and any double ordinate. x2 y2 iii) of quadrant of the ellipse a2 + b2 =1 between major and minor axes. 10.3 Find the volume of a sphere of certain radius. 10.4 Solve the problems of areas and volumes by integration. 11. Understand differential equation of first order and first degree. 11.1 Define order and degree of differential equation. 11.2 Solve the following forms of differential equations. i) Variable separable. ii) Homogeneous equation. iii) Exact equations. iv) Linear equations. 12. Understand Fourier's theorem. 12.1 State Fourier's theorem in the form y=f(x)=Ao+A1sinx+A2sin2x+.........+Ansinnx +B1cosx+B2cos2x+........+Bncosnx. 12.2 Determine the co-efficient of Fourier's series. 12.3 Find the Fourier's series for square wave form and saw-tooth wave form. 12.4 Solve simple problems using Fourier's series.
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