European Journal of Neurology 2006, 13: 1049–1065 doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01410.x EFNS TASK FORCE ARTICLE EFNS guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in sleep L. Vignatellia, M. Billiardb, P. Clarenbachc, D. Garcia-Borreguerod, D. Kaynake, V. Liesienef, C. Trenkwalderg and P. Montagnaa a Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna Medical School, Bologna, Italy; bFaculty of Medicine, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, France; cNeurologische Klinik, EV Johannes-Krankenhaus, Bielefeld, Germany; dDepartment of Neurology, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Sleep Disorders Unit, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; eCerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Sleep Disorders Unit, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; fFaculty of Medicine, University of Kaunas, Kaunas, Lithuania; and gDepartment of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany Keywords: benzodiazepines, dopaminergics, drugs guidelines, periodic limb movement disorder, Restless legs syndrome Received 30 September 2005 Accepted 3 October 2005 In 2003, the EFNS Task Force was set up for putting forth guidelines for the management of the Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and the Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD). After determining the objectives for management and the search strategy for primary and secondary RLS and for PLMD, a review of the scientiﬁc literature up to 2004 was performed for the drug classes and interventions employed in treatment (drugs acting on the adrenoreceptor, antiepileptic drugs, benzodiazepines/ hypnotics, dopaminergic agents, opioids, other treatments). Previous guidelines were consulted. All trials were analysed according to class of evidence, and recommendations formed according to the 2004 EFNS criteria for rating. Dopaminergic agents came out as having the best evidence for eﬃcacy in primary RLS. Reported adverse events were usually mild and reversible; augmentation was a feature with dopaminergic agents. No controlled trials were available for RLS in children and for RLS during pregnancy. The following level A recommendations can be oﬀered: for primary RLS, cabergoline, gabapentin, pergolide, ropinirole, levodopa and rotigotine by transdermal delivery (the latter two for short-term use) are eﬀective in relieving the symptoms. Transdermal oestradiol is ineﬀective for PLMD. Background Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) was ﬁrst identiﬁed by Willis  and reviewed in full monographic form by Ekbom . Accordingly, it is also termed ÔEkbom syndromeÕ. RLS is also known as Ôanxietas tibiarumÕ and by the colloquial term Ôleg jittersÕ. RLS has a signiﬁcant motor counterpart in the form of recurrent jerking movements termed Ôperiodic limb movements in sleepÕ (PLMS, formerly Ônocturnal myoclonusÕ and Ôperiodic leg movements in sleepÕ). Even though PLMS may occur independently from RLS as an incidental polysomnographic ﬁnding, the International Classiﬁcation of Sleep Disorders recognizes the ÔPeriodic Limb Movement DisorderÕ (PLMD) because of its potential impact on sleep quality and a possible source of excessive daytime sleepiness, particularly when PLMS are associated with arousals (PLMS-A) . PLMS/ Correspondence: Prof. Pasquale Montagna, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Universita` di Bologna, Via Ugo Foscolo 7, 40123 Bologna, Italy (tel.: ++39 051 2092927; fax: ++39 051 2092963; e-mail: [email protected]). 2006 EFNS PLMD severity is assessed by the PLMS Index (PLMSI: PLMS per hour of polysomnographic recording). The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group has proposed four minimal clinical diagnostic criteria for RLS  revised in 2003 : (i) an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs; (ii) the urge to move or unpleasant sensations begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying or sitting; (iii) the urge to move or unpleasant sensations are partially or totally relieved by movement, such as walking or stretching, at least as long as the activity continues; (iv) the urge to move or unpleasant sensations are worse in the evening or night than during the day or only occur in the evening or night. Severity is measured on the International RLS rating scale which has 10 questions for disease severity . An RLS Quality of Life Instrument measuring quality of life has been recently validated . RLS may be either primary or secondary . Primary RLS often represents a familial disorder. RLS may also be secondary to other pathological conditions, in particular 1049 1050 L. Vignatelli et al. peripheral neuropathies, myelopathies, uraemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, iron deﬁciency, attention-deﬁcit hyperactivity disorder in children, and pregnancy. Dysfunction of the endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems has been implicated in RLS principally based on the favourable eﬀects of pharmacological interventions. The evidence for a central dopaminergic defect is still controversial. A role for iron and iron storage in the pathophysiology has also been derived from studies on iron metabolism in RLS. The goal of therapy for RLS and PLMD is to control the symptoms. The aim of this guideline is to examine the best evidence available on the eﬀectiveness of any treatment in these disorders. Objectives To determine the eﬀectiveness and maintained eﬀect of drugs and physical interventions in the treatment of RLS and PLMD, the following hypotheses were tested: 1. Any drugs are more eﬀective than no treatment or treatment with placebo: a. in abolishing or reducing the occurrence of RLS and PLMD; b. in improving the quality of life. 2. One class or one molecule is better than another. 3. Any physical intervention is more eﬀective than no treatment or treatment with placebo: a. in abolishing or reducing the occurrence of RLS and PLMD; b. in improving the quality of life. 4. The side-eﬀects of the class or molecules and of the physical treatments proved to be eﬀective do not exceed the therapeutic eﬀects. Methods and search strategy The best available evidence to address each question was sought, with the classiﬁcation scheme by type of study design according to the EFNS Guidance document (Class I to Class IV evidence, ). If the highest class of evidence was not suﬃcient or required updating the literature search was extended to the lower adjacent class of evidence. Patients with RLS and/or PLMD, with any other comorbidity and co-treatment were considered. Explicit diagnostic criteria of RLS were not required for inclusion. Therapies with any kind of drugs (any dose, any regimen) and with any kind of physical intervention were included. The following classes of drugs were considered: drugs acting on the adrenoreceptor, antiepileptic drugs, benzodiazepines/ hypnotics, dopaminergic agents (levodopa, ergot- and non-ergot-derived dopaminergics), opioids, other treatments. The duration of treatment in every study was divided into short term (£30 days) or long term (>30 days). For RLS, types of outcome measures were the following domains: 1. paraesthesia/dysaesthesia, or pain (by simple subjective report or subjective validated scales/questionnaires). 2. Polysomnographic indexes of sleep dysfunction (mean PLMS-I in sleep, mean PLMS-A, sleep eﬃciency, sleep latency, actigraphic activity in sleep). 3. Quality of life. 4. Adverse events; augmentation eﬀect, deﬁned as Ômarkedly augmented RLS symptoms occurring in the afternoon and the evening prior to the taking the next nightly doseÕ was rated amongst adverse events at the latest follow-up. 5. Drop-outs. 6. Rate of patients choosing to remain in treatment after completion of trial. For PLMD, the outcomes belonged to the following domains: 1. Polysomnographic indexes of sleep dysfunction. 2. Quality of life. 3. Adverse events. 4. Drop-outs. In the strategy for identiﬁcation of studies, search terms were generated for searching the following electronic databases (see Table S1 on the website): Cochrane Library, National Library of Medicine’s MEDLINE (from 1966), EMBASE (from 1980), CINAHL (from 1982). Existing guidelines were also sought and taken into consideration. All references until the end of 2004 were reviewed to assess potentially relevant studies for inclusion, and data extraction performed. For every key question, an evidence table was created listing the design and methodological classiﬁcation of each study. For forming guideline recommendations, the volume of evidence, applicability, generalizability, consistency and clinical impact, were summarized by every member of the Task Force. Classes of evidence and rating levels of recommendations were attributed according to the EFNS Task Force Guidance . Disagreement was resolved by discussion. Finally, every member of the guideline group had to declare a potential conﬂict of interest, if any. Results Class I to III studies are reported here, and are referenced in Table S2 (placed on the website). Class IV studies were also considered, but are only referenced in Table S3 (placed on the website). 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS Drugs acting on the adrenoreceptor Fifteen reports concerned the use of drugs acting on the adrenoreceptor (clonidine, phenoxybenzamine, propranolol, talipexole). In primary RLS, in a class II study , clonidine (mean dosage 0.5 mg 2 h before onset of symptoms) for 2–3 weeks, improved paraesthesia and motor restlessness (1.6 and 1.7 points respectively of a non-validated scale) and sleep latency (35.5 min) but PLMS-I, PLMS-A, actigraphy and sleep eﬃciency were left unchanged. Adverse events (dry mouth, decreased cognition, constipation, decreased libido, lightheadedness, sleepiness, headache) during clonidine did not lead to drop-outs. There is a class III evidence  that talipexole (an agonist both at dopamine D2 and adrenergic a-2 autoreceptors) 0.4–0.8 mg at bedtime improved symptoms and sleep eﬃciency and reduced PLMS-I and PLMS-A. In secondary RLS there is a class III evidence  that 0.075 mg clonidine twice daily, showed decrease/ relief of symptoms in nine of 10 compared with one of 10 patients treated with placebo, at 3 days, in chronic uraemia. Recommendations Clonidine is probably eﬀective in reducing symptoms and sleep latency in primary RLS at short term (level B rating). Clonidine had several but tolerated adverse events (dry mouth, decreased cognition and libido, lightheadedness, sleepiness, headache) (level B). There is no suﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about talipexole, propranolol and phenoxybenzamine, and about clonidine in secondary RLS. Antiepileptic drugs Twenty-two reports concerned the use of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, valproate). In primary RLS, there is class II evidence  that carbamazepine 100–300 mg (median dose 236 mg) at bedtime improved the frequency of RLS symptoms reducing attacks from a mean of 2.9 to 1.5 per week in a long-term (5 weeks) trial. Adverse events were reported as Ônot seriousÕ in 34 of 84 patients versus 20 of 90 patients with placebo. Another class II evidence  reported a beneﬁcial eﬀect of carbamazepine with respect to placebo, but without calculation of statistical signiﬁcance. There is class I evidence  that gabapentin at the dose of 1800 mg daily (one-third of total dosage at 12.00 hours and two-thirds at 20.00 hours) versus placebo reduced RLS symptoms by 8.4 points according to the RLS Rating Scale, improved sleep eﬃciency by 9.8% and reduced PLMS-I by 9.8 events, at 6 weeks. Adverse events were more frequent 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 1051 with gabapentin (48% vs. 20.8%), and commonly included malaise, somnolence, and gastrointestinal symptoms. No adverse events lead to discontinuation of treatment. Class III evidence trials with gabapentin [16–19] reported an improvement in RLS symptoms at long-term follow-up (6–18 months) with minor adverse events (dizziness, drowsiness, enhanced alcohol eﬀect and headache). In a class II evidence trial with 20 patients , valproate slow release at an average dose of 600 mg versus placebo signiﬁcantly reduced RLS symptom intensity by 1.7 points according to a non-validated scale, and RLS symptom duration by 92.3 min/24 h, but not PLMS-I and PLMS-A, at 3 weeks. Most commonly reported adverse event was drowsiness. In secondary RLS in haemodialysis patients, there is class II evidence  that gabapentin at a dose of 200/ 300 mg after each haemodialysis session versus placebo reduced RLS symptoms by 2.8 points, according to a non-validated scale, at 6 weeks. Two patients dropped out for somnolence and lethargy under gabapentin. In a class III study , subjects with secondary RLS and heroin abuse during rapid opiate detoxiﬁcation had symptoms reduced by 2.0 points in a non-validated scale at 1 h, after taking gabapentin at the dose of 1200 mg. Recommendations Gabapentin, at 800–1800 mg/day can be considered eﬀective in primary RLS (level A rating) and probably eﬀective in secondary RLS after haemodialysis (level B). Adverse events were usually mild and reversible. Carbamazepine 100–300 mg and valproate slow release at 600 mg/day can be recommended as probably eﬀective in primary RLS (level B). There is insuﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about topiramate and lamotrigine, and about the use of antiepileptic drugs in PLMD. Benzodiazepines/hypnotics A total of 36 reports concern the use of benzodiazepines/hypnotics (alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam and zolpidem). For primary RLS, there is conﬂicting class II evidence [23,24] that clonazepam 0.5–2 mg did or did not signiﬁcantly eliminate/reduce paraesthesia/dysaesthesia compared with placebo (a discrepancy possibly related to diﬀerent administration schedules: before bedtime versus four doses/throughout the day). As for polysomnographic indices, only a 14% improvement in sleep eﬃciency was reported in a class III short-term trial with clonazepam 1 mg at bedtime . In a class II 1052 L. Vignatelli et al. trial , clonazepam 1 mg at bedtime improved subjective sleep quality. Adverse events were absent in one class II study but daily sleepiness was found in three patients (out of six) versus one on placebo in another class II study of clonazepam 0.5–2 mg four doses throughout the day . For PLMD, there is class II evidence that clonazepam, 1 mg was not more eﬀective than temazepam 30 mg  and that clonazepam 0.5–1.5 mg was not more eﬀective than cognitive-behavioural therapy . Several class III trials show that clonazepam 0.5–2 mg at bedtime decreased the PLMS-I and sometimes the PLMS-A [26,28–31]. Adverse events with clonazepam 0.5 mg at bedtime were increased anxiety leading to drop-out in one of six patient (, class II trial), and somnolence or dizziness in two with one drop-out of 10 patients (, class III trial). There are two class II studies that triazolam (0.125–0.50 mg) improved sleep eﬃciency and daytime sleepiness without any eﬀect on PLMS at short-term follow-up [32,33]. There are single class III trials that temazepam (30 mg)  and nitrazepam (2.5–10 mg)  improved sleep eﬃciency, sleep latency, and PLMS-I. Recommendations Clonazepam should be considered as probably eﬀective for improving symptoms in primary RLS when given at 1 mg before bedtime, but also probably ineﬀective when given at four doses throughout the day (level B rating). In PLMD, clonazepam at 0.5–2 mg/daily is probably eﬀective in ameliorating PLMS-I and PLMSA (level B) and triazolam (0.125–0.50 mg/day) is probably eﬀective in ameliorating sleep eﬃciency and probably ineﬀective in reducing PLMS (level B). Adverse events with benzodiazepines (morning sedation, memory dysfunction, daytime somnolence and muscle weakness) were usually mild, dose dependent and reversible. There is insuﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about alprazolam, nitrazepam, temazepam and zolpidem. Likewise no recommendation can be oﬀered for benzodiazepines/hypnotics in secondary RLS. Dopaminergic agents Levodopa Fifty-two reports concerned the use of levodopa. For primary RLS, at 4 weeks, there is class I evidence  that levodopa/benserazide in a single bedtime dose (mean: 159/40 mg) versus placebo improved quality of sleep by 0.7 points on a 1–5 point scale, reduced sleep latency by 26 min, improved quality of life, and reduced PLMS-I by 27.8 events per hour. This study did not consider improvement in RLS symptoms as outcome. There are class II studies [20,36–41] that short-term (1 night/4 weeks) levodopa/benserazide in a single bedtime dose (100–200 mg) without or with an extra 100 mg dose 3 h after bedtime reduced RLS symptoms moderately, by 0.5 points on a 4-point scale, 1.9 points on a 10-point scale, and 29.3 points on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The same was not demonstrated in another study. In a class II study of selected RLS patients of rapid release levodopa/benserazide (from 100/25 to 200/50 mg) versus rapid release levodopa/ benserazide plus slow release levodopa/benserazide (100/25 mg) at bedtime, the latter was shown to reduce RLS symptoms in the second half of the night, improve subjective sleep quality and reduce sleep latency . Commonly reported adverse events in these studies were diarrhoea, nausea, dyspepsia, reduced general drive, muscle weakness, somnolence and headache. Worsening or augmentation of RLS were reported in two of 37 and four of 20 patients, or 16.7–26.7% of patients. On long-term (2–24 months), open phase (class III) trials levodopa proved still ÔeﬀectiveÕ in 70.2% of patients, showed satisfaction with therapy in 29–31% of patients and improved RLS symptoms by 6.0–6.5 points in a 7-point scale and reduced perceived sleep latency by 131 min. Drop-outs were many, 30–70% in these series, and augmentation ranged from 18.6% to 82%. For secondary RLS, at short-term follow-up, two class II studies [38,42] evaluated levodopa (plus benserazide or carbidopa) in a single bedtime dose (100– 200 mg) versus placebo in uraemic patients. In one study, RLS symptoms were reduced (0.9 points improvement on a 0- to 10-point scale). PLMS-I and PLMS-A were also reduced and quality of life improved. However, in the study of Walker et al. , only PLMS indexes but not RLS symptoms were improved. For PLMD, there are class II studies of levodopa (plus benserazide or carbidopa; 200 mg at bedtime or 100 mg ﬁve times a day) versus placebo in PLMD with or without RLS , PLMD with narcolepsy  and PLMD in complete spinal lesion patients : PLMS-I and PLMS-A were reduced. Recommendations In primary RLS and at short-term follow-up, levodopa was eﬀective in reducing symptoms of RLS and in improving sleep quality and quality of life and reducing PLMS (level A rating). Adverse events were minor but more frequent than placebo (level A). In long-term follow-up, levodopa was possibly still eﬀective, but 30–70% of patients dropped out because of adverse events or lack of eﬃcacy (level C). Augmentation 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS probably occurred in 20–82% of treated patients, in a still uncertain number of them leading to treatment discontinuation. In RLS secondary to uraemia, at short-term follow-up, levodopa was probably eﬀective in reducing symptoms, improving quality of life and reducing PLMS-I and PLMS-A (level B). In PLMD, at short-term follow-up, levodopa was probably eﬀective in improving PLMS-I and PLMS-A (level B). Ergot derivatives Thirty-nine reports concerned the use of ergot derivatives (a-dihydroergocryptine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, lisuride, pergolide and terguride). In primary RLS, a-dihydroergocryptine 10–40 mg gave subjective reduction of RLS symptoms in a class III study; subjective sleep patterns also improved . Bromocriptine 7.5 mg in a class II study  gave partial subjective improvement in restlessness and paraesthesia in ﬁve of six patients, without relevant adverse side-eﬀects. For cabergoline (0.5, 1 and 2 mg once daily), a class I trial in 86 patients  showed a change from baseline respectively of )13.1, )13.5 and )15.7 points on the International RLS scale score with respect to )3.3 with placebo at 5 weeks. Abolition of symptoms was observed in 36.4% of the 2 mg cabergoline group with respect to 4.4% with placebo. Long-term (1 year) open label treatment at mean doses of 2.2 mg/day or at 1.5 mg/day for 26 weeks  remained eﬀective (class III). During long-term treatment, adverse events led to drop-outs in 11 of 85; in particular, augmentation was found in 11% of patients. For pergolide, there are six short-term and ﬁve long-term studies. In a class I evidence trial (total number of patients involved was 100) pergolide at dosages from 0.05 mg upwards to 1.5 mg and at mean dosages of 0.4–0.55 mg daily signiﬁcantly improved RLS severity, signiﬁcantly ameliorated subjective quality of sleep and signiﬁcantly decreased PLMS-I and PLMS-A . The rate of responders (Ômuch improvedÕ or Ôvery much improvedÕ to Patient Global Impression Scale) at 6 weeks was 68% in the pergolide versus 15% in the placebo group. Maintenance for 12 months resulted in a signiﬁcant reduction of PLMS-I and PLMS-A at a mean dosage of 0.52 mg daily (class III evidence). Adverse events were reported in 40–70% of patients as mild: nausea, headache, nasal congestion, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, easily controlled in one study with domperidone 20 mg. No rebound or augmentation phenomenon was observed in class I and II trials. A class II comparative trial of pergolide versus levodopa  pointed out the better outcome with pergolide treatment: pergolide 0.125 mg daily gave complete relief in 82% of patients when compared with 9% with levodopa 250 mg; moreover, pergolide caused a 79% reduction in PLMS-I when 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 1053 compared with 45% with levodopa. Terguride 0.25–0.5 mg/day improved subjective RLS symptoms in a class III trial. In RLS secondary to uraemia undergoing haemodialysis, pergolide 0.05–0.25 mg in short term (10 nights) did not modify time to sleep onset, number of awakenings and actigraphy for PLMS. Subjective improvement in sleep quality and RLS symptoms in ﬁve of eight patients was not validated by statistical analysis against the placebo (class II study) . Adverse events were nausea in one subject and nightmares in another. In PLMD in narcolepsy, there is class II evidence  that bromocriptine (7.5 mg) was eﬀective. Recommendations In primary RLS, pergolide is established as eﬀective at mean dosages of 0.4–0.55 mg/day (level A rating) and possibly eﬀective in the long term (level C). PLMS-I and PLMS-A are also improved. Cabergoline is also eﬀective at 0.5–2 mg/day (level A) and possibly eﬀective in the long term (level C). Bromocriptine 7.5 mg can be recommended as probably eﬀective (level B). In secondary RLS associated with chronic haemodialysis, pergolide in short-term administration is probably ineﬀective at 0.25 mg/day (level B). In PLMD associated with narcolepsy, bromocriptine is probably eﬀective (level B). Most frequent adverse events of ergot-derived dopamine agonists (nausea, headache, nasal congestion, dizziness and orthostatic hypotension) were controlled by domperidone. Augmentation was not assessed with pergolide in class I studies. There is insuﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about a-dihydroergocryptine, lisuride and terguride. Non-ergot derivatives Thirty-nine reports concerned the use of non-ergot derivatives (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine). At the time of writing ropinirole was the most extensively studied drug for RLS in class I studies. For primary RLS, in a class I trial of 284 patients  treatment with ropinirole at a mean eﬀective dose of 1.9 mg/daily caused a signiﬁcant reduction in the International RLS scale score (11.04 points vs. 8.03 under placebo) and quality of life after 12 weeks. Similar results obtained in two other class I trials, one of 266 patients with ropinirole at 1.5 mg/day mean eﬀective dose (11.2 points reduced International RLS scale score versus 8.7 under placebo)  and another of 22 patients with ropinirole at a mean dosage of 4.6 mg daily . Mild and transient adverse events included nausea, headache, fatigue and dizziness. As for polysomnographic indices of sleep disruption, in a class I study with polysomnography , ropinirole at a mean dose of 1.8 mg/day 1054 L. Vignatelli et al. signiﬁcantly improved PLMS-I (by 76.2% vs. 14% on placebo), PLMS-A and sleep latency. Adverse events were headache and nausea, less commonly dizziness. Worsening of RLS possibly because of augmentation was observed in four of 59 (7%) patients. As for pramipexole, a class II trial of pramipexole (0.75–1.5 mg 1 h before bedtime) in 10 patients  demonstrated signiﬁcantly reduced RLS subjective scores and signiﬁcant improvements in PLMS-I. Adverse events (nausea, constipation, loss of appetite in 90% of patients; dizziness in 40%, daytime fatigue in 30%) were reported as mild and transient, but persistent nausea was observed in 33% at 1.5 mg/day. Longterm use of pramipexole was eﬀective in class III trials. Rotigotine (continuous transdermal patch delivery at 1.125, 2.25 and 4.5 mg/day) improved RLS symptoms (by 10.5–15.7 points compared with 8 on placebo) in a short-term class I trial of 63 patients, signiﬁcantly so at the 4.5 mg dose . Adverse events and skin tolerability were similar with placebo. As these data were obtained over a 1-week study period, the mid- and longterm eﬃcacy of rotigotine remains to be seen. For RLS secondary to uraemia undergoing haemodialysis, there is one class II study in 11 patients whereby ropinirole 1.45 mg/day gave better improvement of symptoms than levodopa 190 mg/daily . Recommendations In primary RLS, ropinirole at 1.5–4.6 mg/day has a level A rating of eﬃcacy. Rotigotine by transdermal patch delivery is also eﬀective in the short term (level A), and pramipexole is probably eﬀective (level B). In RLS secondary to uraemia ropinirole is probably eﬀective (level B). Adverse events were those common to all dopaminergic agents. Augmentation has not been well studied for any of these drugs, and has been reported by 7% of patients with ropinirole (class I evidence). There is insuﬃcient evidence to make recommendations about the use of non-ergot derivatives in PLMD. Opioids Twenty-two reports concerned the use of opioids (codeine and dihydrocodeine, dextrometorphan, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, propoxyphene, tilidine and tramadol). For primary RLS, there is class II evidence  that short-term oxycodone at a mean dose of 11.4 mg daily gave a 52% improvement in subjective rating scales on RLS symptoms. In this study, oxycodone also signiﬁcantly reduced PLMS-I (by 34%) and PLMS-A (by 23%), whilst improving sleep eﬃciency (by 25%). Adverse events were minimal constipation in two of 11 and daytime lethargy in one of 11 patients. For PLMD, there is class II evidence  that shortterm propoxyphene 100–200 mg before bedtime did not improve sleep latency, sleep eﬃciency and PLMS-I, but reduced PLMS-A by 28.6 events per hour versus placebo. Adverse events were mild depression, dizziness, nausea and one of six patients dropped out because of urticaria and tongue swelling. Recommendations For primary RLS, oxycodone at a mean dosage of 11.4 mg can be considered as probably eﬀective in improving RLS symptoms and PLMS-I, PLMS-A and sleep eﬃciency on a short-term basis (level B rating). Adverse events (mild sedation and rare nocturnal respiratory disturbances on long-term use) were usually mild and reversible, problems of addiction being observed only rarely. For PLMD, short-term propoxyphene is probably ineﬀective in improving sleep quality and PLMS-I (level B). There is insuﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about morphine, tramadol, codeine and dihydrocodeine, tilidine, and methadone and about the intrathecal route of administration. There is insuﬃcient evidence to make a recommendation about the use of opioids in secondary RLS. Other treatments Eighty-two reports concerned the use of other treatments. Non-pharmacological cognitive or physical agent interventions, and drug treatments with muscle relaxants, vitamins/minerals, hormones (estrogens, melatonin, erythropoietin) and antidepressants were the subjects of these trials. Surgical interventions with deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, venous sclerotherapy and kidney transplant were also available. For primary RLS, one class II trial of iron sulphate 325 mg given in liquid form per os over 12 weeks (concurrently with other treatments) did not show any signiﬁcant eﬀect either on RLS symptoms or sleep quality; seven of 28 patients dropped out and relevant adverse events were nausea, constipation, tooth discoloration, dark stools, vertebral fracture and RLS worsening . No eﬀect was noted with vibration in a class II trial . Improved RLS severity, sleep eﬃciency or decreased PLMS-I were reported in class III single trials of iron dextran given intravenous in a single dose of 1000 mg , magnesium oxide 12.4 mmol  and amantadine 100–300 mg/day . For RLS secondary to uraemia, there is class II evidence  for improved RLS symptoms with intravenous iron dextran 1000 mg; eﬃcacy waned however 4 weeks after treatment. In a class III study, kidney transplantation abolished RLS symptoms at short term in all of 11 patients, and in four patients of the 11 at long term  2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS In PLMD, a class I trial with transdermal oestradiol 2.5 g/day gel (or 50 lg/24 h for patients older than 55 years) showed no eﬀect on PLMS-I and PLMS-A at 3 months . Single class II trials showed that modaﬁnil 200–440 mg/day in PLMD associated with narcolepsy  and 1-day nocturnal haemodialysis  were ineﬀective. In PLMD associated with insomnia, a class II trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy (sleep education, stimulus control, sleep restriction) found no diﬀerence with clonazepam 0.5–1.5 mg/day . Several class III trials with nasal continuous airway positive pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas resulted in conﬂicting ﬁndings of either unchanged, increased or decreased PLMS-I. In PLMD associated with depressive insomnia, trazodone 100 mg did not modify sleep quality or PLMS-I, or on the contrary reduced PLMS-I by 10.8 (two 1-night only class III studies [71,72]. In class III studies, 5-OH-tryptophan 500 mg did not modify PLMS-I/PLMS-A , whilst apomorphine, either 0.5 mg single dose subcutaneously or transdermal [74,75] and physical exercise in PLMD patients with complete spinal lesion [76–78] reduced the PLMS-I. Recommendations In primary RLS, both iron sulphate and vibration are probably ineﬀective (level B rating). There is insuﬃcient evidence to make any recommendation about the use of intravenous iron dextran, magnesium oxide and amantadine. In RLS secondary to uraemia, iron dextran 1000 mg in a single intravenous dose is probably eﬀective in the short term (<1 month) (level B). In PLMD, transdermal oestradiol is established as ineﬀective (level A rating) and modaﬁnil and 1-day nocturnal haemodialysis as probably ineﬀective, whilst cognitive-behavioural therapy is no diﬀerent than clonazepam (level B). 5-OH-tryptophan and trazodone are possibly ineﬀective and apomorphine and physical exercise (in myelopathy) possibly eﬀective (level C rating). Discussion Before oﬀering ﬁnal comments, we wish to emphasize that dopaminergic agents are the best-studied drugs to date because of the increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies in achieving an oﬃcial treatment indication for RLS. However, as only few and small studies have been carried out on non-dopaminergic compounds, and some have shown promising therapeutic eﬀects, it is to be hoped that an increased eﬀort from both industry and investigators to develop further alternatives will be carried out. Accordingly, lack of controlled trials for many drug classes should not be construed as implying negative evidence of eﬃcacy. The most frequently observed 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 1055 weak points of the above-cited randomized controlled trials were ﬂaws in allocation concealment procedures, the absence of a predeﬁned primary endpoint, the overuse of non-validated or surrogate endpoints instead of clinically relevant patient oriented endpoints (e.g. rate of remission, quality of life). Such problems are generally, but not only, shared by studies predating the year 2000. The recently validated international scales of disease severity and disease-speciﬁc quality of life [6,7] will represent valuable tools to design future trials with clinically relevant primary endpoints. Furthermore, augmentation has not been assessed adequately for most drugs (both dopaminergic and not-dopaminergic) and it is hoped that, as more speciﬁc and reliable tools are being developed, they will allow a better assessment of both the long-term eﬃcacy and augmentation. Recommendations For primary RLS, ropinirole given at mean dosages of 1.5–4.6 mg/day, and pergolide at 0.4–0.55 mg/day have conﬁrmed level A rating eﬃcacy for relieving paraesthesia and motor restlessness. Cabergoline, levodopa and transdermal delivery rotigotine are also established as eﬀective, the latter two so far only for short-term use (level A rating). Amongst the antiepileptic drugs, gabapentin should be considered as eﬀective in primary RLS (level A rating). For other dopaminergics (pramipexole, bromocriptine) and for valproate, carbamazepine, clonidine and oxycodone there is evidence to consider these drugs as probably eﬀective (level B rating), whilst for clonazepam evidence for probable eﬃcacy (at 1 mg at bedtime) and probable ineﬃcacy (at 4 doses/day), according to dosage schedule (level B rating). Iron sulphate and vibration are probably ineﬀective (level B rating). In long-term use, levodopa is possibly eﬀective (level C rating). For RLS secondary to uraemia, levodopa, ropinirole 1.45 mg/day, gabapentin 200–300 mg/day and iron dextran 1000 mg i.v. are probably eﬀective, the latter on short-term use (level B rating). For PLMD, transdermal oestradiol is ineﬀective (level A rating). Clonazepam and levodopa are probably eﬀective whilst propoxyphene, triazolam, modaﬁnil and one-night haemodialysis probably ineﬀective (level B rating). Bromocriptine is probably eﬀective in PLMD associated with narcolepsy (level B). 5-OH-tryptophan and trazodone are possibly ineﬀective and apomorphine and physical exercise possibly eﬀective (level C rating). As for adverse events, these were reported as usually mild and reversible upon discontinuation of treatment in the generality of the trials. In particular the peripheral adverse events of dopaminergics were easily 1056 L. Vignatelli et al. relieved by domperidone. For this class of drugs, augmentation represents a troublesome adverse event: even though reported particularly with levodopa, it is hard to get reliable comparative data, especially in the absence of an augmentation rating scale. Recently, concern with the ergot derivatives was raised by the discovery of severe multivalvular heart defects and constrictive pericarditis and pleuropulmonary ﬁbrosis after long-term use in Parkinson’s disease (reported with cabergoline, pergolide and bromocriptine). Daily dosages in these cases were equal or greater than 4 mg pergolide for several months. Spontaneous echocardiographic regression of valvular insuﬃciency along with marked clinical improvement was reported after cessation of the ergot derivatives in some case reports. It was suggested that high doses should be avoided and that patients under dopamine agonists receive a clinical cardiac assessment at 3–6 months intervals and if any doubt, obtain an echocardiogram. However, the cardiopulmonary ﬁbrosis side-eﬀects of the ergot derivatives have been described too recently for a meaningful analysis across the diﬀerent compounds. Comparison of these versus guidelines already published [79–81] demonstrates minor diﬀerences in judgement, in part related to the diﬀerent sets of evidence utilized. In all guidelines, dopaminergic agents come out as the best-recommended agents for the treatment of RLS. Opioids have not been here considered as established, and for iron supplementation we found only class II favourable trials (short term) or even evidence of ineﬃcacy. Iron has been reported as more eﬀective in low-ferritin patients. Unfortunately, still partial evidence is overall available for secondary RLS, almost all in RLS secondary to uraemia, and for PLMD. In particular, recommendations cannot be oﬀered for RLS during pregnancy or during childhood, where quality trials are needed. Finally, it is useful to underline that these guidelines should not be considered as exhausting all methods of care for RLS or PLMD. In consideration of the circumstances presented by any particular patient, the ultimate judgement regarding the type of care need always rest with the attending physician. • Levodopa/benserazide (mean dose 159/40 mg at bedtime) improves RLS symptoms, quality of sleep, sleep latency, PLMS-I and quality of life. • Pergolide (mean doses 0.4–0.55 mg/day) is eﬀective in improving RLS severity and ameliorating subjective quality of sleep. • Ropinirole (mean doses 1.5–4.6 mg/day) is eﬀective in ameliorating RLS scale scores and quality of life, and in improving sleep latency and PLMS-I/ PLMS-A. • Rotigotine by transdermal patch delivery (4.5 mg) and in short-term use improves RLS symptoms. For PLMD: • Transdermal oestradiol is ineﬀective. Conflicts of interest Dr Billiard received continuing medical education honoraria from GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Clarenbach was involved in a trial with Schwarz Pharma, and Dr Montagna was involved in trials with GlaxoSmithKline, Schwarz Pharma and received consultant honoraria from Boehringer-Ingelheim. Dr Trenkwalder received grants/research support from GlaxoSmithKline, is a consultant for Boehringer-Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis, and received speakers honoraria for educational symposia from GlaxoSmithKline, Hoﬀmann La Roche and Pﬁzer. Dr Garcia-Borreguero received research grants from Pﬁzer and is a consultant for Pﬁzer, GlaxoSmithKline, Schwarz Pharma and Boehringer-Ingelheim. Acknowledgements We wish to acknowledge the help of Ms A. Laﬃ in typing the manuscript and Ms S. Muzzi for help with the bibliography. Supported by MURST ex 60% grants. Supplementary material The following supplementary material can be found at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/ene/13/10: Table S1. Search strategy for identiﬁcations of studies. Table S2. Class I, II and III evidence studies. Table S3. Class IV evidence studies. Final level A recommendations For primary RLS: • Cabergoline (0.5–2 mg once daily) improves RLS scores. • Gabapentin (dosage 800–1800 mg/daily) reduces RLS scores and improves sleep eﬃciency and PLMS-I. References 1. Willis T. The London Practice of Physice, 1st edn. London: Thomas Bassett and William Crooke, 1685: 404. 2. Ekbom KA. Restless legs. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1945; 158: 5–123. 3. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Periodic limb movement disorder. International Classiﬁcation of Sleep 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Disorders. Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005: 182–186. Walters AS. Toward a better deﬁnition of the restless legs syndrome. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Movement Disorders 1995; 10: 634–642. Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Montplaisir J. Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology. A report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Medicine 2003; 4: 101–119. Walters AS, LeBrocq C, Dhar A, et al. International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Validation of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine 2003; 4: 121–132. Atkinson MJ, Allen RP, Du Chane J, Murray C, Kushida C, Roth T. RLS Quality of Life Consortium. Validation of the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life Instrument (RLS-QLI): ﬁndings of a consortium of national experts and the RLS Foundation. Quality Life Research 2004; 13: 679–693. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Restless legs syndrome. International Classiﬁcation of Sleep Disorders. Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005: 178–181. Brainin M, Barnes M, Baron JC, et al. Guidance for the preparation of neurological management guidelines by EFNS scientiﬁc task forces – revised recommendations 2004. European Journal of Neurology 2004; 11: 577–581. Wagner ML, Walters AS, Coleman RG, Hening WA, Grasing K, Chokroverty S. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of clonidine in restless legs syndrome. Sleep 1996; 19: 52–58. Inoue Y, Mitani H, Nanba K, Kawahara R. Treatment of periodic leg movement disorder and restless leg syndrome with talipexole. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1999; 53: 283–285. Ausserwinkler M, Schmidt P. Erfolgreiche Behandlung des Ôrestless legsÕ-Syndroms bei chronischer Niereninsufﬁzienz mit Clonidin. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. Journal Suisse de Medecine 1989; 119: 184–186. Telstad W, Sorensen O, Larsen S, Lillevold PE, Stensrud P, Hansen R. Treatment of the restless legs syndrome with carbamazepine: a double blind study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1984; 288: 444–446. Lundvall O, Abom PE, Holm R. Carbamazepine in restless legs. A controlled pilot study. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983; 25: 323–324. Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, de la Llave Y, Verger K, Masramon X, Hernandez G. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with gabapentin: a double-blind, crossover study. Neurology 2002; 59: 1573–1579. Mellick GA, Mellick LB. Management of restless legs syndrome with gabapentin (Neurontin). Sleep 1996; 19: 224–226. Happe S, Klosch G, Saletu B, Zeitlhofer J. Treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) with gabapentin. Neurology 2001; 57: 1717–1719. Happe S, Sauter C, Klosch G, Saletu B, Zeitlhofer J. Gabapentin versus ropinirole in the treatment of idio- 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 1057 pathic restless legs syndrome. Neuropsychobiology 2003; 48: 82–86. Adler CH. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with gabapentin. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1997; 20: 148–151. Eisensehr I, Ehrenberg BL, Rogge-Solti S, Noachtar S. Treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) with slow-release valproic acid compared with slow-release levodopa/benserazid. Journal of Neurology 2004; 251: 579–583. Thorp ML, Morris CD, Bagby SP. A crossover study of gabapentin in treatment of restless legs syndrome among haemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2001; 38: 104–108. Freye E, Levy JV, Partecke L. Use of gabapentin for attenuation of symptoms following rapid opiate detoxiﬁcation (ROD) – correlation with neurophysiological parameters. Neurophysiologie Clinique 2004; 34: 81–89. Montagna P, Sassoli-de-Bianchi L, Zucconi M, Cirignotta F, Lugaresi E. Clonazepam and vibration in restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1984; 69: 428–430. Boghen D, Lamothe L, Elie R, Godbout R, Montplaisir J. The treatment of the restless legs syndrome with clonazepam: a prospective controlled study. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 1986; 13: 245–247. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, et al. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies with clonazepam. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2001a; 11: 153–161. Mitler MM, Browman CP, Menn SJ, Gujavarty K, Timms RM. Nocturnal myoclonus: treatment efﬁcacy of clonazepam and temazepam. Sleep 1986; 9: 385–392. Edinger JD, Fins AI, Sullivan RJ, Marsh GR, Dailey DS, Young M. Comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and clonazepam for treating periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep 1996; 19: 442–444. Ohanna N, Peled R, Rubin AH, Zomer J, Lavie P. Periodic leg movements in sleep: effect of clonazepam treatment. Neurology 1985; 35: 408–411. Peled R, Lavie P. Double-blind evaluation of clonazepam on periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1987; 50: 1679– 1681. Inami Y, Horiguchi J, Nishimatsu O, et al. A polysomnographic study on periodic limb movements in patients with restless legs syndrome and neuroleptic-induced akathisia. Hiroshima Journal of Medical Sciences 1997; 46: 133–141. Arens R, Wright B, Elliott J, et al. Periodic limb movement in sleep in children with Williams syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics 1998; 133: 670–674. Doghramji K, Browman CP, Gaddy JR, Walsh JK. Triazolam diminishes daytime sleepiness and sleep fragmentation in patients with periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1991; 11: 284–290. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. Chronic use of triazolam in patients with periodic leg movements, fragmented sleep and daytime sleepiness. Aging 1991; 3: 313–324. Moldofsky H, Tullis C, Quance G, Lue FA. Nitrazepam for periodic movements in sleep (sleep-related myoclonus). Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 1986; 13: 52–54. 1058 L. Vignatelli et al. 35. Benes H, Kurella B, Kummer J, Kazenwadel J, Selzer R, Kohnen R. Rapid onset of action of levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, crossover trial. Sleep 1999; 22: 1073–1081. 36. Akpinar S. Restless legs syndrome treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1987; 10: 69–79. 37. Brodeur C, Montplaisir J, Godbout R, Marinier R. Treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic movements during sleep with L-dopa: a double-blind, controlled study. Neurology 1988; 38: 1845–1848. 38. Trenkwalder C, Stiasny K, Pollmacher T, et al. L-dopa therapy of uremic and idiopathic restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, crossover trial. Sleep 1995; 18: 681–688. 39. Montplaisir J, Boucher S, Gosselin A, Poirier G, Lavigne G. Persistence of repetitive EEG arousals (K-alpha complexes) in RLS patients treated with L-DOPA. Sleep 1996; 19: 196–199. 40. Collado-Seidel V, Kazenwadel J, Wetter TC, et al. A controlled study of additional sr-L-dopa in L-doparesponsive restless legs syndrome with late-night symptoms. Neurology 1999; 52: 285–290. 41. Saletu M, Anderer P, Hogl B, et al. Acute double-blind, placebo-controlled sleep laboratory and clinical followup studies with a combination treatment of rr-L-dopa and sr-L-dopa in restless legs syndrome. Journal of Neural Transmission 2003; 110: 611–626. 42. Walker SL, Fine A, Kryger MH. L-DOPA/carbidopa for nocturnal movement disorders in uremia. Sleep 1996; 19: 214–218. 43. Kaplan PW, Allen RP, Buchholz DW, Walters JK. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the treatment of periodic limb movements in sleep using carbidopa/ levodopa and propoxyphene. Sleep 1993; 16: 717–723. 44. Boivin DB, Montplaisir J, Poirier G. The effects of Ldopa on periodic leg movements and sleep organization in narcolepsy. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1989; 12: 339–345. 45. de Mello MT, Poyares DL, Tuﬁk S. Treatment of periodic leg movements with a dopaminergic agonist in subjects with total spinal cord lesions. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 634–637. 46. Tergau F, Wischer S, Wolf C, Paulus W. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with the dopamine agonist alphadihydroergocryptine. Movement Disorders 2001; 16: 731– 735. 47. Walters AS, Hening WA, Kavey N, Chokroverty S, Gidro-Frank S. A double-blind randomized crossover trial of bromocriptine and placebo in restless legs syndrome. Annals of Neurology 1988; 24: 455–458. 48. Stiasny-Kolster K, Benes H, Peglau I, et al. Effective cabergoline treatment in idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2004; 63: 2272–2279. 49. Benes H, Heinrich CR, Ueberall MA, Kohnen R. Longterm safety and efﬁcacy of cabergoline for the treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome: results from an open-label 6-month clinical trial. Sleep 2004; 27: 674– 682. 50. Trenkwalder C, Hundemer HP, Lledo A, et al. Efﬁcacy of pergolide in treatment of restless legs syndrome: The PEARLS Study. Neurology 2004; 62: 1391–1397. 51. Staedt J, Wassmuth F, Ziemann U, Hajak G, Ruther E, Stoppe G. Pergolide: treatment of choice in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and nocturnal myoclonus syndrome 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. (NMS). A double-blind randomized crossover trial of pergolide versus L-Dopa. Journal of Neural Transmission 1997; 104: 461–468. Pieta J, Millar T, Zacharias J, Fine A, Kryger M. Effect of pergolide on restless legs and leg movements in sleep in uremic patients. Sleep 1998; 21: 617–622. Boivin DB, Lorrain D, Montplaisir J. Effects of bromocriptine on periodic limb movements in human narcolepsy. Neurology 1993; 43: 2134–2136. Trenkwalder C, Garcia-Borreguero D, Montagna P, et al. Ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome: results from the TREAT RLS 1 study, a 12 week, randomised, placebo controlled study in 10 European countries. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2004a; 75: 92–97. Walters AS, Ondo W, Dreykluft T, Grunstein R, Lee D, Sethi K, TREAT RLS 2 Study Group. Ropinirole is effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. TREAT RLS 2: a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Movement Disorders 2004; 19: 1414–1423. Adler CH, Hauser RA, Sethi K, et al. Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome: a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Neurology 2004; 62: 1405–1407. Allen R, Becker PM, Bogan R, et al. Ropinirole decreases periodic leg movements and improves sleep parameters in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep 2004; 27: 907–914. Montplaisir J, Nicolas A, Denesle R, Gomez-Mancilla B. Restless legs syndrome improved by pramipexole: a double-blind randomized trial. Neurology 1999; 52: 938– 943. Stiasny-Kolster K, Kohen R, Schollmayer E, Moller JC, Oertel WH, Rotigotine Sp 666 Study Group. Patch application of the dopamine agonist rotigotine to patients with moderate to advanced stages of restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Movement Disorders 2004; 19: 1432–1438. Pellecchia MT, Vitale C, Sabatini M, et al. Ropinirole as a treatment of restless legs syndrome in patients on chronic hemodialysis: an open randomized crossover trial versus levodopa sustained release. Clinical Neuropharmacology 2004; 27: 178–181. Walters AS, Wagner ML, Hening WA, et al. Successful treatment of the idiopathic restless legs syndrome in a randomized double-blind trial of oxycodone versus placebo. Sleep 1993; 16: 327–332. Davis BJ, Rajput A, Rajput ML, Aul EA, Eichhorn GR. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of iron in restless legs syndrome. European Neurology 2000; 43: 70–75. Earley CJ, Heckler D, Allen RP. The treatment of restless legs syndrome with intravenous iron dextran. Sleep Medicine 2004; 5: 231–235. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann D. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998; 21: 501–505. Evidente VG, Adler CH, Caviness JN, Hentz JG, Gwinn-Hardy K. Amantadine is beneﬁcial in restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 2000; 15: 324–327. Sloand JA, Shelly MA, Feigin A, Bernstein P, Monk RD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous iron dextran therapy in patients with ESRD and 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. restless legs syndrome. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2004; 43: 663–670. Winkelmann J, Stautner A, Samtleben W, Trenkwalder C. Long-term course of restless legs syndrome in dialysis patients after kidney transplantation. Movement Disorders 2002; 17: 1072–1076. Polo-Kantola P, Rauhala E, Erkkola R, Irjala K, Polo O. Estrogen replacement therapy and nocturnal periodic limb movements: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001; 97: 548–554. Broughton RJ, Fleming JAE, George CFP, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of modaﬁnil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Neurology 1997; 49: 444–451. Hanly PJ, Gabor JY, Chan C, Pierratos A. Daytime sleepiness in patients with CRF: impact of nocturnal hemodialysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2003; 41: 403–410. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, et al. Insomnia related to dysthymia: polysomnographic and psychometric: comparison with normal controls and acute therapeutic trials with trazodone. Neuropsychobiology 2001; 44: 139–149. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, et al. Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Progress in NeuroPsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2002; 26: 249–260. Guilleminault C, Mondini S, Montplaisir J, Mancuso J, Cobasko D, Dement WC. Periodic leg movement, Ldopa, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and L-tryptophan. Sleep 1987; 10: 393–397. Priano L, Albani G, Brioschi A, et al. Nocturnal anomalous movement reduction and sleep microstructure analysis in parkinsonian patients during 1-night transdermal apomorphine treatment. Neurological Sciences 2003; 24: 207–208. Haba-Rubio J, Staner L, Cornette F, et al. Acute low single dose of apomorphine reduces periodic limb movements but has no signiﬁcant effect on sleep arousals: a preliminary report. Neurophysiologie Clinique 2003; 33: 180–184. de Mello MT, Lauro FAA, Silva AC, Tuﬁk S. Incidence of periodic leg movements and of the restless legs syndrome during sleep following acute physical activity in spinal cord injury subjects. Spinal Cord 1996; 34: 294–296. de Mello MT, Silva AC, Rueda AD, Poyares D, Tuﬁk S. Correlation between K complex, periodic leg movements (PLM), and myoclonus during sleep in paraplegic adults before and after an acute physical activity. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 248–252. de Mello MT, Silva AC, Esteves AM, Tuﬁk S. Reduction of periodic leg movement in individuals with paraplegia following aerobic physical exercise. Spinal Cord 2002; 40: 646–649. Chesson AL, Jr, Wise M, Davila D, et al. Practice parameters for the treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep 1999; 22: 961–998. Hening WA, Allen R, Earley C, Kushida C, Picchietti D, Silber M. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 1059 periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review. Sleep 1999; 22: 970–999. Hening WA, Allen RP, Earley CJ, Picchietti DL, Silber MH. An update on the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep 2004; 27: 560–583. Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, Verger K, Masramon X, Hernandez G. Effects of gabapentin on restless legs syndrome accompanied by nocturnal pain: results of a double-blind, crossover study with polysomnographic control in 24 patients. European Journal of Neurology 2002; 9: 49–50. Larsen S, Telstad W, Sorensen O, Thom E, Stensrud P, Nyberg-Hansen R. Carbamazepine therapy in restless legs. Discrimination between responders and nonresponders. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1985; 218: 223–227. Zucconi M, Coccagna G, Petronelli R, Gerardi R, Mondini S, Cirignotta F. Nocturnal myoclonus in restless legs syndrome effect of carbamazepine treatment. Functional Neurology 1989; 4: 263–271. Perez-Bravo A. Utilidad del topiramato en el tratamiento del sindrome de piernas inquietas. Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria 2004; 32: 132–137. Horiguchi J, Inami Y, Sasaki A, Nishimatsu O, Sukegawa T. Periodic leg movements in sleep with restless legs syndrome: effect of clonazepam treatment. The Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology 1992; 46: 727–732. Wetter TC, Trenkwalder C, Stiasny K, et al. Behandlung des idiopathischen und uramischen Restless-legs-Syndrom mit L-Dopa – Eine doppelblinde Cross-over-Studie. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1995; 145: 525–527. Collado-Seidel V. Treatment of the restless legs syndrome with a combination of standard and sustained release levodopa/benserazide (Madopar Depot): a double-blind controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30: 158. Trenkwalder C, Seidel VC, Kazenwadel J, et al. Treatment of the restless legs syndrome with a combination of standard and sustained-release levodopa/benserazide (Madopar Depot(R)): a double-blind controlled study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 1997; 150: S204. Montplaisir J, Godbout R, Poirier G, Bedard MA. Restless legs syndrome and periodic movements in sleep: physiopathology and treatment with L-dopa. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1986; 9: 456–463. von Scheele C. Levodopa in restless legs. Lancet 1986; 2: 426–427. Becker PM, Jamieson AO, Brown WD. Dopaminergic agents in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements of sleep: response and complications of extended treatment in 49 cases. Sleep 1993; 16: 713–716. Guilleminault C, Cetel M, Philip P. Dopaminergic treatment of restless legs and rebound phenomenon. Neurology 1993; 43: 445. Allen RP, Earley CJ. Augmentation of the restless legs syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa. Sleep 1996; 19: 205– 213. Earley CJ, Allen RP. Pergolide and carbidopa/levodopa treatment of the restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep in a consecutive series of patients. Sleep 1996; 19: 801–810. Trenkwalder C, Collado-Seidel V, Kazenwadel J, et al. One-year treatment with standard and sustained-release levodopa: appropriate long-term treatment of restless legs syndrome? Movement Disorders 2003; 18: 1184–1189. 1060 L. Vignatelli et al. 97. Garcia-Borreguero D, Serrano C, Larrosa O, JoseGranizo J. Circadian effects of dopaminergic treatment in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine 2004; 5: 413–420. 98. Stiasny-Kolster K, Magerl W, Oertel WH, Moller JC, Treede RD. Static mechanical hyperalgesia without dynamic tactile allodynia in patients with restless legs syndrome. Brain 2004; 127: 773–782. 99. Stiasny K, Moller JC, Bodenschatz R, et al. Rotigotine CDS in the treatment of moderate to advanced stages of restless legs syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Movement Disorders 2002; 17: S241. 100. Stiasny K, Uberall M, Oertel WH. Cabergoline in restless legs syndrome (RLS) – a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter dose-ﬁnding trial. European Journal of Neurology 2002; 9: 50. 101. Stiasny-Kolster K, Oertel WH. Low-dose pramipexole in the management of restless legs syndrome. An open label trial. Neuropsychobiology 2004; 50: 65–70. 102. Stiasny K, Robbecke J, Schuler P, Oertel WH. Treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) with the D2-agonist cabergoline – an open clinical trial. Sleep 2000; 23: 349–354. 103. Stiasny K. Clinical data on restless legs syndrome: a dose-ﬁnding study with cabergoline. European Neurology 2001; 46(Suppl. 1): 24–26. 104. Stiasny K. Handling the problem of augmentation in restless legs syndrome (RLS). European Journal of Neurology 2001; 8: 15. 105. Zucconi M, Oldani A, Castronovo C, Ferini-Strambi L. Cabergoline is an effective single-drug treatment for restless legs syndrome: clinical and actigraphic evaluation. Sleep 2003; 26: 815–818. 106. Trenkwalder C, Brandenburg U, Hundemer HP, et al. A randomized long-term placebo-controlled multicenter trial of pergolide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome with central evaluation of polysomnographic data. Neurology 2001; 56: A5–A6. 107. Trenkwalder C, Brandenburg U, Hundemer HP, Lledo A, Quail D, Swieca J. A long-term controlled multicenter trial of pergolide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome with central evaluation of polysomnographic data. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2001; 187: S432. 108. Hundemer HP, Trenkwalder C, Lledo A, et al. The safety of pergolide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS): results of a randomized long-term multicenter trial of pergolide in the treatment of RLS. Neurology 2001; 56: A20. 109. Wetter TC, Stiasny K, Winkelmann J, et al. A randomized controlled study of pergolide in patients with restless legs syndrome. Neurology 1999; 52: 944–950. 110. Tagaya H, Wetter TC, Winkelmann J, et al. Pergolide restores sleep maintenance but impairs sleep EEG synchronization in patients with restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine 2002; 3: 49–54. 111. Staedt J, Hunerjager H, Ruther E, Stoppe G. Pergolide: treatment of choice in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome (NMS). Longterm follow up on pergolide. Short communication. Journal of Neural Transmission 1998; 105: 265–268. 112. Earley CJ, Yaffee JB, Allen RP. Randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of pergolide in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 1998; 51: 1599–1602. 113. Stiasny K, Wetter TC, Winkelmann J, et al. Long-term effects of pergolide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2001; 56: 1399–1402. 114. Benes H, Deissler A, Clarenbach P, Rodenbeck A, Hajak G. Lisuride in the management of restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 2000; 15: S134– S135. 115. Sonka K, Pretl M, Kranda K. Management of restless legs syndrome by the partial D2-agonist terguride. Sleep Medicine 2003; 4: 455–457. 116. Estivill E, de la Fuente V. Uso de ropinirol como tratamiento del sindrome de piernas inquietas. Revista de Neurologia 1999; 28: 962–963. 117. Estivill E, de la Fuente V. Eﬁcacia del ropinirol como tratamiento del insomnio cronico secundario al sindrome de piernas inquietas: datos polisomnograﬁcos. Revista de Neurologia 1999; 29: 805–807. 118. Ondo W. Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 1999; 14: 138–140. 119. Saletu B, Gruber G, Saletu M, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Neuropsychobiology 2000; 41: 181–189. 120. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu B, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 2. Findings on periodic leg movements, arousals and respiratory variables. Neuropsychobiology 2000; 41: 190–199. 121. Watts RL, Freeman A, Rye DB, Bliwise DL, Krulewicz S. Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 2000; 15: S134. 122. Freeman A, Rye DB, Bliwise D, Chakravorty S, Krulewicz S, Watts RL. Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome (RLS): an open label and double blind placebo-controlled study. Neurology 2001; 56: A5. 123. Ahmed I. Ropinirole in restless leg syndrome. Missouri Medicine 2002; 99: 500–501. 124. Montplaisir J, Nicolas A, Denesle R, Gomez-Mancilla B. Pramipexole alleviates sensory and motor symptoms of restless legs syndrome. Neurology 1998; 51: 311–312. 125. Becker PM, Ondo W, Sharon D. Encouraging initial response of restless legs syndrome to pramipexole. Neurology 1998; 51: 1221–1223. 126. Lin SC, Kaplan J, Burger CD, Fredrickson PA. Effect of pramipexole in treatment of resistant restless legs syndrome. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1998; 73: 497–500. 127. Montplaisir J, Denesle R, Petit D. Pramipexole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome: a follow-up study. European Journal of Neurology 2000; 7(Suppl. 1): 27– 31. 128. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, Hauer C, Saletu B. Acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies and clinical follow-up with pramipexole in restless legs syndrome. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2002; 252: 185–194. 129. Manconi M, Casetta I, Govoni V, Cesnik E, FeriniStrambi L, Granieri E. Pramipexole in restless legs syndrome. Evaluation by suggested immobilization test. Journal of Neurology 2003; 250: 1494–1495. 130. Hening W, Walters AS, Wagner ML, et al. Successful oxycodone therapy for the restless legs syndrome: a double-blind study. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 1993; 20: S212. 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS 131. Lauerma H, Markkula J. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with tramadol: an open study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1999; 60: 241–244. 132. van Dijk JG, Bollen EL, Slootweg J, van der Meer CM, Durian FW, Zwinderman AH. Geen verschil in werkzaamheid tussen hydrokinine en placebo bij het Ôrestless legsÕ-syndroom. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 1991; 135: 759–763. 133. Ausserwinkler M, Schmidt P. Clonidine is effective in the treatment of Ôrestless legÕ syndrome in chronic uraemic patients. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 1988; 3: 530. 134. Ausserwinkler M, Schmidt P. Clonidine is effective in the treatment of Ôrestless legÕ syndrome in chronic uraemia patients. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 1989; 4: 149. 135. Micozkadioglu H, Ozdemir FN, Kut A, Sezer S, Saatci U, Haberal M. Gabapentin versus levodopa for the treatment of restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients: an open-label study. Renal Failure 2004; 26: 393– 397. 136. Galvez-Jimenez N, Khan T. Ropinirole and restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 1999; 14: 890–892. 137. Miranda M, Fabres L, Kagi M, et al. Tratamiento del sindrome de piernas inquietas en pacientes uremicos en dialisis con pramipexole: resultados preliminares. Revista Medica de Chile 2003; 131: 700–701. 138. Miranda M, Kagi M, Fabres L, et al. Pramipexole for the treatment of uremic restless legs in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Neurology 2004; 62: 831–832. 139. Holman AJ, Neiman RA, Ettlinger RE. Preliminary efﬁcacy of the dopamine agonist, pramipexole, for ﬁbromyalgia: the ﬁrst, open label, multicenter experience. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain 2004; 12: 69–74. 140. O’Keeffe ST, Gavin K, Lavan JN. Iron status and restless legs syndrome in the elderly. Age and Ageing 1994; 23: 200–203. 141. Evidente VG. Piribedil for restless legs syndrome: a pilot study. Movement Disorders 2001; 16: 579–581. 142. Ehrenberg BL, Eisensehr I, Corbett KE, Crowley PF, Walters AS. Valproate for sleep consolidation in periodic limb movement disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2000; 20: 574–578. 143. Nishimatsu O, Horiguchi J, Inami Y, Sukegawa T, Sasaki A. Periodic limb movement disorder in neurolepticinduced akathisia. Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences 1997; 43: 169–177. 144. Roehrs T, Zorick F, Wittig R, Roth T. Efﬁcacy of a reduced triazolam dose in elderly insomniacs. Neurobiology of Aging 1985; 6: 293–296. 145. Bonnet MH, Arand DL. The use of triazolam in older patients with periodic leg movements, fragmented sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Journal of Gerontology 1990; 45: M139–M144. 146. Kaplan PW, Allen RP, Buchholz DW, Walters JK. Double-blind comparison of L-dopa versus propoxyphene in patients with periodic limb movements in sleep. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1991; 79: 32P. 147. Bedard MA, Montplaisir J, Godbout R. Effect of Ldopa on periodic movements in sleep in narcolepsy. European Neurology 1987; 27: 35–38. 148. de Mello MT, Esteves AM, Tuﬁk S. Comparison between dopaminergic agents and physical exercise as 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 1061 treatment for periodic limb movements in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 218–221. Boivin DB, Montplaisir J, Lambert C. Effects of bromocriptine in human narcolepsy. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1993; 16: 120–126. Hogl B, Rothdach A, Wetter TC, Trenkwalder C. The effect of cabergoline on sleep, periodic leg movements in sleep, and early morning motor function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28: 1866–1870. Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu B, et al. Sleep laboratory studies in periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. Human Psychopharmacology 2001; 16: 177– 187. Fantini ML, Gagnon J, Filipini D, Montplaisir J. The effects of pramipexole in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 2003; 61: 1418–1420. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, III, Hoch CC, et al. Longitudinal effects of nortriptyline on EEG sleep and the likelihood of recurrence in elderly depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996; 14: 243–252. Nofzinger EA, Fasiczka A, Berman S, Thase ME. Bupropion SR reduces periodic limb movements associated with arousals from sleep in depressed patients with periodic limb movement disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2000; 61: 858–862. Grewal M, Hawa R, Shapiro C. Treatment of periodic limb movements in sleep with selegiline HCl. Movement Disorders 2002; 17: 398–401. Yamashiro Y, Kryger MH. Acute effect of nasal CPAP on periodic limb movements associated with breathing disorders during sleep. Sleep 1994; 17: 172–175. Briellmann RS, Mathis J, Bassetti C, Gugger M, Hess CW. Patterns of muscle activity in legs in sleep apnea patients before and during nCPAP therapy. European Neurology 1997; 38: 113–118. Kotterba S, Clarenbach P, Bommel W, Rasche K. Periodic leg movements in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during nCPAP therapy. Somnologie 2000; 4: 93–95. Scholle S, Scholle HC, Zwacka G. Periodic leg movements and sleep-disordered breathing in children. Somnologie 2001; 5: 153–158. Baran AS, Richert AC, Douglass AB, May W, Ansarin K. Change in periodic limb movement index during treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure. Sleep 2003; 26: 717–720. Guilleminault C, Flagg W. Effect of baclofen on sleeprelated periodic leg movements. Annals of Neurology 1984; 15: 234–239. Bedard MA, Montplaisir J, Godbout R, Lapierre O. Nocturnal gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Effect on periodic leg movements and sleep organization of narcoleptic patients. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1989; 12: 29–36. Kovacevic-Ristanovic R, Cartwright RD, Lloyd S. Nonpharmacologic treatment of periodic leg movements in sleep. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1991; 72: 385–389. Lavie P, Nahir M, Lorber M, Scharf Y. Nonsteroidal antiinﬂammatory drug therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients: lack of association between clinical improvement and effects on sleep. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1991; 34: 655–659. 1062 L. Vignatelli et al. 165. Benz RL, Pressman MR, Hovick ET, Peterson DD. A preliminary study of the effects of correction of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy on sleep, sleep disorders, and daytime sleepiness in hemodialysis patients (the SLEEPO study). American Journal of Kidney Diseases 1999; 34: 1089–1095. 166. Kunz D, Bes F. Exogenous melatonin in periodic limb movement disorder: an open clinical trial and a hypothesis. Sleep 2001; 24: 183–187. 167. Campos H, Tuﬁk S, Bittencourt L, Haidar M, Baracat EC. Progeston reduces periodic leg movements in menopause. Climacteric 2002; 5: 157 (abstract). 168. Saletu A, Gritsch F, Mailath-Pokorny G, Gruber G, Anderer P, Saletu B. Objektivierung der Therapieefﬁzienz eines neuartigen mandibularen Protrusionsbehelfs fur Schnarchen und schlafbezogene Atmungsstorungen mittels Polysomnographie. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 2002; 114: 807–815. 169. Michalsen A, Schlegel F, Rodenbeck A, et al. Effects of short-term modiﬁed fasting on sleep patterns and daytime vigilance in non-obese subjects: results of a pilot study. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2003; 47: 194– 200. 170. Simakajornboon N, Gozal D, Vlasic V, Mack C, Sharon D, McGinley BM. Periodic limb movements in sleep and iron status in children. Sleep 2003; 26: 735–738. 171. Cicolin A, Lopiano L, Zibetti M, et al. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on sleep architecture in parkinsonian patients. Sleep Medicine 2004; 5: 207–210. 172. Brenning R. Enantaldehydes and furaldehydes in molimina crurum nocturna including Ôrestless legsÕ. A comparative trial with carbacholine, inositolnicotinate, and placebo. Nordisk Medicin 1969; 81: 528–534. 173. Christiansen I. Mesionositolhexanikotinat (Hexanicit) og pentaerytritoltetranikotinat (Bufon) ved restless legs. Ugeskrift for Laeger 1970; 132: 1475–1476. 174. Hurlimann F. Restless legs and crampi in the night. Double blind study with circonyl in patients with defective peripheric arterial circulation. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 1974; 63: 194–195. 175. Noseda A, Nouvelle M, Lanquart JR, et al. High leg motor activity in sleep apnea hypopnea patients: efﬁcacy of clonazepam combined with nasal CPAP on polysomnographic variables. Respiratory Medicine 2002; 96: 693–699. 176. Sorensen O, Telstad W. Carbamazepin (Tegretol) ved restless legs syndrom. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening 1984; 104: 2093–2095. 177. Handwerker J-VJ, Palmer RF. Clonidine in the treatment of Ôrestless legÕ syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313: 1228–1229. 178. Bamford CR, Sandyk R. Failure of clonidine to ameliorate the symptoms of restless legs syndrome. Sleep 1987; 10: 398–399. 179. Zoe A, Wagner ML, Walters AS. High-dose clonidine in a case of restless legs syndrome. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1994; 28: 878–881. 180. Riemann D, Gann H, Dressing H. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep. TW Neurologie Psychiatrie 1995; 9: 1951. 181. Merren MD. Gabapentin for treatment of pain and tremor: a large case series. Southern Medical Journal 1998; 91: 739–744. 182. Morgan LK. Restless limbs: a commonly overlooked symptom controlled by ÔValiumÕ. Medical Journal of Australia 1967; 2: 589–594. 183. Matthews WB. Treatment of the restless legs syndrome with clonazepam. British Medical Journal 1979; 1: 751. 184. Boghen D. Successful treatment of restless legs with clonazepam. Annals of Neurology 1980; 8: 341. 185. Montplaisir J, Godbout R, Boghen D, DeChamplain J, Young SN, Lapierre G. Familial restless legs with periodic movements in sleep: electrophysiologic, biochemical, and pharmacologic study. Neurology 1985; 35: 130– 134. 186. Tollefson G, Erdman C. Triazolam in the restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1985; 5: 361–362. 187. Scharf MB, Brown L, Hirschowitz J. Possible efﬁcacy of alprazolam in restless leg syndrome. The Hillside Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1986; 8: 214–223. 188. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. Long-term, nightly benzodiazepine treatment of injurious parasomnias and other disorders of disrupted nocturnal sleep in 170 adults. American Journal of Medicine 1996; 100: 333– 337. 189. Stautner A, Stiasny-Kolster K, Collado-Seidel V, Bucher SF, Oertel WH, Trenkwalder C. Comparison of idiopathic and uremic restless legs syndrome: results of data base of 134 patients. Movement Disorders 1996; 11: S98. 190. Bezerra ML, Martinez JV. Zolpidem in restless legs syndrome. European Neurology 2002; 48: 180–181. 191. Akpinar S. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with levodopa plus benserazide. Archives of Neurology 1982; 39: 739. 192. von Scheele C, Kempi V. Long-term effect of dopaminergic drugs in restless legs. A 2-year follow-up. Archives of Neurology 1990; 47: 1223–1224. 193. Lauerma H. Nocturnal wandering caused by restless legs and short-acting benzodiazepines. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1991; 83: 492–493. 194. Oechsner M. Idiopathic restless legs syndrome: combination therapy with levodopa and ropinirole. Aktuelle Neurologie 1998; 25: 190–192. 195. Kumar VG, Bhatia M, Tripathi M, Srivastava AK, Jain S. Restless legs syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2003; 51: 782–783. 196. Silber MH, Shepard J-WJ, Wisbey JA. Pergolide in the management of restless legs syndrome: an extended study. Sleep 1997; 20: 878–882. 197. Noel S, Korri H, Vanderheyden JE. Low dosage of pergolide in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurologica Belgica 1998; 98: 52–53. 198. Winkelmann J, Wetter TC, Stiasny K, Oertel WH, Trenkwalder C. Treatment of restless leg syndrome with pergolide – an open clinical trial. Movement Disorders 1998; 13: 566–569. 199. Benes H. Idiopathisches Restless-legs-Syndrom: Behandlung mit Lisurid. Nervenheilkunde 2001; 20: 119–122. 200. Danoff SK, Grasso ME, Terry PB, Flynn JA. Pleuropulmonary disease due to pergolide use for restless legs syndrome. Chest 2001; 120: 313–316. 201. Bassetti C, Clavadetscher S, Gugger M, Hess CW. Pergolide-associated Ôsleep attacksÕ in a patient with restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine 2002; 3: 275–277. 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS 202. Stiasny K, Moller JC, Oertel WH. Safety of pramipexole in patients with restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2000; 55: 1589–1590. 203. Ferini-Strambi L. Restless legs syndrome augmentation and pramipexole treatment. Sleep Medicine 2002; 3: S23– S25. 204. Teive HA, de Quadros A, Barros FC, Werneck LC. Sindrome das pernas inquietas com heranca autossomica dominante piorada pelo uso de mirtazapina: relato de caso. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 2002; 60: 1025– 1029. 205. Silber MH, Girish M, Izurieta R. Pramipexole in the management of restless legs syndrome: an extended study. Sleep 2003; 26: 819–821. 206. Winkelman JW, Johnston L. Augmentation and tolerance with long-term pramipexole treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Sleep Medicine 2004; 5: 9–14. 207. Trzepacz PT, Violette EJ, Sateia MJ. Response to opioids in three patients with restless legs syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry 1984; 141: 993–995. 208. Hening WA, Walters A, Kavey N, Gidro-Frank S, Cote L, Fahn S. Dyskinesias while awake and periodic movements in sleep in restless legs syndrome: treatment with opioids. Neurology 1986; 36: 1363–1366. 209. Walters A, Hening W, Cote L, Fahn S. Dominantly inherited restless legs with myoclonus and periodic movements of sleep: a syndrome related to the endogenous opiates? Advances in Neurology 1986; 43: 309– 319. 210. Sandyk R, Bernick C, Lee SM, Stern LZ, Iacono RP, Bamford CR. L-dopa in uremic patients with the restless legs syndrome. International Journal of Neuroscience 1987; 35: 233–235. 211. Sandyk R, Bamford CR, Gillman MA. Opiates in the restless legs syndrome. International Journal of Neuroscience 1987; 36: 99–104. 212. Montplaisir J, Lorrain D, Godbout R. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep: the primary role of dopaminergic mechanism. European Neurology 1991; 31: 41–43. 213. Vahedi H, Kuchle M, Trenkwalder C, Krenz CJ. Peridurale Morphiumanwendung bei Restless-Legs-Status. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie 1994; 29: 368–370. 214. Walters AS, Winkelmann J, Trenkwalder C, et al. Longterm follow-up on restless legs syndrome patients treated with opioids. Movement Disorders 2001; 16: 1105–1109. 215. Jakobsson B, Ruuth K. Successful treatment of restless legs syndrome with an implanted pump for intrathecal drug delivery. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2002; 46: 114–117. 216. Ayres SJ, Mihan R. Leg cramps (systremma) and Ôrestless legsÕ syndrome. Response to vitamin E (tocopherol). California Medicine 1969; 111: 87–91. 217. Blattler W, Muhlemann M. Restless legs und nachtliche Beinkrampfe – Vergessenes zur Diagnose – Neues zur Therapie. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift. Journal Suisse de Medecine 1982; 112: 115–117. 218. Mountiﬁeld JA. Restless leg syndrome relieved by cessation of smoking. CMAJ 1985; 133: 426–427. 219. Ha HC. Regional intravenous analgesia for restless legs syndrome. Pain Clinic 1988; 2: 121–123. 220. Sandyk R, Kwo-on-Yuen PF, Bamford CR. The effects of baclofen in the restless legs syndrome: evidence for 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 1063 endogenous opioid involvement. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988; 8: 440–441. Dimmitt SB, Riley GJ. Selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitors can reduce restless legs symptoms. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000; 160: 712. Hu J. Acupuncture treatment of restless leg syndrome. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2001; 21: 312– 316. Kapur N, Friedman R. Oral ketamine: a promising treatment for restless legs syndrome. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2002; 94: 1558–1559. Lin Z. How to treat restless leg syndrome with traditional Chinese medicine? Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2003; 23: 306–307. Strang RR. The symptom of restless legs. Medical Journal of Australia 1967; 1: 1211–1213. Lipinski JF, Zubenko GS, Barreira P, Cohen BM. Propranolol in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia. Lancet 1983; 2: 685–686. Derom E, Elinck W, Buylaert W, van der Straeten M. Which beta-blocker for the restless leg? Lancet 1984; 1: 857. Ginsberg HN. Propranolol in the treatment of restless legs syndrome induced by imipramine withdrawal. American Journal of Psychiatry 1986; 143: 938. Bastani B, Westervelt FB. Effectiveness of clonidine in alleviating the symptoms of Ôrestless legsÕ. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 1987; 10: 326. Cavatorta F, Vagge R, Solari P, Queirolo C. Risultati preliminari con clonidina nella sindrome delle gambe senza riposo in due pazienti uremici emodializzati. Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 1987; 39: 93. Novelli G, Mediati RD, Casali R, Palermo P. Treatment of Ôrestless legs syndromeÕ with gabapentin. Pain Clinic 2000; 12: 61–63. Read DJ, Feest TG, Nassim MA. Clonazepam: effective treatment for restless legs syndrome in uraemia. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 1981; 283: 885–886. Salvi F, Montagna P, Plasmati R, et al. Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal myoclonus: initial clinical manifestation of familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1990; 53: 522–525. Horiguchi J, Yamashita H, Mizuno S, et al. Nocturnal eating/drinking syndrome and neuroleptic-induced restless legs syndrome. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 1999; 14: 33–36. Bruno RL. Abnormal movements in sleep as a post-polio sequelae. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1998; 77: 339–344. Walters AS, Mandelbaum DE, Lewin DS, Kugler S, England SJ, Miller M. Dopaminergic therapy in children with restless legs/periodic limb movements in sleep and ADHD. Dopaminergic Therapy Study Group. Pediatric Neurology 2000; 22: 182–186. Sharif AA. Entacapone in restless legs syndrome. Movement Disorders 2002; 17: 421. Scherbaum N, Stuper B, Bonnet U, Gastpar M. Transient restless legs-like syndrome as a complication of opiate withdrawal. Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36: 70– 72. Lipinski JF, Sallee FR, Jackson C, Sethuraman G. Dopamine agonist treatment of Tourette disorder in 1064 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. L. Vignatelli et al. children: results of an open-label trial of pergolide. Movement Disorders 1997; 12: 402–407. Brown LK, Heffner JE, Obbens EA. Transverse myelitis associated with restless legs syndrome and periodic movements of sleep responsive to an oral dopaminergic agent but not to intrathecal baclofen. Sleep 2000; 23: 591– 594. Hanna PA, Kumar S, Walters AS. Restless legs symptoms in a patient with above knee amputations: a case of phantom restless legs. Clinical Neuropharmacology 2004; 27: 87–89. Estivill E, Fuente-Panell V, Segarra-Isern F, AlbaresTendero J. Sindrome de piernas inquietas en un paciente con amputacion de ambas piernas. Revista de Neurologia 2004; 39: 536–538. Lauerma H, Markkula J, Hyvonen H, Kyyronen K. Idiopathic restless legs syndrome and psychoses. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 1997; 51: 205. Burns KE. Use of tramadol to control restless legs syndrome after orthopedic surgery. Hospital Pharmacy 2000; 35: 673. Freye E, Levy J. Acute abstinence syndrome following abrupt cessation of long-term use of tramadol (Ultram): a case study. European Journal of Pain 2000; 4: 307–311. Nordlander NB. Therapy in restless legs. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1953; 145: 453–457. Popkin RJ. Orphenadrine citrate (Norﬂex) for the treatment of Ôrestless legsÕ and related syndromes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1971; 19: 76–79. Morgan LK. Letter: Restless legs: precipitated by beta blockers, relieved by orphenadrine. Medical Journal of Australia 1975; 2: 753. Botez MI, Fontaine F, Botez T, Bachevalier J. Folateresponsive neurological and mental disorders: report of 16 cases. Neuropsychological correlates of computerized transaxial tomography and radionuclide cisternography in folic acid deﬁciencies. European Neurology 1977; 16: 230–246. Botez MI, Cadotte M, Beaulieu R, Pichette LP, Pison C. Neurologic disorders responsive to folic acid therapy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1976; 115: 217– 223. Yatzidis H, Koutsicos D, Agroyannis B, Papastephanidis C, Plemenos M, Delatola Z. Biotin in the management of uremic neurologic disorders. Nephron 1984; 36: 183–186. Sandyk R. L-Tryptophan in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry 1986; 143: 554–555. Yasuda T, Nishimura A, Katsuki Y, Tsuji Y. Restless legs syndrome treated successfully by kidney transplantation – a case report. Clinical Transplants 1986; 12: 138. Sandyk R, Iacono RP, Bamford CR. Spinal cord mechanisms in amitriptyline responsive restless legs syndrome in Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Neuroscience 1988; 38: 121–124. Kerr PG, van Bakel C, Dawborn JK. Assessment of the symptomatic beneﬁt of cool dialysate. Nephron 1989; 52: 166–169. O’Keeffe ST, Noel J, Lavan JN. Restless legs syndrome in the elderly. Postgraduate Medical Journal 1993; 69: 701–703. Kanter AH. The effect of sclerotherapy on restless legs syndrome. Dermatologic Surgery 1995; 21: 328–332. 258. Reuter I, Ellis CM, Ray-Chaudhuri K. Nocturnal subcutaneous apomorphine infusion in Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1999; 100: 163–167. 259. Rye DB, DeLong MR. Amelioration of sensory limb discomfort of restless legs syndrome by pallidotomy. Annals of Neurology 1999; 46: 800–801. 260. Ishizu T, Ohyagi Y, Furuya H, et al. A patient with restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement successfully treated by wearing a lumbar corset. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. Clinical Neurology 2001; 41: 438–441. 261. Kryger MH, Otake K, Foerster J. Low body stores of iron and restless legs syndrome: a correctable cause of insomnia in adolescents and teenagers. Sleep Medicine 2002; 3: 127–132. 262. Silber MH, Richardson JW. Multiple blood donations associated with iron deﬁciency in patients with restless legs syndrome. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2003; 78: 52– 54. 263. McLean AJ. The use of the dopamine-receptor partial agonist aripiprazole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Sleep 2004; 27: 1022. 264. Ware JC, Blumoff R, Pittard JT. Peripheral vasoconstriction in patients with sleep related periodic leg movements. Sleep 1988; 11: 182–186. 265. Laschewski F, Sanner B, Konermann M, Kreuzer I, Horstensmeyer D, Sturm A. Ausgepragte Hypersomnie einer 13jahrigen bei periodic leg movement. Pneumologie 1997; 3(Suppl. 51): 725–728. 266. Staedt J, Stoppe G, Riemann H, Hajak G, Ruther E, Riederer P. Lamotrigine in the treatment of nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS): two case reports. Journal of Neural Transmission 1996; 103: 355–361. 267. Oshtory MA, Vijayan N. Clonazepam treatment of insomnia due to sleep myoclonus. Archives of Neurology 1980; 37: 119–120. 268. Rousseau JJ, Debatisse DF. Etude clinique et polygraphique de deux observations de Ônocturnal myoclonusÕ sensibles au clonazepam. Acta Neurologica Belgica 1985; 85: 318–326. 269. Guilleminault C, Crowe C, Quera-Salva MA, Miles L, Partinen M. Periodic leg movement, sleep fragmentation and central sleep apnoea in two cases: reduction with clonazepam. European Respiratory Journal 1988; 1: 762– 765. 270. Romano TJ. Pharmacotherapy. Presence of nocturnal myoclonus in patients with ﬁbromyalgia syndrome. American Journal of Pain Management 1999; 9: 85. 271. Malek-Ahmadi P. Bupropion, periodic limb movement disorder, and ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1999; 38: 637– 638. 272. Leonhardt M, Abele M, Klockgether T, Dichgans J, Weller M. Pathological yawning (chasm) associated with periodic leg movements in sleep: cure by levodopa. Journal of Neurology 1999; 246: 621–622. 273. Picchietti DL, Walters AS. Moderate to severe periodic limb movement disorder in childhood and adolescence. Sleep 1999; 22: 297–300. 274. Rodrigues RN, Silva AA. Sonolencia diurna excessiva pos-traumatismo de cranio: associacao com movimentos periodicos de pernas e disturbio de comportamento do sono REM: relato de caso. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 2002; 60: 656–660. 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 Management of RLS 275. Santamaria J, Iranzo A, Tolosa E. Development of restless legs syndrome after dopaminergic treatment in a patient with periodic leg movements in sleep. Sleep Medicine 2003; 4: 153–155. 276. Kavey N, Walters AS, Hening W, Gidro-Frank S. Opioid treatment of periodic movements in sleep in patients without restless legs. Neuropeptides 1988; 11: 181–184. 277. Ancoli-Israel S, Seifert AR, Lemon M. Thermal biofeedback and periodic movements in sleep: patientsÕ subjective reports and a case study. Biofeedback and Self Regulation 1986; 11: 177–188. 278. Hanly P, Zuberi N. Periodic leg movements during sleep before and after heart transplantation. Sleep 1992; 15: 489–492. 279. Lee MS, Choi YC, Lee SH, Lee SB. Sleep-related periodic leg involvements associated with spinal cord lesions. Movement Disorders 1996; 11: 719–722. 280. Paradiso G, Khan F, Chen R. Effects of apomorphine on ﬂexor reﬂex and periodic limb movement. Movement Disorders 2002; 17: 594–597. 281. Gulden J. Levodopa in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Fortschritte der Medizin 1994; 112: 61–62. 282. Hain C. Development of opioid dependence in a not diagnosed restless legs syndrome. Psychiatrische Praxis 2002; 29: 321–323. 283. Horiguchi J, Inami Y, Miyoshi N, Kakimoto Y. Restless legs syndrome in four parkinsonian patients treated with amantadine. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. Clinical Neurology 1985; 25: 153–156. 2006 EFNS European Journal of Neurology 13, 1049–1065 1065 284. Kastin AJ, Kullander S, Borglin NE, et al. Extrapigmentary effects of melanocyte-stimulating hormone in amenorrhoeic women. Lancet 1968; 1: 1007–1010. 285. Nassr DG. Paradoxical response to nitrazepam in a patient with hypersomnia secondary to nocturnal myoclonus. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1986; 6: 121–122. 286. Petiau C, Zamagni M, Trautmann D, Sforza E, Krieger J. Periodic movements during sleep syndrome. Journal de medecine de Strasbourg 1995; 26: 166–169. 287. Satzger-Harsch U. Current studies: therapy with Ldopa/benserazide relieves excruciating symptoms in restless leg syndrome. A¨rztliche Praxis Neurologie Psychiatrie 1998; 11: 40. 288. Schwarz J, Trenkwalder C. Restless legs syndrome: treatment with L-dopa or L-dopa slow release preparations. Aktuelle Neurologie 1996; 23: 26–29. 289. Staedt J, Stoppe G, Kogler A, et al. Nachtliches Myoklonie-Syndrom (NMS) und Restless-Legs-Syndrom (RLS) – Ubersicht und Fallbeschreibung. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie 1994; 62: 88–93. 290. Stiasny K. Restless legs syndrome: sometimes are hot and cold showers sufﬁcient. A¨rztliche Praxis Neurologie Psychiatrie 1999; 3: 38–40. 291. Trenkwalder C. Dyskinesia on dopaminergic therapy for restless legs syndrome? Internistische Praxis 2003; 43: 99– 100. 292. Vaskivskyj M. Vliv hyperemizujici vodolecby na syndrom neklidnych nohou. Fysiatricky a Reumatologicky Vestnik 1973; 51: 308–309.
© Copyright 2018