CHC2P Unit 2 - Fort Frances High School

CHC2P
Canadian History
Grade 10, Applied
Lesson 6
CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 6
Lesson 6: WWI and the Contribution of Many
Expectations
•
•
Recognize how the First World War changed the lives of Canadian women
Recognize the contribution made by a wide range of Canadians during the war
Read the following article and pages 101 – 111 in your text to learn about some of
the issues in World War One.
Key Words: (For you to define)
propaganda
conscription
suffragist
Issues in the War
(http://europeanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Farchives.queen
su.ca%2Fwwi%2Fwomen.html )
This is a propaganda
poster that was directed
towards the women of
Canada during World
War I. This poster sends
a very strong message
to women, urging them
to give their husbands
and sons permission to
join the war effort. For
much of the war it was
against the law in
Canada for a married
man to enlist without the
written permission of
their spouse. Many
women did refuse to give their husbands
permission to enlist. In response these
types of posters tried to make Canadian
women feel guilty for not offering their
men to the war effort. This type of
propaganda was common during World
War I because of the almost instant
respect and honor that a soldier and his
family gained by going off to war.
Women were often seen walking
through the streets trying to encourage
all able bodied men to enlist. Many
Canadians still saw war as a glorious
and heroic event.
This picture was taken in Canada at a
school for the blind. These young ladies
are knitting and sewing items to be
shipped overseas to the front. This is a
good example of the kinds of
contributions made by Canadian women
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CHC2P – Canadian History
during World War I. Almost everyone in
Canada was involved with the war effort
in some way. Women made things like
pillows, sheets, flannel shirts, socks,
cholera belts wristlets, balaclavas, and
scarves.
Many Canadian women tried to do more
but were discouraged by their social
status and by rules established by the
Canadian government. For example,
women in Toronto tried to form the
"Women's Home Guard" (a group of
women to be trained as soldiers to
protect Canada's homefront and free up
This is a picture of some of the women
who were part of the Canadian Army
Nursing Service during WWI. Nursing is
the most prominent role that Canadian
women played at the front in Europe.
Over 2000 women enlisted as nursing
sisters in the Canadian Expeditionary
Force during WWI. The role of women
at the front was very limited because of
army rules and social constraints. The
women of Canada started an
organization called, "The Canadian
Unit 2 – Lesson 6
men in the official "Home Guard" for
overseas duty) but it failed because of
strong opposition within Canada.
Canadian women did form the
"Suffragists' War Auxiliary", designed to
provide women to do the jobs of men to
free them up for overseas duty. Over
30,000 women worked in munitions
factories, more than 5,000 were
employed in the civil service, thousands
more worked in banks, offices, factories,
and on farms, while over 1000 women
were employed by the Royal Air Force
(e.g., motor transport work, mechanical
work, and as ambulance drivers).
Women's Hospital Ship Fund". They
raised money by organizing concerts,
tag days, teas, card parties, lectures,
and bazaars. Women also raised money
for the Red Cross, Belgian Relief, and
Canadian Patriotic Fund. World War I
did help suffragist groups break some of
these social barriers. As a result, on
September 20, 1917 the vote was given
to women, whose husbands, sons, and
brothers had served in the war.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 6
This photo is a picture of some
Canadian nurses during World War I
(Ward 33). This picture was taken at
Christmas time. The hospital is well
decorated for the occasion, in hopes of
cheering up the wounded. One of the
biggest tasks of a WWI nurse was to
comfort the wounded and give them
hope of a healthy return home.
The second photo is another picture of a
military hospital, taken around
Christmas time in 1914. Military
hospitals were almost always
overcrowded and understaffed during
WWI. Often times there were not
enough beds for the wounded.
Key Question #7
The telephone and the television were not readily accessible during WWI. Posters
were the main source of information for Canadians during this time. After reading from
the textbook pages 101-111, students will design a poster (maximum 8.5 x 11 inches)
that represents one of the wartime issues. Students may also use the Internet.
•
Canada’s Aboriginal fighters
•
The farming industry
•
Women’s role
•
The mechanical industry
•
Victory Bonds
•
Conscription
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Criteria
Unit 2 – Lesson 6
Knowledge/
Understanding
Level 1
5
-communicates
information as
isolated pieces in
a random fashion
Level 2
6
-communicates
important
information but
not a clear
theme or overall
structure
-point of view
apparent but
unclear at times
Level 3
7
-clearly
communicates
main idea, theme
or point of view
Thinking/
Inquiry
-limited evidence
of a point of view
Communication
-colour and/or
symbols and
graphics unclear
-colours and/or
symbols and
graphics not
clearly
supportive
-colours and/or
symbols and
graphics support
theme of poster
Application
-text minimally
displayed and
purpose unclear
-text is clearly
displayed but
does not support
theme or
message
-text supports
the purpose of
the poster
-clear point of
view
Level 4
8-10
-clearly and
effectively
communicates
main idea, theme
or viewpoint to
audience
-provides
support of point
of view using rich
or persuasive
detail
-the message or
purpose is
obvious to the
audience
through the use
of colour and
symbol
-text or caption
delivers the
message with
impact
/40
Women in WWI
After reading pages 108 - 111, answer the following support questions.
Support Questions
32.
33.
34.
What new and important roles were played by Canadian
women during WWI?
Why might immigrants from “enemy” countries vote against
conscription?
Why would women whose husbands, fathers, sons and
brothers were fighting in the war vote for conscription?
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P
Canadian History
Grade 10, Applied
Lesson 7
CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
Lesson 7: The Roaring 20s
Expectations
•
•
•
Explain the economic factors which resulted in the boom and bust cycle of
the 1920s and 1930s
Demonstrate how Canadians adapted to the difficult economic times
Describe the continuing impact of technological development on Canadian
society
Key Words: (for you to define)
communist
strike
conspiracy
essential service
assembly line
collective bargaining
Read the following article to learn about women in the 1920s.
The Roaring 20s Women
Flappers in the Roaring Twenties
(http://history1900s.about.com/od/1920s/a/flappers.htm )
In the 1920s, a new woman
was born. She smoked,
drank, danced, and voted.
She cut her hair, wore
make-up, and went to
petting parties. She was
giddy and took risks. She
was a flapper.
The "Younger Generation"
Before the start of World War I, the
Gibson Girl was the rage. Inspired by
Charles Dana Gibson's drawings, the
Gibson Girl wore her long hair loosely
on top of her head and wore a long
straight skirt and a shirt with a high
collar. She was feminine but also broke
through several gender barriers for her
attire allowed her to participate in sports,
including golf, roller skating, and
bicycling.
Then World War I started. The young
men of the world were being used as
cannon fodder for an older generation's
ideals and mistakes.
The attrition rate in the trenches left few
with the hope that they would survive
long enough to return home. They found
themselves inflicted with an "eat-drinkand-be-merry-for-tomorrow-we-die
spirit."1 Far away from the society that
raised them and faced with the reality of
death, many searched (and found)
extreme life experiences before they
entered the battlefield.
When the war was over, the survivors
went home and the world tried to return
to normalcy. Unfortunately, settling
down in peacetime proved more difficult
than expected. During the war, the boys
had fought against both the enemy and
death in far away lands; the girls had
bought into the patriotic fervor and
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CHC2P – Canadian History
aggressively entered the workforce.
During the war, both the boys and the
girls of this generation had broken out of
society's structure; they found it very
difficult to return.
They found themselves expected to
settle down into the humdrum routine of
American life as if nothing had
happened, to accept the moral dicta of
elders who seemed to them still to be
living in a Pollyanna land of rosy ideals
which the war had killed for them. They
couldn't do it, and they very
disrespectfully said so.2
Women were just as
anxious as the men
to avoid returning to
society's rules and
roles after the war. In
the age of the Gibson
Girl, young women
did not date, they
waited until a proper
young man formally
paid her interest with
suitable intentions
(i.e. marriage). However, nearly a whole
generation of young men had died in the
war, leaving nearly a whole generation
of young women without possible
suitors. Young women decided that they
were not willing to waste away their
young lives waiting idly for spinsterhood;
they were going to enjoy life.
The "Younger Generation" was breaking
away from the old set of values.
The "Flapper"
The term "flapper" first appeared in
Great Britain after World War I. It was
there used to describe young girls, still
somewhat awkward in movement who
had not yet entered womanhood. In the
June 1922 edition of the Atlantic
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
Monthly, G. Stanley Hall described
looking in a dictionary to discover what
the evasive term "flapper" meant:
The dictionary set me right by defining
the word as a fledgling, yet in the nest,
and vainly attempting to fly while its
wings have only pinfeathers; and I
recognized that the genius of
'slanguage' had made the squab the
symbol of budding girlhood.3
Authors such F. Scott Fitzgerald and
artists such as John Held Jr. first used
the term to the U.S., half reflecting and
half creating the image and style of the
flapper. Fitzgerald described the ideal
flapper as "lovely, expensive, and about
nineteen."4 Held accentuated the flapper
image by drawing young girls wearing
unbuckled galoshes that would make a
"flapping" noise when walking.5
Many have tried to define flappers. In
William and Mary Morris' Dictionary of
Word and Phrase Origins, they state, "In
America, a flapper has always been a
giddy, attractive and slightly
unconventional young thing who, in [H.
L.] Mencken's words, 'was a somewhat
foolish girl, full of wild surmises and
inclined to revolt against the precepts
and admonitions of her elders.'"6
Flappers had both an image and an
attitude.
Flapper Image
The Flappers' image consisted of drastic
- to some, shocking - changes in
women's clothing and hair. Nearly every
article of clothing was trimmed down
and lightened in order to make
movement easier.
It is said that girls "parked" their corsets
when they were to go dancing.7 The
new, energetic dances of the Jazz Age,
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
required women to be able to move
freely, something the "ironsides" didn't
allow. Replacing the pantaloons and
corsets were underwear called "stepins."
Flappers also started wearing make-up,
something that had previously been only
worn by loose women. Rouge, powder,
eye-liner, and lipstick became extremely
popular.
The outer clothing of flappers is even
still extremely identifiable. This look,
called "garconne" ("little boy"), was
instigated by Coco Chanel.8 To look
more like a boy, women tightly wound
their chest with strips of cloth in order to
flatten it.9 The waists of flapper clothes
were dropped to the hipline. She wore
stockings - made of rayon ("artificial
silk") starting in 1923 - which the flapper
often wore rolled over a garter belt.10
Beauty is the fashion in 1925. She is
frankly, heavily made up, not to imitate
nature, but for an altogether artificial
effect - pallor mortis, poisonously scarlet
lips, richly ringed eyes - the latter
looking not so much debauched (which
is the intention) as diabetic.12
Flapper Attitude
The hem of the skirts also started to rise
in the 1920s. At first the hem only rose a
few inches, but from 1925 to 1927 a
flapper's skirt fell just below the knee.
The skirt comes just an inch below her
knees, overlapping by a faint fraction
her rolled and twisted stockings. The
idea is that when she walks in a bit of a
breeze, you shall now and then observe
the knee (which is not rouged - that's
just newspaper talk) but always in an
accidental, Venus-surprised-at-the-bath
sort of way.11
The Gibson Girl, who prided herself on
her long, beautiful, lush hair, was
shocked when the flapper cut hers off.
The short haircut was called the "bob"
which was later replaced by an even
shorter haircut, the "shingle" or "Eton"
cut.
The shingle cut was slicked down and
had a curl on each side of the face that
covered the woman's ears. Flappers
often finished the ensemble with a felt,
bell-shaped hat called a cloche.
The flapper attitude was characterized
by stark truthfulness, fast living, and
sexual behavior. Flappers seemed to
cling to youth as if it were to leave them
at any moment. They took risks and
were reckless.
They wanted to be different, to
announce their departure from the
Gibson Girl's morals. So they smoked.
Something only men had done
previously. Their parents were shocked.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
I was sure my girls had never
experimented with a hip-pocket flask,
flirted with other women's husbands, or
smoked cigarettes. My wife entertained
the same smug delusion, and was
saying something like that out loud at
the dinner table one day. And then she
began to talk about other girls.
"They tell me that that Purvis girl has
cigarette parties at her home," remarked
my wife.
She was saying it for the benefit of
Elizabeth, who runs somewhat with the
Purvis girl. Elizabeth was regarding her
mother with curious eyes. She made no
reply to her mother, but turning to me,
right there at the table, she said: "Dad,
let's see your cigarettes."
Without the slightest suspicion of what
was forthcoming, I threw Elizabeth my
cigarettes. She withdrew a fag from the
package, tapped it on the back of her
left hand, inserted it between her lips,
reached over and took my lighted
cigarette from my mouth, lit her own
cigarette and blew airy rings toward the
ceiling.
My wife nearly fell out of her chair, and I
might have fallen out of mine if I hadn't
been momentarily stunned.13
Smoking wasn't the most outrageous of
the flapper's rebellious actions. Flappers
drank alcohol. At a time when the United
States had outlawed alcohol
(Prohibition), young women were
starting the habit early. Some even
carried hip-flasks full so as to have it on
hand. More than a few adults didn't like
to see tipsy young women. Flappers had
a scandalous image as the "giddy
flapper, rouged and clipped, careening
in a drunken stupor to the lewd strains
of a jazz quartet."14
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
The 1920s was the Jazz Age and one of
the most popular past-times for flappers
was dancing. Dances such as the
Charleston, Black Bottom, and the
Shimmy were considered "wild" by older
generations. As described in the May
1920 edition of the Atlantic Monthly,
flappers "trot like foxes, limp like lame
ducks, one-step like cripples, and all to
the barbaric yawp of strange
instruments which transform the whole
scene into a moving-picture of a fancy
ball in bedlam."15 For the Younger
Generation, the dances fit their fastpaced life-style.
For the first time since the train and the
bicycle, a new form of faster
transportation was becoming popular.
Henry Ford's innovations were making
the automobile an accessible
commodity to the people. Cars were fast
and risky - perfect for the flapper
attitude. Flappers not only insisted on
riding in them; they drove them.
Unfortunately for their parents, flappers
didn't just use cars to ride in. The back
seat became a popular location for the
new popular sexual activity, petting.
Others hosted petting parties. Though
their attire was modeled after little boys'
outfits, flappers flaunted their sexuality.
It was a radical change from their
parents and grandparents' generations.
The End of Flapperhood
Though many were shocked by the
flapper's skimpy attire and licentious
behavior, a less extreme version of the
flapper became respectable among the
old and the young. Some women cut off
their hair and stopped wearing their
corsets, but didn't go to the extreme of
flapperhood.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
If one judges by appearances, I
suppose I am a flapper. I am within the
age limit. I wear bobbed hair, the badge
of flapperhood. (And, oh, what a comfort
it is!) I powder my nose. I wear fringed
skirts and bright-colored sweaters, and
scarfs, and waists with Peter Pan
collars, and low-heeled "finale hopper"
shoes. I adore to dance. I spend a large
amount of time in automobiles. I attend
hops, and proms, and ball-games, and
crew races, and other affairs at men's
colleges. But none the less some of the
most thoroughbred superflappers might
blush to claim sistership or even remote
relationship with such as I. I don't use
rouge, or lipstick, or pluck my eyebrows.
I don't smoke (I've tried it, and don't like
it), or drink, or tell "peppy stories." I don't
pet.16
At the end of the 1920s, the stock
market crashed and the world was
plunged into the Great Depression.
Frivolity and recklessness was forced to
come to an end. However, much of the
flapper's changes remained.
In the 1920s, flappers broke away from
the Victorian image of womanhood.
They dropped the corset, chopped their
hair, dropped layers of clothing to
increase ease of movement, wore
make-up, created the concept of dating,
and became a sexual person. They
created what many consider the "new"
or "modern" woman.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
Support Questions
Read pages 128 - 139 to answer these questions.
35.
36.
37.
38.
What changes did Flappers make in the behaviour, clothing and attitudes of
women? Place a check mark beside the changes that are considered socially
acceptable for women today.
How did the war benefit Canadian economy?
Identify some current issues of importance to women.
What gains did women make in the 1920s in employment and recreation?
39.
Complete the passage with the following words in your notebook:
Equality
Judge
federal
political
1917 suffagists
M.P. enlisted
victories
Murphy
Person’s
Canadian women who fought for the right to vote were called ______________. Their
struggle for political ________________ began in the 1880s. Some provinces such as
Manitoba gave women the right to vote in 1926. In ___________________, Prime
Minister Borden gave female relatives of _________________ the right to vote in
____________ elections. Many important “firsts” took place in this period. In 1916,
_______________ became the first female __________________. In 1921, Agnes
Macphail became the first female ___________________. These were important
______________ for the women’s movement. However, the struggle for political
equality was not over. In the 1920s, women had to prove that they not only had the
right to be involved in ________________ life, but that they were in face “persons.” The
dramatic court battle that took place is called the ______________ Case.
The Model T
(http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/showroom/1908/model.t.html )
It has never been proven that Henry Ford ever said,
"You can paint it any color...," but the phrase has
survived for 3/4 of a century and does indicate
something about America's beloved Model T: its
"steadfastness," its enduring and endearing
"sameness." The first production Model T Ford was
assembled at the Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit on
October 1, 1908.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 7
Over the next 19 years, Ford would build 15,000,000 automobiles with the Model "T"
engine, the longest run of any single model apart from the Volkswagen Beetle. From
1908-1927, the Model T would endure with little change in its design. Henry Ford had
succeeded in his quest to build a car for the masses.
With the development of the sturdy, low-priced Model T in 1908, Henry Ford made his
company the biggest in the industry. By 1914, the moving assembly line enabled Ford
to produce far more cars than any other company. The Model T and mass production
made Ford an international celebrity.
Support Questions
Read pages 144 – 147 in order to answer the following questions.
Technology
40.
How did electricity affect Canadian households? Describe the radio they used
and its programming.
Easy Street
41.
42.
43.
44.
Describe Ford’s “assembly line”. How did this make the price of cars cheaper?
Page 149 describes travel. How many kilometres of road were asphalt?
How fast could a car travel in Ontario if a horse-drawn carriage was near?
How did a person get a license to drive in 1927?
Key Question #8
Design an advertisement for a car used in the 1920s. You may use the Internet and the
text book for information. You may either design a radio broadcast script for the
automobile, or you may design a poster.
Marking:
•
•
•
•
•
/10
Does the advertisement include detailed information about the car (how fast does
it go?) (2 marks)
Does the advertisement include the price of the car? (2 marks)
Does the advertisement give features of the car? (3 marks)
What type of car? (1 marks)
Is the ad “catchy”? (2 marks)
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P
Canadian History
Grade 10, Applied
Lesson 8
CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 8
Lesson 8: The Great Depression
Expectations
•
•
Identify the causes of the Great Depression
Describe how Canadians coped during the Depression
Key Words: (for you to define)
depression
inflation
drought
recession
The Dirty Thirties
The Stock Market Crashed on September 3, 1929 causing a
depression that impacted every aspect of life for people all over the
world. There was not one single cause of this economic downward
spiral but rather a number of variables interconnected to cause
major economic and social upheaval.
Causes of the Depression
1. Overproduction: Because of improvements in technology, more goods were being
produced and companies expanded. Eventually people stopped buying and
companies had to close.
2. Inflation: Prices kept rising- wages did not keep up with the cost of living
3. Buying on Credit
A. Buying stocks on margin (10% down – pay the rest later)
B. Bank loans
C. Instalment buying – a portion would be paid at the time of purchase
and rest was to be paid later
4. Drought: The prairies experienced a drought for 6 years. Farmers lost their farms
5. Distribution of wealth: Farmers were losing money and could not afford to buy
manufactured goods. One third of Canada was farmers.
6. Stock Market crash: The price of stocks declined and many investors lost money.
Companies received less money from the sale of stocks and closed or laid off
workers.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 8
Read the following article on relief camps in Canada.
Relief Camps
(http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/canadianhistory/
depression/depression.html#EFFECTS )
Because a family's relief was cut when a child turned 16,
young men left home to reduce the burden on their
families. Thousands of unemployed rode freight trains to
the west looking for work which didn't exist. The
Conservative government of Bennett set up work camps to
prevent the growing unrest among this wandering mass of
young unemployed workers. The camps were located in remote areas such as northern
Ontario and B.C.'s interior. Inmates called these camps "slave camps". They lived on
war surplus clothing, bunked in tar-paper shacks, ate army rations and were forced to
work six and a half days a week for twenty cents a day.
Through 1932, the Relief Camp Workers Union (RCWU) was formed under the direction
of Arthur Evans, a skilled carpenter, miner and communist labour organizer. The RCWU
grew into a strong, disciplined democratic organization, focusing on the hopes and
energy of the unemployed. In the spring of 1935, RCWU went on strike. They filled the
streets of Vancouver shouting "Work & wages" and "When Do We Eat?". They
demanded real work wages, better food, clothing and shelter, and an end to military
discipline. Despite the overwhelming public
support of "our boys", the federal government
refused to negotiation with strikers. After this,
the strikers voted to take their grievances to
Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
Trekkers
On June 3rd, 1935, the first group of trekkers climbed into boxcars leaving Vancouver.
They were joined by men in Kamloops, Field, Golden, Calgary and Moose Jaw.
Women's groups, service clubs, labour councils, churches, unions and caring citizens
met the trekkers at each stop with offers of food and shelter. Over 2000 unemployed
men massed in Regina by mid-June. In Winnipeg, Thunder bay and Toronto, thousands
were just waiting to join. Bennett decided that it was time to put an end to this. He
ordered CPR to ban trekkers as "trespassers". Federal Cabinet directed RCMP to
bolster troops in Regina to disperse the trekkers. Meanwhile, trekkers met with the
government ministers in Regina. It was proposed that a small delegation continue to
Ottawa. Eight were voted to go including Arthur Evans. On June 22nd, the delegation
met with Bennett. Evans presented the strikers' demands. Bennett accused the purpose
of the strikers to be a revolution to destroy law and order. The meeting disintegrated into
heated exchanges with Bennett calling Evans a thief and Evans calling Bennett a liar.
Negotiations ended.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 8
Support Questions
Read page 154 “Learning to Survive”. In paragraph form answer the following questions.
45.
46.
47.
How did Canadians learn to survive through this tough time?
Do you think that you could survive in these circumstances?
Why did Canadians “ride the rails” during the depression?
The Dustbowl on page 156 affected the prairies.
48.
49.
50.
51.
What happened to the wheat farms?
What did the grasshoppers do to what remained of the farms?
Read page 160-163. Why did the government set up relief camps?
Why did camp workers start the On-To-Ottawa Trek? What happened?
Key Question #9
Complete the following charts in your notes. (30 marks K/U – 3marks each column)
Causes
Causes of the Great Depression
Explanation
Impact of Great Depression
Young people
Families
Workforce
Immigrant Groups
Single men/women
Farmers
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P
Canadian History
Grade 10, Applied
Lesson 9
CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
Lesson 9: The 1930’s
Expectations
•
•
•
Explain how and why different provincial governments intervened in
Canada’s economic and social life during the 1930s
Explain how Liberal and Conservative governments reacted to the Depression
Identify the social and political movements behind such new political parties
Key Words: (for you to define)
imperial
eccentric
quintuplets
autonomy
Bennett and King
R.B. Bennett and William Lyon Mackenzie King had very different approaches to
government during the depression. Read the articles below and pages 164 – 167 in the
text to answer key question number 10.
Richard Bedford Bennett (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947)
was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930
to October 23, 1935.
He was born in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, Canada, and
studied at Dalhousie University, graduating in 1893 with a law
degree. Bennett spent time as a school teacher, principal, lawyer
and businessman before entering local politics. Before moving to
Alberta, he was a partner in a law firm in Chatham, New
Brunswick. Max Aitken, later, Lord Beaverbrook, was his office
boy.
In 1905, Bennett became the first leader of the Alberta Conservative Party and, in 1909,
won a seat in the provincial legislature before switching to federal politics.
He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1911, was appointed Minister of
Finance in 1926 and became Conservative leader in 1927 at the first Conservative
leadership convention.
He was elected Prime Minister of Canada in 1930, defeating William
Lyon Mackenzie King, just when the worst depression of the century
was hitting the country. Bennett tried to fight the depression by
expanding trade within the British Empire and imposing tariffs for
imports from outside the Empire promising that his measures would
blast Canadian exports into world markets, but his success was limited,
and his impersonal style and reputation for wealth alienated many struggling
Canadians.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
When his imperial preference policy failed to generate the desired result Bennett's
government had no alternatives. The party's pro-business, pro-bank inclinations
provided no relief to the millions of unemployed who were now becoming increasingly
desperate and agitated. The Conservatives seemed indecisive and unable to cope and
rapidly lost the confidence of Canadians becoming a focus of hatred, ridicule and
contempt. Car owners who could no longer afford gasoline reverted to having their
vehicles pulled by horses and dubbed them Bennett buggies.
R. B. Bennett faced pressure for radical reforms from within and without the party. The
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, formed in 1932, prepared to fight its first
election on a socialist program; the Social Credit movement was gaining supporters in
the west and shocked the country by winning the Alberta provincial election and forming
government in September, 1935; Bennett's own government suffered a defection as his
Trade minister, Henry Herbert Stevens, left the Conservatives to form the
Reconstruction Party of Canada when Bennett refused to enact Stevens' plans for
drastic economic reform and government intervention in the economy to deal with the
crisis.
Reacting to fears of communist subversion, Bennett used the controversial Section 98
of the Canadian Criminal Code. That section allowed for the imprisonment of anyone
who was a member of an organization that officially advocated the violent overthrow of
the government, even if the accused had never committed an act of violence or even
personally supported such an action. With this law, the leaders of the Communist Party
of Canada, including Tim Buck were arrested and imprisoned for sedition. However, this
action proved to be a damaging embarrassment for the government, especially when
Buck was the victim of an apparent assassination attempt when he was shot at when he
was confined to his cell during a prison riot, despite the fact he was not participating in
any way. Bennett's government was forced to admit that they ordered the shooting,
allegedly only to scare Buck. Regardless, Bennett's case against Buck lost all credibility
and ultimately backfired as Buck was soon released and feted as
a hero.
Bennett attempted to prevent social disorder by evacuating the
unemployed to relief camps far away from the cities but this only
exacerbated social tensions leading to the On to Ottawa Trek of
unemployed protesters who intended to ride the rails from
Vancouver to Ottawa (gathering new members along the way) in
order to bring their demands for relief to Bennett personally. The
trek ended in Regina on July 1, 1935 when the RCMP, on orders
from the Prime Minister and Minister of Justice Hugh Guthrie,
attacked a public meeting of 3,000 strikers leaving one dead and
dozens injured.
Following some of the New Deal policies of United States President Franklin D.
Roosevelt Bennett changed tactics, introducing his "New Deal" of public spending and
federal intervention in the economy. Bennett proposed progressive income taxation, a
minimum wage, a maximum for work week hours, unemployment insurance, health
insurance, an expanded pension program and grants to farmers but the Conservative's
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
conversion to the concept of a welfare state was too little too late and the Tories were
routed in the October 1935 election winning only 40 seats to 173 for Mackenzie King's
Liberals.
Richard Bennett retired to Britain in 1938 and, in 1941, became the first, and only,
former Canadian Prime Minister to be elevated to the British House of Lords (as
Viscount Bennett).
He died on June 26, 1947 at Mickleham, England, and is buried in St. Michael's
Churchyard, Mickleham, Surrey, England. He is the only former Prime Minister not
buried in Canada.
William Lyon Mackenzie King,
PC , LL.B, Ph.D., MA, BA (December 17, 1874 – July 22,
1950) was the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from
December 29, 1921, to June 28, 1926; September 25, 1926,
to August 7, 1930; and October 23, 1935, to November 15,
1948. He had the longest combined time in the Prime
Minister position in British Commonwealth history.
Early life
King was born in Berlin, Ontario (now Kitchener). A grandson of William Lyon
Mackenzie, leader of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837, King held five university
degrees. He obtained three from the University of Toronto: B.A. 1895, LL.B. 1896, and
M.A. 1897. After studying at the University of Chicago, Mackenzie King proceeded to
Harvard University, receiving an M.A. in political economy 1898 and a Ph.D. 1909.
He was first elected to Parliament as a Liberal in a 1908 by-election, and was re-elected
in a 1909 by-election following his appointment as Canada's first Minister of Labour. He
lost his seat in the 1911 general election, which saw the Conservatives defeat his
Liberals.
Following his defeat, he went to the United States to work for the Rockefeller family,
assisting them in labour relations. He returned to Canada to run in the 1917 election,
which focused almost entirely on the conscription issue, and lost again, due to his
opposition to conscription, which was supported by the majority of English Canadians.
In 1919, he was elected leader at the first Liberal leadership convention, and soon
returned to parliament in a by-election. King remained leader until 1948. In the 1921
election, his party defeated Arthur Meighen and the Conservatives, and he became
Prime Minister.
The "King-Byng" Affair
In his first term as Prime Minister, he was opposed by the Progressive Party, which did
not support trade tariffs. King called an election in 1925, in which the Conservatives won
the most seats, but not a majority in the House of Commons. King held onto power with
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
the support of the Progressives. Soon into his term,
however, a bribery scandal in the Department of Customs
was revealed, which led to more support for the
Conservatives and Progressives, and the possibility that
King would be forced to resign. King asked Governor
General Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament and call another
election, but Byng refused, the only time in Canadian history
that the Governor General has exercised such a power. King
resigned, and Byng asked Meighen to form a new
government. When Meighen's government was defeated in
the House of Commons a short time later, however, Byng
called a new election in 1926. King and the Liberals returned
to power.
Depression and war
In his second term, King introduced old-age pensions. In February 1930, he appointed
Cairine Wilson, whom he knew personally, as the first female senator in Canadian
history.
His government was in power during the beginning of the Great Depression, but lost the
election of 1930 to the Conservative Party, now led by Richard Bedford Bennett.
King's Liberals were returned to power once more in the 1935 election. The worst of the
Depression had passed, and King implemented relief programs such as the National
Housing Act and National Employment Commission. His government also created the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936, Trans-Canada Airlines (the precursor to
Air Canada) in 1937, and the National Film Board of Canada in 1939.
King hoped an outbreak of war in the 1930s could be
avoided. He had met with Hermann Göring and Adolf
Hitler, whom he said was a reasonable man who
cared for his fellow man, working to improve his
country in the midst of the Depression. He confided
in his diary that he thought Hitler "might come to be
thought of as one of the saviours of the world" and
told a Jewish delegation that "Kristallnacht might turn
out to be a blessing."
King realized the necessity of World War II before
Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, but unlike World War I
when Canada was automatically at war as soon as
Britain joined, King asserted Canadian autonomy by
waiting until September 10, when a vote in the
House of Commons took place, to support the
government's decision to declare war.
Athlone, Roosevelt, Churchill, and
King at a Québec Conference
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
King's promise not to impose conscription contributed to the Liberals' re-election in the
1940 election. But after the fall of France in 1940, Canada introduced conscription for
home service, and only volunteers were to be sent overseas. King wanted to avoid a
repeat of the Conscription Crisis of 1917. By 1942, the military was pressing King hard
to send conscripts to Europe. In 1942, King held a national plebiscite on the issue
asking the nation to relieve him of the commitment he had made during the election
campaign. He said that his policy was "conscription if necessary, but not necessarily
conscription."
French Canadians voted overwhelmingly against conscription, but the majority of
English Canada supported it. For the next two years, King tried to avoid the issue with a
massive campaign to recruit volunteers, despite heavy losses in the Dieppe Raid in
1942, in Italy in 1943, and after the Battle of Normandy in 1944. At the end of 1944, he
finally decided it was necessary to send conscripts to Europe. This led to a brief political
crisis (see Conscription Crisis of 1944), but the war ended just a few months later. Few
of the conscripts ever saw combat.
King was extremely unpopular among Canadian servicemen and women during the
war. This probably stemmed from his physical reluctance to visit military hospitals to
greet and offer support to wounded servicemen. His appearances at Canadian Army
installations in Britain (and, after 6 June 1944, in Europe) were invariably greeted with
boos and catcalls.
Canadian autonomy
Throughout his term, King led Canada from a colony with
responsible government to an autonomous nation within the
British Commonwealth. During the Chanak Crisis of 1922,
King refused to support the British without first consulting
parliament, while Conservative leader, Arthur Meighen,
pronounced "ready, aye, ready". The British were
disappointed with King's response, but this was the first time
that Canada had really asserted an independent foreign
policy. After the King-Byng Affair, King went to the Imperial
Conference of 1926, and argued for greater autonomy of the
Dominions. This resulted in the Balfour Declaration, which
announced the equal status of all members of the
Commonwealth of Nations, including Britain.
In the lead up to World War II, King played two roles. On one hand, he told English
Canadians that Canada would no doubt enter war if Britain did. On the other hand, he
and his right hand man Ernest Lapoint told French Canadians that Canada would only
go to war if it was in the country's best interests. With the dual messages, King slowly
led Canada towards war without causing strife between Canada's two main linguistic
communities. As his final step in asserting Canada's autonomy, King ensured that the
Canadian Parliament made its own declaration of war on the day after Britain.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
Post-war Canada
Mackenzie King won the election of 1945. King was considered a minor player in the
war by both United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill, despite hosting a wartime conference in Quebec City in 1943. Still,
King thought Roosevelt showed him more attention as an Allied leader than,
paradoxically, his fellow Commonwealth premier Churchill. King helped found the
United Nations in 1945. In 1948, he retired after 22 years as Prime Minister, and was
succeeded as Liberal Party leader and Prime Minister of Canada by Louis St. Laurent.
Personal life
Mackenzie King was a cautious politician who tailored his policies to prevailing opinions.
"Parliament will decide," he liked to say when pressed to act.
Privately, he was highly eccentric with his preference for consulting spirits, including
those of Leonardo da Vinci, Louis Pasteur, his dead mother and his dog. He sought
personal reassurance from the spirits, rather than political advice. Indeed, after his
death, one of the mediums said that she had not realized that he was a politician. King
did ask whether his party would win the 1935 election, one of the few times politics
came up during his séances. His occult interests were not widely known during his term
in office, however, and only became publicized by biographers after his death that used
the extensive diaries that he kept most of his life.
He never married, but had a close female friend, Joan Patteson, a married woman, with
whom he spent much of his leisure time. His country retreat at Kingsmere in Gatineau
Park, near Ottawa, is open to the public.
Mackenzie King died on July 22, 1950, at his home near Ottawa. He is buried in Mount
Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto. He is pictured on the Canadian fifty-dollar bill.
Key Question #10
Create a T-Chart that shows the differences between Bennett and King
(20 marks – 10 marks K/U information, 10 marks Communication)
Bennett
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
King
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
Support Questions
Read pages 164 - 167.
52.
53.
54.
55.
Why was King defeated in 1930?
What was Bennett’s New Deal?
Why did voters elect King in 1935?
What ended the Great Depression?
Read the following article on the legendary professional athlete; Jackie Robinson.
Jackie Robinson
(http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-41-621-3322-20/that_was_then/sports/jackie_robinson )
Jackie Robinson spends just one year in
Montreal, but changes it forever. In 1928
Montreal gets its first serious
professional baseball team, the
Montreal Royals of the International
League. In 1945 the team is a Triple-A
minor league affiliate of the Brooklyn
Dodgers. Branch Rickey, president and
co-owner of the Dodgers, chooses
Montreal as the test bed for a move that
would change baseball and earn
Montreal a place in baseball history: he
signs a black man.
A storm of controversy follows the
signing of Jackie Robinson as the
Royals' second baseman. As he tours
with the Royals, Robinson is subjected
to jeers and even death threats. But at
home in Montreal, considered by many
to be the most cosmopolitan and
tolerant city in North America, Robinson
is mostly welcomed with open arms. He
returns the favour on April 18, 1946 with
a stupendous first game.
Robinson hits a three-run homerun,
three singles, and steals two bases to
help the Royals crush the Giants 14-1.
That year he helps the Royals win the
"Little World Series," and becomes a
Montreal hero. He is immediately
promoted to the Brooklyn Dodgers,
where he becomes Rookie of the Year.
Robinson spends ten years with the
Dodgers, retiring in 1957.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 9
Support Questions
Read pages 172 - 175 after reading the above article.
Entertainment in the 1930s
56.
57.
58.
Although Canadians in the 1930s did not have much money to spare they still
found entertainment. They used the radio to hear music, soap operas and
hockey games. The radio was free to listen to. If you were living in the
1930s, what do you think you would enjoy most? Why?
Who were the two professional sport teams?
What team finally defeated the east in football in 1935?
Key Question #11
Using the textbook page (174 - 175) and the Internet research the Dionne quintuplets
and answer the following questions. (15 marks)
A) Why did the birth of the Quintuplets create such a sensation? (2 marks K/U)
B) What evidence exists that the Dionne Quintuplets were exploited? Do you
think that they could have been personally damaged by what they
experienced? Why or why not? (5 marks T/I)
C) Give your opinion of the Ontario government’s treatment of the Dionne
Quintuplets. Provide evidence to support your opinion. (5 marks
Communication)
D) Record the information that you find at
www.northbaychamber.com/dionne.htm (3 marks Communication)
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P
Canadian History
Grade 10, Applied
Lesson 10
CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
Lesson 10: Canada’s Independence
Expectations
•
•
•
Describe contributions made by Canadian men and women during the 1920s and
1930s
Identify the social and political movements behind such new political parties
Explain how and why different provincial governments intervened in Canada’s
economic and social life during the 1930s.
Key Words: (for you to define)
epilepsy
transfusions
diabetes
ambiguity
tuberculosis
socialist
insulin
Read the following articles on Canadian scientists who significantly impacted the
world. See the support questions for a chart to complete while reading.
FREDERICK BANTING
(http://www.cbc.ca/greatest/top_ten/nominee/banting-frederick.html )
To millions at home and abroad he's
known as the man who discovered
insulin, bringing new hope to diabetics
the world over. Frederick Banting's
groundbreaking research in the early
1920s brought him worldwide acclaim
and earned him a lifetime annuity from
the federal government, a knighthood in
the British crown and Canada's first ever
Nobel Prize.
But not long before he made his mark in
medical history, Banting was just a
young doctor and First World War
veteran struggling with a fledgling
medical practice in London, Ontario
while teaching medical classes at the
University of Western Ontario.
But that all changed on Oct. 31, 1920
after a journal article about diabetes
research sparked a moment of
inspiration. The 28-year-old quickly
recorded his thoughts in a notebook -- to
try and extract the mysterious hormone
associated with the withering disease
from the pancreases of dogs.
In his day, diabetics faced shorter lives,
blindness and even lost limbs as a result
of their body's low levels of insulin, a
naturally occurring hormone that
converts sugar into energy. At the time
researchers knew that diabetics suffered
from an imbalance of blood sugar, but
they were unable to prescribe anything
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CHC2P – Canadian History
beyond starvation diets and exercise
routines.
With this in mind, Banting spent several
months looking for lab space, finally
finding a sympathetic ear in John James
Richard Macleod, a University of
Toronto professor and diabetes expert.
In May 1921, Macleod introduced
Banting to 22-year-old Charles Best,
one of his brightest students who had
moved from the U.S. to study medicine.
After Best's undergraduate exams the
pair quickly began their work in an
overheated and under-funded lab.
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
the first time. The discovery, though not
a cure for the disease, heralded a new
healthy life for millions living with
diabetes.
The following year Banting and Macleod
were nominated for and awarded the
1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or
Medicine. While the announcement puts
Canada on the map, the omission of
Best and Collip proved contentious.
Banting himself was annoyed by the
exclusion of Best, who he had
considered an equal in the landmark
discovery. He made a point of publicly
expressing his support for his lab mate
and split his share of the prize money
with him, as does Macleod with Collip.
In a selfless move, the quartet decided
not to seek a patent for their life-saving
serum, a move that surely cost them a
fortune. Instead, they sold the rights to
their formulation to U of T for $1 as a
means of ensuring that insulin could be
affordably manufactured for years to
come.
Over the summer of 1921 they
conducted numerous tests on dogs,
advancing their ideas with guidance
from the more experienced Macleod.
Along the way, another researcher,
James Bertram Collip, helped to refine a
workable sample of insulin for human
use.
On Jan. 23, 1922 the researchers gave
their serum its first human trial on 14year-old Leonard Thompson, a severe
diabetes sufferer. The teenager's health
improved almost immediately, which
lead to other tests on diabetics, all of
whom displayed similar miraculous
turnarounds. With insulin reintroduced to
their blood stream, diabetics could bring
their blood sugar level under control for
In the two decades following his
discovery Banting struggled to make
another similar breakthrough. Despite
research into silicosis and cancer, he
failed to make any major discoveries.
However, he did create the world's first
G-suit to help pilots cope with highspeed flight. This led to his appointment
in 1939 as the chairman of the National
Research Council's Committee on
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Aviation Medical Research. And he
even found time to make a name for
himself as an amateur artist.
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
As part of his duties, he boarded a
bomber plane on Feb. 21, 1941 bound
for England. Shortly after takeoff the
plane crashed in Musgrave Harbour,
Newfoundland. Only the pilot survived.
Banting was 49 years old.
Canadian Medicine: Doctors and Discoveries Brave Enough,
Bold Enough for Brain Surgery:
Dr. Wilder Penfield
In 1928, American neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) accepted a clinical
position at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. In addition to treating patients, he
also pursued his research in three small laboratory rooms within the hospital. He would
spend his life dedicated to the search for solutions to the many unanswered questions
about the brain. Penfield was not Canada's first neurosurgeon, but he made important
gains in the study and treatment of the brain. In particular, he investigated the surgical
treatment of epilepsy (a brain disorder characterized by sudden and recurrent seizures).
He founded the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) in 1934 and was its first director.
The MNI was the first of its kind in the world and became a centre of outstanding
research, teaching, and treatment. The disciplines of neurosurgery, neuropathology,
neurology, and related basic sciences were brought
together in an effort to improve the diagnosis and
treatment of brain disorders. Medical men and scientists
worked closely together. Penfield drove the
commitment, dedication, and hard work of the institute.
In collaboration with others, Penfield developed a new
surgical approach that became known as the "Montreal
Procedure".
The "Montreal Procedure" was a surgical treatment for epilepsy, a brain disorder that
Penfield had spent years studying. The patient suffering from epilepsy was given a local
anaesthetic and thus remained conscious for the operation. Penfield then removed the
skull cap to expose the brain tissue of the patient. He probed sections of the brain,
asking the patient to describe what he or she was feeling. In this way, Penfield was able
to identify, in most cases, the precise location of the source of the seizure activity. He
could then remove or destroy that bit of tissue to end the patient's seizures.
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
Furthermore, by using this method, Penfield was able to map areas of the brain and
their related functions.
People suffering from epilepsy traveled to the Montreal Neurological Institute for this
experimental surgery which Penfield performed more times than any other
neurosurgeon in the world during his time and enjoyed tremendous success.
Approximately half of his patients were cured of epileptic seizures. His work brought him
and the Montreal Neurological Institute recognition, awards, and honours.
Mobile Blood Banks:
The Innovative Dr. Norman Bethune
Canadian surgeon Norman Bethune
(1890-1939) remains today a hero
venerated by the Chinese people. At
home, Canadians view the doctor from
Gravenhurst, Ontario with ambiguity
because of his socialist politics. In 1936,
Bethune went to Spain to fight Franco's
Fascists. Two years later, Bethune was
in China aiding the Chinese Communist
Eighth Route Army against the invading
Japanese. But what makes Bethune a
notable medical figure was his
innovative approach to saving the lives
of wounded soldiers at the battlefront.
While in Spain and later in China,
Bethune introduced the concept of
mobile blood bank units. This allowed
Bethune and other doctors to perform
immediate blood transfusions on
wounded soldiers, often saving their
lives before they were sent to hospital.
Trained in Toronto, Bethune became a
thoracic surgeon so that he might help
the many tuberculosis cases in North
America. His interest in tuberculosis
came from his own personal experience
with the disease. In the 1920s, he had
been diagnosed with tuberculosis and
spent months at the famous Trudeau
Sanatorium in the Adirondack
Mountains, where he successfully
underwent an artificial pneumothorax, a
procedure which collapses the diseased
lung thus allowing it to rest. This was
considered a new, radical treatment at
the time. He moved to Montreal
because of its high tuberculosis
mortality rates and took a position at the
Royal Victoria Hospital. While there,
Bethune improved upon a number of
surgical instruments. His most famous
instrument was the Bethune Rib Shears,
which still remains in use today. His
greatest contribution to medicine,
however, was yet to come.
While in Spain and to a
much greater extent in
China, Bethune
witnessed the loss of
many soldiers due to
bleeding upon transit
back to base hospitals. He organized
mobile medical units, which followed
regiments into action, to provide needed
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
blood transfusions to wounded men. His
blood transfusion service consisted of a
wagon containing a refrigerator,
sterilizer, incubator and other needed
equipment such as lamps, flasks, blood
transfusion sets, and stored blood.
Blood was needed most at the front, on
the spot where the wounded lay. The
introduction of the mobile blood bank to
the battlefield is an important medical
contribution.
In 1939, Bethune died of blood
poisoning after operating with a cut
finger on an infected Chinese soldier.
(He refused to wear rubber gloves,
arguing that it reduced the sensibilities
of his fingers needed in operating.)
There were no sulpha drugs (penicillin)
for treatment. Immediately upon his
death, he became a martyr and a hero
among the Chinese people. Throughout
his life, Bethune was an innovator and
idealist from his revised surgical
implements to his socialist views on the
need for universal health care in
Canada. He is remembered as both a
great doctor and humanitarian for his
medical service.
Support Questions
59.
Copy the following chart into your notes. While you are reading the articles on
Canadian scientists add 5 facts for each scientist.
Dr. Banting
60.
Dr. Penfield
Dr. Bethune
Read pages 176 - 177. Copy and complete the following in your own notes.
Something positive you
have read…
Something negative you have
read…
Something interesting you
have read…
Key Question #12
Imagine all three of the Canadian scientists studied above are presently up for a lifetime
achievement award that is based on the improving lives around the world. You will
select ONE of the scientists and submit a one page letter arguing for your choice.
Address your letter to the lifetime achievement committee and provide three reasons
with specific examples of how the scientists made a significant contribution to the world.
You may use the textbook and other sources of information to assist with your letter.
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
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CHC2P – Canadian History
Level 1
5
Unit 2 – Lesson 10
Level 2
6
Level 3
7
Level 4
8-10
-includes some
information, and
ideas,
/10
-includes
limited
information,
and ideas,
-includes
considerable
information, and
ideas,
-includes
thorough
information, and
ideas,
-argument is
inconsistent
-includes some
evidence
-argument is
convincing
-includes
considerable
evidence
-argument is
insightful
/10
-argument is
evident but
unconvincing
-organization is
ineffective
-limited
language and
voice
-organization is
somewhat
effective
-some use of
appropriate
language and
voice
-organization is
effective
-considerable
use of
appropriate
language and
voice
-use of
language
conventions is
limited
-frequent errors
in mechanics
-use of
language
conventions is
inconsistent
-some errors in
mechanics
-use of
language is
accurate
-very few errors
in mechanics
Criteria
Knowledge/
Understanding
Thinking/
Inquiry
-includes little
evidence
Communication
/10
Application
10
Copyright © 2005, Durham Continuing Education
-includes
thorough
evidence
-organization is
highly effective
-thorough use of
language and
voice
-use of
language is
accurate,
effective and
virtually errorfree
-mechanics are
correct
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