Chapter 9, Lesson 1 Notes • Greece is a land of mountains, long coastlines, deep valleys, rugged highlands • Greece is surrounded by bodies of water, including the Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea. • Greece’s geography led to people living in small independent communities. • The Greeks interacted with other cultures through trade • The people who inhabited the area of Greece were the Minoans, Mycenaeans, and then the Greeks. Key Question: How did the physical geography of Greece cause it to separate into independent communities? – Mountains, deep valleys, and rugged terrain separated Greece into different regions. People did not frequently travel to other regions, making it difficult to unite the regions under one government. Chapter 9, Lesson 2 • The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus and behaved much like humans. • Athenians originally had an aristocracy, rule by a few wealthy people. Later they develop into a democracy. • All men born in Athens were considered citizens • 5oo Athenian citizens were chosen to form a council to represent the people. Key Questions • How was democracy in ancient Athens different from democracy in the United States? Women, slaves, and men born outside Athens were not eligible to participate in the government. Most people in Athens did not have the right to vote, own property, or testify in court. Today in the U.S., all citizens over the age of 18 have these rights. • How was democracy in ancient Athens different from democracy in the United States? Women, slaves, and men born outside Athens were not eligible to participate in the government. Most people in Athens did not have the right to vote, own property, or testify in court. Today in the U.S., all citizens over the age of 18 have these rights. Chapter 9, Lesson 3 Notes • During a mighty sea battle at Salamis, Athenian ships destroyed the Persian fleet, defeating the most powerful empire of its time. • During the Golden Age the Greeks exceled in many fields of study such as, the arts, architecture, philosophy, and medicine • The Delian League was an alliance of Greek city-states, formed by the leaders of Athens • Sparta and other Greek city-states rebelled against Athens by destroying farms and homes Chapter 9, Lesson 3 Notes Key Questions Compare Athens and Sparta Alike: • both were city-states in ancient Greece; • both were enemies with the Persians. Different: • Athens had a democratic government; • Sparta had a strict military regime. Describe three characteristics of the Golden Age of Athens. • Artists created beautiful statues and monuments • Philosophers taught to extend human knowledge • People studied the causes of sickness. Describe the events that occurred during the Peloponnesian War. • In 431 B.C. war broke out between Athens and Sparta. • Spartans destroyed homes and farms, hoping to starve Athenians • Athenians suffered great losses from a plague and govt becomes unstable. • 404 B.C. Athens surrendered. The Greek Philosophers • Socrates- tried to teach people to think by asking them questions (Socratic method). • Plato- believed govt should be run by a small group of wise men. Believed if humans applied reason, they could create the perfect world. • Aristotle- Wrote books on many subjects. Established a school in Athens for the study of all branches of knowledge. This became a model for the modern university. Chapter 9, Lesson 4 Notes • Alexander the Great was able to rise to power b/c he defeated the Persian Empire, conquered Syria and Phoenicia, and became pharaoh of Egypt • Alexander was able to expand his empire b/c of his creative military mind, courage, and confidence • Alexander spread Greek culture by creating a vast empire in Europe, Asia, and Africa. • Hellenistic culture developed with the founding of new Greek cities, young people reading the works of Greek writers, and international trade • Discoveries made during the Hellenistic Age included: a system of plane geometry, an understanding of how the human body works, and an understanding of how levers work • Doctors in Alexandria made discoveries about how the human body worked, and Hippocrates looked for causes of diseases. Greek Scientists • Hippocrates: Ancient Greek doctor; “father of medicine” Archimedes: first person to explain how levers work Pythagoras: Ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician whose ideas led to the field of geometry Euclid: Greek mathematician who developed the system of plane geometry What contributions were made in the field of medicine during the Hellenistic Age? Doctors in Alexandria made discoveries about how the human body worked, and Hippocrates looked for causes of diseases.
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