Tài liệu

THPTQG – P4,5,6
Để làm tốt các bài từ vựng trong bài thi, các em cần nắm chắc các từ loại (parts of speech),
dạng từ (word forms), cách cấu tạo từ (word formation), và có một vốn từ đủ lớn. Ngoài ra, các
em còn phải nắm chắc các cấu trúc của các từ loại khác nhau, và cách sử dụng từ đúng trong từng
ngữ cảnh. Sau đây, chúng tôi xin giới thiệu một số cách cấu tạo từ dùng tiền tố (prefixes) và hậu
tố (suffixes) phổ biến và một số dạng bài tập về từ vựng thường có trong các bài thi.
Danh từ có thể được cấu tạo bằng cách dùng hậu tố thêm vào động từ, tính từ hoặc các danh
từ khác.
A. Lập danh từ từ động từ:
1.V + -ation: pronunciation, qualification
2. V + -ion: prediction, depression
3. V + -ment: replacement, arrangement
4. V + -al:
arrival, refusal
5. V + -ance: performance, appearance
B. Lập danh từ từ tính từ và các danh từ khác:
1. Adj + -ness: kindness, friendliness
2. Adj + -ce: violence, permanence
3. Adj + -ity: ability, possibility
4. Adj + -y:
honesty, frequency
5. N + -ship: friendship, relationship
6. N + -hood: childhood, fatherhood
Chú ý một số trường hợp đặc biêt:
anxious anxiety, strong strength, delighted delight, wise wisdom, bored boredom, proud
pride, hungry hunger, thirsty thirst,…
Luyện tập:
Exercise 1: Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the correct form of the root words
1. In general, men have more dangerous (occupy) ____ then women.
2. Vietnam Airlines apologised for the (cancel) ____ of the 11.15 flight to Bangkok.
3. The most honorable action she could think of was to forgive her friend’s (thought) ____.
4. There is now no (possible) ____ that she will make a full recovery.
5. He shouted so loudly that the whole (neighbor) ____ could hear him.
6. Who is eligible to apply for (member) ____ of the association?
7. All (apply) ____ must be sent in before 15th September.
8. Visitors complained about the bad (organize) ____ in the old museum.
9. They received (approve) ____ for the proposal from the shareholders.
10. According to today’s paper, the mayor has appointed a committee to study what (improve)
____ need to be made in the city.
Số nhiều của danh từ tiếng Anh thường được cấu tạo bằng cách thêm –s vào danh từ gốc.
Tuy nhiên có rất nhiều ngoại lệ. Sau đây là một số trường hợp ngoại lệ phổ biến.
1. Thêm -es: Danh từ tận cùng là ss, sh, ch, hoặc x + es:
dish  dishes, witch  witches…
2. Thêm -ies: Với danh từ tận cùng là –y bỏ -y và thêm -ies.
cherry  cherries, lady  ladies
3. Danh từ có tận cùng là “o” thì thêm “es”:
hero  heroes, volcano  volcanoes
Chú ý: nhiều danh từ có nguồn gốc vay mượn không theo quy tắc thêm -oes:
piano  pianos, solo  solos…
4. Những danh từ kết thúc bằng -f/-fe thì đổi thành -ves:
- wife  wives
- calf  calves
- thief  thieves
- life  lives
- shelf  shelves
- sheaf  sheaves - wolf  wolves
- leaf  leaves
- half  halves
- self  selves
- loaf  loaves
- knife  knives
- Hai trường hợp: dwarf  dwarfs/ dwarves, hoof  hoofs/ hooves
- Danh từ khác + s: cliffs, safes, kerchiefs, roofs…
5. Một số danh từ có dạng số ít và số nhiều giống nhau:
Đa số là tên các con vật: deer, moose, fish, squid…
6. Một số danh từ số nhiều đôi khi được hình thành bằng cách thay đổi nguyên âm của danh
từ số ít:
ox  oxen
foot  feet mouse  mice…
7. Một số danh từ vừa là số ít, vừa là số nhiều:
series, species, means, crossroads, headquarters, barracks…
8. Danh từ số nhiều bất quy tắc có nguồn gốc từ tiếng Latin và Hi Lạp:
* Kết thúc bằng -is đổi thành –es (phát âm [iz]): axis  axes
oasis  oas
* Kết thúc bằng -on đổi thành -a: phenomenon  phenomena
criterion  criteria
* Kết thúc bằng -um đổi thành -a, hoặc chỉ thêm -s: datum  data
medium  media
* Kết thúc bằng -us đổi thành -i: radius  radii
alumnus  alumni
(Chú ý: virus  viruses)
9. Số nhiều của danh từ kép: thêm -s các từ đầu
runner-up  runners-up
Danh từ ghép với man và woman thì chuyển số nhiều của hai thành phần:
manservant  menservant
woman scientist  women scientist
10. Số nhiều tên các dân tộc:
Có vài quy tắc khác nhau:
* English: English (people)/ the English
* Chinese: Chinese (people)/ the Chinese
* Italian: Italians/ Italian people
Luyện tập:
Exercise 2: Use the correct plural form of the nouns in the list to complete the sentences.
Use each word only once.
memorandum stimulus
1. Scientists and engineers are building large ____ that can carry up to 1,000 passengers.
2. ____ are endangered ____ which are protected by law.
3. Graduate students are often required to write long papers in which they state an opinion and give
evidence to support it. These papers are often referred to as ____.
4. Thunder and lightning are ____ of nature.
5. Before the students began their chemistry experiments, they states theories to explain what was
going to happen in their experiments. In other words, they made ____.
6. The manager, Ms. Hall, is well known for the large number of ____ she sends to her staff. She
believes it is necessary to write many notes to remind the staff of things that need to be taken care
7. People get most of their news about the world through the mass ____ (that is, through radio,
television, newspapers, and magazines).
8. Certain factors cause plants to grow. These ____ are light, water, and fertile soil.
9. Very small living things that can cause disease are called germs. Germs are forms of ____.
10. In a desert, there are places where water is available and a few plants grow. These areas are
called ____.
Tính từ tiếng Anh có thể được cấu tại bằng cách thêm hậu tố vào danh từ hoặc động từ. Sau
đây là một số trường hợp cấu tạo tính từ phổ biến dùng các hậu tố.
1. N + -al:
regional, national,…
2. V + -able:
acceptable, reliable,…
3. N + -ous:
courageous, dangerous,…
4. N + -like:
warlike, manlike,…
5. N + -y:
hairy, woolly,…
6. N + -ical:
biological, geographical,…
7. N + -ful:
careful, fearful,…
8. N/ V + -ive:
creative, talkative,…
9. N + -ly:
friendly, manly,…
10. N/ Adj + -ish: childish, whitish,…
11. N + -en:
wooden, woolen,…
12. N + -less (negative): painless, thoughtless,…
Chú ý: Nhiều từ kết thúc bằng -ible, chứ không phải -able: (in)credible, (in)edible,
(in)visible, (im)possible, (ir)responsible, (in)flexible, eligible, horrible, terrible,…
Luyện tập
Exercise 3. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the correct form of the root words
1. I enjoyed the book very much because it was so ____. (read)
2. His ____ knowledge is very poor – he thinks Paris is in Italy. (geography)
3. His hair is ____, not bright red. (red)
4. A very old car is usually a(n) ____ car. (rely)
5. The engineer gave the house a thorough, ____ check-up before my father bought it.
6. The ____ desk was quite ____ and impossible to carry. (mass – bulk)
7. Our girls’ volleyball squad was ____ over a taller team. (victory)
8. We were ____ of the conflict between the two parties. (observe)
9. The President made people aware of the need to be more ____. (economy)
10. The shop had a sale on only a ____ selection of its winter clothes. (part)
Sau đây là những tiền tố tạo từ trái nghĩa phổ biến:
1. a-: atypical, asexual
2. un-: unkind, untidy
3. in-: indirect, inevitable
4. im-: immature, impossible
5. il-: illegal, illiterate
6. ir-: irregular, irreligious
7. dis-: disagree, dissatisfied
8. mis- (-wrongly): misbehave, misunderstand
9. non-: non-standard, non-fiction
Luyện tập
Exercise 4. Fill the gaps to finish the following sentences, using a negative prefix with
the correct form of the word given.
1. Don’t depend on him; he’s a very ____ person. (RELY)
2. Don’t be so ____; we’re only been waiting a few minutes. (PATIENT)
3. Is this metal a ____? (CONDUCT)
4. Please, don’t be so ____: I can’t do all the work by myself. (REASON)
5. There are always mistakes because the firm is so ____. (EFFICIENT)
6. Sorry about the mistake. I ____ the instructions you gave me. (UNDERSTAND)
7. They’ve ____ my name on this form – the first letter is L, not R. (SPELL)
8. This jeweller’s job is to remove ____ from silver. (PURE)
9. When I was a child, I was sometimes ____ towards my father. (OBEY)
10. The level of dangerous chemicals present in the river is now so low as to be ____.
11. The food was so badly cooked; it is ____. (EDIBLE)
12. Out of curiosity, people stare at anything ____. (USUAL)
Những số tiền tố sau có thể thêm vào trước các từ gốc và tạo nên các từ mới mang nghĩa khác
với các từ gốc.
1. co- (together with): co-chairman, co-worker…
2. mid- (in the middle of): midnight, midweek
3. over- (more than usual): overpaid, overdone
4. under- (below/ not enough): undercharged, underpaid…
5. re- (again): rebuild, reappear
6. self- (by itself): self-help, self-contained
7. sub- (below/ less than): subway, subnormal…
8. un- (with verbs meaning the opposite): untie, undo…
9. super- (more/ better than): superstar, superhuman…
10. out- (with verbs meaning better than): outgrow, outrun…
11. anti- (opposed to/ against): antisocial, antigen…
Luyện tập
Exercise 5. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using a prefix with the correct form of the
root word on the right. The first is done as an example.
1. I was late because I underestimated how much time I need. (ESTIMATE)
2. He wrote the book alone, so he doesn’t have a ____. (AUTHOR)
3. Even if you’re good at a game, you shouldn’t be ____. (CONFIDENT)
4. It is very rude to interrupt someone in ____. (SENTENCE)
5. Many buildings were ____ after the earthquake in 1980. (BUILD)
6. Most people who work feel that they are ____. (PAY)
7. She’s having a rest because she has been ____. (WORK)
8. I’d lost my key so I couldn’t ____ the door when I got time. (LOCK)
9. We have ____ temperatures every night in ____. (ZERO – WINTER)
10. People who ____ often become ____. (EAT – WEIGHT)
11. You can go this way until the flood ____. (SIDE)
Exercise 6. Choose the correct option A, B, C, or D to complete each of the sentences.
1. The course offers a range of ____ possibilities for developing your skills.
A. exciting
B. excite
C. excited
D. excitement
2. Please remember to buy a ____ of soap.
A. piece
B. bar
C. loaf
D. packet
3. Could I just have one ____ of bread, please?
A. piece
B. loaf
C. bag
D. portion
4. The ____ which are hung in the shop are terribly unfashionable.
A. clothing
B. items of clothing
C. cloths
D. wear articles
5. The Chinese ____ strong and long-lasting traditions.
A. has many
B. have much
C. have many
D. has much
6. ____ moved to that city recently.
A. A number of Vietnamese have
B. A number of Vietnamese has
C. The number of Vietnamese has
D. The number of Vietnamese have
7. What ____ you used in picking a winner in the art contest?
A. is the criteria
B. are the criteria
C. are the criterion D. are the criterions
8. A(n) ____ is an extremely famous performer, especially a musician or film actor/ actress.
A. artist
B. star
C. superstar
D. superhuman
9. Salmon ____ the first part of their life in a river.
A. spend
B. spends
C. is spending
D. are spending
10. Mum, where is the ____ of strawberry jam?
A. can
B. bottle
C. tube
D. jar
Exercise 7. Choose the correct option A, B, C, or D to complete each of the sentences.
1. We searched the ____ neighbourhood for the missing boy.
A. surround
B. surrounding
C. surrounded
D. surroundings
2. Look at him, eating away a ____ of chocolate.
A. piece
B. bar
C. loaf
D. stick
3. If she gets a ____ of anger, don’t panic, that’s her usual self.
A. fit
B. breath
C. period
D. look
4. He made the soup by mixing ____ meat with some rice.
A. little
B. few
C. a little
D. a few
5. He wanted some meat, so he went to the ____.
A. butcher’s
B. baker’s
C. grocer’s
D. chemist’s
6. I want to ____ a table at the Bamboo Restaurant.
A. maintain
B. manage
C. reserve
D. allow
7. The ____ age of the girls in this club is sixteen.
A. general
B. average
C. equal
D. usual
8. My younger sister is very ____ and so she loves going out, but I am much quieter and prefer to
stay at home.
A. enjoyable
B. lively
C. pleasing
D. funny
9. I have made a mistake. Could you get me a clean ____ of paper?
A. slice
B. piece
C. flash
D. sheet
10. I really can’t ____ the twins apart. They look so alike.
A. say
B. talk
C. take
D. tell
Exercise 8. Write the correct form of the words in brackets to complete the passage.
Following the unexpected closure last year of a number of factories in and around Bradstone,
leading to a sharp rise in local (1. EMPLOY) ____ it is very good to hear that the (2.
CONSTRUCT) ____ of a new high-technology centre will begin (3. SHORT) ____ on the site of
one of the old factories.
Network UK, the company responsible, made the (4. ANNOUNCE) ____ yesterday. They
said they would soon start (5. ADVERTISE) ____ for two hundred new staff who are suitably (6.
QUALIFY) ____ for the new jobs available. The management said it was also their (7. INTEND)
____ to offer fifty job-training positions for young people who have (8. RECENT) ____ left school.
They want to build up a dynamic, well-trained and (9. ENTHUSIASM) ____ team and believe that
they can contribute to making Bradstone a happy and (10. WEALTH) ____ town once again.
(From Cambridge First Certificate of English)
Exercise 9. Choose the correct option A, B, C, or D to complete each of the sentences.
1. He kindly offered to ____ me the way to the station.
A. show
B. direct
C. describe
D. explain
2. The name shared by all members of a family is the ____.
A. nickname
B. middle name
C. subname
D. surname
3. In class, students must pay ____ to the teachers’ lectures.
A. attendance
B. concentration
C. focus
D. attention
4. Mathematics and Literature are ____ subjects in high school.
A. additional
B. compulsory
C. optional
D. academic
5. Do people in your country ____ their birthdays?
A. celebrate
B. arrange
C. organize
D. make
6. It seems that the world record for this event is almost impossible to ____.
A. meet
B. break
C. compare
D. balance
7. Eskimos build igloos from ____ of ice.
A. cubes
B. bars
C. slices
D. blocks
8. Lomonosov was not ____ a great scientist but also a very talented poet.
A. fairly
B. merely
C. hardly
D. scarcely
9. Many parts of the country are suffering water ____ after the unusually dry summer.
A. thirst
B. shortage
C. supply
D. absence
10. They ____ their living by catching fish in the ocean every day.
A. did
B. made
C. tried
D. had
Exercise 10. Choose the correct option A, B, C, or D to complete each of the sentences.
1. He left ____ when he failed the exam the second time.
A. discouraged
B. annoyed
C. undecided
D. determined
2. Nobody wears clothes like that anymore – they’re ____.
A. fashion
B. unfashionable
C. fashionable
D. fashionably
3. Many people like the slow ____ of life in the countryside.
A. step
B. pace
C. speed
D. space
4. Tom finds it hard to live up to his father’s ____.
A. expectations
B. expectancy
C. intentions
D. respects
5. He is very stubborn, so it is very difficult to ____ him to go.
A. persuade
B. suggest
C. make
D. prevent
6. The driver was badly ____ in the accident.
A. destroyed
B. injured
C. broken
C. wounded
7. The government ____ the flood victims with food, clothes and shelter.
A. gave
B. presented
C. offered
D. provided
8. Using the computer competently is an important ____ to help one get a good job.
A. reason
B. aspect
C. factor
D. issue
9. He was too ____ to tell his teacher about the stupid mistake.
A. shame
B. shameful
C. ashamed
D. shamefully
10. There should be no discrimination on ____ of sex, race or religion.
A. fields
B. places
C. areas
D. grounds
Exercise 1:
1. occupations
2. cancellation
3. thoughtlessness
5. neighbourhood
6. membership
7. applications
9. approval
10. improvements
Exercise 2:
1. aircraft
2. Rhinos – species
3. theses
5. hypotheses
6. Memoranda
7. media
9. bacteria
10. oases
Exercise 3:
1. readable
2. geographical
3. reddish
5. comprehensive
6. massive – bulky
7. victorious
9. economical
10. partial
Exercise 4:
1. unreliable
2. impatient
3. non-conductor
5. inefficient
6. misunderstood
7. misspelled/misspelt
9. disobedient
10. insignificant
11. inedible
Exercise 5:
1. underestimated
2. co-author
3. overconfident
5. rebuilt
6. underpaid
7. overworking
9. sub-zero - mid-winter
10. overeat- overweight
Exercise 6:
1. A
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. B
8. C
Exercise 7:
1. B
2. B
3. A
Exercise 8:
1. unemployment
5. advertising
9. enthusiastic
Exercise 9:
1. A
2. D
3. D
Exercise 10:
1. A
2. B
3. B
4. C
5. A
2. construction
6. qualified
10. wealthy
6. C
7. B
8. B
3. shortly
7. intention
4. possibility
8. organization
4. Phenomena
8. stimuli
4. unrealiable
8. observant
4. unreasonable
8. impurities
12. unusual
4. mid-sentence
8. unlock
11. has subsided
9. A
10. D
9. D
10. D
4. announcement
8. recently
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. D
8. B
9. B
10. B
4. A
5. A
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. C
10. D