Thoracoscopy for Empyema and Hemothorax

Thoracoscopy for Empyema and
Hemothorax
Rodney J. Landreneau, Robert J. Keenan, Stephen R. Hazelrigg,
Michael J. Mack and Keith S. Naunheim
Chest 1996;109;18-24
DOI 10.1378/chest.109.1.18
The online version of this article, along with updated
information and services can be found online on the World
Wide Web at:
http://chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/109/1/18
CHEST is the official journal of the American College of Chest
Physicians. It has been published monthly since 1935.
Copyright 2007 by the American College of Chest Physicians,
3300 Dundee Road, Northbrook IL 60062. All rights reserved.
No part of this article or PDF may be reproduced or distributed
without the prior written permission of the copyright holder
(http://www.chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml). ISSN:
0012-3692.
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
for Empyema and
Thoracoscopy
Hemothorax*
Robert J. Keenan, MD;
Rodney J.R.Landreneau, MD;Michael
J. Mack, MD; and
StephenS. Hazelrigg,MDMD;
Keith
Naunheim,
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has assumed
greater importance in the management of pleural
disease. Since 1990, we have performed VATS proce¬
dures to manage a variety of pathologic pleural pro¬
cesses in 306 patients. The 99 patients with complex
empyemas or hemothoraces are the focus of this
report. Seventy-six patients with complex empyemas
(including 26 chronic) were approached with VATS
after inadequate chest tube drainage. The causes
associated with the thoracic empyemas were parap¬
neumonic collections in 47, after hemothorax in 8, in¬
fected sympathetic effusions associated with intra-abdominal sepsis in 6, postresectional in 5, prolonged
fistula following spontaneous pneubronchopleural
mothorax in 4, chronic drainage of malignant pleural
effusions in 4, and chronic drainage of pleural effusion
in 2 patients undergoing chemotherapy. Ages ranged
from 14 to 78 years. Sixty-three patients (83%) were
treated with thoracoscopic drainage ±decortication
alone. Thirteen patients (17%) required subsequent
thoracotomy for decortication, including 12 of the 26
(46%) chronic empyemas known to be greater than 3
weeks old. Chest tubes were removed 3.3 ±2.9 days
tal stay for these patients with empyema averaged
7.4 ±7.2 days. There were five deaths, all related to
progressive sepsis from associated pneumonia (6.6%).
Twenty-three patients underwent thoracoscopic evac¬
uation of hemothoraces that resulted following open
heart surgery in 6, thoracic trauma in 7, were iatrogenic in 7, and bleeding into malignant effusions in 3.
All were successfully treated by thoracoscopic drain¬
age and pleural debridement alone. Chest tubes were
removed 2.8 ±0.5 days postoperatively and hospital
stay averaged 4.3 ±1.9 days. There were no complica¬
tions; one patient with a hemothrax (after heart trans¬
plant) died of unrelated causes. In our experience,
VATS has been highly successful in the early manage¬
ment of empyemas and hemothoraces. Conversion to
open thoracotomy must always be anticipated, espe¬
cially when approaching chronic empyemas.
(CHEST 1995; 109:18-24)
VATS=video-assisted thoracic surgery
postoperatively in 67 patients; 9 patients (12%) were
sent home with empyema tubes. Postoperative hospi¬
Key words: empyema; hemothorax; thoracoscopy/pleuros-
T oculated empyemas and hemothoraces recalcitrant
-¦--1 to tube
thoracostomy drainage continue to be
difficult management problems. The frequent associ¬
ation of other significant medical illnesses among pa-
prolongation of the patient's illness and the ultimate
need for more extensive surgical interventions.1"12
Although thoracoscopy's utility in the evaluation and
treatment of pleural disease processes has been rec¬
ognized for many years,13,14 relatively little has been
described about the role of thoracoscopy, or videoassisted thoracic surgery (VATS), as an alternative to
thoracotomy for definitive management of empyema
or hemothorax.15"24 The recent development of wide-
For editorial comment
see
page 2
tients with empyema and the presence of coexisting
multisystem injuries in trauma victims with hemotho¬
rax often lead us away from considering early definitive
open surgical management of these processes. Thoracentesis or repeated tube thoracostomy drainage are
often chosen as the primary treatments of these prob¬
lems. Delays in accurately diagnosing and effectively
managing these pleural problems, however, can result
*From the Section of Thoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh
(Drs. Landreneau and Keenan); and the Divisions of Cardiotho¬
racic Surgery, University of Southern Illinois Medical School,
Carbondale (Dr. Hazelrigg); St. Louis (Mo) University (Dr.
Naunheim); and Medical City Hospital-Dallas (Dr. Mack).
Presented at the 1993 Western Surgical Society Annual Meeting,
Seattle.
Manuscript received March 6, 1995; revision accepted May 2.
18
copy; video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)
in
angled video-optical endoscopic equipment and more
effective endosurgical instrumentation has expanded
the role of this minimally invasive surgical approach to
a wide variety of thoracic surgical problems previously
requiring thoracotomy for their management.2526 This
report focuses on our recent experience with the VATS
approach as primary management of complex he¬
mothoraces and thoracic empyema.
Materials
and
Methods
Patient Profile
From December 1990 to November
1994, we have used videoassisted thoracic surgical approaches to manage pleural pathologic
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
Clinical Investigations
Table
Table 2.Etiology of Empyema (n=76)
1.Thoracoscopic Management of Pleural
Effusions (n-306)
Etiology
No.
Management
Posttraumatic
118
Diagnosis of idiopathic effusions
15
Idiopathic
Parapneumonic
(systemic disease)
Malignant
Treatment of known malignant effusions
Transudate
Treatment of empyema
Treatment of hemothorax
8
24
71
89
76
23
(hemothorax)
patients (Table 1). Sixty-seven percent of these
patients (n=207) underwent VATS for the diagnosis of idiopathic
of known malignant
pleural processes or for the management
tube thoracostomy
pleural effusions that had failed to respond tounderwent
VATS to
The
99
alone.
remaining patients
drainage
approach complex empyemas and hemothoraces recalcitrant to
simple tube thoracostomy management. when standard chest
The empyemas were considered "complex"
chest CT identified significant multiloculated
radiographs and/or
fluid collections with associated pulmonary parenchymal compres¬
sion or consolidation (Fig 1). The clinical etiologies of the empye¬
mas are detailed in Table 2. The bacteriologic profile of the pleu¬
ral infections was quite broad with staphylococcal species being the
most common pathogens (41%). Mixed aerobic/anaerobic infec¬
tions were seen in 26% of patients and a variety of infectious agents
were cultured in 18% of cases. No growth on pleural fluid culture
occurred in 15% of patients. The patients ranged in age from 14 to
78 years (mean, 47 years). The median duration of the pleural pro¬
cess for these patients prior to the VATS management was 9 days;
however, 26 patients had chronic pleural space infections persist¬
ing for greater than 3 weeks. All of these empyema patients treated
with VATS had previously been approached with systemic antibi¬
otic therapy and primary tube thoracostomy drainage of the pleu¬
ral collection. The duration of tube thoracostomy drainage ranged
from 1 to 11 days prior to consultation for the VATS intervention.
A significant minority of patients (n=21,28%) had numerous (range,
8
Parapneumonic 47
Postresectional 5
Chronic drainage of malignant effusion
Spontaneous pneumothorax 4
4
Infected sympathetic effusion-abdominal sepsis
Postchemotherapy 2
Table
processes in 306
No.
6
3.Etiology of Hemothoraces (n=23)
Etiology
No.
Posttraumatic
After open heart surgery
Iatrogenic
Malignant
2 to 4) attempts at tube thoracostomy drainage before the referral
for "surgical" intervention.
The causes associated with the hemothoraces managed in this
experience are listed in Table 3. All of these patients with
hemothorax had a previous attempt at tube thoracostomy drainage
of the intrathoracic clot prior to the VATS consultation (Fig 2). The
decision to perform the thoracoscopic management was based on
the need to evacuate significant retained hemothoraces to avoid
or empyema. In this
pulmonaryto restriction
delayed complicationsnoof occasion
use the VATS approach for the
experience, there was
short-term evaluation or treatment of ongoing chest tube bleeding
or to urgently explore the thoracic cavity for occult intrathoracic or
diaphragmatic injury.
Preoperative Preparation and VATS Technique
Careful study of the preoperative radiographic studies is impor¬
tant before initiating the thoracoscopic intervention so that the best
location for intercostal access can be determined. The patient is
Figure 2. Posteroanterior chest radiograph of a large clotted he¬
Figure 1. CT
tion.
demonstrating
loculated
pustulant pleural collec¬
mothorax persisting after attempted tube thoracostomy drainage
that was successfully managed with VATS debridement and evac¬
uation of the pleural cavity.
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008 CHEST /109 / 1 / JANUARY, 1996
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
19
thick
adhesions
thin
adhesions
loculated
pus pockets
grasper through
biopsy channel of
thora scope
Figure 3. Illustration of the pathologic processes resulting in loc¬
ulated pleural processes requiring VATS intervention.
brought to the operating room where general anesthesia is
used to conduct the procedure. After induction of anesthesia, a fi¬
through the enberoptic bronchoscopic examinationa is performed
dotracheal tube on all patients with diagnosis of empyema to rule
out the presence of an obstructing endobronchial lesion that would
prevent full reexpansion of the lung. Bronchoscopic examination is
also performed in all cases of idiopathic hemothorax. Conversion to
a double-lumen endotracheal tube is then accomplished to achieve
selective lung ventilation of the contralateral lung and collapse ofthe
ipsilateral lung during the VATS intervention.20 Theispatient is then
hemithorax prepared and
placed infora full lateral position and the After
the general
draped possible open thoracotomy. we estimating
location of the pleural space problem, aspirate the fluid collec¬
tion at the site of the proposed primary intercostal access with a
spinal needle before performing the intercostal incision. Once the
appropriate initial site of intercostal access is determined, our
practice is to digitally explore this initial intercostal entry site before
introducing trocars for the thoracoscope or endosurgical instru¬
then
mentation.
This VATS approach to empyema and hemothoraces usually re¬
quires two to four intercostal access sites for proper endoscopic vi¬
sualization and instrument manipulation. After entering the pleu¬
ral cavity with the thoracoscope, we remove a sample of the pleural
exudate or coagulum for culture, Gram stain, and fungal stains. The
use of an "operating" thoracoscope can greatly facilitate the initial
of the pleural space (Karl Storz, America; Culver City,
exploration
Calif). All subsequent intercostal access is achieved under direct
thoracoscopic vision to avoid injury to the underlying lung paren¬
chyma. Direct in-line suctioning of the cavity contents and limited
lysis of thin adhesions can be accomplished through the biopsy/
suction channel ofthis instrument. After lysis of these adhesions, the
limits of the pleural space can be defined more accurately so that
subsequent sites of pleural access are created without potential in¬
jury to the lung. Endoscopic forceps, scissors, and retractors are
introduced under direct video guidance in strategically located in¬
tercostal access sites to break down the remaining loculations and
remove loose fibrinous material within the pleural cavity (Fig 3, 4).
We routinely use a special, large-bore suctioning device (SnowdenPencer Inc; Tucker, Ga) to evacuate the pleural exudate and/or clots
that are within the chest. Alternatively, a standard 36F Silastic chest
tube can be connected to the suction tubing to provide a large-bore
20
Figure 4. Illustration depicting the importance of accurate inter¬
costal access for VATS intervention on loculated pleural effusions.
suctioning system. When necessary, a limited decortication of
fibrinous pleural peels can be accomplished using standard or en¬
dosurgical instrumentation. However, the thoracoscopic recogni¬
tion of a significant "organized" fibrotic pleural peel associated with
trapped lung should lead the surgeon to convert to an open thora¬
cotomy to adequately decorticate the lung.
We also try to avoid disturbing broad areas of dense pleural
symphysis when performing the lysis ofoffendingpleural adhesions.
Such areas are rarely the cause of pulmonary parenchymal entrap¬
ment. However, when it is necessary for adequate decortication of
the lung and obliteration of the pleural space, we use an extrapleural dissection to free the lung in these areas. This dissection can
often be accomplished using the VATS approach; however, one
must also be prepared in these circumstances to convert to open
thoracotomy when technical difficulty precludes an adequate
dissection.
After lysing the adhesions causing the loculations and evacuating
the pleural space, we routinely obtain thoracoscopic biopsy speci¬
mens when the cause of the pleural process is in question. The large
samples of pleura that are obtained can facilitate the diagnosis of
occult infectious agents (ie, tuberculosis) or an underlying malig¬
nancy responsible for the primary pleural effusive process (Fig 5).
Once we judge the VATS intervention to be complete, we rou¬
tinely ask the anesthesiologist to reexpand the lung so that we can
inspect the adequacy of the decortication and the completeness of
the obliteration of the pleural space problem. If we are satisfied with
the results of the VATS procedure, strategic placement of chest
drainage tubes follows through two of the intercostal access sites.
The procedure is terminated with standard closure of all other in¬
tercostal access sites and establishment of 20 cm of negative pres¬
sure suction to the underwater seal chest drainage system.
If significant pleural fibrosis/symphysis with pulmonary entrap¬
ment is identified at VATS exploration, conversion to an open pro¬
cedure is indicated. When the conversion to thoracotomy is
performed, we maintain the VATS equipment set up on the oper¬
ative field so that continued video assistance can be utilized during
the open intervention to facilitate the dissection of hard-to-visual-
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
Clinical
Investigations
drainage. Bronchopleural fistulas were associated with
the space problem in four of the five patients requir¬
ing delayed open drainage procedures. These residual
fistulas
pleural spaces and peripheral bronchopleural
2
10
resolved
between
and
weeks
after
eventually
for
all
hospital discharge
patients (n=14) with these
postoperative VATS problems.
Procedural-related VATS complications were un¬
common; however, two patients did have inadvertent
diaphragmatic injury during the creation of intercostal
access. One of these patients experienced moderate
bleedingof that
required conversion to thoracotomy for
the
repair
diaphragmatic injury and a peripheral
liver parenchymal injury. The other patient did not
require any specific management beyond standard
wound closure and establishing an alternative site for
intercostal access, as the small nonbleeding right-sided
injury was located posteriorly in the costophrenic sulcus.
Five patients (6.6%) with empyema died after their
Figure 5. Illustration of VATS pleural
after evacuation of the empyema space.
ize
areas
in the apex of the chest and the
biopsy being performed
costophrenic recesses.L'
Results
Of the 76 patients with complex empyemas in this
series, 63 (83%) were treated solely with thoracoscopic
and decortication of fibrinous
drainage, adhesolysis,Thirteen
visceral pleural peel.
patients (17%) required
conversion to open procedures after the VATS proce¬
dure. This included 12 of the 26 (46%) patients with
chronic empyemas known to be present for greater
than 3 weeks. Immediate conversion to thoracotomy
for decortication was performed in seven patients with
obvious trapped lung and chronic fibrotic pleural peels.
Five patients with chronic space problems persisting
after the VATS intervention were treated with local rib
resection and empyema tube drainage in four patients
and the creation of an Eloesser flap for long-term open
A final patient with a postop¬
drainage in one patient.underwent
a delayed thoracot¬
erative space problem
decortication.
to
omy accomplish
Sixty-seven patients had their chest tubes removed
at 3.3±2.9 days, and 9 patients (12%) were sent home
with empyema tubes. Persistent peripheral bronchopleural fistulas were present in seven of the nine pa¬
tients
requiring long-term open-tube thoracostomy
Small residual space problems associated
with obvious purulent drainage were present in the
other two patients treated with long-term open-tube
drainage.
intervention as a result of progressive
thoracoscopicTwo
pneumonias.
elderly
patients who remained ven¬
tilator dependent after surgery eventually died of pro¬
gressive respiratory failure. Two other patients with
significant COPD also died of postoperative pneumo¬
nia. A final patient with autoimmune deficiency syn¬
drome, chronic Pneumocystis, and pulmonary Asalso died of progressive pulmonary sepsis.
pergillus
The average hospital stay for the 71 patients surviving
VATS treatment for empyemas was 7.4±7.2 days.
Resolution of the hemothorax was accomplished in
all of the 23 patients undergoing VATS management.
Chest tubes were removed 2.8±0.5 days postopera¬
tively and hospital stay averaged 4.3±1.9 days. Twen¬
ty-two ofthese 23 patients undergoing VATS survived.
One heart transplant patient undergoing VATS for an
iatrogenic central venous line placement-related he¬
mothorax died several weeks postoperatively of cardi¬
ac-related causes.
Discussion
With the advent of effective antibiotic therapies,
empyema has become a much less common clinical
however, this complication remains an im¬
problem;cause
of morbidity and mortality following
portant
pneumonia or lung resection.6'27 Delays in appropriate
referral for surgical drainage of the empyema continue
significant prolongation in recovery from
these infectious problems and frequently result in the
need for more aggressive surgical interventions to
correct the pleural process.1"12
Timelyeffusions
management of newly identified significant
to eradicate the problem
pleuralextensive can help
is necessary. Our
intervention
before
surgical
thoracic
to
empyemas and hemothopresent approach
to cause
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008 CHEST /109 / 1 / JANUARY, 1996
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
21
MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM FOR EMPYEMA AND HEMOTHORAX
PLEURAL EFFUSION
t
HEMOTHORAX
THORACENTESIS
GRAM STAIN NEG
t
OBSERVE
^
GRAM STAIN POS
T TUBE
^ ^CHESTTUBE
1 resolution] increasing
FLUID
RESOLUTION
NO resolution
rrscj
(CT
SCAN)
VATS EXPLORATION/
XPLOI
DEBRIDEMENT
X
I1-'
RESOLUTION
OPEN DRAINAGE/
DECORTICATION
Algorithm of management for jpleural effusions and
hemothorax (modified from Ashbaugh DG).
Figure 6.
Fig¬
depictedtointhese
is aimed at minimizing hospital stay
pleural
problems
and surgical morbidity for these patients. As outlined,
we initially approach significant parapneumonic pleu¬
ral fluid collections with thoracentesis. This is followed
tube thoracostomy drainage if the process recurs or
by
if frankly purulent fluid is identified. Accurately posi¬
tioned tube thoracostomy drainage is usually success¬
ful in controlling early "free-flowing" empyemas.28"32
These data support the use of the VATS approach
in the management of the "fibrinopurulent" phase of
empyema. Indeed, 49 of the 50 patients with empye¬
mas in the fibrinopurulent phase were successfully
treated with the VATS intervention alone. This fibrin¬
of empyema is usually characterized
opurulent
phase
by disease chronicity of several days to a few weeks.
Exudative pleural fluid and numerous adhesions re¬
sulting in loculation of the effusive process are seen.
The VATS approach is well suited for the evaluation of
these problems, breaking down the areas of loculation,
and completely evacuating the gelatinous exudate from
the pleural space. Fibrinous peels can usually be
removed from the visceral pleural surface to free any
early lung entrapment. A unilocular process is ulti¬
that can be obliterated with strategi¬
mately obtained
chest tubes and subsequent full expansion
cally
placed
of the lung at the termination of the procedure.
Empyemas that have reached the "organized" phase
are characterized by the presence of a thick pleural
peel causing varying degrees of pulmonary parenchymal entrapment. These processes are usually found to
be several weeks old when the patient's clinical history
is carefully reviewed. Customarily, rib resection and
empyema tube drainage, long-term open drainage, or
races
ure
is summarized by the algorithm
6.7 This flexible management scheme
22
formal thoracotomy and decortication have been re¬
these organized empyemas. Limited
quired to manage
and
muscle flap rotation are also needed
thoracoplasty
in some instances to obliterate the pleural space
The decision to choose one or the other
problem.33,34
of these approaches has largely depended on the pa¬
tient's physiologic reserve and the extent of the
parenchymal entrapment present.
pulmonary
Once the empyema has progressed to this chronic,
organizing phase, VATS is often unsuccessful as the
primary management because the thick visceral pleu¬
ral peel makes decortication difficult. Although thora¬
cotomy is usually needed to accomplish this procedure,
is lost by beginning the intervention with an
nothing
initial VATS exploration. Many of these more estab¬
lished empyemas will not have yet progressed to the
fibrotic phase, as evidenced by the fact that 14 of 26 of
chronic empyemas (54%) were successfully managed
with VATS alone. The need for open decortication of
the lung can be determined by the experienced
surgeon at the time of this initial VATS exploration of
the empyema. The VATS exploration can also help in
the most appropriate site for the thoracot¬
identifying
incision
to approach the empyema and lung en¬
omy
trapment.
VATS is also a reasonable first step, or ancillary
maneuver, when limited open drainage procedures are
chosen for the physiologically impaired patient with
empyema. Visualization and breakdown of the deeper
within the organized pleural process can lead
pockets
to more accurate placement of the "open" drainage
catheters. Additionally, postoperative irrigation of the
empyema can be facilitated with VATS-directed place¬
ment of the chest drainage catheters.15"17
The division of pleural adhesions and the attempted
removal of the visceral pleural rind encountered dur¬
ing the VATS intervention can lead to pulmonary pa¬
renchymal
injury and significant peripheral postoper¬
ative bronchopleural fistulas. Chronic air leak and
prolonged space problems
may result if obliteration of
the pleural space is not achieved at the end of the
Such pleural space problems occurred in
procedure.
14 of our patients, which caused the need for long-term
tube thoracostomy drainage or for delayed "open"
drainage procedures. Although this frequency of post¬
operative air leak and pleural space problems is simi¬
lar to that seen following open procedures, mature
surgical judgment must be exercised when solely rely¬
ing on the VATS approach so that unnecessary mor¬
bidity and delays in the patient's recovery from the
empyema can be avoided.
The VATS approach is also an effective minimally
invasive means of definitively addressing significant
hemothoraces persisting after attempted tube thora¬
costomy drainage. Although others have described the
use ofthe VATS approach in the short-term evaluation
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
Clinical Investigations
and treatment of selected cases of blunt and penetrat¬
ing thoracic trauma,35"40 we do not report any experi¬
ence with such VATS applications. We do believe that
the use of VATS should be considered early in the
management of significant retained hemothoraces to
avoid the problems of late fibrothorax or secondary
infection within the intrathoracic clot.
In summary, VATS appears to be an effective initial
management for most complex pleural empyemas and
hemothoraces. Excellent visualization of the pleural
cavity permits drainage of loculated fluid, removal of
fibrinous material, and the ability to perform limited
decortication of the lung. Early referral for this mini¬
mally invasive surgical intervention can assist in con¬
the fibrinopurulent phase of empyema before
trolling
it progresses to the chronic fibrotic phase. However,
the surgical team performing VATS must be prepared
to convert to open surgical management of the empy¬
ema when it is necessary to achieve the desired ther¬
apeutic end points.41,42 Finally, VATS appears to be an
effective alternative to thoracotomy for the manage¬
ment of significant retained hemothoraces after un¬
successful tube thoracostomy drainage.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: We thank Ron Filer for his illustrative
assistance in
preparing this manuscript.
References
1 Lemmer JH, Botham MJ, Orringer MB. Modern management of
adult thoracic empyema. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1985; 90:
849-55
2 Bryant LR, Chicklo JM, Crutcher R, et al. Management of tho¬
racic empyema. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1968; 55:850-58
3 Deschamps C, Allen MS, Trastek VF, et al. Empyema following
pulmonary resection. Chest Surg Clin North Am 1994; 4:583-92
4 Pothula V, Krellenstein DJ. Early aggressive management of
parapneumonic empyemas. Chest 1994; 105:832-36
5 Cham CW, Haq SM, Rahamim J. Empyema thoracis: a problem
of late referral? Thorax 1993; 48:925-27
6 Strange C, Sahn SA. The clinician's perspective on parapneu¬
monic effusions and empyema. Chest 1993; 103:259-61
7 Ashbaugh DG. Empyema thoracis: factors influencing morbidity
Chest"
pleural irrigation in the management of empyema thoracis. Ann
Thorac Surg 1991; 51:461-64
16 Hutter JA, Harari D, Baimbridge MV. The management of em¬
pyema thoracis by thoracoscopy and irrigation. Ann Thorac Surg
1985; 39:517-20
17 Ridley PD. Endoscopic treatment of empyema. In: Steichen FM,
Welter R, eds. Minimally invasive surgery and new technology. St.
Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 1994; 693-95
18 Weissberg D, Kaufman M. Diagnostic and therapeutic pleuroscopy: experience with 127 patients. Chest 1980; 78:732-35
19 Weissberg D. Pleuroscopy in empyema: is it ever necessary?
Poumon-Couer 1981; 37:269-72
20 Oakes DD, Sherck JP, Brodsky JB, et al. Therapeutic thoracos¬
copy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1984; 87:269-73
21 Daniel TM, Tribble CG, Rodgers BM. Thoracoscopy and talc
poudrage for pneumothoraces and effusions. Ann Thorac Surg
1990; 50:186-89
22 Kern JA, Rodgers BM. Thoracoscopy in the management of
empyema in children. J Pediatr Surg 1993; 28:1128-32
23 Fosberg R. Empyema. In: Kaiser LR, Daniel TM, eds. Thoraco¬
scopic surgery. Boston: Little Brown, 1993; 75-84
24 Keenan RJ, Landreneau RJ, Mack MJ, et al. Video-assisted tho¬
racoscopy for the diagnosis and management of pleural diseases.
Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147:A737
25 Landreneau RJ, Mack MJ, Hazelrigg SR, et al. Video assisted
thoracic surgery: basic technical concepts and intercostal ap¬
proach strategies. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54:800-07
26 Mack MJ, Aronoff R, Acuff T, et al. The present role of
thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
chest. Ann Thorac Surg 1992; 54:405-09
27 Landreneau RJ, Mack MJ, Keenan RJ, et al. Strategic planning
for video-assisted thoracic surgery 'VATS.' Ann Thorac Surg 1993;
69:41-6
31 Moran JF. Surgical management of pleural space infection.
Semin Respir Infect 1988; 3:383-94
32 Ferguson MK. Thoracoscopy for empyema, bronchopleural fis¬
tula, and chylothorax. Ann Thorac Surg 1993; 56:644-45
33 Pairolero PC, Arnold PG, Piehler JM. Intrathoracic transposition
of extrathoracic skeletal muscle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983;
86:809-14
34
and mortality.
1991; 99:1162-65
8 Van Way C III, Narrod J, Hopeman A. The role of early limited
thoracotomy in the treatment of empyema. J Thorac Cardiovasc
Surg 1988; 96:436-39
9 Muskett A, Burton NA, Karwande SV, et al. Management of re¬
fractory empyema with early decortication. Am J Surg 1988;
10
11
12
13
14
156:529-32
Grant DR, Finley RJ. Empyema: analysis of treatment tech¬
niques. Can J Surg 1985; 28:449-51
Hoover EL, Hsu H-K, Ross MJ, et al. Reappraisal of empyema
thoracis: surgical intervention when the duration of illness is un¬
known. Chest 1986; 90:511-15
Frimodt-Moiler PC. Early surgical intervention in non-specific
pleural empyema. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1985; 33:41-3
Jacobaeus HC. The practical importance of thoracoscopy in sur¬
gery of the chest. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1922; 34:289-96
Brandt H, Loddenkemper R, Mai J. Atlas of Diagnostic Thora¬
coscopy: indications-techniques. New York: Thieme Medical
Publishers, 1985;
15
1-46
Ridley PD, Braimbridge MV. Thoracoscopic debridement and
56:615-19
Light RW.
Parapneumonic effusion and empyema. Clin Chest
Med 1985; 6:55-62
29 Meyer JA. Gothard Bulau and closed water-seal drainage for
empyema. Ann Thorac Surg 1989; 48:597-99
30 Symbas PN. Chest drainage tubes. Surg Clin North Am 1989;
28
Young WG, Ungerleider RM. Surgical approach to the chronic
empyema: Thoracoplasty. In: DesLaurier J, Lacquet LK, eds.
Thoracic surgery:
35
Louis: CV Mosby,
surgical management of pleural disease. St.
1990; 247-56
Jones JW, Kitahama A, Webb WR, et al. Emergency thoracos¬
copy: a logical approach to chest trauma management. J Trauma
1981; 21:280-84
Jackson AM, Ferreira AA. Thoracoscopy as an aid to the diagno¬
sis of diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wounds of the left lower
chest: a preliminary report: injury: B J Accident Surg 1976;
7:213-17
37 Hutter JA, Fenn A, Braimbridge MV. The management of
spontaneous oesophageal perforation by thoracoscopy and irri¬
gation. Br J Surg 1985; 72:208-09
38 Branco JMC. Thoracoscopy as a method of exploration in pene¬
trating injuries of the chest. Dis Chest 1946; 12:330
39 O'Brien J, Cohen M, Solit R, et al. Thoracoscopic drainage and
decortication as definitive treatment for empyema thoracis fol¬
lowing penetrating chest trauma. J Trauma 1994; 36:536-39
40 Smith RS, Fry WR, Tsoi EK, et al. Preliminary report on
videothoracoscopy in the evaluation and treatment of thoracic
36
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008 CHEST /109 /1 / JANUARY, 1996
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
23
injury. Am J Surg 1993; 166:690-95
McKneally MF. Video-assisted thoracic surgery: standards and
Am 1993; 3:345-51
guidelines. Chest Surg Clin NorthMack
42 Landreneau RJ, Hazelrigg SR,
MJ, et al. Video-assisted
41
thoracic surgery for pulmonary and pleural disease. In: Shields
TW, ed. General thoracic surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lea &
Febiger, 1994; 508-26
AMERICAN
COLLEGE
OF
DC IT E S T
PHYSICIANS
I ¦National ACCP
Review
^Puirpioriary Board
6-10, 1996
June
Phoenix, Arizona
6-10, 1996
SeptemberIllinois
Chicago,
##«**«
««««»*.
FOR INFORMATION CALL: 1 -800-343-ACCP
24
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
Clinical Investigations
Thoracoscopy for Empyema and Hemothorax
Rodney J. Landreneau, Robert J. Keenan, Stephen R. Hazelrigg,
Michael J. Mack and Keith S. Naunheim
Chest 1996;109;18-24
DOI 10.1378/chest.109.1.18
This information is current as of March 30, 2008
Updated Information
& Services
Updated information and services, including
high-resolution figures, can be found at:
http://chestjournal.org
Citations
This article has been cited by 15 HighWire-hosted
articles:
http://chestjournal.org
Subspecialty Collections
This article, along with others on similar topics,
appears in the following collection(s):
Surgery
http://chestjournal.org/cgi/collection/surgery
Permissions & Licensing
Information about reproducing this article in parts
(figures, tables) or in its entirety can be found
online at:
http://chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml
Reprints
Information about ordering reprints can be found
online:
http://chestjournal.org/misc/reprints.shtml
Email alerting service
Receive free email alerts when new articles cite
this article sign up in the box at the top right
corner of the online article.
Images in PowerPoint format Figures that appear in CHEST articles can be
downloaded for teaching purposes in PowerPoint
slide format. See any online article figure for
directions.
Downloaded from chestjournal.org on March 30, 2008
Copyright © 1996 by American College of Chest Physicians
`