Prevalence of parasites in fresh water pond fishes from district D.I

The Journal of Zoology Studies 2015; 2(2): 47-50
The Journal of Zoology Studies
ISSN 2348-5914
JOZS 2015; 2(2): 47-50
JOZS © 2015
Received: 20-04-2015
Accepted: 08-05-2015
Prevalence of parasites in fresh water pond fishes from district D.I
Khan, Pakistan
Authors: Farman Ullah Dawar, Muhammad Fiaz Khan, Rasool Kamal, Safir Ullah
Farman Ullah Dawar
Department of Zoology, Hazara
University, Mansehra Khyber
Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan
Muhammad Fiaz Khan
Department of Zoology, Hazara
University, Mansehra Khyber
Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan
Rasool Kamal
Department of Zoology, Hazara
University, Mansehra Khyber
Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan
Safir Ullah
Department of Zoology,
Hazara University, Mansehra
Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa,
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the first cultured fish species in Pakistan. Due to confined water
bodies in this area, ecto-parasites are a serious problem for this species. The present study aims to
investigate ecto-parasites of C. Carpio in D. I. Khan, Pakistan. A number of ecto- parasites
including Leach spp (Crustacea: Maxillopoda), Glochidium spp, Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea:
Copepoda), Gyrodactylus spp. (Platyhelminthes; Monogenea), Probopyrus pandallcola, Copepds
spp, and Argulus spp. were identified during three different trials. During the first trial 19 parasites,
the second 11 parasites and the third 3 parasites were identified. Subsequently 20 parasites from
500g fish and 13 from 1000g fish were recorded. Hopefully, our results would provide a clue about
parasitic infestation in fresh water fish species and further detailed study may require for improving
fish life.
Keywords: Parasites, Fishes, D.I Khan, KPK, Pakistan
1. Introduction
Parasites reported for infecting fresh water pond fishes like Cyprinus carpio are mostly protozoan
and ectoparasites (Linnaeus, 1758), such as Chilodonella species spp. (Ehrenberg, 1838), Trichidina
(spp) (Ehrenberg, 1831) Gyrodactylus spp (monogenetic trematod) (von Nordmann, 1831), Lernaea
cyprinacae, (Linnaeus, 1758) Ergasilus spp (Nordmann, 1832) bopyrid isopodes, (Müller, 1785) and
Crustaceans, (Ahmed et. al. [1]). For cultured fish population, the parasites are reported as to involve
in the serious outbreak of disease (Kayis
). The crowded culture conditions, temperature and slow
water flow increases the parasites multiplication and infestation (Bednarska [3]). Mature parasites are
more dangerous to fish depending on the modes of attachment, size and weight of the host (Jalali [8]).
Parasitic investigation in farms and ponds depends on many factors which are ideal for the
propagation and development of parasitic population. The factors like density of fish population,
Corresponding Author:
Farman Ullah Dawar
Department of Zoology
Hazara University,
Manshera, Pakistan
limited space in or out flow of water, host age and sex, pollution from their own metabolic waste,
environmental and physical condition and genetic resistances play vital role in determining
susceptibility of the fishes to diseases and type of parasite.
E-mail: [email protected]
Vol. 2 No. 2 2015
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The Journal of Zoology Studies
The parasitic activity and closeness to habitat of the fishes
leads to easy parasitic movement and fulfillment of their
life cycle among fishes (Dogiel [6]). Parasitic infection not
only affects the normal growth of fish (Mdegela [10]), but
also reduce fish population by increasing mortalities
(Piasecki [13]). Ecto-parasites attacks to gills and skin
resulting in localized hyperplasia, disturb osmoregulation
and ultimately kill the host (Piasecki [13]). The incidence
and intensity of parasite also varied with season (Bichi [4]).
Young fishes are more prone to infection than old ones
(Ozturk [11]).
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is apparently the most
widely geographically distributed fish species (Baruš [2]). In
Pakistan, common carp is the first cultured fish and due to
confined water bodies in Pakistan, the ecto-parasites are a
serious problem for this species (Tasawar [16]). Owing to its
adaptation to a wide range of climatic and geographical
conditions, a substantial number of almost all major taxa of
parasites have been found in wild and domestic carp. The
most complete checklist of carp parasites records a total of
310 parasite species (Baruš [2]). The current study was
conducted to know the parasitic rates and damaging effects
on the host body (Cyprinus carpio) in local fish farms of
District D.I Khan, Pakistan.
2. Methods and Materials
2.1 Study Area
District of D. I. Khan,
bounded on the east by
the Bhakkar and Dera Ghazi Khan districts, of Punjab, to
the southwest by South Waziristan , and to the northwest
by Tank and Lakki Marwat districts. The district has an
area of 7,326 km2 (2,829 sq mt) and a population of
852,995 as per 1998 Census.
2.2 Sample Collection
Host Fish (cyprinus carpio) with an average length of 500g
and 1000g were collected live from Paracha fish forms of
D. I. Khan. Fish were collected three times during the
months of October, November, and December. Gills were
taken out and placed in petri dishes, and checked carefully
under the field with magnifying glass.
2.3 Examination of Specimens
A total of 99 fresh water fish (cyprinus carpio) ranged from
500-1000g body weight were collected alive from Paracha
fish farms. The necropsy technique of parasitological
examination of skin, fins and gills was carried out for the
presence of external parasites. The gills of fish were
examined through magnifying glass and the recovered
parasites were fixed.
2.4 Parasites Identification
Parasites were identified by aquarists were ciliates by
observing tiny hair-like structures called cilia. Chilodonella
were identified from scrapings of skin mucus or gill
filaments by magnifying glass. Monogenean trematodes,
were also identified using magnifying glass.
3. Results and Discussion
During the present study a total of 99 fresh water C. Carpio
fish (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) were studied. A sum of 7
different parasites Leach spp (Crustacea: Maxillopoda),
Glochidium spp, Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea:
Monogenea), Probopyrus pandallcola, Copepds spp, and
Argulus spp. were identified collectively. Among total (99)
samples 33 (33.33%) were found infected by ectoparasites
and remaining 66 (66.66%) were healthy they and in
normal condition. The skin, scales and head region
parasites were visible but those of the gills were examined
through magnifying glass. The sequence of parasites
observed during 3 months was, Leech 16 times (48.48%);
Glochidium, (3 times in adult stage and 3 in stage realizing
by adult mollusks) 6 times (18.18%); Lernaea spp, 4 times
(12.12%) Gyrodectylus (monogenea) 3 times (09.09%);
bopyrid isopod (Probopyrus pandallcola) 2 times
(06.06%); Copepds 1 time (03.03%) and Argulus 1 time
(03.03%) (Table 1).
Table1: Individual ectoparasitic infestation in common carp at (PFF) D.I.Khan, Pakistan.
Vol. 2 No. 2 2015
No of infected fish
%age of infected fish
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The Journal of Zoology Studies
As this study was conducted in three month (phases),
therefore during first month (October) 33 samples were
collected, among them 19 (57.57%) were infected by
ectoparasites in which Leech was dominant compared to
others followed by Glochidium spp., Lernaea spp.,
Gyrodectylus spp. and Copepds spp. In November 33
samples were collected with 11 (33.33%) were found
infected by ectoparasites in which Leech was again leading,
followed by Lernaea spp., Argulus spp. and isopod
(Probopyrus pandallcola). During 3rd trial in December 33
samples were collected in which 3, (09.09%) were infected
by monogenea. Weight-wise, 15 samples of 500g and 18 of
1000g were there in the samples collected during October,
in which 11 fish recorded infected were of 500g weight
while 8 fish were those of 1000g. Similarly during
November, 13 sample of 500g and 20 of 1000g weight
were collected in which 6 samples were of 500g and 5 were
of 1000g fish. During December, 17 samples of 500g and
16 of 1000 fish were observed in which 2 samples of 500g
and 1 of 1000g were found infected by monogenae (Table
Table: 2: Month wise prevalence of ectoparasites of common carp at (PFF) district D.I.Khan.
No of Fish
%Age of
infcted fish
%Age of
normal fish
In our study, Gyrodactylus spp. was 09.09% and Argulus
spp. was 03.03% while Perveen [12] reported as Argulus sp
(7.1%) and Gyrodactylus sp (10.8%) in their study on
common carp. Moreover they reported a high percentage of
Leech spp. compared to our study. The variation of our
results is probably due to the different geo-climatic
condition like season and habitat, because Bichi [4] reported
that the abundance and intensity of parasite varied with
season and habitat. Our results in percentage like Leech,
(48.48%) Glochidium, (18.18%) Lernaea sp, (12.12%)
Gyrodectylus (monogenea), (09.09%) bopyrid isopod
(Probopyrus pandallcola), (06.06%) Copepds, (03.03%)
Argulus, (03.03%) are about in accordance with the
findings of Ahmed [1] who recorded the same parasites with
a little less percentage. Lernaea spp which we found in our
study, are also declared as the basic parasitic burden for C.
Carp by Tasawar [15]. According to Shafir [14] parasites like
Gyrodactylus grow faster in summer than in winter. Cable
also elaborated this statement by reporting that the
number of ecto-parasites reduces in winter due to decreased
activity of their hosts. And according to Harrison [7]
temperature is very important for determining the existing
of Argulids parasites. Probably due to this reason we have
found less number of parasites like bopyrus isopodes,
copepods, Argulids and Gyrodactylus in our study, where
temperature was ranged from 20 °C to 25 °C during
October to December. No specific literatures are available
regarding Bopyrus isopods existence in our studied site.
Over all in our study, the ectoparasitic infestation in
common carp was relatively higher than others. The
possible reasons may be the crowded culture condition,
Vol. 2 No. 2 2015
confined water and temperature and the less attention of the
fisheries department to fish health. Hopefully, our findings
would help researchers to overcome this problem.
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Dawar FU, Khan MF, Kamal R, Ullah S. Prevalence of parasites in fresh water pond fishes from district D.I Khan, Pakistan. Journal of Zoology
Studies. 2015; 2(2):47-50.
Vol. 2 No. 2 2015
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