World Studies Ancient Civilizations Taft High School Document Questions Directions: 1. Read each of the documents carefully; answer the questions that follow. 2. Make a list numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - and write down the contributions that you think are the most important in order of importance (1 being the most and 5 being the least important). 3. After each document you choose, you must ANALYZE (break down, interpret information, make connections, provide examples) HOW and WHY this contribution is important in our world. Use evidence from the document(s) and your own understanding of the different features of a civilization. 4. The contribution/document that you include as your #1 must include why this contribution is the MOST important in our world. You must include evidence from the document. Support your claim with relevant facts, examples, and details from the document, and your own background knowledge. This is a very important writing assignment, because it will prepare you to properly and effectively complete future assignments and document-based questions for this class. 5. Your response should be neatly written. Your response should be at least 6-8 sentences long per document. Extended Response Writing Format Priority Order: _____ Document #: ______ Civilization: ___________________________________________________________________ Contribution: __________________________________________________________________ Response: (6-‐8 sentences long). Why is this contribution important in our world today? Analyze how and why this contribution is important in our world. You must include evidence from the document. Support your claim with relevant facts, examples, and details from the document, and your own background knowledge. World Studies Taft High School Ancient Civilizations Document Questions MYP Objective A: Knowing and Understanding and Objective D: Communicating Task Specific Rubric – Ancient Civilizations Common Assessment Achievement Level Level Descriptor Task-Specific Descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors below. The task does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptions below. 1-2 The student: • Demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding of content and concepts with simple descriptions and/or examples. • Makes a limited attempt to structure information and ideas in a way that is appropriate to the specific format. • Makes a limited attempt to document sources of information. The student: • Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of content and concepts through adequate descriptions, explanations or examples. • Structures information and ideas in a way that is sometimes appropriate to the specific format. • Sometimes document sources of information using a recognized convention. The student: • Demonstrates good knowledge and understanding of content and concepts through accurate descriptions, explanations and examples. • Structures information and ideas in way that is often appropriate to the specific format. • Often document sources of information using a recognized convention. The task: • Shows some basic knowledge and understanding of how other civilizations contributed to our society with simple descriptions and/or examples • Makes a limited attempt to rank examples of order of least importance to most important • Makes a limited attempt to site sources appropriately The task: • Shows knowledge and understanding of how other civilizations contributed to our society with adequate descriptions, explanations, or examples • There is an attempt to rank examples of order of least importance to most important in a way that is sometimes appropriate for the structure. • Sources are sometimes cited appropriately The task: • Shows good knowledge and understanding of how other civilizations contributed to our society with accurate descriptions, explanations, and examples • Makes an attempt to rank examples of order of least importance to most important in a way that is often appropriate for the structure • Sources are often cited appropriately. The task: • Shows detailed knowledge and understanding of how other civilizations contributed to our society with developed and accurate descriptions, explanations, and examples. • Makes an attempt to rank examples of order of least importance to most important in a way that is consistently appropriate for the specific format 3-4 5-6 7-8 The student: • Demonstrates detailed knowledge and understanding of content and concepts through developed and accurate descriptions, explanations and examples. • Structures information and ideas in a way that is consistently appropriate to the specific format. • Consistently document sources of World Studies Taft High School Ancient Civilizations Document Questions information using a recognized convention. • Sources are consistently cited appropriately Historical Context: Around 3500 B.C. in southwestern Asia, the river valley civilization of Mesopotamia began. The ancient River Valley Civilizations of India, China, and Mesopotamia, all made key contributions to future societies. Document 1 Sumerians created the Cuneiform script over 5,000 years ago. It was the world’s first written language. Sumerians invented this writing system to keep track of business dealings because they traded with people who lived in lands that were hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Writing was a giant leap forward in the development of civilization. People kept records and new ideas were able to be easily passed from one generation to the next. Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then baked in a kiln. DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION 1. What was cuneiform and who invented it? 2. List 3 Ways the Sumerians made use of cuneiform. Document 2 World Studies Ancient Civilizations Taft High School Document Questions In 1754 B.C., Hammurabi conquered and united all the cities of Mesopotamia under his rule. Although he was a brutal warrior, his greatest achievement was his code of laws, which he had engraved on a towering stone monument. Hammurabi’s Code was not the first, but it was the most complete set of laws that has survived. It is important because it created a set of rules that helped to govern a civilization while trying to protect people even if they had little political power. It called for different punishments based on the class of the lawbreaker and the victim of the crime. In the Code, punishments often fit the crime by demanding and “eye for and eye” or a “tooth for a tooth”. The following are three of the 282 laws in the Code of Hammurabi. 229. If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death. 230. If it kills the son of the owner, the son of that builder shall be put to death. 231. If it kills a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house. 1. What is the most important idea created by Hammurabi’s Code? 2. How were punishments different between people under Hammurabi’s Code? Document 3 In China, Confucius wrote down his philosophy that explained how people should live their lives. Confucianism teaches that each person should accept his or her role in society. The relationships and teachings of Confucianism became the basis for order and respect and were central in governing China. The relationships and teachings of Confucius were studies for “civil service” exams. These exams were taken by Chinese citizens in hope of scoring well and getting a good paying job in the Chinese government. Central to Confucius’ teaching are relationships and social roles. There are five great relationships: 1. Kindness in the father and obedience in the son. 2. Kindness in the older brother and respect by younger brother. 3. Good behavior by the husband and respect by the wife. 4. Gentle respect by seniors and admiration and respect for them by young people. 5. Generosity by rulers and loyalty to the ruler by their subjects. If these attitudes are practiced, there will be harmony among all in society. 1. What is Confucianism? 2. Explain two reasons why people studied Confucianism in China. 3. According to Confucius' teachings what was the proper relationship between rulers and their subjects? World Studies Ancient Civilizations Taft High School Document Questions Document 4 Many inventions were made during the Han dynasty of China, which contributed to its culture and led to trade with other civilizations. China invented porcelain, paper, ink and gunpowder (which was used in fireworks). China traded these goods along a trade route they developed called the Silk Road, which helped to create wealth and prosperity in China. Trade along the Silk Road led to cultural diffusion or the spread of ideas and inventions amongst peoples. Cultural diffusion led to great progress for China and other civilizations as ideas and inventions spread and led to advances in many societies throughout the world. 1. What were three of the most important inventions of the early Chinese civilization? 2. How did China use these inventions to help it develop wealth and prosperity? 3. How did the Silk Road help create advances throughout the world? World Studies Ancient Civilizations Taft High School Document Questions Document 5 Indian Agriculture: Ancient habitations on the Indus Valley “If by urban we mean the tendency to form society, founding cities with all their attendant rules, then the Harappan people succeeded admirably. Excavations show a degree of urban planning which the Romans achieved only later, after a gap of 2500 years. The twin cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa formed the hub of the civilization." The streets of Harappa run parallel and are crossed at right angles by other parallel streets. These ancient habitations on the Indus had no winding lanes, like the cities of medieval Europe, and town planning seems to have been in competent hands. In fact, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa represent the oldest examples of city planning in the world. Almost every building in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro is constructed of burned bricks whose shape more or less resembles our own. But the most remarkable feature of Mohenjo-Daro's houses is their simplicity. There is scarcely any ornamentation; no pillars, balconies, sculpture or windows -- only narrow doorways and flat roofs; windows were impractical in the hot Indus Valley. Anyone strolling through the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa will see that these ancient houses had every "modern" convenience. There were baths, toilets, drainage and fresh-water tanks, handsome interior courtyards-similar to those that still exist throughout the modern Orient -- comfortable bedrooms, guest rooms, dining rooms and janitor's quarters. And all of this is "prehistoric?" It all existed at a time when Central Europe's only housing accommodation was the cave! 1. The author sarcastically poses a question about the amenities incorporated into the housing, "And all of this is 'prehistoric'?" It all existed at a time when Central Europe's only housing accommodation was the cave!” Name two accommodations that the author was referring to, and explain why they were unique features that made the Ancient Indian people ahead of their time. 2. Aside from the city planning, the Harappan people took other environmental factors into account when building their homes. Name another practical feature of the houses built to deal with the elements of the desert climate?
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