Licensed to: CengageBrain User

Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,
some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed
content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right
to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For
valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate
formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
materials in your areas of interest.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Blueprint Reading and Drafting
for Plumbers, 2nd Edition
Michael A. Joyce
Vice President, Career and Professional
Editorial: Dave Garza
Director of Learning Solutions: Sandy Clark
Acquisitions Editor: James DeVoe
© 2009, 2004 Delmar, Cengage Learning
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright
herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by
any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to
photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution,
information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except
as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright
Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Managing Editor: Larry Main
Product Manager: Mary Clyne
Editorial Assistant: Tom Best
Vice President, Career and Professional
Marketing: Jennifer McAvey
Marketing Director: Deborah Yarnell
Marketing Manager: Mark Pierro
Production Director: Wendy Troeger
Production Manager: Mark Bernard
Content Project Manager: Michael Tubbert
Art Director: Bethany Casey
For product information and technology assistance, contact us
at Professional & Career Group Customer Support,
1-800-648-7450
For permission to use material from this text or product,
submit all requests online at cengage.com/permissions.
Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to
[email protected]
Library of Congress Control Number: 2008924157
ISBN-13: 978-1-4283-3513-4
ISBN-10: 1-4283-3513-7
Delmar
5 Maxwell Drive
Clifton Park, NY 12065-2919
USA
Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson
Education, Ltd.
For your lifelong learning solutions, visit delmar.cengage.com
Visit our corporate website at cengage.com.
Notice to the Reader
Publisher does not warrant or guarantee any of the products described herein or perform any
independent analysis in connection with any of the product information contained herein.
Publisher does not assume, and expressly disclaims, any obligation to obtain and include
information other than that provided to it by the manufacturer. The reader is expressly warned
to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities described
herein and to avoid all potential hazards. By following the instructions contained herein, the
reader willingly assumes all risks in connection with such instructions. The publisher makes no
representations or warranties of any kind, including but not limited to, the warranties of fitness
for particular purpose or merchantability, nor are any such representations implied with respect
to the material set forth herein, and the publisher takes no responsibility with respect to such
material. The publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages
resulting, in whole or part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material.
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1
Blueprint Symbols
and Abbreviations
OBJECTIVES
Upon successful completion of this chapter, a student should recognize the following:
■
Common plumbing blueprint symbols and
abbreviations
■
Basic electrical and HVAC blueprint symbols
and abbreviations
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Blueprint symbols and abbreviations are an essential aspect of designing and reading blueprints. Reference to
industry standard information allows an individual to be productive on a job site and eventually become fluent in interpreting most situations arising on a project. Use the information in this chapter to learn common
abbreviations and symbols used throughout this book and in the plumbing industry.
1.2 DESIGN INTENT
Design intent is the expected and often the only possible outcome of a complete project or piping system. An
architect or engineer establishes a design based on various factors, such as adherence to codes, customer
expectations and desires, and intended layout of a building. Locations of plumbing fixtures, sizes of piping,
and the type of fixtures or products are examples of design intent that are communicated with blueprints. An
architect or engineer designing a building or piping system is communicating design intent with a blueprint.
Design intent can vary with each specific project or installation. The actual piping locations within walls and
ceilings typically require coordination on a job site and design intent is used to locate points of reference and
desired termination locations. Abbreviations and symbols are used to communicate designs without adding
too much information that would clutter the blueprint. Illustrating plumbing fixtures located within a bathroom is an example of expressing design intent with abbreviations and symbols. If conflicts occur while
attempting to satisfy the intended design, written permission must be submitted to architect to change the
initial intent. In some instances, a bathroom fixture, such as a toilet location may not be capable of being
installed where intended due to conflicts with structural beams or joists. In this case, the plumber would communicate with the architect to relocate the fixture. This may change the physical location of the fixture, but
does not change the design intent of having the fixture within the bathroom.
1
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
2
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
1.3 COMMON PLUMBING ABBREVIATIONS
Not all abbreviations are industry standard and use of abbreviations must include a legend. A legend is a listing of abbreviations that indicate design intent. An architect creates a legend reflecting abbreviations used for
the specific project. Table 1.1 includes some abbreviations that may be used in the plumbing trade. All abbreviations listed are capitalized, but some are actually written in a legend with lowercase letters. Some abbreviations listed in Table 1.1 are more relevant for ordering material than expressing a design. Additional abbreviations are included in Table A.6 in Appendix A. Some abbreviations have multiple meanings, while others
are similar, but very different. An example of similar abbreviations having different meanings is C-C indicates
center-to-center of two fittings and C ⫻ C represents copper-by-copper when ordering material.
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Stands For
ABS
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act
AFF
Above Finished Floor
AG
Aboveground
BD
Building Drain
BFP
Backflow Preventer
BM
Bench Mark
BS
Building Sewer
BT
Bathtub
BTU
British Thermal Unit
BV
Ball Valve or Butterfly Valve or Branch Vent
C to C or C-C or CC
Center-to-Center
C⫻C
Copper-by-Copper
C⫻C⫻C
Copper-by-Copper-by-Copper
C to F
Center-to-Face
C⫻F
Copper-by-Female
C⫻M
Copper-by-Male
CF or CU FT or FT3
Cubic Foot/Feet
CI or C. I.
Cast iron
CI or CU IN or IN3
Cubic Inch
CMU
Concrete Masonry Unit
CO
Cleanout
CP
Chrome Plated or Control Point
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
3
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
CPVC
Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
CV
Circuit Vent
CW
Cold Water
CY or CU YD or YD3
Cubic Yard
D
Diameter
DEG or °
Degree
DF
Drinking Fountain
DFU
Drainage Fixture Unit
DH
Double Hub
DR
Drain or Drainage
DW
Dishwasher
DWG
Drawing
DWV
Drainage Waste and Vent
E to C or E-C or EC
End-to-Center
E to E or E-E
End-to-End
ECO
End Cleanout
EWC
Electric Water Cooler
EWH
Electric Water Heater
F to F or F-F
Face-to-Face
F
Fahrenheit
FB
Fixture Branch
FCO
Floor Cleanout
FD
Floor Drain and Fixture Drain
FF
Finished Floor
FIG
Figure
FIP
Female Iron Pipe
FLG
Flange
FLGD
Flanged
FLR
Floor
FPS or F/S
Feet Per Second
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
4
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
FS
Floor Sink
FT
Foot or Feet
FTG
Footing and Fitting
FU
Fixture Unit
G
Gas
GAL
Gallon
GALV
Galvanized
GI
Galvanized Iron
GND
Ground
GPF
Gallons Per Flush
GPH
Gallons Per Hour
GPM
Gallons Per Minute
GPS
Gallons Per Second
HB
Hose Bib (Bibb) or Horizontal Branch
HD
Heavy Duty or Hub Drain
HTR
Heater
HW
Hot Water
HWH
Hot Water Heater
HWR
Hot Water Return
ID
Inside Diameter
IE
Invert Elevation
IN
Inch
INV
Invert
IPC
International Plumbing Code
IPS
Iron Pipe Size
IW
Indirect Waste
JS
Janitor Sink
KO
Knock Out
KS
Kitchen Sink
L or LGTH
Length
LAV
Lavatory
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
5
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
LB
Pound
LH
Left Hand
LPG
Liquid Petroleum Gas
LPS or L/S
Liters Per Second
LV
Loop Vent and Low Voltage
MAINT
Maintenance
MATL
Material
MAX
Maximum
MECH
Mechanical
MH
Manhole
MIN
Minimum
MISC
Miscellaneous
MS
Mop Sink
N
North
NH
No Hub
NPS
National Pipe Size
NPT
National Pipe Thread
NTS
Not To Scale
OD
Outside Diameter
OS&Y
Outside Screw and Yoke
PE
Plain End or Polyethylene
PEX
Cross Linked Polyethylene
PLG
Plumbing
PLMG
Plumbing
POC
Point Of Connection
PRV
Pressure Reducing Valve
PSI
Pounds Per Square Inch
PVB
Pressure Vacuum Breaker
PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride
QTY
Quantity
R
Radius
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
6
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
RED
Reducing or Reducer
RH
Right Hand
RI
Rough-In
RPZ
Reduced Pressure Zone Valve
S
Sink or Sewer
SA
Shock Absorber
SAN
Sanitary
SCH
Schedule
SF or FT2 or SQ FT
Square Foot or Square Feet
SH
Single Hub
SHR
Shower
SHWR
Shower
SK
Sketch or Sink
SPEC
Specifications
SS
Stainless Steel or Sanitary Sewer or Soil Stack or Service Sink
SV
Stack Vent or Safety Valve or Service Weight Pipe
SVCI
Service Weight Cast Iron
T&P
Temperature and Pressure
TBM
Temporary Bench Mark
TEMP
Temperature
TLT
Toilet (see WC)
TP
Trap Primer or Tie-in Point
TYP
Typical
UG
Underground
UNO
Unless Noted Otherwise
UPC
Uniform Plumbing Code
UR
Urinal
VB
Vacuum Breaker
VERT
Vertical
VIF
Verify In Field
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
7
Table 1.1 Common Plumbing Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
VS
Vent Stack
VTR
Vent Through Roof
WC
Water Closet (see TLT)
WCO
Wall Cleanout
WH
Wall Hydrant or Water Heater
WM
Washing Machine or Water Meter
WS
Waste Stack
WSFU
Water Supply Fixture Unit
YD
Yard
Add Your Abbreviations
Table 1.2 is for you to include specific abbreviations not included in Table 1.1 that are discussed in a classroom or used on a job site. Using Table 1.2 is creating a specific legend similar to an architect creating a listing for a project. Additional abbreviations are included in Table A.6 in Appendix A.
Table 1.2 Add Your Plumbing Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Stands For
1.4 COMMON PLUMBING SYMBOLS
Symbols are used throughout the construction industry to illustrate typical devices, equipment, fixtures, piping systems, and other specific items. Many projects require engineers and architects to create non-typical
symbols relating to job conditions, similar to those depicted in Figures 1.1A and 1.1B. Common symbol
knowledge is essential in reading blueprints, regardless of the type of construction. All the piping-related symbols in Figures 1.1A and 1.1B are generic and do not represent a specific pipe connection or material type.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
8
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
DETAIL SYMBOL
TOP HALF OF CIRCLE INDICATES SECTION (SIDE) VIEW DETAIL NUMBER
6
P3
BOTTOM HALF OF CIRCLE INDICATES BLUEPRINT PAGE THAT THE SECTION
(SIDE) VIEW DETAIL CAN BE REVIEWED
DETAIL 6, DRAWING P3
SECTION SYMBOL
ARROW INDICATES DIRECTION OF VIEW
6
P3
SCOPE OF SECTION (SIDE) VIEW
TAIL INDICATES TOTAL SCOPE OF THE VIEW
ALL PIPING RELATED SYMBOLS ARE GENERIC AND DO NOT REPRESENT A CONNECTION OR
MATERIAL TYPE. MANY PLAN VIEWS ARE ALSO USED ON SECTION AND SIDE VIEW DRAWINGS
CHECK VALVE (ARROW INDICATES FLOW DIRECTION)
GATE VALVE (HANDLE ILLUSTRATED IS OPTIONAL)
GLOBE VALVE (HANDLE ILLUSTRATED IS OPTIONAL)
BALL VALVE (HANDLE ILLUSTRATED IS OPTIONAL)
TEE UP (PLAN VIEW)
TEE DOWN (PLAN VIEW)
90 DEGREE FITTING UP (PLAN VIEW)
90 DEGREE FITTING DOWN (PLAN VIEW)
45 DEGREE OFFSET (PLAN VIEW)
P-TRAP (PLAN VIEW)
FIGURE 1.1A
■
Common plumbing symbols.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
9
COLD WATER (SINGLE DOT)
HOT WATER (DOUBLE DOT)
HOT WATER RETURN (TRIPLE DOT)
VENT (CONTINUOUS DOTTED LINE)
TANK TYPE TOILET (WATER CLOSET)
BATHTUB
LAVATORY
KITCHEN SINK
SHOWER
URINAL
HOSE FAUCET
CAP
REDUCER
FIGURE 1.1B
■
Common plumbing symbols.
You will learn later is this book in depth about three views that piping is illustrated on a blueprint. Plan, side,
and isometric views are the three views used to communicate design intent of a piping system. A plan view
is a view from the top of a piping system, a side view, which is also called a section view, is viewing a portion
of a system or building from the side, and an isometric view is a three-dimensional view. Plan view symbols
in Figure 1.1A of fittings, such as tee up, are also used in the same manner when illustrating a tee toward you
when illustrating a side view. Notice next to relevant symbols in Figure 1.1A “Plan View” is written in parenthesis. This is for lesson purpose only and would not be included in a design.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
10
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
Add Your Own Symbols Below
Use Table 1.3 to add your own symbols as needed for further classroom study or job site use.
Table 1.3 Add Your Plumbing Symbols
Symbol
Stands For
1.5 COMMON ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS
AND ABBREVIATIONS
A plumber coordinates installations with other trades, and knowing basic electrical symbols and abbreviations
assist in communicating with electrical contractors. As with plumbing symbols and abbreviations, the electrical trade has industry standard and non-typical symbols and abbreviations. Some abbreviations are used for
all aspects of the construction trade, such as AFF representing above finished floor. This abbreviation indicates the height above a floor of specific portions of a design, such as the height of electrical switches, plumbing fixtures, and ceilings.
Basic Electrical Symbols
A plumber must possess basic knowledge of other trade symbols to coordinate his or her work. Figures 1.2A,
1.2B, and 1.2C exhibit some of the more common electrical symbols used in the construction trade. A
plumber would not have to know every electrical symbol, but would refer to the blueprint page (legend) indicating the meaning of a symbol.
Basic Electrical Abbreviations
Understanding electrical abbreviations is not crucial for installing plumbing systems, but is often important
when coordinating installation activities or designs. Basic knowledge and understanding abbreviations allows
an individual to discuss project requirements in a thorough and professional manner. Table 1.4 shows the
more common electrical abbreviations used in project blueprints today.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
11
CONDUCTOR OR WIRE
CROSSING CONDUCTORS (NOT CONNECTED)
CROSSING CONDUCTORS (CONNECTED)
TERMINAL OR BINDING POST
SINGLE POLE SINGLE THROW (SPST) SWITCH
MOTOR
M
GROUND
CIRCUIT BREAKER
CEILING OUTLET
CEILING OUTLET, RECESSED FIXTURE
J
JUNCTION BOX
DUPLEX RECEPTACLE
WEATHERPROOF RECEPTACLE
WP
RANGE RECEPTACLE
R
FLOOR RECEPTACLE
S
SINGLE POLE SWITCH
S3
THREE-WAY SWITCH
FIGURE 1.2A
■
Common electrical symbols.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
12
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
COMBINATION SWITCH AND RECEPTACLE
S
DISTRIBUTION PANEL
SERVICE PANEL
SWITCH, DOUBLE THROW (GENERAL)
FUSE
+
POSITIVE
-
NEGATIVE
2 POLE DOUBLE THROW SWITCH
(TERMINALS SHOWN)
L
LAMP
SINGLE RECEPTACLE
FAN (MOTOR)
or
HOMERUN
EXIT SIGN
P
PULL CHAIN
T
THERMOSTAT
FIGURE 1.2B
■
Common electrical symbols.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
13
SYMBOLS FOR RECEPTACLES HAVING AN ATTACHED ABBREVIATION
INDICATE DESIGNATION OF RECEPTACLE
WP = WEATHERPROOF
W = WASHING MACHINE
GF = GROUND FAULT
R = RANGE
REF = REFRIGERATOR
D = DRYER
AMPERAGE RATING MAY ALSO BE ATTACHED TO RECEPTACLE SYMBOLS.
EXAMPLE: 20 = 20 AMPS AND WP = WEATHERPROOF
THIS SYMBOL INDICATES A 20 AMP WEATHERPROOF DUPLEX RECEPTACLE
20
WP
FIGURE 1.2C
■
Common electrical symbols.
Table 1.4 Common Electrical Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Stands For
Abbreviation
Stands For
AMP
Amperage
KW
Kilowatt
D
Dryer
MV
Millivolt
DW
Dishwasher
NEC
National Electrical Code
EF
Exhaust Fan
R
Range
FACP
Fire Alarm Control Panel
S
Switch
G
Ground
V
Voltage
GFI
Ground Fault Interrupter
W
Washing Machine
KVA
Kilovoltage Amperes
WP
Weatherproof
Add Your Own Electrical Symbols and Abbreviations
Use Table 1.5 to add your own symbols and abbreviations as needed. Through your classroom studies or job
site experience you can use this listing for future reference.
Table 1.5 Add Your Electrical Symbols and Abbreviations
Symbols/Abbreviations
Stands For
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
14
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
1.6 COMMON HVAC SYMBOLS
AND ABBREVIATIONS
As with electrical symbols and abbreviations, a plumber does not have to know all details of an HVAC (heating ventilation and air conditioning) system to install a plumbing system. For anyone responsible for coordination or designing of a plumbing system, basic knowledge and understanding of HVAC symbols allows for
a productive and professional approach to a project. A plumber is more likely to coordinate with the HVAC
trade than the electrical trade on larger projects. Ducts and piping often compete for the same space in corridor ceilings and mechanical equipment rooms. A mechanical contracting company often installs plumbing,
heating, and air conditioning systems. An employee for a company installing multiple systems may have to
know more symbols and abbreviations than a plumber installing only plumbing systems. Figures 1.3A and
1.3B illustrate many common HVAC symbols.
HVAC Abbreviations
Table 1.6 list common abbreviations a plumber may encounter on a blueprint. Notice the abbreviation
FD stands for fire damper, while that abbreviation stands for floor drain or fixture drain when relating it
to plumbing.
SUPPLY AIR DIFFUSER
RETURN AIR DIFFUSER
FLEXIBLE DUCT
90° ELBOW WITH TURNING VALVES
SQUARE TO ROUND TRANSITION
EF
EXHAUST FAN
PNEUMATIC THERMOSTAT
ELECTRICAL THERMOSTAT
HUMIDISTAT
4' × 2' TROFFER DIFFUSER
FIGURE 1.3A
■
Common HVAC symbols.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
15
BD
MANUAL BALANCING DAMPER
SUPPLY BRANCH TAKE OFF WITH MANUAL BALANCING DAMPER
DD
DUCT MOUNTED SMOKE DAMPER
BOTTOM FLAT TRANSITION
TOP FLAT TRANSITION
TWO-DIRECTIONAL SUPPLY DIFFUSER
FOUR-DIRECTIONAL SUPPLY DIFFUSER
FIGURE 1.3B
■
Common HVAC symbols.
Table 1.6 Common HVAC Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Stands For
AC
Air Conditioning
AHU
Air Handling Unit
ASHRAE
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
ASHVE
American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers
BD
Balancing Damper
BOD
Bottom of Duct
BTU
British Thermal Unit
CFM
Cubic Feet Per Minute
EF
Exhaust Fan
FAI
Fresh Air Intake
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
16
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
Table 1.6 Common HVAC Abbreviations (continued)
Abbreviation
Stands For
FCU
Fan Coil Unit
FD
Fire Damper
FOB
Flat On Bottom
FOT
Flat On Top
HTG
Heating
HVAC
Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
RA
Return Air
RAG
Return Air Grille
RTU
Roof Top Unit
SA
Supply Air
SAG
Supply Air Grille
SMACNA
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
SD
Split Damper
TOD
Top of Duct
VAV
Variable Air Volume
VD
Volume Damper
Add Your Own HVAC Abbreviations and Symbols
Use the space in Table 1.7 to add your own symbols and abbreviations as needed. Add to this listing to have
for future reference on a job site.
Table 1.7 Add Your HVAC Abbreviations and Symbols
Symbols/Abbreviations
Stands For
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
17
SUMMARY
Understanding common blueprint abbreviations and symbols is important for anyone trying to progress in
blueprint reading and drafting. A blueprint is a visual representation of a project condensed onto paper.
Abbreviations and symbols are necessary to maintain clear design intent without having too much information on a page or within a detail. The three views used to illustrate design intent of a piping system are plan,
side (section), and isometric.
An individual must be able to recognize specific symbols and interpret project requirements to estimate
and construct based on architectural or engineering designs. Abbreviations are used in every aspect of a design
and a plumber must have a thorough knowledge of plumbing abbreviations and basic knowledge of other
trade abbreviations.
As your training progresses with this book, you can refer to the abbreviations and symbols in this chapter until they become recognizable. Additional abbreviations are in Appendix A of this book. More important
than knowing them as you study is remembering them during employment. An employer expects an employee
with training to use learned skills to increase productivity.
ASSIGNMENT 1.1
Common Plumbing Abbreviations
Complete the blank areas of abbreviations or their meaning in Table 1.8.
Table 1.8 Common Plumbing Abbreviations A through D
Abbreviation
Stands For
ADA
Above Finished Floor
BTU
C-C
Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
Cleanout
CW
Drainage Fixture Unit
DF
Drainage Waste and Vent
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
18
■
Blueprint Reading and Drafting for Plumbers
ASSIGNMENT 1.2
Common Plumbing Abbreviations
Complete the blank areas of abbreviations or their meaning in Table 1.9.
Table 1.9 Common Plumbing Abbreviations E through J
Abbreviation
Stands For
ECO
Electric Water Cooler
EWH
Floor Drain
HW
Inside Diameter
IE
Iron Pipe Size
JS
ASSIGNMENT 1.3
Common Plumbing Abbreviations
Complete the blank areas of abbreviations or their meaning in Table 1.10.
Table 1.10 Common Plumbing Abbreviations K through W
Abbreviation
Stands For
KS
Lavatory
LH
North
Outside Diameter
PRV
Pounds Per Square Inch
VIF
Vent Through Roof
WH
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
CHAPTER 1 Blueprint Symbols and Abbreviations
■
19
ASSIGNMENT 1.4
Design Intent
1. Locations, sizes, and types of products are part of a design intent.
True _____
False _____
2. Design intent is illustrated on a blueprint. Actual routing or placement of piping must be
coordinated on a job site.
True _____
False _____
3. The physical locations of fixtures are part of design intent.
True _____
False _____
4. The size of piping is not part of design intent.
True _____
False _____
5. Abbreviations and symbols are not used to show design intent.
True _____
False _____
ASSIGNMENT 1.5
Plumbing Symbols
1. On the line below each symbol, fill in the correct identification of each symbol in Figure 1.4 based
on a plan view.
SINGLE DOT
FIGURE 1.4
■
DOUBLE DOT
CONTINUOUS DOTS
Plan view symbols.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.