SF-TH Inc The Ships Landed Long Ago: Afrofuturism and Black SF Author(s): Mark Bould Reviewed work(s): Source: Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, Afrofuturism (Jul., 2007), pp. 177-186 Published by: SF-TH Inc Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4241520 . Accessed: 30/06/2012 09:16 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] . SF-TH Inc is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Science Fiction Studies. http://www.jstor.org AFROFUTURISMAND BLACK SF 177 Mark Bould The Ships LandedLong Ago: Afrofuturismand Black SF Whoputus in a raceandforwhatpurposearewe racing?-Rammellzee From the 1950s onwards,sf in the US magazineand paperbacktradition postulatedandpresumeda color-blindfuture,generallydepictinghumankind "as one race, which has emerged from an unhappy past of racial and conflicts"(James47; see also Kilgore).This shared misunderstandings assumptionaccountsfor the relativeabsenceof peopleof colorfromsuchsf: if racewas going to proveunimportant, why even botherthinkingaboutit, whenenergiescouldinsteadbe devotedto morepressingmatters,suchas how to colonizethe solarsystemor builda betterrobot?Andso questionsof race remainedas marginalized asblackcharacters-atbest,it seemed,Chewbacca's Jimto Han'sHuck.A yearafterStarWars,DC ComicsputSupermanin the ring with MuhammadAli and then concocteda convolutednarrativethat culminatedin the speedydeclarationof Ali's victoryby a technicalknockout thewell-whupped Manof Steelrefusedto hit as, strippedof his superpowers, the canvas(untila splitsecondafterthe refereeannouncedthe result). The exclusionof peopleof color fromsf's futurehadalreadybeennoted by, amongothers,Gil Scott-Heron,whose 1970track"Whiteyon theMoon" (1970)contraststhecorporateprofiteering of theUS spaceprogram(so close, ideologically, to much of the Campbell-Heinleintradition)with the impoverishment of blackurbancommunities:"I can'tpay no doctorbill (but Whitey'son themoon)/TenyearsfromnowI'll be payin'still(whileWhitey's on themoon)."Thespaceraceshowedus whichracespacewasfor. Thissense of exclusionevenregisteredin white-authored sf. Forexample,in "Survival," a 1971 episode of UFO (1970-73), CommanderStraker(Ed Bishop)-the white,Americanheadof SHADO,a secretmilitaryorganization chargedwith defendingEarthfrom alien invaders-believeswhite Colonel Paul Foster (MichaelBillington)to be deadandso offerscommandof thevitalmoonbase to LieutenantMarkBradley(HarryBaird).Initially,this West-Indian officer turnsdownthepromotion,sayingthatStrakerhasdonehis dutyby offeringthe job to the nextmostseniorman,eventhoughhe is black,andthathe himself has done his duty by refusingit. When Strakerdemandsan explanation, Bradleyindicateshis skincolor. Straker-perhapsforgettingthatthe seriesis set in 1980, less thana decadein the future-responds,"Don'tgive me that. Racialprejudiceburneditself out five yearsago.""Howwouldyou know?" Bradleydemands. Whatevertheirintentions,sf's color-blindfuturewas concoctedby whites andexcludedpeopleof coloras full subjects;andbecauseof theparticularities of US history,themostobviousomissionwasthatsignificantproportion of the populationdescendedfromthe survivorsof the West-Africangenocide,the MiddlePassage, and slavery. This is not to say that the dominantUS sf 178 SCIENCEFICTIONSTUDIES,VOLUME34 (2007) traditiondid not occasionallyattempt,withvaryingdegreesof equivocation, to considerissuesof raceandprejudicein contemporary andfutureworlds.For example,AllenDe Graeff'sHumanand OtherBeings(1963)collectssixteen suchstories,publishedbetween1949and1961,by RaymondE. Banks,Leigh Brackett,Ray Bradbury,FredricBrown, TheodoreR. Cogswell, C.M. Kornbluth,GeorgeP. Elliott,J.T. McIntosh,FrederikPohl, MackReynolds, Eric FrankRussell, RobertSheckley,EvelynE. Smith,WilliamTenn, and RichardWilson.'It is not insignificant,though,thatonly one-thirdof these stories addressedthe position of African Americanswith anythinglike directness;only two or threeof themcouldbe seen to have blackviewpoint characters,despitethe growthof the Civil Rightsmovementin the 1950sand such high-profileevents as McLaurinvs. OklahamaStateRegents(1951), Sweattvs. Painter(1951), the announceddesegregationof the US Army (1951), Brownvs. the Boardof Education(1954), themurderof EmmettTill (1955),theMontgomery BusBoycott(1955-56),andthedesegregation of Little Rock(1957). This problem,too, is perhapsbest addressedby a marginalblack sf characterfromthe 1970s.In 1972,MarvelComicslaunchedLukeCage,Hero for Hire(laterLukeCage,PowerMan).LongbeforeRobertMoralesandKyle Baker'swonderfulTruth:Red, WhiteandBlack(2002)reworkedthe Captain America origin story (reasoningthat if medical experimentshad been conductedon US soldiers in the 1940s they would have been on black soldiers),LukeCage openedwith Lucas,a blackprisonerimprisonedfor a crime he did not commit,consentingto be the subjectof an experimental treatmentin orderto helpswaya paroleboard.Whena racistguardsabotages the procedure,Lucas undergoesa remarkabletransformation. His already muscularphysiquebecomeshypermuscular, hisbodymassincreasesindensity, andhis skinbecomesas hardas steel.He bustsoutof prison,punchinghis way throughits walls.Backin New York,he triesto clearhis namewhileworking as hiredmuscle,Shaft-likedetective,andragingblackRobinHood.He fmds himself embroiledwith various white superheroes:Iron Man, who, as billionaireTony Stark,fmancedthe experimentthat createdhim, and the FantasticFour,whoseskyscraper headquarters belongsto anentirelydifferent worldfromhis run-downoffice over a TimesSquaremovietheater. In a comic whoseunabashed linkingof discrepanciesof wealth,prestige, and access to technologywith skin color providesno more analysisof the situationthanone wouldfind in mostblaxploitation moviesof the period,it nonethelesspowerfullyarticulates thealienatedblackidentitythatW.E.B. Du Bois and FrantzFanon describedin terms of double consciousnessand colonizedsubjectivity.WeneverknowLucas'ssurname,andtheonehe adopts alludesto an imprisonment he feels eventhoughno longerincarcerated. From the momentLucasbecomesLukeCagehe is alwaysLukeCage. For all that he mustconceala pastfromwhichhe cannotescape,he has no conventional off-dutysecretidentityto protect,no maskto puton or takeoff. He is always visiblein therolehe mustplayto survive.Moreover,despitehis superpowers, he does not feel thathe is a superhero.Rather,as he musesin issue2 (1972), AFROFUTURISMAND BLACK SF 179 superheroingis "one line 'a work where powers like mine seem natural,"the one chance this big, black man has of passing. (Contemplatinga change of sobriquetin issue 17 , he rejects "Ace of Spades" as "too ethnic.") As his superpowersconsist of hitting things really hard, while withstandingbeing hit really hard, he embracesthis stereotypeof black masculinity, occasionally chiding himself for betraying his intelligence (although fortunately his performance of black male rage is so convincing that his opponents, and perhaps his readers, rarely notice that he also outsmarts them). In issue 9 (1973), Cage makes his way to Latveria, where Doctor Doom's robot slaves, led by the alien Faceless One, are in armed revolt. The Faceless One seeks Cage's help: "The plight of these machines is heart-rending, Cage. Other countrieshave, in the past, importedslaves ... but Doctor Doom manufactures his! Surely you can comprehendtheir feelings?" Cage replies: "Don't play that song for me, darlin'-I can dig it right enough!-But jivin' don't hook Luke Cage, an' you couldn't care less 'bout American history!" Just as LieutenantBradley points to white ignoranceof black subjectivity, the oppressor's ignorance of the oppressed's life, so Luke Cage points to the problem of sf that uses the indirection of metaphor or allegory to consider issues of race and prejudice. Just as the Faceless One elides all experiences of slavery, thus stripping both fictional robots and real African Americans of specific identitiesand histories, so the satiricalsf tale in which the alien or the android is the subject of prejudice, whatever its merits, also avoids direct engagement with the realities of racializedhierarchiesand oppressions. This is evident in the brief discussion of race and sf offered by Scholes and Rabkin in the 1970s: because of their orientationtowardthe future, science fiction writers frequently assumed that America's major problem in this area-black/white relations-would improve or even wither away.... The presence of unhuman races, aliens, and robots, certainlymakes the differencesbetween humanraces seem appropriatelytrivial, and one of the achievementsof science fiction has been its emphasison just this featureof humanexistence.... [Its] tacit attackon racial stereotyping... has allowed science fiction to get beyond even "liberal" attitudes, to make stereotyping itself an obsolete device and the matterof race comparativelyunimportant.Science fiction, in fact, has taken the question so spiritedlydebatedby the foundingfathersof the United States-of whetherthe rightsof man includedblack slaves as well as white slave-owners-and raised it to a higherpower by asking whetherthe rightsof being end at the boundariesof the humanrace. (188-89, emphasisadded) While Scholes and Rabkinare clearly involved in the importantstruggle to get sf recognized as being worthyof academicstudy-their book was publishedby Oxford University Press-and thus might be merely over-egging the pudding in the battlefor acceptance,this passage is nonethelessredolentof the criticism of the genre that accepts the genre's own self-image, promulgatedin the pulps and some fandoms, as somehow being in the vanguardof literaturebecause of the supposedly more objective stance enabled by its affiliations to science, particularly the longer and broader perspectives opened up by the 180 SCIENCE FICTIONSTUDIES, VOLUME 34 (2007) contemplationof cosmic space and time. The problem with such a gesture, of course, is that ratherthan putting aside trivial and earthly things, it validates and normalizes very specific ideological and material perspectives, enabling discussions of race and prejudiceon a level of abstractionwhile stifling a more important discussion about real, material conditions, both historical and contemporary.And by presentingracism as an insanity that burned itself out, or as the obvious folly of the ignorant and impoverished who would be left behind by the genre's brave new futures, sf avoids confrontingthe structures of racism and its own complicity in them. EdwardJames, in his rathermore nuancedessay quotedabove, found "the message that humanity is one race" perpetuated without any fuss or foregrounding in a sample of stories from 1990. "We may trust," he concludes, "this is a hopeful sign" (47). Slavoj iziek's critique of multiculturalismsuggests that this is unduly optimistic. Multiculturalism,he argues, is a disavowed, inverted, self-referential form of racism, a "racism with a distance"-it "respects"the Other's identity, conceiving the Other as a selfenclosed "authentic" community towards which he, the multiculturalist, maintains a distance rendered possible by his privileged universal position. Multiculturalism is a racism which empties its own position of all positive content (the multiculturalistis not a direct racist, he doesn't oppose to the Other theparticular values of his own culture), but nonethelessretainsthis position as the privileged emptypoint of universalityfrom which one is able to appreciate (and depreciate)properlyother particularcultures-the multiculturalistrespect for the Other's specificity is the very form of assertingone's own superiority. (44, emphases in original) Sf's color-blind future is multiculturalistin this way-as is evident when CommanderStraker, who has profoundly missed the point, tells Lieutenant Bradley, "I don't care if you're polka dot with red stripes, you're the best man for the job."2 The term "Afrofuturism"is normallyattributedto MarkDery, coined in an interview with Samuel Delany, Greg Tate, and Tricia Rose that appearedin South Atlantic Quarterlyin 1993, but even without this term to hand, Mark Sinker was outlining a specifically black sf in the pages of The Wirethe year before. To many readers of SFS, Sinker's pantheon of black sf-which includedSamuelDelany and OctaviaButler, as well as Sun Ra, Public Enemy, John Coltrane, Anthony Braxton, Miles Davis, Wayne Shorter,Jimi Hendrix, Afrika Bambaataa,Ishmael Reed, and EarthWind and Fire-might not sound much like the sf we know. But sf is "a point of culturaldeparture"for all of these writers and musicians, because "it allows for a series of worst-case futures-of hells-on-Earthandbeing in them-which are woven into every kind of everyday present reality" ("Loving the Alien"). The "centralfact" of the black sf they produce "is an acknowledgement that Apocalypse already happened," that, in Public Enemy's words, "Armageddonbeen in effect." AFROFUTURISM ANDBLACK SF 181 Takingin contemporary music and sf, Sinkerpositionship-hopin "the grand syncretic traditionof bebop, not ashamedto acknowledgethat technologicalmeansandinitialbuildingmaterialarealwayssimplywhatfalls to hand:but thatmeaningis nonethelessa matterof energeticandvisionary notwhofirstownedormadethisorthatfragment" redeployment, ("Lovingthe hastypicallybeendiscussedintermsof European Alien").Althoughcyberpunk or Burroughsian detournement avant-garde cut-up,its parallelsandaffinities Sinkerdoes withbebopandhip-hop3have generallygone unacknowledged. more thanmerelypoint to this omission,however.Just as ThomasFoster arguesthatcyberpunk"didn'tso muchdie as experiencea sea changeintoa moregeneralizedculturalformation" (xiv), so Sinkersuggeststhattheblack, of thesemusicalforms urban,proletarian experiencecentraltothedevelopment speaksdirectlyto the experienceof the global underclasscreatedby the with intertwined logicsof capital,Empire,andrace:more-or-lessconcomitant thegrowthof hip-hop,cyberpunk,the "radicalleadingedge"of "whiteSF," was "arguingthattheplanet,alreadyturnedBlack,mustembraceratherthan resist this [relationshipto technology]:that ... only ways of technological inheritedfromthejazz andnowtherapavantgardecanreintegrate interaction humanitywiththe runawaymachineage." WhileExtropians, andotherrichwhiteguyscanreimagine Transhumanists, white flight not in terms of suburbs, gated communities,or "off-world colonies," but of libertarian,pro-market,digital disembodiment,the canonlyplayin theruinsthey overwhelming majorityof theglobalpopulation leave behind.In musicalterms,this is signifiedby DetroitTechno, which "yearn[ed]for [the] impossibleSF futures"projectedby Kraftwerk'ssemiironiccelebrationof "theexcellenceof robot-being,"but whose consumers couldonly find "purelytemporaryparadisiacfreedom,beyondsex rulesor in the "wordlesstotalimmersioncultureof beat-pleasure."4 racialboundaries" In sf terms,thisutopianimpulseis suggestedby thedance-party in Zionwhile tunnelingSentinelspreparefor a final onslaughtthat will universalisethe Matrix.Blacknessas a signifierof the multiethnicunderclass,as well as an increasinglycommodifiedimageof resistance,is signalledby thepresencein TheMatrix(1999)andits sequelsof KeanuReeves,a Lebanon-born Canadian Asian-Pacific,passingas white,castinsteadof a blackman(WillSmith),who fights like a Chinese(specifically,Jet Li), and desperatelywantsto be as black-as cool-as LaurenceFishburne. Just as the Sentinelsseek to eradicatethe Zionites,so westernculture generallyconstructs"Blackness... as alwaysoppositionalto technologically drivenchroniclesof progress"(Nelson 1). This is evident,for example,in such a quintessentially sf story as Tom Godwin's "The Cold Equations" (1954). While much of the criticism of this story has focused on its constructionof a newer and higher frontieras a space of transcendent masculinity,andof femininityas thatwhichmustbe ejected,theonecolonized personwho fleetinglyappearsin it-the Gelanese"nativegirl who does the cleaningin theShip'ssupplyoffice"(445)-has gonelargelyunnoticed.While 182 SCIENCEFICTIONSTUDIES,VOLUME34 (2007) the manly colonists do all they can to allow the white girl, Marilyn,an existencein theirspace,howeverbriefly,the "nativegirl"is utterlyexcluded. fictionthattreatsAfricanAfrofuturism, describedby Deryas "speculative concernsin the contextof AmericanthemesandaddressesAfrican-American 20th_centurytechnoculture-and, more generally, African-American significationthat appropriatesimages of technologyand a prosthetically enhancedfuture"(736), is not restrictedto imagesof exclusionfromwhite technologicalprogress,becauseonly withina certainideologicalfieldis black experiencethe oppositeof technoculture.Just as the futuresof "TheCold Equations"and UFOexcludethe experienceof the subalternfromtheirselfperception, so Mark Bradley and Luke Cage's resistancesto certain indicate-evenif theystruggleto imagine-a muchmorevaried interpellations and complex set of relationshipsbetweendominationand subordination, whitenessandcolor,ideologyandreality,technologyandrace.Inthiscontext, thatmuchAfrofuturist it is notinsignificant writingfocuseson real-worldblack access to and use of digitialtechnologies,or that the second @froGEEKS conferenceshouldshift its emphasisfrom 2004's "FromTechnophobiato Technophilia" to 2005's "GlobalBlacknessandthe DigitalPublicSphere."5 Afrofuturism into It is not the intentionof this specialissueto incorporate sf. Afrofuturismis every bit as irreducibleto sf as Bradleyis to SHADO's whitehierarchy,or blackAmericansto Latverianrobotslaves,or LukeCage to the buckstereotype.Rather,it is the contentionof this issue thatsf andsf studies have much to learn from the experienceof technoculturethat Afrofuturist textsregisteracrossa widerangeof media;andthatsf studies,if it is to be at all radical,mustuse its positionof relativeprivilegeto providea homeforexcludedvoiceswithoutforcingassimilation uponthem.Resistance, as the Borg never said, is utile. It would be easy, in a postmodern multiculturalist as age, to fall intothetrapof merelycelebratingAfrofuturism resistance(and thus practicingthe "disavowed,inverted,self-referential" racism :iziek describes).In the era of digital sampling-and the shift of emphasisfromthe diachronicto the synchronicencouragedas muchby late capitalismas by the linguisticturn-it is easy to lose trackof history.The future proposed by Marinettiand the Italian Futuristswas young and masculine,obsessedwithspeedandthe foreclosureof thepast.In its frequent tendstowardsthetypical emphasison bridgingthedigitaldivide,Afrofuturism cyberpunk acceptanceof capitalismas anunquestionable universeandworking for the assimilationof certaincurrentlymarginalizedpeoples into a global system that might, at best, tolerate some relativelyminor (althoughnot unimportant) reforms,but withinwhich the manywill still have to poach, pilfer, and hide to survive. It is the hope of this issue to bring together Afrofuturism andsf studiesin anticipation of a transformation. IsiahLavender'sideaof the "ethnoscape" proposesa new way of looking at sf. In producingan estrangedworld, the sf authorcan formulatean imaginary environment so as to foreground theintersection of race,technology, andpower;likewise,the readerof any text can transformits contoursby a similarforegrounding of thetext'streatment of thesediscourses.Focusingon ANDBLACK AFROFUTURISM SF 183 the ethnoscapetransformsthe perceivedobject. Afrofuturismcan help sf studiesto recognizethe ethnoscapesin boththe textsandpracticesit studies, as well as in thoseit constructsitself.Eachof thearticlesin thisissueperforms a similartask. DarrylSmithconsidersshortfictionby W.E.B. Du Bois, AmiriBaraka, andDerrickBell, signifyingon theimageof thesingularityor spike,inverting it, so as not to contemplatethe Tip of white, posthuman,post-historical transcendence but the Pit of black, material,human,and historicalbeing. Bouldexaminesa groupof African-American novelsfromthe 1960sand1970s thatpostulatea nowthatcannotbe gonebeyond,andthatrespondby tryingto imaginea blackrevolutionagainstwhitepower.Invertingthe utopianform, they bringthe readerrightup to the brinkof historicalrupturethat makes utopiapossiblefrom this side, but are stoppedshortby the immensityof the ontologicalcataclysmtheir revolutionaryaction must provoke.While not always superficiallyresemblingsf, these novels are in the vanguardof the currenttendencyJamesonnotesof "findingvisionsof totaldestruction andof theextinctionof life on Earth... moreplausiblethantheUtopianvisionof the new Jerusalem"(199). SherrylVint considerstwo novels, Toni Morrison'sBeloved(1987) and OctaviaButler'sKindred(1979), thatinitiallyretreatfromthe futureso as to betterunderstandhow to approachit. Criticaltreatmentsof the neo-slave narrativehavetypicallyneglectedthesignificantuse madeof fantasticdevices so as to troubleandconfrontthe historyof slaveryin the New World(which includesits ongoinglegacies).Kindredcanperhapsbe readas an earlythirdwave feministinversionof MargePiercy'slate second-waveWomanon the Edgeof Time(1976).Inbroadterms,Piercy'snaturalist slummingwithConnie Ramostendsto dematerialize differencethrougha future-orientation thatcan reachno furtherintothe pastthanConnie'spresent,andmakesall of future historyhingeon heragency.Butler(whosenovelis set, in part,in 1976)insists that presentand futureare inextricablycaughtup with the past. As Vint demonstrates,Morrison'sgothic confinementsand hauntingssuggest the importance of not beingtrappedby history,whileButler'stimetravelargues againstany precipitateflightfroma historythathas not yet beenadequately resolved.While Butleris an authorwho has movedfreely amongfantastic genres, this essay reconceptualizes her work as always-alreadyneo-slave narratives. A similarly deep engagementwith the history of imperialismand colonialismis evident,JillanaEnteenreveals,in Nalo Hopkinson'sMidnight Robber(2000), a novelthattells a cyberpunkstoryfromthepointof view of thecolonizedevenas thecolonizedplaythecolonizersin a planetaryromance. Hacking and splicing genres as deftly as it does language, telling its contradictory tale(s)in NorthAmericanEnglishandTrinidadian andJamaican creoles, MidnightRobberactivatesboth sides of history, diggingdeep to imaginea future.Examiningsonic Afrofuturism,NabeelZuberirevealsan evenmoretangledhistoricalweavein therefusalof Afrodiasporic culture,and musicinparticular, to dematerialize intonothingmorethandisembodied digital 184 SCIENCEFICTIONSTUDIES,VOLUME34 (2007) For WilliamGibson, bits in the circulationof globalizedinformation-capital. dubmighthavebeenmerely"asensuousmosaiccookedfromvastlibrariesof cultureis embodied-and digitalizedpop"(104), butas Zuberidemonstrates, historyis bodies.Andmaybethatcolor-blindfuturecanstillbe toldso longas it is motley,mottledwithouthierarchy,ratherthanblanketedin whiteness,and so long as it is toldby thoseandfor thosewho arepropelledtowardsthe Pit ratherthanthosewho clamberover themto the Tip. The articlesin this issue bringto our attentiongenerallyneglectedtexts, someof whichmightconventionally be consideredas of onlymarginalinterest to sf, whilealso castingrelativelyfamiliartextsin a new lightby considering themalongsidenon-or marginally-sftexts. Collectively,theynot only draw attentionto thewaysin whichsf hastraditionally beenconstructed to privilege whiteAmericanpulp-and-paperback andEuropeanliterarytraditionsbutalso, inextricably,to excludeblackvoices andblackexperience. I wouldlike to thankRaifordGuins,who set the ballrollingandlaterputme in touchwithRoneShaversat a crucialjuncture;the patientandsympathetic editorsof SFS;andmy anonymousreader,my hero for hire, whose reports wereprompt,precise,detailed,andinsightful. NOTES 1. Davin offers details of numerousother stories that addressedissues of race and discrimination,anddemonstratessome of the complexityof the genre's liberalismin this regard. His conclusion, however-that sf in the period he studies (1926-1965) was not racist-is predicatedon a rathernaive conception of racism that in fact replicates the exclusionarystructureof sf's color-blindfuture. Recent anthologiesof interestinclude Hopkinsonand Mehan, and the two edited by Thomas. 2. Bradley, unfortunately,accepts this reassuranceand the promotion,becoming, in effect, one of AnthonyJoseph's "post-earthnegroes who believed inner:disembodied: blacknuss"and who claimedthatblackas a conceptof beingwas onlyeverrelevanton Earth,andeventhen it wassuspectedas themindsetof a conthatputafrosdownandkeptnegroesterrabound to suffer/whenwe couldabeen interplanetary fromway back.Insteadof the industrial revolution,we could'vehadniggersin space!Theysaidblackwas dead.... Butblack peopledidn'twantto hearthatshit!'causein theirfollythesefoolsgrewlamelimbsand underneath andotherwisetheyappearedimperviousto funk.(37-38) 3. Bebop's relianceon chordprogressionsandon alteringor combiningchords from two tunes (so as to ditch melodies unsuited to its fast pace, enable improvisation,and avoid copyright payments) provides a model for hip-hop's scratching and sampling aesthetic. 4. Key Afrofuturistwritingson music includeEllington, Eshun, Lock, Miller, Rose, Szwed, Weheliye, and Williams. 5. See, for example, Eglash; Everett; Kevorkian;Kolko, Nakamura,and Rodman; Nakamura;and Nelson, Tu, and Hines. WORKSCITED Davin, Eric Leif. Partners in Wonder:Womenand the Birth of Science Fiction, 19261965. Lanham,MD: Lexington, 2006. De Graeff, Allen, ed. Humanand OtherBeings. New York: Collier, 1963. AFROFUTURISMAND BLACK SF 185 Dery, Mark. "Blackto the Future:Interviewswith Samuel R. Delany, Greg Tate, and Tricia Rose." SouthAtlantic Quarterly 92 (1993): 735-78. Eglash, Ron. "Race, Sex, and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian AmericanHipsters." Social Text20.2 (Summer2002): 49-64. Ellington, Duke. "The Race for Space." 1962. 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