Teen Pregnancy & Sexual Violence Link Countering the Trend

Countering the Trend
of Normalization of Sexual Harm
Strategies for Teen Pregnancy and
SV/CSE Prevention
Presented by:
Teen Pregnancy & Sexual
Violence Link
Cordelia Anderson
Minneapolis, MN
Declines & Risks
Definition: Sexual Violence
The workgroup used this definition of sexual
violence: any unwanted, non-consensual,
manipulated or coerced form of sexual
activity.
Minnesota Department of Health, Domestic and
Sexual Violence in Minnesota, September 2003
• Research suggests that while teen
pregnancy has declined in the general
population over the past two decades, it
has not declined among groups at higher
risk for sexual violence, such as runaways
or gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and
questioning youth.
TransRiver Report, 5/06
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At Increased Risk For Sexual
Abuse
9 Children from chaotic families
-Substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence
9 Girls at and just after puberty
-Early maturing
9 Boys before puberty
-Especially gender non-conforming
9 Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender
teens
-Less protection in and outside the family
Saewyc
SLIDE: G Youngquist, J Martin PowerPoint, ‘07
GLBTQ Youth at
Greater Risk
9 More likely to have sexual abuse history
9 More likely to report pregnancy
Among sexually abused teens in MN:
Recent same-gender sexual behavior was one
of the strongest predictors of teen pregnancy
Sexual Abuse and Teen Pregnancy Risk
Study of sexually active teens
MN Student Survey
More than 1:4 girls & more than
1:12 boys sexually abused
Abused more likely to report pregnancy
involvement, no matter type of abuse
Those who experienced multiple types of
abuse: highest prevalence of pregnancy
Saewyc, Pettingell, Magee Perspectives of Sexual & Reproductive Health,
Journal of School Nursing, October 2003
SLIDE: G Youngquist, J Martin PowerPoint, ‘07
Teen Pregnancy
& Sexual Harm or Lack of
Sexual Health Link
Saewyc
SLIDE: G Youngquist, J Martin PowerPoint, ‘07
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Sexually Toxic
Society
When incidents of sexual
violence are as frequent as they are;
when mass media is filled with images that
pair sex with violence; when dominant
messages sell sex void of any sense of
meaning, significance or responsibility; when
gender socialization continues to be
destructive, and when adults are hesitant to
proactively talk about sexuality, we have a
sexually toxic society.
Definitions
Sexual Harm: Includes the negative
impact from neglect of positive healthy
developmental information and
influences & the impact of various forms
of commoditization of sex & children,
sexual bullying, aggressiveness, abuse,
exploitation and violence.
“Talking About It”, Cordelia Anderson, Sensibilities Inc
Meaning of
Sexuality
in Prevention
Sex = 3 letters in 9
letter word Sexuality
• There is far more to preventing TP, CSE/SV
than SH promotion; but they are related
• There is far more to preventing IPV than
healthy relationships; but they are related
…..there is evidence that sexualization contributes to
impaired cognitive performance in college-aged women,
…. related research suggests that viewing material that is
sexually objectifying can contribute to body
dissatisfaction, eating disorders, low self-esteem,
depressive affect, and even physical health problems in
high-school-aged girls and in young women.
The sexualization of girls may not only reflect sexist
attitudes, a societal tolerance of sexual violence, and the
exploitation of girls and women but may also contribute
to these phenomena.
Rt of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls
Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls Available online at
www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html)
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Intimacy
Human Being Meaning
• “Be-ing” & “Do-ing”messages
• Can’t check our sexuality
at the door;
• Our sexuality is part of who
we are as a male or female
• Independent of if we’re “having sex”
• Independent of “who we’re in a
relationship
Circle of Sexual Health
INTIMACY: when we should have
been learning about intimacy we were
learning about sperm, eggs and
fallopian tubes
“innermost”
ID all the ways to be intimate:
physical sexual is only one >
sex can be used to avoid
intimacy
Sexual Esteem
emotional
physical
intellectual
spiritual
all in a social cultural context
• Physical
Understanding & Accepting our bodies
Understanding & Accepting how our
bodies function (arousal & desire)
• Emotional
Understanding & expressing feelings
• Intellectual
Having & integrating the information
• Spiritual
Understanding our values, beliefs
Connectedness (body & spirit) (self to
others)
Sense of self & desire as it relates to
spirituality
** Integration & Balance: behavior in line with beliefs,
values, feelings, knowledge
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What’s “sex” got to do with it?
Revisit:
– SV/CSE about power & control > But also
about the violent & exploitive use of sex
– Gender, Sex P & C
– What is the meaning of the sexual behavior?
• Risk and Protective Factors – What do we know
specific to TP/SV/CSE
– Ad Health
– (Stop It Now! & CDC)
– Impact of Normalization
What are the messages, lessons,
images youth get about sex &
sexuality? Being male or
female? “Masculinity”
“Femininity”?
Touchy Questions To Ponder
• Are we working to stop sexual harm or
sexuality? (Judith Levine)
• How do we discern “Head Over Heels”
from “In Over Your Head”…
“Willingly” from
“Compliant Victim
…. Groomed”
Teen Pregnancy & Sexual
Exploitation of Children
& Youth
How are we
countering the “lessons?”
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Definitions:
Child Sexual Exploitation - 5 Forms
Note: Child Sexual Abuse is the foundation for
CSE
• Child Pornography (child sexual abuse
images)
• Prostitution of Children & Youth ($ exchange
does not negate the adult sex with a child)
• Technology Initiated or Facilitated & Online
Enticement of Children & Youth
• Child Sex Tourism (Domestic & International)
• Sex Trafficking of Children & Youth
Gender Socialization
The Problem
• Supply
• Demand
• Perpetrators are mostly males,
(juveniles & adults)
• Commercial & non-commercial
motivations
Basic Question – Demand?
Why are so many,
primarily males,
willing to sexually
exploit a child?
6
When one child pornography site in TX
was busted it revealed 70,000 men’
men’s
names, who paid $29.95 a month, to
view images of
children being
sexually abused.
What is “Normalization”?
• The process by which an idea or behavior
becomes:
– an accepted part of societal culture.
– Then considered “just the way it is”
“just what people do.”
• Once indoctrinated & barriers removed, it’s
viewed as beneficial or preferential
What is “normalization”
and
why does it matter?
Women’s bodies & sex used to sell
things, is nothing new….
But the sheer volume of
sex - or more accurately
exploitive or
commoditized use of
sex - to sell, or to sell to,
younger & younger
children is newer
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Studies are beginning to show
the ways children & teens are learning
from this to be ‘compliant’ victims
& abusers
Impact
APA Study On Sexualization of Girls, 2007
Sexualization (which sets it apart from healthy sexuality)
occurs when
• a person’s value comes only from his or her sexual
appeal or behavior, to the exclusion of other
characteristics;
• a person is held to a standard that equates physical
attractiveness (narrowly defined) with being sexy;
• a person is sexually objectified—that is, made into a
thing for others’ sexual use, rather than seen as a
person with the capacity for independent action and
decision making; and/or
• sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person.
http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualizationsum.html
Impact:
on Brain Development
Studies Show Adolescent Brain is
a “Work in Progress”
Experiences during brain
growth have greater impact
than at any other time.
Dr. David Walsh, National Inst. for
Media & the Family
Recent Brain Study
Show that mirror cells brain circuits fire in the
same way when we
observe someone doing
something; as when we
actually do it
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Prevention Is Possible
& Urgent
Companies aren’t suppose to sell Tobacco
or Alcohol to children/youth
• They shouldn’t be able to sell sexual
exploitation and sexualized violence
• Children need constructive information
and tools for their healthy development
not language, images & products
destructive to their health and well-being.
What Do Children & Teens Get?
Pornography
Technology
Hyper-sexualized
mainstream media
Marketing &
Commercialization
To Develop in Healthy Ways
Children Need Constructive
Supports
Supportive Families &
Communities
Protective
Factors/Assets
Quality Information &
Education
Supports for Adults to Raise Them
Impact of technology is increasing
because it brings:
Access
Affordability
Anonymity
A steady diet of toxic messages
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U of Alberta Study
• Desensitization
– Sexual Objectification
429 Rural Students, 13, 14 & 17, 2007
•
•
•
•
74% reported viewing porn on Internet
49% saw it on Video or DVD
57% saw it on specialty TV
9% saw it because someone over 18
rented it
• 20% saw it at a friends house
» Entitlement
Child Pornography
NCMEC
•
•
•
•
3 – 20 Billion Commercial Industry
Non-commercial is likely larger
Most Victims & Offenders are Americans
Victims are getting younger; Content more
violent
Averages 2,000 reports/week to
www.Cybertipline.com
(90% is CP)
Child Pornography & Sexual
Interest in Children
• Study results suggest that child
pornography offending might be a
stronger indicator of pedophilia than is
sexually offending against a child.
Michael C. Seto, James M. Cantor, and Ray Blanchard. Journal of Abnormal
Psych (vol. 115, #3) 2006
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Pornified, Pamela Paul
Males (porn takes time
from work, life, real
relationships, children;
affects view &
expectations of
women)
Disconnection from real
relationships
No demands from porn
Sexy or Sexploitation?
Demand & Need or Propaganda?
Propaganda is that a “normal” female:
– Wants to be a sex object
– Is sexually aroused by sexual servitude
– Is only “sexy” if she has her body parts
supersized
– Is sexually open only if accepting that males
in her life want/need to be aroused by
sexualized violence, unrealistic images of
females or those that sexually objectify
children.
Sexy or Sexploitation?
Demand & Need or Propaganda?
Propaganda is that a “normal” male:
• Wants – needs -craves – sexploitive
imagery that dehumanizes and
objectifies females 24/7
• Is narcissistic about their own
pleasure & doesn’t understand or
care about real women’s sexual
arousal & is aroused by children
Bait & Switch
• Rape, Child Sexual Abuse &
Exploitation, Sexual Discrimination,
Sexual Harassment,
Obscenity are Illegal
• But by calling them “Porn” (protected,
free speech a “right”) and
encouraging sexual arousal to it, it’s
“sexual freedom” & a legitimate,
profitable business.
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Porn - the Anti Sex
• Branding success –show porn as “sex;”
and “sexy” as pornified
• Pornography Business has monopoly –
what is the availability or access to an
alternative ????
• Pornography legal & respectable for
businesses while “erotica” or “sexually
explicit” “comprehensive sexuality
education” is censored and demonized.
Without counter information pornography can give adults an
unhealthy sense of children, sex
& sexuality. And, becomes our
country’s main sex education
boys’ and girls.’
Freedom of Speech
• Balance of freedom of speech & adults
rights & access to information with harm to
children
• 3/07 a 1998 US Ch. On-line Protection act
that made it a crime for commercial web
sites to let children (w/o proof of age) have
access to “harmful materials”
• Ruling freedom of speech more important;
it should be up to parents to do filters, etc.
Consider what it takes to
push the edge now;
Hypersexualized or
pornified ads, clothes,
games, music, shows, teen
icons, etc. - teach children
how to …
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Feeding Demand
Messages and images in
pornography and hypersexualized
mainstream media feed the excuses
and take away barriers for those
willing to sexually exploiting a child;
as well as shapes how children see
themselves
APA Study On Sexualization of
Girls, 2007
• Highlights the impact of
“modeling” to girls; both of
observing older girls & women
in mass media and of
significant older girls/women in
their lives.
Adults need to help
children & teens to be
sexually respectful &
responsible.
Studies: Journal of Pediatrics, AAP, 4 ‘06
• “One of the strongest predictors of risk for
early sexual intercourse, for both black
and white teens (in the study), was the
perception that his or her peers were
having sex”
• “Youngsters may begin to believe the
world view portrayed and may begin to
adopt the media's social norms as their
own.”
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STUDIES
APA STUDY
• Degrading vs. non-degrading sexual lyrics
related to advances in a range of sexual
activities. (Martino, et al Pediatrics, 2006)
• Study shows greater exposure to the
explicit sex & violence music increase in
delinquent behaviors, STDs, substance
abuse, substance use and assaulting a
teacher (Wingood, et. Al AJPH, 3/03)
Analysis of 300 studies of media
• Results show that such sexualized
images, lyrics, fashion, role models etc.
made girls think of and treat their own
bodies as sexual objects
• “Preponderance of evidence suggests a
cause for concern in the sexualized
images and the mental health outcomes
for girls.” (APA Task Force Member, Tomi-Ann Roberts, USA Today
Feb 20, 2007)
WORDS WILL NEVER HARM YOU?
I got a snow bunny and a Black girl too
You pay the right price and they’ll both do you
That’s the way the game goes, gotta keep it strictly pimpin’
Gotta have my hustle tight, Makin’ change off these women
It’s Hard Out Here For A Pimp
Pimp Juice is your mojo, your it factor
It works with every color creed and kind
From 50 down to 9
Pimp Juice
They say I'm really sexy,The boys they wanna sex me.
They always standing next to me, Always dancing next to
me,
Tryin' a feel my hump, hump. Lookin' at my lump, lump.
My Humps
PRO-Medical-Cooper-65
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What Can Be Done?
No child should
be exploited.
No child should be
taught to be
an exploiter.
It’s Time To:
• Examine what emerging
research indicates about
linkages & challenge old
thinking ….
• Address supply & demand
because….
Join in a strong, clear &
unified voice saying:
No one has the right
to sexually neglect
harm or exploit a
child or teen.
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Recognize:
Make it Your
Business:
No child’s or teen’s sexuality, or
well being, should be for sale –
Children are not commodities to be exploited.
Be Part of the Solution
– Help people speak out against harmful
behaviors and to challenge harmful
social trends
– Help children BEFORE they are harmed
or BEFORE they cause harm
All Children Need Attention &
Nurturing
Consider how policies &
organizational practices
affect children & what is
needed to stop the harm
Media > Comprehensive Sex Ed >
Pornography > Marketing >
censorship of healthy sexuality
information > no touch policies
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Promote Healthy
Sexuality & Touch
• Teach children/youth/adults how to touch
• Pay attention to the impact of modeling –
what are the messages from significant
adults in the lives of youth?
• Sexual Reality Check needed
• Oppose the Censorship of
Healthy Sexuality & the
Industry of Sexual/Gender
Hatred
10 Things You Can Do
Consider ways
to use technology
for prevention
Consider the Spectrum & Technology
with Each!
1. Make the links between issues and
organizations & Integrate Countering
Normalization into your efforts
(advocacy for research, funds, media awareness,
medical, public health, parenting, victim
advocacy, OTHER_____________)
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2) Work Your Spheres of Influence
(parenting, book clubs, schools,
human services, industry, community
organization, policy makers including
county boards)
3. Help Others to Speak Out/Speak Up
About the linkages….
About “hijacked desire” & healthy
sexuality and relationships
See it, name it, speak up & out, act
4. Make it Your Business - See Yourself
As Part of the Solution – We all have
influence, use yours!
6. Encourage males to champion
prevention
5.Champion Prevention – Support
Efforts So Children/Youth Don’t
Become Victims or Exploiters in the
first place – even if your focus is
“screening” or intervention or
treatment or LE, etc.
- “Radical Feminist Males” for humanity
(outside the narrow box of masculinity)
- Not buying into the porn propaganda
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7. Push for, identify or create
positive images and actions to
use to counter the harmful,
exploitive & normative images
- What do these look like?
9. Encourage respectful dialogue
“touchy issues” such as the need to
counter normalization (start or
continue talks with children, families,
work, in the community, etc)
10.Send examples of strategies that
work (as well as of sexploitation) to:
[email protected]
8. Engage policy makers,
community leaders,
industry and media
–NCMEC & Financial Coalition
–Industry Leader meeting
–Industry, Media & Community
Leaders on Coalitions, etc.
National Coalition to Prevent
Child Sexual Exploitation
Mission:
• A unified effort to promote the
healthy development of
children & youth and to
prevent sexual abuse and
sexual exploitation.
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Prevention Coalition Platform
8 Point Platform
1) Social change is key to prevention.
2) Prevention requires an investment in positive,
healthy development of children and families
with a focus on efforts which occur before
exploitation has the chance to happen.
3) Normalization of sexual harm can and must be
countered. (Impact of technology, pornography,
mass media and commercialization)
4) Policies & organizational practices that honor
and support children and families are integral
to prevention of CSE
National Coalition to Prevent
Child Sexual Exploitation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
National Center for Missing &
Exploited Children
ATSA
CALCASA
Campaign for a Commercial Free
Childhood
Center For Disease Control
(I&VP)
Darkness to Light
Dept of Education (S&DFS)
ECPAT-USA
Individuals:
–
–
–
–
–
•
Joan Tabachnick
Keith Kauffman, PhD
Mary Leary, Esq.
Trisha Folds Bennett, PhD
Lisa Fujie Parks
ICAC’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
National Alliance of Children’s Trust
Funds
National Alliance to End SV
National Children’s Advocacy
Center
National Institutive of Media & the
Family
National Sexual Violence Resource
Center
NJ Dept of Children & Families
Non-Profit Risk Management
Center
Prevent Child Abuse America
Prevention Institute
Stop It Now!
Salvation Army
Search Institute
WABC-NY
8 Point Platform (cont)
5) A unified effort between non-profits,
public & private sectors is essential.
6) The full range of child sexual abuse &
exploitation must be addressed.
7) Technology facilitates the problem and
can be part of the solution.
8) Evidence based approaches are the
standard for prevention
Special Thanks
• NCMEC & the Coalition for Prevention of
Child Sexual Exploitation
• Presentation Development:
– Dr. Sharon Cooper,
Forensic Pediatrician
[email protected]
– Cordelia Anderson, MA,
Prevention Consultant &
Coalition Chair, NCMEC Board
[email protected]
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Contact Information
Cordelia Anderson
Prevention Consultant, NCMEC
Julie Patrick
Prevention Assistant, NCMEC
Email: [email protected]
Email: [email protected]
Sources & Resources
• Report & Policy Recommendations to the TransRiver Public
Health Directors from the Urban health Teen Pregnancy
Workgroup, May 2006
• Teenage Pregnancy and Associated Risk Behaviors Among
Sexually Abused Adolescents, Elizabeth M. Saewyc, Lara
Leanne Magee, and Sandra Pettingell, Perspectives on Sexual
and Reproductive Health, May/June, 2004, Vol. 36, No. 3
http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/journals/3609804.pdf
• The Links between Sexual Abuse & Teen Pregnancy in
Minnesota, Elizabeth M. Saewyc, PhD, RN, PHN, Center for
Adolescent Nursing, University of Minnesota School of
Nursing, presented February 2003 to a forum sponsored by the
Saint Paul – Ramsey County Teen Pregnancy/Sexual Violence
Action Team Project; and repeated May 2005 at the annual
conference of the Minnesota Organization on Adolescent
Pregnancy, Prevention and Parenting (MOAPPP) See Attached
Endnotes
Sources & Resources
• Full resource list available for Countering
Normalization from:
[email protected]
TPP & SV Resources: Grit Youngquist &
Jeanne Martin
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