Program of Research Abstracts - Graduate Studies

2015 Graduate Research Competition
Program & Abstracts
Kansas Union
April 9, 2015
1:00 – 4:00 p.m.
University of Kansas
2015 Graduate Research Competition
Kansas Union
April 9, 2015
1:00 – 4:00 p.m.
Oral Presentations
Poster Presentations
Index
1:00 – 4:00 pm
Centennial Room
Divine Nine Room
International Room
Pine Room
Regionalist Room
page 1 - 17
1:00 – 3:00 pm
Ballroom
page 18 - 42
page 43
1
Centennial Room 1:00 pm
EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAIT CHARACTERISTICS IN INSECTS: FROM A PROTEOMIC PERSPECTIVE TO A
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
The focus of this panel will be on work that examines novel trait characteristics both from a proteomic perspective
and a behavioral approach. The novel traits discussed are found on a spectrum from order to species levels.
Desiree Harpel, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
POLLEN FEEDING PROTEOMICS: INVESTIGATION OF A NOVEL TRAIT FOUND IN HELICONIUS BUTTERFLIES
While most adult Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) use flower nectar as their primary food source, butterflies in the
genus Heliconius have evolved the novel ability to acquire amino acids from consuming pollen. Little is known about
the molecular mechanisms of this complex pollen feeding adaptation. Here we report an initial shotgun proteomic
analysis of saliva from Heliconius melpomene. Results confidently identified 31 salivary proteins. Further
bioinformatic annotation of these salivary proteins indicated the presence of four distinct functional classes:
proteolysis, carbohydrate hydrolysis, immunity, and “housekeeping”. These results offer a first glimpse into the
molecular foundation of Heliconius pollen feeding and provide a substantial advance towards comprehensively
understanding this striking evolutionary novelty.
Andrew Mongue, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
COMBINING COMPUTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION TO UNDERSTAND A NOVEL LEPIDOPTERAN SPERM
TYPE
Butterflies and moths are some of the most familiar and common insects, and yet some of their basic biology remains
a mystery. Almost all members of this order share a puzzling trait: males make two different types of sperm, one of
which has no DNA and cannot fertilize eggs. While this trait has been observed for decades, the function of nonfertilizing sperm remains unclear. In this talk, I review the leading hypotheses for the function of these dimorphic
sperm and propose a way to resolve this question using both traditional computational tests of selection and
innovative experimental mating studies in monarch butterflies.
Kaila Colyott, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
EXAMINING THE IMPORTANCE AND THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF SEXUAL SELECTION IN ELABORATION OF
NOVEL SONG TRAIT IN DROSOPHILA SALTANS GROUP
It is important to understand communication systems, especially those that contribute to reproductive success, like
courtship communication. Courtship communication is thought to serve two functions, communicate species identity
and stimulate mating. In Drosophila species, courtship song components have been associated with both of these
functions. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between song components and courtship success and
to examine the possible role of sexual selection in the elaboration of a novel song component in the saltans species
group. First, behavior studies were performed to assess the importance of the song for mating success. Because
song was found to be important for mating success, playback experiments will be completed to determine if the novel
song component of D. sturtevanti is necessary for female recognition and if it has evolved through classical sexual
selection or receiver bias sexual selection. If the song component has evolved through classical sexual selection, we
would expect to see an increase is mating success with overelaboration of signal. If the song component has evolved
through receiver bias sexual selection, we would expect to see an increase in mating success when the signal is
added to the song of the closely related species.
2
Centennial Room 2:00 pm
BRIDGING SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM
THE NSF KU IGERT C-CHANGE PROGRAM – part I
Of all the challenges we face as a nation and as a planet, few are as pressing as the three-pronged challenge of
climate change, sustainable development and the need to foster new and cleaner sources of energy. Graduate
student trainees and faculty from the social and natural sciences were brought together to examine and discuss the
human and natural causes of climate change through the six year funded NSF IGERT C-CHANGE (Climate Change,
Humans, and Nature in the Global Environment) program. In these sessions, six former trainees will discuss how
research at KU is addressing climate change by connecting researchers, disciplines, and institutions.
Jacob Carter, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
WARMEST YEAR IN U.S. HISTORY ALTERS THERMAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TREE PHENOLOGICAL
MILESTONES
Extreme years in which temperatures are anomalously high are occurring much more frequently than in the past.
Recent studies show extreme years, which occurred about 33% on average during 1951-1980, are now occurring
approximately 75% of the time. Plants are expected to be increasingly more affected by extreme years as climate
change progresses, likely resulting in physiological and phenological shifts and higher mortality, particularly in trees.
Earlier advances in the timing of plant phenological events (e.g., leaf emergence, flowering time) have largely been
attributed to increases in the average global mean temperature; however, little is known to what extent extreme years
will impact phenology. Here, we report on white ash phenology across five years of study including the warmest year
in U.S. history (2012) in an extensive inter-population study (43 populations), and show that warmer temperatures will
advance the timing of leaf emergence for this species across its distribution. The extreme warm year of 2012 had a
major impact greatly advancing overall timing of leaf emergence in white ash. In this study, we also discuss the
phenological responses of white ash trees to extreme years across populations, and how more frequently occurring
extreme years in the future will affect our ability to predict phenology. We conclude that extreme years can greatly
alter the phenology of trees in unpredictable ways, suggesting that current modeling assumptions for key
phenological triggers and similarity among populations may not accurately predict shifts in plant phenology during
extreme years.
Victoria Walsey, Geography
ANALYZING METHODS FOR BRIDGING KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
ALONG THE YUKON RIVER
Indigenous, subsistence, and local fishermen have, in recent years, seen the impacts of climate change in
ecosystems along the Columbia & Yukon Rivers. Recently, changes in fishing methods on these river systems have
become controversial, as traditional methods have come under attack. There is also a lack of communication
between fishermen and state/federal agencies resulting in situations impacting an important foundation of fishing
culture. What specific knowledge is held by these fishermen that may be useful for scientists and policy makers in
their efforts to preserve the Yukon and the species it supports? What are the possible mechanisms that can aid in the
transmission of these knowledge systems? This paper will specifically focus on what methods can be utilized to help
improve the dialog between Indigenous communities and government resource managers? This study will discuss
methods that will be utilized in three Indigenous communities in Alaska: Russian Mission, Fort Yukon, and Tanana.
How will the chosen methods be utilized to help document Indigenous Fishers and community member knowledge
but also aid in the lack of communication to managers and researchers?
Saatvika Rai, Political Science
POLITICS OF ADAPTATION: SOCIAL VULNERABILITY, POLYCENTRICISM AND CLIMATE ADAPTATION PLANS
Emerging research highlights increasing subnational activity on climate change. While most researchers explore
mitigation of climate change, far less attention has been directed towards climate change adaptation. Existing
adaptation research has focused on qualitative analysis of adaptation plans to understand the range of processes
being included in an adaptation response. Yet we know little about why some state and local governments adopt
adaptation policies while others do not. In this paper we examine the relationship between community vulnerability
and adoption of climate adaptation plans to determine if increasing environmental risk and institutional characteristics
contribute to the development of progressive adaptation plans. We rely on an array of secondary data to better
understand disaster frequency and vulnerability (Social Vulnerability Index – SoVI), state socio-economic and political
characteristics (US Census), and environmental activism (ICLEI, Resilient Communities for America). Using state
documents, we create a unique dependent variable on commitment to adaptation that tests the extent to which
various climate risks and politics shape climate adaptation plans.
3
Centennial Room 3:00 pm
BRIDGING SOCIAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM
THE NSF KU IGERT C-CHANGE PROGRAM – part II
Of all the challenges we face as a nation and as a planet, few are as pressing as the three-pronged challenge of
climate change, sustainable development and the need to foster new and cleaner sources of energy. Graduate
student trainees and faculty from the social and natural sciences were brought together to examine and discuss the
human and natural causes of climate change through the six year funded NSF IGERT C-CHANGE (Climate Change,
Humans, and Nature in the Global Environment) program. In these sessions, six former trainees will discuss how
research at KU is addressing climate change by connecting researchers, disciplines, and institutions.
Lindsay Campbell, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
CLIMATE CHANGE INFLUENCES ON GLOBAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS
VECTORS
Numerous recent studies have illuminated global distributions of human cases of dengue and other mosquitotransmitted diseases, yet the potential distributions of key vector species have not been incorporated integrally into
those mapping efforts. Projections onto future conditions under different climate change scenarios could contribute to
a better understanding of potential distributional shifts in coming decades, but these studies are similarly lacking. This
study examined the global potential distributions of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus - key vector species for
Dengue and Chickungunya viruses in humans - in relation to climatic variation worldwide to develop ecological niche
models that allowed anticipation of possible changes in distributional patterns into the future. Results indicated
complex global rearrangements of potential distributional areas. Given the impressive dispersal abilities of these two
species, these future projections have the potential to translate into actual distributional shifts.
Marie-Odile P. Fortier, Civl, Environmental & Architectural Engineering
LIFE CYCLE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS OF GREEN GASOLINE FROM MICROALGAE BY CULTIVATION
LOCATION IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES
As the industry adopts the use of algal biofuels, life cycle assessment (LCA) is crucial to determine whether fuels
produced from algal feedstocks have lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum-derived fuels.
Furthermore, the location-dependent environmental impacts of implementing algal cultivation must be considered for
siting decisions. An LCA for a functional unit of 1 GJ of green gasoline produced through hydrothermal liquefaction of
microalgae grown in wastewater effluent was performed for each Level II ecoregion in the continental United States.
The production steps analyzed were: algal cultivation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant, algal harvesting by
gravity sedimentation, algal dewatering by centrifuge, hydrothermal liquefaction, transportation of algal biocrude to a
refinery, upgrading to green gasoline, green gasoline distribution, and combustion in a car engine. In addition to these
fuel production steps, the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of land use change impacts were included in this
analysis. The climate change impacts of land use change include the impacts of removing original carbon stored on
the land; changing the carbon flux between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soils; and changing the surface albedo
of an area. Temporal differences in the sustainability of producing green gasoline from algae were also analyzed and
compared across ecoregions. The results provide valuable information on sustainable algal biofuel feedstock
production by geographic area.
Michael Walker, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
A BUZZ AROUND WOMEN? GENDER AND THE FUTURE OF MALARIA WITH CLIMATE CHANGE
Malaria is one of the top communicable disease killers in the world, yet it is not completely known how the
transmission of malaria will shift with anthropogenic climate change. Here, we investigate how future predicted shifts
in temperature and precipitation may alter the distribution of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae, in subSaharan Africa. Using a niche model, we identify future vulnerable areas in Africa where malaria transmission will
likely increase with climate change. Furthermore, malaria does not impact everyone to the same extent, pregnant
women are more likely to become infected, and are more likely to suffer severe complications after infection occurs.
Since there is a gender dynamic to malaria infection, we also investigate social demographics of future vulnerable
areas. In doing so, we provide novel insight into where climate change will specifically affect women through the
spread of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. We find current models forecast increased malaria transmission in the
highland regions of east and southern Africa. This is due to increased projections for both rainfall and temperature,
creating more suitable habitat for the malaria mosquito vector. There is a high degree of demographic disparity
between countries in these regions, so while many African countries may experience equivalent malaria increases,
women in some are likely to experience higher risk than others.
4
Divine Nine Room 1:00 pm
IDENTITY AND INTIMACY
Identity negotiation is an intimate practice that occurs at all levels of communication. Panelists offer a variety of
methodologies in the Communication Studies discipline for examining intimate identity practices at the individual,
relational, and social levels of society.
Michael Eisenstadt, Communication Studies
NAMING “9/11” : GLOBALIZATION AND NEOLIBERAL MNEMONOCIDE OF CHILEAN COMMEMORATIVE
PRACTICES
Rapid globalization since the late 1970s has encouraged nations to deeply appreciate expanding the free market,
regardless of the costs incurred in far away places. On September 11, 1973, the nation of Chile endured a military
coup, transitioning its government from a Socialist, Democratic leadership to a dictatorship that worked closely with
multi-national corporations. September 11, 1973 and its 2001 counterpart in the United States reveal that this pattern
of regime change in the name of globalization protects the interests of multi-national corporations, celebrating
neoliberal affairs in far away places as an economic elixir while suppressing the communicative nmemonic practices
of those who are sent into exile from their home. In this way, communal identities sustained by collective memory are
threatened with annihilation. Individuals attempting to prolong communal remembrance of economic intervention as
destroying the lives of host nation’s citizens are dismissed and subject to harsh rhetorical retaliation. Identifying these
practices is crucial for resisting neoliberal mnemonicide, the active memory work performed by celebrating regime
change on behalf of the free-market that destroys intimate, global empathy with its victims.
Benjamin Compton, Communication Studies
PERCEPTIONS OF INFIDELITY ACROSS SEXUAL ORIENTATION: HETEROSEXUAL PERCEPTIONS OF SAMESEX CHEATING IN EXCLUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS
For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamic of sexual experimentation are complex. Sexual
behavior outside of a relationship (i.e., extradyadic activity) may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of
those perceptions derived from the biological sex of that perceiver. The current study extends seminal research by
Kruger et al. (2013) on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends, focusing significant modifications in order to
further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model, and to understand the associated perceptions of cheating by
individuals in heterosexual relationships with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that
perceptions of infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to
sexual behaviors, intimate behaviors, and instrumental behaviors accordingly. The specific impact of religiosity and
gender are reported and discussed.
Haley Vellinga, Communication Studies
ADOPTEES' DISCOURSE OF IDENTITY
This study explores the nature of adopted adults’ communication of adoptive identity in lieu of the family. Ten
research participants (n = 10) were interviewed about communication of identity to individuals unaware of
participants’ adoptive identity. Using the Constant Comparative Method of Grounded Theory, (Glaser & Strauss 1967)
the researcher conducted a thematic analysis using the communication theory of identity and relational dialectics
theory 2.0. Results revealed four identity gaps: personal-relational, personal-enacted, relational-enacted, and
personal-communal) and four dialectical tensions: openness/closedness, integration/separation, acknowledgement of
identity/ownership of identity and predictability/surprise. This study found the existence of two less explored identity
gaps, relational-enacted and personal-communal. Participants’ responses revealed a new discursive struggle
between acknowledgement of identity and ownership of identity. Last, the tension between predictability/surprise
exists in non-adoption research. The emergence of this communicative struggle demonstrates the need for research
to focus on the adopted individual in adoption studies. Analysis of results and discussion of future research is
provided.
5
Divine Nine Room 2:00 pm
SOCIAL ISSUES IN MUSIC
Social issues regarding race, gender stereotypes, nationality, and generational differences play a significant role in
the composition of the “people's music,” such as popular songs, rock, theater, and choral music. These papers
examine instances of compositional and performance practices as influenced by social and political issues.
Lisa Mullinger, Musicology
CONSTRUCTING IDENTITY IN SAINT PETERSBURG: STATE FINANCING OF CHORAL COMPOSERS
Commonly described in the West as the composer who linked the national style of the New Russian School and the
Western aesthetics of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Rimsky-Korsakov composed choral music that appeared in
Russian Orthodox services, as well as popular folk song arrangements. Korsakov found himself working multiple jobs
because of insufficient wages from either position at the Conservatory or in military service. Indeed, many composers
in similar situations, worked in positions supported by the State. While employed with the Imperial Navy as Inspector
of Naval Bands and assistant director at the Imperial Court Chapel, Korsakov composed his first choral songs.
Because choral music played a central role in the development of socio-cultural identities in Imperial Russia, the
support of the State was an important factor in the formation of a national identity. Formal programs promoting fine
arts in Russia included the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, the Academy of Arts, and the Saint Petersburg
Conservatory. Funding provided to artists indirectly occurred through civil servant appointments, State awards, and
pensions. Examining music from composers employed by State institutions illuminates how the Russian government
contributed to constructions of identity in the late nineteenth century.This paper examines the influence of State
institutions that financed Korsakov’s career, focusing on his choral output. Secondly, investigating the State funding
of notable choral composers Arensky, Chesnokov, and Lyapunov will inform the relevance of financial sponsorship
from the Russian government as intended to spread their ideologies on nationalism through the medium of music.
Jessie Freyermuth, Musicology
“ONE OF THE GUYS”: THE CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY THROUGH THE MUSIC OF JANIS
JOPLIN
Janis Joplin is remembered as the first female rock ‘n’ roll star, and a legend of blues performance. Her undeniable
stage presence and vocal tenacity is apparent in every song. Joplin’s career was short-lived, but the impact she left
on future female and LGBT artists is irrefutable. When studying her life and career, one can see the struggle Joplin
faced as a bisexual woman and female performer in a heteronormative and male-dominated genre. This research
examines the construction of Janis Joplin’s sexual orientation through blues performance, analyzing specific songs
such as “Easy Rider Blues” and “San Francisco Bay Blues.” This study also focuses on gender performativity,
specifically the construction of Joplin’s persona as a female rock ‘n’ roll icon as represented through articles and
interviews during her career.
Elizabeth Sallinger, Musicology
ROCK, FOLK ROCK, RHYTHM AND BLUES: THE MUSICAL SOUNDSCAPE OF HAIR
Conveying their thoughts on society, war, and relationships through song, the hippies of Hair represent a turning point
for Broadway musicals. The relevant subject matter, involving the Vietnam War and frank discussions of sex and
drugs, differentiated the show from other productions, and the score’s rock flavor further distanced the musical from
its predecessors. However, because of the nature of the show’s components, the musical treatment was necessary in
conveying the central messages to the audience. The show’s creators, Gerome Ragni and James Rado, spent time
in Greenwich Village to study members of the hippie culture, and they later enlisted composer Galt MacDermot,
whose background included popular music, such as jazz and a variety of African styles. This team used their
research and individual skills to craft a complex show that not only addressed major themes such as the war, but also
gender stereotypes, race, and generational differences. Setting such topics to solely traditional Broadway song styles
would not have been as effective, or as realistic in reflecting the musical backdrop of the time. The orchestrations for
this show, which call for a blend of traditional orchestral instruments in addition to rock instruments, help promote
song styles ranging from more standard musical numbers to rock and soul, with occasional tongue-in-cheek numbers
that suggest the influence of earlier theatrical forms, like the minstrel show. Through consideration of the score, this
paper will discuss the ways in which the diversity of songs helps to support the characters and themes of the show.
6
Divine Nine Room 3:00 pm
AN AMERICAN MELTING POT: TWENTIETH-CENTURY MUSIC IN THE UNITED STATES
While often applied to the population of the United States, the melting pot is also an apt metaphor for describing
twentieth-century American music. This panel will explore the diversity of American musical practices and the ways
they interact and blend with other musical traditions.
Christy Miller, Musicology
“ ‘ROUND AND ‘ROUND HITLER’S GRAVE”: FOLK MUSIC AS PROPAGANDA IN THE MARTINS AND THE COYS
In 1944, the BBC commissioned Alan Lomax and Elizabeth Lyttleton to write a ballad opera for radio called The
Martins and The Coys, which Lyttleton described as “a musical extravaganza, based on the tall stories and the
ballads of the southern [Appalachian] mountains.” The drama centers on two feuding families during World War II and
features an all-star cast of performers, including Woody Guthrie, Burl Ives, Pete Seeger, and others. Though warthemed folk songs historically are not unusual, the songs in The Martins and the Coys reflect a shift taking place in
American folk music at the time. Whereas many of the folk and “folk-styled” songs performed in the United States in
the 1930s centered on liberal causes such as workers’ rights, unionization, and class conflict, many musicians
reoriented their repertoire to address the war effort and encourage patriotism on the home front. In The Martins and
the Coys, folk music was employed to promote a positive view of Americans in the eyes of their British allies, as well
as to inspire solidarity in those making wartime sacrifices at home. The songs range from contrafact versions of
familiar tunes (of which “’Round and ‘Round Hitler’s Grave” is one example) to newly composed topical songs written
in a folk style. Buried in the guise of a playful atmosphere and tall tales, The Martins and the Coys uses folk song to
communicate a common experience that resonates beyond American borders, calling Allied audiences to solidarity in
the face of war.
Dorothy Glick, Musicology
BRINGING THE FRENCH FLUTE SCHOOL TO AMERICA: THE PEDAGOGY OF PAUL TAFFANEL AND GEORGE
BARRÈRE
By the beginning of the twentieth century, Paul Taffanel had been established as the father of the French Flute
School by the legacy of his own career, teaching at the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique in Paris, and his
influential flute tutorial, Méthode complète de flûte (1923). In fact, Paul Taffanel’s 17 Grand exercises journaliers de
mécanisme pour flûte section of his Méthode complète de flûte is owned by almost every aspiring flutist today in the
United States and remains a staple of flute technical studies almost one hundred years after its original publication.
The globalization of Taffanel’s work occurred through the work of his students, among them, the renowned performer
and teacher George Barrère. George Barrère relocated to New York from France, bringing with him the French Flute
School tradition and Taffanel’s teachings. Like Taffanel, Barrère promoted chamber music and founded several
ensembles in the United States, including the first New York Symphony Quintet. Capturing the iconic sound of the
French Flute School, Barrère made early recordings of standard contemporary flute literature. He also worked closely
with Boston flute maker George Haynes to develop an American version of the French silver Boehm system flute that
is a close relative to the flute used by most twenty-first century American flutists. This paper explores several of the
ways in which Barrère was instrumental in transporting and firmly establishing Taffanel’s teachings in the United
States.
Ashley Hirt, Musicology
JAZZ ON THE RESERVATION: LIONEL HAMPTON AND THE NEZ PERCE OF NORTH IDAHO
Lionel Hampton and his big band first traveled to Moscow, Idaho in 1984 to perform at the University of Idaho Jazz
Festival. This visit would prove to be auspicious for both Hampton and the festival itself. Hampton's immediate love of
the region and its people led to the creation of an educational outreach program, and Hampton performed on the Nez
Perce reservation each year from 1996 until his death. Working with the young people of the Nez Perce tribe,
Hampton influenced a new generation of jazz musicians and played a pivotal role in founding a thriving culture of jazz
education in North Idaho.
7
International Room 1:00 pm
LEVERS OF CHANGE IN INCLUSIVE TEACHER PREPARATION
This panel will discuss three papers that focus on various levers of change in inclusive teacher preparation. The first
presentation gives a literature review of opportunities to learn and its application to an undergraduate course, and the
second two presentations discuss two studies carried out over the 2014-2015 year in KU teacher preparation
courses.
Molly Siuty, Special Education
PRACTICE MAKES PROGRESS: AN APPLICATION OF OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN IN TEACHER EDUCATION
General education teachers are increasingly charged with providing access to the general education curriculum for all
students regardless of ability. However, teacher education courses rarely give pre-service teachers the opportunity to
develop the skills, such as instruction differentiation or collective problem solving, that they need to collaborate with
special educators and support students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. This paper applies the
multidimensional construct of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) to teacher education. This case study will describe a redesign of an undergraduate introductory course titled Teaching Exceptional Youth and Children. The three
dimensions of OTL, (a) time, (b) content and (c) quality, will be used to analyze the instructional approach in its ability
to offer meaningful OTL for pre-service teachers. Implications for further research around teacher education program
design and implementation will be discussed.
Kimberly Knackstedt, Special Education
INSTRUCTION OR ATTITUDE?: WHAT MATTERS IN INCLUSIVE TEACHER EDUCATION
For inclusive models to be successful in local school settings, general education teachers will need the knowledge,
skills and dispositions that effectively support exceptional students. The study looked at the impact of the flipped
classroom instructional model on general education pre-service teacher’s knowledge acquisition and application of
evidence based practices as well as pre-service teacher attitudes towards inclusion and collaboration. Preliminary
results demonstrate that the flipped classroom instructional model had no significant impact on knowledge acquisition
and application. However, the course itself did have significant impact on pre-service teacher attitudes towards
inclusion and collaboration. These results have implications for the use of the flipped classroom model in teacher
education and the impact of teacher education practices on pre-service teacher attitudes towards inclusion and
collaboration.
Maggie Beneke, Special Education
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AS NEGOTIATION: CONTRADICTIONS AND COORDINATION IN (RE)CONSTRUCTING
PRACTICE
While instructors may consciously plan instruction to prepare inclusive general educators, these actions are mediated
by elements of an activity system (e.g., internal and external tools, a community of individuals, rules, division of
labor), which can result in unintended outcomes. In this study we expand understandings of pre-service teachers'
development of beliefs and attitudes toward inclusive education, seeking to understand similarities and contradictions
in the ways pre-service teachers and instructors perceive instruction about inclusive education in an undergraduate
course. Both instructors and undergraduate students engaged in multiple opportunities to articulate their stance
toward inclusive education through unstructured interviews, observations, and a series of member check focus
groups. Using cultural-historic activity theory (CHAT) as a conceptual tool to guide planning and instruction, we
compare qualitative data from instructors' perspectives with the perspectives of undergraduate students. Examining
data collected from these two perspectives provides rich, instructive information about alignment and dissonance
between course practices and instructors' goals to prepare general educators for inclusive education.
8
International Room 2:00 pm
COLLEGE STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
Our papers address student engagement and learning outcomes from different perspectives, practices, and
programs.
Yahya Alshehri, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
THE IMPACT OF LIVING-LEARNING COMMUNITIES ON FIRST-YEAR STUDENT: ENGAGEMENT AND
LEARNING OUTCOMES.
After reviewing numerous researches examining the impacts of living-learning programs on student engagement and
learning outcomes, it is an undisputed fact that these programs accrue many academic and social benefits to
students who take part in them. Most of the participant students reported better academic performance including
critical thinking skills, analyzing ability, and writing competencies than their counterparts. Furthermore, participant
students demonstrated higher social capacity through interacting with others including faculty, staff, and fellow
students, who may represent different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Interestingly, many studies
reported different academic and social outcomes stemming from participation in varying living-learning programs due
to the fact that these programs have various mission, vision, and objectives.
Abdulrazzag Falah, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN ONLINE COURSES
Since their inception in the 1990s, web-based courses have spread widely in higher education to the point that the
2011 Sloan Survey on Online Learning showed that the number of students taking at least one online course has
surpassed 6 million, nearly 30 percent of all students in higher education (Silverstone & Keeler, 2013; Swann, 2013).
With the advent of technological advancements, online learning is becoming a preferred educational option (Putman,
Ford, & Tancock, 2012). The challenge that scholars and education practitioners face in this fast-track equation is
that they need to make sure that students are getting the best out of their educational experience. As opposed to
traditional classes where students get to meet face to face, online environments do not feature such an opportunity.
Therefore, researchers have been trying to understand the potential methods of engaging students in online courses.
This literature review will go through most of what has been presented in this matter.
Student engagement in online courses is an essential parameter to meet the intended learning outcomes, get the
best learning experience, and ultimately succeed in these types of courses (Bender, 2005; Dixson, 2010; Richardson
& Newby, 2006). In addition, engaging students to ensure the optimum outcome from online courses is one of the
main goals of online learning, and this has been the focus of research for the last two decades. On the other hand,
researchers have addressed several types of engagements; emotional, cognitive, social, etc.
Mohammad Alfadeel, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
THE IMPACT OF STUDENT-FACULTY INTERACTION IN STUDENTS ENGAGEMENT AND LEARNING
OUTCOMES
The increase in higher education in the U.S in terms of size and diversity has interested scholars and researchers.
Scholars and researchers worried about the diminishing quality of higher education (Kim & Sax, 2009). Many have
referred to the decline in students’ academic outcomes, which has pushed leaders and scholars in higher education
to start investigating key elements that might lead to a rise in an institution’s quality in terms of achievement and
engagement (Cho & Auger, 2013; Kim & Sax, 2009). The National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) provided
the most essential national benchmarks for an effective educational practice, and the apex of these factors is spirited
student-faculty interaction, which is vital to the quality of the higher education environment (Kim & Sax, 2009; Pike,
2013). Some authors declared, “It is perhaps the most frequently cited institutional practice thought to improve a
student’s learning experience, and this finding is hardly surprising, as students and faculty are the main participants in
college educational activities” (Kim & Sax, 2011). Decades of research as well as theoretical and empirical literature
has found that student-faculty interaction influence a student’s cognitive development (Cox, McIntosh, Terenzini,
Reason, & Lutovsky Quaye, 2010; Laird & Cruce, 2009). Faculty plays a substantial formal and informal role through
their interactions with students, which develop students socially and academically (Fuentes, Ruiz Alvarado, Berdan, &
Deangelo, 2014; Lundberg & Schreiner, 2004). In order to do this, a close relationship with students should create
meaningful and positive connections, either inside or outside the classroom, to precipitate a better educational
outcome; ultimately, students challenged themselves to develop their personal and educational abilities (Al-Hussami,
Saleh, Hayajneh, Abdalkader, & Mahadeen, 2011; Fuentes et al., 2014). Researchers extensively studied the healthy
relationship between student–faculty and its specific effect on students’ outcome in the last four decades, and they
found many more benefits.
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International Room 3:00 pm
LEVERAGING NARRATIVES OF EXPERIENCE TO PROMOTE INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS IN
EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE
This panel features three presentations that share the topic of intercultural awareness as well as an interest in
narrative research methodologies as a way to learn from data. Two of these presentations focus on international
students’ developing awareness of cultural diversity and the other looks at teachers from the majority culture who are
striving to develop understandings of their diverse students, narratively.
Behnaz Darban, Curriculum and Teaching
NARRATIVE APPLICATIONS OF INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS IN INTERNATIONAL TEACHERS’ PRACTICE
Many international students come from homogeneous settings unaware of the diversity that has surrounded them.
This study focused on narratives collected from three international graduate students in a class about developing
intercultural awareness in their second language classrooms. Lara and Chen are from two different parts of China,
and Ahmed is from Saudi Arabia. The data collected for this study include: 1) students’ weekly reflections on the
assigned readings of the course, 2) a cultural narrative submitted at the end of the semester, and 3) individual
interviews about how they might apply what they have learned in current/future teaching practices. The research
questions were 1) How do international graduate students perceive diversity issues in their teaching/learning context?
And 2) How do they (intend to) apply this awareness to their present or future teaching practices? In order to analyze
the data, the researcher found recurrent themes from their reflections, narratives and interviews. Preliminary findings
suggest that these students became aware of cultural diversity by the end of the course. In addition, the readings of
the course and engagement in weekly discussions helped them to understand how to apply the intercultural
awareness in their future teaching by using funds of knowledge (Moll et. al, 1992), and learning strategies for
inclusive teaching (Amanti, 2005). These findings are important because it demonstrates that a class that is designed
to challenge thinking about diversity can arouse student thinking that may lead to more inclusive practices here in the
US or in their home countries.
Cynthia Shigo, Curriculum and Teaching
USING PERSONAL NARRATIVES TO DEVELOP INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS AS A TOOL FOR ACQUIRING
ACADEMIC LITERACY AND IDENTITY FORMATION
This study focused on personal narratives about intercultural awareness collected from four international graduate
students, from Thailand, Iran, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. The data collected for this study are: 1) surveys about
educational experiences in both native languages and in English as a foreign language, in their homelands and at an
American Midwestern university; 2) individual interviews to collect narratives about cultural and language
background; 3) a final focus group interview to discuss strategies they have found successful for communicating
cross-culturally and for acquiring academic literacy at an English language university. Based on an understanding of
the use of personal narrative as a tool for identity formation among multicultural students (Saifer, 2011; Gee, 2001;
Olson, 2011), the research questions were: What lived experience of challenges and success do international
graduate students narrate in their acquisition of academic and cultural literacy? How do the stories they tell about
their experiences learning the culture of the American university environment define and create their identities as
international graduate students? What have they found to be most supportive of their fluency in academic
discourse? This is a qualitative study that focuses on narratives as a meaning-making tool (Clandinin & Connelly,
2000). Data have been analyzed for recurrent themes, and findings illustrate participants' conflicting voices (Gilligan,
Spencer, Weinberg and Bertsch, 2006) and jarring cultural experiences (Saifer, 2011) that foster intercultural
awareness to encourage fluency in academic discourse.
Mary Rice, Curriculum and Teaching
DEVELOPING CULTURAL/INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS AS A MIDDLE LEVEL INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM
Teachers at all levels need to be more culturally and interculturally aware (Baker, 2011; Kubota, & Lin, 2009; Miner &
Peterson, 2009). This two-year study of an interdisciplinary team consisted of three experienced teachers from the
majority culture in three content areas: English, History, and Science. The research question was “How do teachers
in a voluntary interdisciplinary team interact narratively to increase their C/IA?” Data sources include minutes from
meetings held during common preparation time, the common documents that were developed together during the
year, including disclosure documents, field trip permission slips, informal jottings that were later developed into field
texts, a log of interactions with each other and students that the teachers felt had implications for research questions,
formal teaching evaluations, correspondence from parents, and co-developed curriculum units and class
assignments. These data were analyzed by the teachers (see Cho, 2011) by revisiting the artifacts as stimuli for
storytelling. The stories were captured and analyzed using the three-dimensional narrative space from Clandinin and
Connelly (2000). C/IA emerged when the teachers challenged each other around critical incidents with specific
shared students, rather than during curriculum development. These challenges came as gentle questions, rather than
direct confrontations. The implication of these findings is that teachers develop C/IA in interdisciplinary teams and as
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teacher inquiry groups when they form chosen communities (Whelan, Huber, Rose, Davies, & Clandinin, 2010) and
make time to analyze their interactions with students (Howard, 2003). These teachers found personal stories of
shared work (Lake, 2010) gave them purpose.
11
Pine Room 1:00 pm
EXAMINING THE EXPRESSION OF INTERGROUP ATTITUDES: THE EFFECTS OF LOW-EFFORT THOUGHT
AND HISTORICAL NOSTALGIA
We investigate how low-effort thought predicts greater endorsement of hierarchy, showing that these beliefs are
primary and automatic. We also examine how nostalgia for America's past frees up the expression of prejudice and
protects Americans from feeling collective guilt.
Laura Van Berkel, Social Psychology
LOW-EFFORT THOUGHT UNDERMINES EQUALITY AND HEIGHTENS HIERARCHY
Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous; where there is social structure, there is hierarchy. Because knowledge of
social hierarchy is early-learned and highly rehearsed (e.g., Mascaro, Csibra, 2012; Zitek & Tiedens, 2012), we
propose that values related to hierarchy are remembered and activated with greater ease than values related to
equality. When deliberate reasoning is interrupted, people should rely on more initial, well-practiced and easy-to-use
cognitive structures (Wilson, Lindsey, & Schooler, 2000). In five studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and
measure endorsement of hierarchy-related and egalitarian-related values. In Study 1, bar patrons’ high blood alcohol
content was correlated with hierarchy values. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the moral foundation of
authority/hierarchy. In Study 3, instructions to think quickly and superficially led to increased endorsement of
hierarchy and reduced endorsement of equality. In Study 4, participants experiencing ego depletion showed
increased endorsement of hierarchy and a trend toward reduced endorsement of equality. In Study 5, participants
who felt low in personal power had greater social dominance orientation when instructed to use quick, initial
responses as opposed to slow, deliberate thought. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought,
hierarchy value endorsement increased and egalitarian values receded. These data suggest the foundations of
hierarchical thinking are powerful and enjoy a psychological advantage.
Mark White, Social Psychology
HISTORICAL NOSTALGIA PREDICTS THE EXPRESSION OF PREJUDICE IN CONSERVATIVES
Historical nostalgia is a sentimental longing or affection for a time before one was born. This bittersweet feeling is a
mix between warmth for how things were and a sadness that things are not like they used to be. Historical nostalgia
thus contrasts society’s past with its present. Given that conservatives have more positive feelings for the past than
liberals do, can historical nostalgia lead conservatives to express prejudice against groups that are responsible for
changes in society? Study 1 correlationally demonstrates that conservatives express more prejudice toward these
groups, but only when they are also high in historical nostalgia. In study 2, participants were randomly assigned to
write about a time from their own life that they feel nostalgia for (personal nostalgia) or a time from a previous
generation of America that they feel nostalgia for (historical nostalgia). Greater conservatism predicted higher levels
of prejudice but only when participants were primed to feel historical nostalgia. These studies demonstrate that
historical nostalgia can lead those who favor the status quo and how America used to be to express prejudice against
groups that represent a symbolic threat against this preferred, bygone conception of America.
Matthew Baldwin, Social Psychology
HISTORICAL NOSTALGIA IDEALIZES THE PAST AND MITIGATES COLLECTIVE GUILT
Resent research demonstrates that nostalgia offers a window to the “true” self (Baldwin, Biernat, & Landau, 2014). In
the current studies, I examine whether nostalgia for events in America’s history serves similar functions. In Study 1,
participants were randomly assigned to write about write about an event from America's distant past that makes them
feel nostalgic or a recent positive event that most people in America would have experienced. Compared to recent
positive events, nostalgic events were rated higher as representing the true, ideal, and authentic America. In Study 2,
participants were randomly assigned to write about historical nostalgia or about a recent meaningful event and then
were assigned to read about early American settlers' poor treatment of Native Americans or about the Great
Depression. As expected, participants who wrote about a recent event and also read about America's past
wrongdoing felt more guilty compared to participants who read about the Great Depression. However, this effect was
attenuated for participants who wrote about a historically nostalgic event. These findings support the notion that
historical nostalgia buffers against feelings of guilt that result from reminders of America's past wrongdoing. Together,
these studies demonstrate how historical nostalgia influences group-based attitudes and feelings.
12
Pine Room 2:00 pm
THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICA AND THE UK
Well-documented and publicized research projects suggest that in the next few decades, America and the UK will be
majority-minority nations—that is, the total of non-White ethnic minorities will outnumber people of White European
origin. Three social psychology students share results from studies that examine particular scenarios we can expect
to occur more frequently as the ethnic landscape in the US and UK becomes ever more mixed.
Nader Hakim, Social Psychology
SO, WHAT ARE YOU? HOW INCONSISTENCY IN PERCEIVED ETHNICITY OF NAME AND FACE INFLUENCES
PERCEPTION
What happens in an increasingly multiracial society when we meet people whose racial and ethnic background is
ambiguous? Two studies examined the influence of (dis)fluency between the name and face of a target on social
perception. We first examined how participants would perceive and converse with a phenotypically prototypical Arab
or European American paired with either an Arabic or English name. We hypothesized that disfluent pairings (e.g.
Arab looking with an English name, European American looking with an Arabic name) would encourage originseeking questions and increased social distancing. The second study examined whether providing context to resolve
the disfluency would reduce discomfort and social distancing.
Natasha Bharj, Social Psychology
IDENTIFICATION AND MEMBERSHIP WITH MULTIPLE ETHNIC GROUPS
Individuals that identify as having a multi-ethnic background are projected to become the largest ethnic minority group
in the United Kingdom. The present quantitative study applied Social Identity Complexity measures in order to
develop a six factor model representing different means of negotiating identification and membership with multiple
ethnic groups. This exploratory study of the different types of multi-ethnic identities produced illuminating results in
their relation to gender dynamics within multi-ethnic families and collectivistic versus authoritarian styles of group
identification. The results lend support to previous qualitative studies that emphasize the positive and dynamic nature
of multi-ethnic identities, and open up means of empirically investigating the identities of an increasingly present and
important ethnic group.
Xian Zhao, Social Psychology
MEETING WITH XIAN OR ALEX: A FIELD EXPERIMENT ON ACCULTURATION AND DISCRIMINATION
Focusing on a common acculturation phenomenon, this field experiment investigated how White Americans react to
foreigners who present themselves either using their original names or Anglo names. An email from a Chinese
college student requesting a meeting about graduate training was sent to 419 professors in the U.S. with the name of
the sender being varied (Xian versus Alex). Use of the original Chinese name led to fewer responses and
agreements to meet than using the Anglo name. Compared with earlier research using this email paradigm, the
results indicate that adopting Anglo names can reduce, but not eliminate, discrimination relative to the majority group.
13
Pine Room 3:00 pm
NAVIGATING GENDER: SEX, POWER AND PERFORMANCE
This broadly conceived panel touches on three very different topics tied together by the common theme of gender. To
begin, Adijat Mustapha explores gender differences in the realm of sexual coercion. Concluding the panel is Kate
Esterline's study in which she examines men and women's sexual behavior in terms of performance. Sandwiched in
between these two scientific studies is Christina Hodel's textual analysis of a popular television program which
assesses the portrayal of women and gender displacement.
Adijat Mustapha, Clinical Psychology
WOMEN’S AND MEN’S REACTIONS TO BEING SEXUALLY COERCED: A QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE
ANALYSIS
The purpose of this study was to investigate women's and men's adolescent and adult sexual coercion (AASC)
experiences using both quantitative and qualitative methods. I was interested in women’s and men’s self-reported
prevalence rates with four categories of sexual coercion (SC): (a) simple nonconsent (b) verbal coercion (c)
intoxication and (d) physical coercion. 324 female and 327 male college students completed a questionnaire online.
They answered open-ended questions about their experience and completed the PANAS-X and other scales about
their feelings and thoughts about a week after the experience. Of the 651 participants in the final sample, 214
(32.2%) reported that they had had at least one SC experience. The results reflected both gender differences and
similarities. For each type of SC, significantly more women than men reported the experience. On scales reflecting
positive affect, men’s scores were higher than women’s. The reverse was true on scales reflecting negative affect.
However, for all scales, women’s and men’s scores spanned the entire range or almost the entire range. Thus, some
women and men reported having extremely negative reactions, while some reported neutral or positive reactions.
Participants’ emotional reactions also varied based on type of coercion. Those coerced by physical force or
intoxication had the highest Hostility scores. Those coerced by verbal coercion reported the highest Guilt and
Sadness scores. This study speaks to the subjectivity of a coercion experience; that is to say that there are many
important factors in how a person conceptualizes and feels about their SC experience.
Christina Hodel, Film and Media Studies
THE PYRAMID EFFECT: RACE, CLASS AND GENDER UNDER THE HIDDEN PATRIARCHAL SYSTEM ON
“DANCE MOMS"
Growing in popularity are television programs portraying mothers as raunchy spectacles or supermoms that no
viewer could ever live up to. One such example is Lifetime network's reality series "Dance Moms", in which stage
mothers fight with their daughter’s dance coach over costumes, choreography and abusive teaching methods. Star,
Abby Lee Miller, the dance coach, uses power over the mothers with her (often contested) knowledge of dance,
teaching experience, or using the children as tools for intimidation. The mothers battle with one other and Abby, in
attempt to win one or the other by way of motherhood, money, femininity, or their own children. Negative and
unrealistic portrayals of women, along with instances of gender displacement, are examined in order to understand
what female viewers could be negatively impacted by in terms of the stereotyped female imagery portrayed on the
series. Motherhood as an identity is examined and reveals that on the program, fatherhood is held in highest regard
rather than motherhood which is often seen as a hindrance to children. A textual analysis and feminist perspective
are used to establish how the women on the series negotiate or legitimize their powers and the implications of race,
class and gender in these power negotiations. Additionally, a content analysis is utilized to further probe the power
most often used among the women when contesting knowledge, and reveals insight into the ways adverse female
stereotypes play a role in conflict negotiation in contemporary popular media. This paper argues that women on the
program are under patriarchal rule and race, class and gender are all limiting their powers.
Kate Esterline, Clinical Psychology
"I WISH YOU COULD’VE BEEN THERE”: COLLEGE STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCES OF PERFORMATIVE MAKING
OUT
Background: People have sex for many reasons (Meston & Buss, 2007). Although most intercourse occurs in
private, some reasons for sexual behavior require an audience. For example, some heterosexual women report
making out with other women to arouse men (Esterline & Galupo, 2013; Fahs, 2009). Some men report that
patronizing strip clubs—thereby performing sexual desire in public—makes them feel more masculine (Frank, 2003).
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, motivations, and outcomes of college students’
performative sexual behaviors.
Methods: Participants were 367 female and male college students. Questionnaires were administered online.
Participants were asked if they had ever (a) made out with a girl/guy in front of others where you wanted others to
see you”; (b) been asked or encouraged to make out with a girl/guy in front of others”; and (c) asked or encouraged
two people to make out in front of others.” Anyone answering yes” was asked open-ended questions about the
situations, their motivation, and the outcomes.
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Results: Many participants (60% of women and 66% of men) reported at least one of these behaviors. There were
gender differences: more men than women reported asking others to make out; more women than men reported
same-sex performative experiences. We used thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) to identify themes in the
qualitative data. Participants reported numerous motivations, including making an ex-partner jealous, informing others
that their partner was taken, and improving their social standing. We are also investigating positive and negative
outcomes of this behavior and the attributes people assign to those who engage in it.
Conclusions: The results provide insights into the functions of sexual behavior as a means of communication. Sexual
behavior is not always private; it has utility for navigating social situations.
15
Regionalist Room 1:00 pm
EVALUATING AND IMPROVING RESILIENCE OF COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Resilience is critical to the future of communication network infrastructure. We aim to understand resilience state of
computer networks in the face of various attacks and challenges, including the Global Internet, wired backbone
networks, and mobile ad hoc networks.
Mohammed Alenazi, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
COST-CONSTRAINED AND CENTRALITY-BALANCED NETWORK DESIGN IMPROVEMENT
Improving resilience against failures and targeted attacks is an important aspect of network design. The resilience
and cost of networks are two opposing objectives in which a designer should consider when building networks. We
develop a heuristic algorithm that balances the centrality of networks by adding a set of links that minimizes the
variance of graph centrality measures in a least costly fashion. Moreover, our algorithm limits the addition of links by
a budget constraint. We apply our algorithm to three different realistic topologies and measure the performance of
the improved graphs in terms of flow robustness when subjected to targeted attacks. Our results indicate that
degree-balanced networks are more resilient than both betweenness-balanced and closeness-balanced networks.
Yufei Cheng, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
ANALYZING GEOPATH DIVERSITY AND IMPROVING ROUTING PERFORMANCE IN OPTICAL NETWORKS
With the increasing frequency of natural disasters and intentional attacks that challenge telecommunication networks,
network vulnerability to cascading and regional-correlated challenges is escalating. Given the high complexity and
large traffic load of optical networks, the correlated challenges cause substantial damage to reliable network
communication. In this paper, we propose a network vulnerability identification mechanism and study different
vulnerability scales using real-world optical network data. We further propose geographical diversity and incorporate it
into a new graph resilience metric cTGGD (compensated Total Geographical Graph Diversity), which is capable of
characterizing and differentiating resiliency level from different optical fiber networks. It is shown to be an effective
resilience level indicator for different real-world optical networks under regional network challenges or attacks. We
further propose two heuristics for solving the path geodiverse problem (PGD), in which the calculation of a number of
geographically separated paths is required. The geodiverse paths can be used to circumvent physical challenges
such as large-scale disasters in telecommunication networks. The geodiverse paths contribute to providing resilience
against regional challenges. We present the GeoDivRP routing protocol with two new routing heuristics implemented,
which provides the end nodes with multiple geographically diverse paths. Our protocol demonstrates better
performance compared to OSPF when the network is subject to area-based challenges. We have analyzed the
mechanism attackers could maximize the attack impact with a limited budget and demonstrates the effectiveness of
restoration plans.
Dongsheng Zhang, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS USING HUMAN MOBILITY TRACES
With rapid advancement of wireless technology and exponential increase of wireless devices in the past decades,
there are more applications for MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) in commercial industries in addition to the
traditional military uses. A resilient and robust MANET is essential to the high quality of services for all the
applications on top of MANETs. The dynamically changing topologies of MANETs pose a huge challenge to normal
network operations. Furthermore, malicious attacks against critical nodes in the network could result in the
deterioration of the network to an even worse situation. In this paper, we employ several real-world human mobility
traces to analyze network robustness over time domain. We apply attacks against important nodes of the human
topology and compare the impact of attacks based on different centrality measures. Our results confirm that nodes
with high betweenness in a well-connected large dynamic network play the most pivotal roles in the communication
between all node pairs.
16
Regionalist Room 2:00 pm
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL BRAIN-COMPUTER-SPINAL-CORD INTERFACE DEVICE
The purpose of this research is to further the development of our novel brain-computer-spinal-cord interface device
with the goal of giving paralyzed patients the ability to walk once again.
Max Murphy, Bioengineering
DEVELOPING A GENERAL MODEL FOR SPIKE-TRIGGERED INTRACORTICAL MICROSTIMULATION (STIM)
To help treat the approximately 1.7 million yearly cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI), novel therapies utilizing
advances in neurophysiological technology are being developed to improve functional recovery after TBI by targeting
mechanisms of neural plasticity. Following TBI, the brain is able to reorganize to form new connections that can
restore sensorimotor networks to improve impaired function. One therapeutic approach to enhance this
reorganization is by recording electrical activity in one region, detecting spikes in the recorded activity that correspond
to a single neuron firing, and then sending a small electrical current pulse to a second, functionally linked region. It is
hypothesized that this pattern of spike-triggered intracortical microstimulation (STIM) links neurons firing in the first
area to the second, restoring some of the lost functionality from the damaged region where signals from the two may
have previously interfaced. Preliminary data from STIM trials in anesthetized rats suggests this phenomenon occurs
by affecting a change in the rate of neural firing at the site of recording. However, the changes in firing depend on the
regions chosen, indicating that the existing anatomical connections between the sites of interest may govern the
nature of STIM-induced functional connections. It is also known that the spike-stimulus delay time is important in the
STIM paradigm. Future work aims to uncover both the importance of intrinsic connectivity between different areas of
known connectivity as well as the distribution of changes in firing between two set areas as a function of varying
spike-stimulus delays.
E. Kelly Rodriguez Manyari, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
A NOVEL APPLICATION OF SPIKE DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR BRAIN-COMPUTER-SPINAL-CORD
SYSTEMS
Our team seeks to develop brain computer interface (BCI) devices that enable communication between distinct areas
of the brain or brain and spinal cord separated by injury. The BCI devise reinstates communication through activitydependent stimulation in which neural activity (action potentials or spikes) is detected in one area and triggers activity
in another area of the central nervous system (i.e., a closed-loop system). The success of the closed-loop device
depends on the reliability of spike detection requiring optimized algorithms based on complex signal detection from
the brain. This process is difficult due to the myriad of combinations of spikes occurring in the brain related to various
brain functions. In order to form a reliable closed-loop system, it is imperative to consistently and accurately detect
as many spikes as possible while recording electrical activity of the brain. Our focus is to evaluate relative
performance parameters of the methods employed for detection and discrimination within the cerebral cortex in order
to develop a superior spike detection algorithm for use in next-generation BCI systems. This presentation will focus
on the application of Precision Timing Spike Detection algorithm to a set of pre-recorded groups of spikes coming
from the brain. Specifically, the different action potentials detected when the peak lifetime periods (PLP) and
refractory periods (RP) are varied will be compared. Our algorithm will also be compared with a widely used
commercial algorithm that has previously been used in closed-loop experiments in our lab. Preliminary comparisons
indicate that the current method is superior.
Jordan Borrell, Bioengineering
TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING OF THE OUTPUTS TO HINDLIMB MUSCLES USING INTRASPINAL
MICROSTIMULATION (ISMS)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major cause of paralysis affecting approximately 200,000 people in the United States with
approximately 12,000 new cases each year. SCI induced paralysis results from a disruption of communication
between supraspinal networks controlling movement in the brain and motor output circuits below the SCI. In order to
reinstate communication between the brain and spinal cord, our lab is developing a brain-computer-spinal-cord
(BSCS) interface device that records neural signals from the brain and processes the recordings through a custom
spike-triggered analysis to bridge the injury and stimulate the spinal cord to reinstate control of movement. In order to
make a useful connection between the recording electrodes in the brain and the stimulating output of the BCSC
device to the spinal cord, the layout of the motor neuron pools within the spinal cord needs to be further studied. The
purpose of this research is to derive a three-dimensional topographical map of the hindlimb motor output of the rat.
Through the use of ISMS, biphasic stimulating pulses are applied to the exposed spinal cord of a rat via a 4-shanked
stimulating electrode that is re-positioned at regularly spaced sites in dorsoventral tracts along the lumbar cord, T13L1. Electromyography of the hindlimb muscles will be used to verify that the stimulation pulses are activating the
intended muscle groups after a SCI. Establishing the topographic map of hindlimb motor output coordinates is
necessary for accurate placement of the chronic BCSC electrodes used for neural activity dependent stimulation
below the SCI.
17
Regionalist Room 3:00 pm
INTERFACIAL AND SURFACE PHENOMENA IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Biological systems are rich in interfaces and surfaces, be it the macromolecular environment around cells, the
surfaces of tissues or interfaces between cellular membranes and surfaces. We present different examples of
molecular interactions at liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces using lipids and proteins that are essential for the
normal healthy functions, using biophysical techniques, several of which are unique to our laboratory
Aishik Chakraborty, Chemical Engineering
TUG OF WAR IN A MONOLAYER OF LUNG SURFACTANTS: A CLOSER LOOK AT MINI B AND CHOLESTEROL
INTERACTIONS WITH PHOSPHOLIPIDS AT THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE
Lung surfactants (LS), a soapy material found in the alveolar lining of the lungs, serve as an important component in
the breathing process. LS are a complex mixture of lipids and proteins which lower the surface tension on expiration,
enabling an easier inflation of the lungs subsequently. Any impairment/ absence of LS cause Acute Respiratory
Distress Syndrome [ARDS]/ Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome [NRDS]. At present, there is no consensus on
the composition of the LS mixture for Surfactant Replacement Therapy [SRT]. Of the different components,
cholesterol is a debated one. Although cholesterol renders fluidity to LS, studies have also indicated its detrimental
nature at high concentrations in LS mixtures. Our objective was to understand the interaction of cholesterol and Mini
B (an artificial mimic of the native surfactant protein, SP B) at the air-water interface. We report the changes induced
by Mini B and cholesterol, in the lipid domain formation of monolayers comprising of a mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl- snglycero- 3- phosphocholine (DPPC, the primary component of LS) and 1- palmitoyl- 2- oleoyl- sn- glycero- 3phosphatidylglygerol (POPG, an unsaturated lipid found in LS). Fluorescence imaging showed that cholesterol
decreases the line tension of the lipid domains whereas Mini B has the opposite effect. Our study thus reveals the
role of Mini B in countering the harmful effects of cholesterol to a certain extent.
Saba Ghazvini, Bioengineering
INTERFACIAL MICRORHEOLOGY OF LIPID AND PROTEINS AS BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES
Interfacial microrheology has been used as a powerful tool to characterize the fluidity of ‘fluid-fluid’ interfaces of
numerous complex bimolecular systems. Boasting a significantly higher sensitivity than commercial systems, our
uniquely engineered microrheology probes provide quantitative data to evaluate the viscosity (flow) and elasticity
(spring-like response) of several biomacromolecule-laden fluid interfaces. Specifically, our research is focused on
measuring changes in the fluidity and elasticity of physiological membranes, composed of phospholipids and
proteins, associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS).. In this
presentation rheological properties of 1,2-Dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE) and 1,2-Dimyristoylsn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE) will be presented. These two phospholipids which only differ by two CH2
groups in their alkyl chain are abundant in nerve tissue as well as bacterial cell. We have analyzed the reorientation
of our nano-probes at the interface while applying a magnetic field to measure the exact rheological properties. Our
data indicates a discontinuity in viscosity while the phase transition occurs between a liquid expanded (LE) and liquid
condensed phase (LC). Furthermore the viscosity in liquid expanded is about 10-9 and does not change within the
large LE phase of DLPE monolayer. However at the large LC phase of DMPE the viscosity increases exponentially
with increase of surface pressure. Additionally our experiment indicates that these monolayers have elastic properties
at Solid phase.
Nicolas Joseph Mucci, Chemical Engineering
MONITORING ADSORPTION AND AGGREGATION OF AN INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED PROTEIN AT SOLID
SUBSTRATES
Aggregation of the soluble human tau protein into insoluble fibrils is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases
referred to as tauopathies. However, the mechanism of this aggregation process which leads to cellular degeneration
is not well understood, and warrants further investigation in order to lead to the ultimate goal of prevention. Previous
research with other soluble proteins suggests the role of surfaces in enabling macromolecular crowding in the cellular
environment. Studies have also provided evidence that the tau protein can aggregate on solid substrate surfaces.
However the details of the mechanisms of this aggregation is not understood and provided motivation for our present
research. We used Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) as a high-throughput technique to
elucidate how surface characteristics, as well as the hydrophobicity of the protein, affected the mechanisms of protein
adsorption and binding to model surfaces. Our results were complemented with atomic force microscopy ( AFM) to
visualize and characterize the protein species present on the surfaces after protein adsorption. We showed that the
slight hydrophobicity in the binding region of the tau protein allowed for a significant increase in adsorption on the
hydrophobic surfaces over the hydrophilic surface. Our results conclusively establish that the hydrophobicity
characteristic is the main contributor to the tau binding. Further, we used the AFM to prove that the protein did in fact
have the capability to aggregate at the solid interface. These findings have provided support that this technique can
be used to further study the mechanism of tau adsorption and aggregation at model surfaces including phospholipid
bilayers.
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Ballroom 1:00 - 3:00 pm
Abdulmalik Humayed, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Poster #1
CYBER-PHYSICAL SECURITY FOR MEDICAL DEVICES: ISSUES, SURVEY AND CHALLENGES
Medical devices integrate cyber and physical components to improve patients with more reliable and convenient
course of treatments. These devices are sometimes implanted in patients body or worn by them. However, the
heterogeneity of the integrated components results in new types of security challenges, especially, cyber-physical
interactions and their resulting consequences are not well understood. In this poster, we propose a unified framework
that systematically models cyber-physical security issues. It consists of two orthogonal coordinates: (1) from the
medical devices’ components perspective, we focus on cyber, physical, and cyber-physical components; and (2) from
security perspective, we follow the well-known taxonomy of threats, vulnerabilities, attacks and controls. The
proposed framework is abstract enough to be applicable to various types of medical devices, and to gain a modular
view of the tightly coupled components. Such abstract decoupling makes it possible to gain a systematic
understanding of cyber-physical security, and to highlight the potential sources of attacks and controls. In addition, we
survey the literature of medical devices' security research, and systematically discuss them under the proposed
framework. We develop a threat model to capture medical devices security threats. We then identify and discuss
three causes that most, if not all, vulnerabilities result from: (1) the assertion that the devices are in isolated
environments and threat-free, (2) the heterogeneity of the components, and (3) the increased connectivity. On the
other hand, we focus on practical attacks that have been proven valid in experiments. We also survey control
mechanisms in the literature that are expected to defend most of the attacks. Finally, we discuss the open issues and
key challenges in the security of future medical devices. In conclusion, our framework provides a better
understanding of cyber-physical security issues resulting from cyber-physical interactions and contributes to the
development of cyber-physical security for CPS.
Amir Modarresi, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Poster #2
SIMPLE FORWARDING OVER TRAJECTORY (SIFT) IMPLEMENTATION IN NS-3
Routing protocols in MANET confront with challenges which are not usual in ordinary wired networks. Nodes
movement, intermittent connections and lack of infrastructure are some of these challenges. Several routing protocols
have been proposed to provide better performance delivery and tackle these challenges. However, an environment is
necessary to compare the efficiency of these protocols. As a contribution to this effort, we implement a proposed
routing protocol in MANET, called SiFT, in ns-3 that is an open source network simulator. Performance delivery of
this protocol is compared with other implemented MANET protocols in ns-3.
Jay McDaniel, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Poster #3
DESIGN, INTEGRATION, AND MINIATURIZATION OF AN ULTRA-WIDEBAND SNOW RADAR RECEIVER FOR
POLARIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
At the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), two Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Frequency Modulated
Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars are used for remote sensing of snow. The 12-18 GHz Ku-Band Radar altimeters
provides high resolution surface elevation measurements, while the 2-8 GHz Snow Radar measures snow thickness
over sea ice. There is currently a demand for large area Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data to update and expand
current models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In order to meet this demand, a new
“Airborne” Multi-Channel, Quad-Polarized 2-18GHz Snow Radar has been proposed. With tight size and weight
constraints from the airborne platforms deploying with the Navy Research Laboratory (NRL) and Alfred Wegener
Institute (AWI), the need for integrated and miniaturized receivers for cost and size reduction is crucial for future
deployments. The system was designed to detect polarimetric signals such as snow thickness from 500 feet to 5000
feet at Nadir, and SWE and Snow Density at low elevation 30 degree off nadir measurements. These capabilities
were verified using a detailed link budget with data from previous missions. With the new receiver design and
miniaturization, a one-fifth size reduction has been accomplished. The receiver bank was tested with the entire
system in a full multi-channel loop-back measurement, using a 1500 m delay line, resulting in a beat frequency with
20dB side lobes. Due to the multi-angle, multi-polarization, and multi-frequency content from the data, the number of
free parameters in the SWE estimation can thus be significantly reduced.
Truc Anh Nguyen, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Poster #4
RESTP – A RESILIENT TRANSPORT PROTOCOL
ResTP (Resilient Transport Protocol) is a flexible, composable, and adaptive general-purpose transport protocol that
is designed to effectively carry traffic from various application classes across different network environments. ResTP
provides several end-to-end services to the application layer, including multiplexing/demultiplexing, connection or flow
management, error control, multipath spreading, and transmission (flow/congestion) control. Each of these services is
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comprised of many mechanisms that are related, but orthogonal to each other allowing them to be composable to
satisfy specific application’s requirements while dynamically adapting to the underlying network conditions and
failures. In the existence of multiple physical paths through an overlay network, multi-tunnels, or transport layer
multihoming, ResTP is capable of both spreading traffic among these paths to increase redundancy and choosing
diverse paths to reduce the likelihood of suffering from correlated failures. In this poster, we present our ResTP’s
architecture and highlight the protocol’s unique characteristics that make it more resilient than other protocols,
especially TCP - the Internet’s dominant transport protocol during the last decades.
Bella Kim, Aerospace Engineering
Poster #5
GUIDANCE OF MULTI-AGENT UAV USING MOVING MESH METHOD AND CURVATURE CONTROL
The impact of unmanned aerial vehicles has been increased in the civil and military applications. They are replacing
human’s tasks that have huge risks. The intelligent systems are implemented to control them and guide to
accomplish the missions. To achieve missions, the formation flight has the advantage of reducing the fuel
consumption. The moving mesh methods and the curvature control were investigated for guiding the formation flight.
Moving mesh methods is vigorous to keep the formation coherency. These methods are providing the positions of
inner agents in the formation by solving the moving mesh partial differential equation. This allows that the formation
shape could be arbitrary. For outer agents, the reference formation logic was applied. With the designated relative
distance, the outer agents' positions were computed from the reference point. This logic is essential to keep the
formation shape for the outer agent because it make the formation rotate accordingly as the trajectory heading
changes. Curvature control is the algorithm that constraints the trajectory of the agent to swarm using Frenet-Serret
frame. In addition, this algorithm has the ability to separate swarm group by the local coupling to avoid obstacles.
This work has been developed with the simple car dynamics. In this research, the aircraft dynamics were applied. To
use the curvature for the aircraft, Frenet-Serret equation were applied instead of converting into the steering angle.
To control the aircraft for both approaches, the moving point guidance and nonlinear model predictive controller with
6 degrees of freedom, nonlinear aircraft dynamics.
Nathan Smith, Aerospace Engineering
Poster #6
EFFECT OF COMPETING V-TAIL MODELS ON A UAS 6 DOF NONLINEAR SIMULATION
Six DOF nonlinear model of a large unmanned aerial system is developed using two competing approaches in
modeling aircraft with V-tail configuration. In one approach the V-tail is projected into horizontal and vertical planes
and the aircraft airflow angles, angle of attack and sideslip angle, are used for analysis. This approach has been
successfully used to model aircraft with low horizontal tail dihedral. The second method employs lifting line method to
calculate the local angle of attack on the V-tail and the pressure gradient effects from one lifting surface on another in
close proximity. For comparison of the two competing methods, fuzzy logic modeling techniques with capability to
capture nonlinear aerodynamics are used for model identification of a large unmanned aerial system with a V-tail.
Both methods fail to accurately capture nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamics such as yawing moments however,
simulation results show moderate improvement in the quality of 6 DOF nonlinear models for longitudinal dynamics if
the square method with nonlinear terms is used in analysis of the V-tail.
Waleed Tameemi, Civil Engineering
Poster #7
COMPRESSION, TENSION, AND FLEXURE SCFRC
Self-consolidated fiber reinforced concrete (SCFRC) is hybrid concrete that combines the self-compact property of
self-consolidated concrete (SCC) and the toughness enhancement property of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC).
SCFRCs are used to improve the concrete behavior under shear, tension, flexure, and compression stresses as well
as to reduce the cracks and the corrosion problems. Four different types of hooked end steel fiber (tensile strength
ranges between 1345-3070 MPa and aspect ratio varies between 55-79) were introduced to 15 batches of SCC (ƒ`c
= 6 ksi) and 9 batches of high strength SCCs (ƒ`c = 10 ksi). The aim of this study is to develop relationships between
compression test results (compression stress vs. longitudinal strain) and tensile test results (tensile stress vs. crack
width) as well as relationships between results from compression and flexural tests (flexural load vs. mid-span net
deflection). These relationships would make it easier for engineers to characterize the mechanical behavior of
SCFRC for modeling or design based on a relatively limited number of standard tests. The results show that the
workability of SCCs decreases as the fiber aspect ratio increases and as the fiber volume fraction increases. In
addition, the fibers significantly affect the post-peak tension, flexure, and compressive behavior. Moreover, the fibers
greatly impact the tensile and the flexural strength. The fibers have neglectable effect on the compression strength,
modulus of elasticity as well as all properties before cracking. Finally, relationships between the compression, tension
and flexure tests are conducted.
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Changhong (John) Liu, Mechanical Engineering
Poster #8
STATE OF CHARGE ESTIMATION FOR LI-ION BATTERIES USING A REDUCED-ORDER BATTERY MODEL
Li-ion batteries have been widely used in electronic devices and electric vehicles (EVs) because of the high power
density. State of charge (SOC), capacity, and internal resistance are the critical information for battery management
system (BMS) to avoid overcharge /overdischarge and estimate battery lifetime. SOC is important for power
management system to compute power output under various driving conditions. Therefore, the accuracy of SOC
estimation has a significant influence on safety and performance of EVs and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This
research applied a reduced-order electrochemical batter model to simulate the side reaction inside of Lithium-ion
batteries i.e., solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer growth. Kalman Filter was used to estimate SOC. Battery
voltage, capacity, SEI layer thickness and internal resistance were analyzed under charge /discharge cycling
simulation.
Cyrus Maleki, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Poster #9
HIGH-PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIA AND TRANSPORT FOR CO2 CAPTURE AND ENHANCED OIL
RECOVERY
Climate change is a phenomenon that is happening rapidly and is affecting human lives all around the globe. Among
the factors that accelerate this phenomenon in the 20th century, is the increasing emission of greenhouse gases
especially carbon dioxide (CO2) through human activities. One potential solution for mitigating CO2 emissions is
using carbon capture, utilization, and storage. Our research focuses on mitigating the footprint of CO2 on the
environment through its utilization for EOR purposes. This demands a thorough study of the thermodynamics,
transport, and phase behavior properties of pure CO2 as well as mixtures of CO2 and other petroleum components.
We perform experiments on CO2-Alkane mixtures to measure their transport properties including thermal
conductivity, viscosity, and mass diffusion coefficients. CO2 injection can increase the recovery from an oil reservoir
up to 30% of the original oil in place. There are huge petroleum reservoirs in the U.S as well as the state of Kansas
which have produced for years and are currently producing with rates as low as 1 barrel per day. Our studies show
that there are good economic incentives to implement CO2 injection plans in these reservoirs. In this way, we can
produce big volumes of incremental oil. Kansas residents can benefit from these projects through the taxes that will
be paid to the state. In addition, by performing this study we can develop the capture technology, which other than a
contribution to solving the environmental problems can be considered as a valuable asset for the state.
Nishkriya Kalyanaraman, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Poster #10
STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CO2 FOAM FOR EOR APPLICATIONS USING POLY-ELECTROLYTES AND
POLY-ELECTROLYTE COMPLEX NANO-PARTICLES.
The objective of this project is to stabilize the CO2 foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery applications using a combination
of surfactants with poly-electrolytes and poly-electrolyte complexes. Poly-electrolytes are hypothesized to reduce the
dynamic movement of surfactants and prevent collapse of the formed lamellae by potentially interacting with
surfactants and making a more rigid interface caused by electrostatic interactions.
Mohammed Al-Naqshabandi, Chemistry
Poster #11
CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED PROTEINS BY FAST PHOTOCHEMICAL
OXIDATION OF PROTEINS
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have regions that are highly flexible and lack stable secondary or tertiary
structure. Although many studies have shown that IDPs participate in functional interactions, less is known about the
structural details of the interactions. Our previous work showed that hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) can
provide important information about IDPs, but labeling takes place on the millisecond-second timescale. Since protein
folding is slower than microseconds, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) might reveal states of IDPs that
are undetectable by HDX. Here, we evaluate the application of FPOP for characterizing IDPs. We are using two
disordered proteins as a model system that co-fold upon binding.
Amanda Houk, Chemistry
Poster #12
TWO-PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY, DYNAMICS, AND QUANTUM YIELDS OF A PHOTOCHROMIC MOLECULAR
SWITCH
There is considerable interest in developing optical data storage devices that integrate photochromic molecular
switches as the storage medium. These light-sensitive compounds must efficiently switch in one direction for writing
data with UV light, while maintaining a very low yield for the reverse process to allow non-destructive optical read-out
of the data with visible light. Using two-photon excitation to increase the yield of the reverse process has the potential
for making the data storage devices erasable; therefore, we have studied the two-photon properties of a common
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photochromic molecular switch. The compound, 1,2-bis(2,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene
(DMPT-PFCP), undergoes efficient electrocyclization to a closed-ring isomer under UV irradiation, and has a very low
yield for cycloreversion following absorption of visible light. We have examined the spectroscopy and dynamics of
DMPT-PFCP in order to assess the potential for using various two-photon accessible excited states to selectively
control the outcome of the cycloreversion reaction. Two-photon absorption (2PA) spectroscopy measurements reveal
the two-photon accessible states and their 2PA cross-sections. The second absorption band of the molecule has a
larger 2PA cross-section than the lowest absorption band, which is typically the transition used for optical read-out
with a single visible photon. Separate measurements of the two-photon quantum efficiency for cycloreversion and of
the excited state dynamics following two-photon excitation collectively provide insight into the behavior of the twophoton accessible excited-states, and their ability to affect the cycloreversion reaction.
Brent Lee, Chemistry
Poster #13
DIFFUSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SMALL PROTEINS ACROSS A LIPID MEMBRANE
The diffusion of small proteins across a lipid membrane was determined, characterized, and compared to
experimental values by using molecular dynamics simulations. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, and wh5a, a small helical
protein, were studied. The lipid membrane was constructed by using 50 DOPC lipids surrounded by around 3000
water molecules. The simulations were setup by using CHARMM and then run with the GROMACS program. The
energy barrier towards protein diffusion was calculated by using umbrella sampling and WHAM. Barriers of 27.6,
41.4, and 92.4 kJmol-1 were respectively found for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and wh5a. Diffusion constants were then
determined by using force and position autocorrelation functions based upon Einstein’s relation and the generalized
Langevin equation for a damped harmonic oscillator. These values were on a microsecond and millisecond timescale
and differed from the expected, experimental results of several hours. Rotational dynamics and membrane
fluctuations likely caused these differences and further studies will examine these effects. Finally, all proteins were
characterized based upon conformational changes, hydrogen bonding, membrane insertion orientation, and local
chemical environment, where appropriate.
Laura Northrup, Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Poster #14
UTILIZING AN IMMUNOLOGICALLY RELEVANT IN VITRO SYSTEM CONSISTING OF EAE SPLENOCYTES TO
SCREEN POTENTIAL TOLEROGENIC ADJUVANTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) result from the breakdown of immune tolerance to selfantigens. The ability to induce tolerance to specific antigens without suppressing the global immune system would
result in improved treatment for autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that by co-delivering disease causing selfantigen and a tolerance inducing compound, or tolerogenic adjuvant, we can create an antigen-specific
immunotherapy for MS. Currently, investigations to determine the optimal tolerogenic adjuvant require the use of nonautoimmune model in vitro systems or in vivo testing. In order to reduce in vivo testing while preserving the complex
immune cell population, we have utilized splenocytes harvested from mice induced with experimental autoimmune
encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS, to screen potential tolerogenic adjuvants. We have confirmed
through fluorescent microscopy that splenocytes harvested from EAE mice contain a diverse immune cell population,
including T-cells, B-cells, and dendritic cells. Using the EAE splenocyte system we have screened several
immunosuppressant compounds believed to have tolerogenic potential. The immune response to these compounds
both with and without co-delivery of EAE-specific self-antigen was investigated by measuring cellular metabolic
activity and cytokines indicative of both tolerance and inflammation. We found that the cytokine response of each
compound was dependent on changes in cellular metabolic activity; indicating the importance of monitoring metabolic
activity during compound screening in this in vitro system. Overall, the utilization of relevant in vitro autoimmune
models, such as the EAE splenocytes, may lead to improved tolerogenic adjuvant screening and the creation of
antigen-specific immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases.
Emily Carlson, Pharmacology and Toxicology
Poster #15
OVEREXPRESSION OF 17β-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE 10 INCREASES
PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL GROWTH AND RESISTANCE TO CELL DEATH
Cancer comprises a vast set of diseases that are difficult to treat. As cancer cell resistance renders existing therapies
ineffective for many patients, it is crucial that new treatments be found. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10
(HSD10) has been shown to play a protective role in cells undergoing stress. Across disease states, increased
HSD10 levels can have a profound and varied impact, such as beneficial in Parkinson’s disease and harmful in
Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, HSD10 overexpression has been observed in some prostate and bone cancers.
Additionally, our preliminary data revealed that HSD10 is greatly increased in tumor tissue of breast cancer patients.
We propose that HSD10 overexpression promotes cancer cell growth and aids in resistance to cell death. The main
objectives of our study were to determine the effect of increased HSD10 expression on pheochromocytoma (PC-12)
cellular growth rate and cell death resistance. We show that PC-12 cells overexpressing HSD10 grow faster in cell
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culture and an in vivo tumor mouse model. Under oxidative stress conditions, mitochondrial complex IV enzyme
activity and MTT reduction remained significantly elevated in PC-12 cells overexpressing HSD10 compared with
matched controls. We further demonstrate that HSD10-overexpressing PC-12 cells are more resistant to apoptosis
induction when treated with hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our results indicate that HSD10 upregulation promotes PC12 cell growth and plays a role in resistance to cell death. These results suggest that blockade of HSD10 may have
potential for limiting tumor growth, which could have a significant impact on cancer treatment.
Rodrigo Perea, Bioengineering
Poster #16
THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE THALAMO-CORTICAL CONNECTIONS
USING DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING: A 26-WEEK LONGITUDINAL INTERVENTION STUDY
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects cognition and is associated with brain atrophy.
This disease has no cure and costly pharmacological treatments slow down clinical symptoms but only at the early
stages of the disease. Thus, other alternative methods such as aerobic exercise are currently being investigated.
Evidence showed that aerobic exercise triggers neuro- protective biological mechanisms in animal studies. In human
studies, aerobic exercise has also been associated with increased cognition and decreased brain atrophy. However,
none of the studies have investigated the effects on thalamo-cortical connectivity. The thalamus is a deep gray matter
structure with many nuclei. These nuclei and its connections filter information to the cerebral cortex, the most evolved
unit in the brain. Here we applied a novel in vivo magnetic resonance imaging technique (e.g. diffusion probabilistic
tractography and a target classification algorithm) to evaluate the integrity of these connections and the effects of a
26-week aerobic exercise. We collected in-vivo images at baseline and after the 26-week intervention. Older adults
participants over the age of 65 with earlier stages of AD were recruited and divided in two groups: aerobic (e.g.
treadmill walking, n=14) and non-aerobic (e.g stretching and toning, n=15) exercise. Results: After a 26-week
intervention program, the aerobic exercise group had increased thalamo-cortical connectivity to the right cingulate
gyrus (2.67% vs -0.91%, p=0.029) and decreased connectivity to the left post-central gyrus (-1.12% vs 0.34, p=0.041)
when compared to changes in the non-aerobic control group.
Marvin Stops, Bioengineering
Poster #17
OPTIMIZATION OF LIPID BINDING CHARACTERISTICS OF A NON-ABSORBED FAT BINDING POLYMER
The energy density of fat coupled with a high consumption rate and minimal expenditure leads to a physical
imbalance known as obesity. An advance in therapeutic agents that reduces the absorption of lipids is an alternative
strategy to surgery. Cholestyramine is one such therapeutic agent that possesses a mode of action that sequesters
bile acids which aids in the solubility of dietary fat. The hypothesis of this novel fat binding polymer is modeled on the
sequestration of mixed micelles in the small intestine, the active site of digestion and absorption of dietary fats. To
test this hypothesis, a modified triglyceride and bile acid extraction protocols were used to test for triglycerides and
bile acids in the fecal material of C57BL/6 mice. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies of micelles sequestration, the
polymer exhibited a significant increase of fat binding in fecal matter. Ongoing studies are needed to fully identify lipid
binding actitvity.
Brittany Hartwell, Bioengineering
Poster #18
SPECIFICITY AND TARGETING OF A MULTIVALENT POLYMERIC ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that manifests when myelin sheath undergoes autoimmune attack.
Many current therapies for MS act systemically on the general immune response, yielding limited therapeutic efficacy
and adverse side effects. Soluble Antigen Arrays (SAgAs) are an antigen-specific immunotherapy designed to be
safer and more effective by targeting immune cells that trigger the autoimmune response – specifically, by
interrupting the immunological synapse between professional antigen presenting cells (pAPC) and T cells. The SAgA
design consists of a hyaluronic acid (HA) polymer backbone complexed with two peptides presented in a multivalent
array. The two peptides are disease-specific autoantigen (proteolipid protein peptide, PLP(139-151)) and ICAM-1
inhibitor peptide (LABL), intended to target the B cell receptor and ICAM-1, respectively. Previous studies have
shown that codelivery of antigenic peptide and cell adhesion inhibitor peptide on HA is necessary for treatment of
experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the murine model of MS. In vitro flow cytometry binding studies
were performed with B cells (a type of pAPC) and fluorescently labeled SAgA molecules to elucidate the therapeutic
mode of action on a cellular level. It was hypothesized that SAgA would exhibit specific binding with B cells
dependent on the identity and density of conjugated peptide, largely driven by the antigenic peptide (PLP). Similarly,
ex vivo binding studies were performed with mixed primary splenocytes from EAE mice to determine which cell types
were targeted by SAgAs. It was hypothesized that SAgA would preferentially target antigen-specific pAPC.
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Scott LaBrie, Molecular Biosciences
Poster #19
CHARACTERIZATION OF PHENOTYPIC RESPONSE IN CHLAMYDIAL INCLUSION MORPHOLOGY WITH
OVEREXPRESSION OF CT398
A major difficulty of annotating hypothetical proteins within the obligate intracellular C. trachomatis is the unbiased
quantitative analysis of the cytological profile for phenotypic response to over or under expressed proteins. A
hypothetical protein in question, CT398, recently found to be structurally similar to Helicobacter pylori FlgZ (Flagellarassociated zinc-ribbon domain protein), was determined to interact with RpoN (Sigma54) and Type III Secretion
System (T3SS) ATPase regulators (CdsL and FliH). Further, after increasing expression, CT398 played a role in
deregulating T3SS effector proteins. This would suggest that CT398 may play a role in pathogenesis of Chlamydia. In
order to develop a more thorough profile of CT398, analysis of the infectivity and inclusion morphology needs to be
made. Such analysis would benefit from an objective computational means of quantifying infected cells and inclusion
size via high-throughput screening of immunoflourescent-stained tissue-sample images with the open-source
software CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst. This study implements a robust screening, using CellProfiler and
CellProfiler Analyst, of Chlamydial inclusion phenotypic responses, within mouse fibroblast L929 cells, to variably
induced levels of overexpression for CT398 .
Kawaljit Kaur, Molecular Biosciences
Poster #20
NON-CANONICAL SIM IDENTIFIED IN PIASY IS CRITICAL IN PIASY-DEPENDENT SUMOYLATION
Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is implicated in the regulation of a variety of
cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, and DNA repair. Conjugation of SUMO onto target
substrates often requires SUMO E3 ligase. PIASy, a member of the Siz/PIAS family of SUMO E3 ligases, mediates
SUMO conjugation on substrates TopoIIα and PARP1. In this study, our aim was to uncover determinants required
for SUMO conjugation by PIASy. Our results suggest that the known C-terminal SIM is dispensable for the ligase
activity of PIASy. Instead, we have identified a previously uncharacterized non-canonical SIM in PIASy that binds
SUMO with μM affinity using NMR chemical shift mapping and fluorescence spectroscopy. Mutational and
biochemical studies show that the non-canonical SIM is required for a fully active SUMO E3 ligase. Our results
provide insights into the mechanism of PIASy-dependent SUMOylation through identification of a novel SIM that is
essential for the SUMO ligase activity of PIASy.
Kelly Harrison, Molecular Biosciences
Poster #21
DEVELOPMENT OF SUBUNIT VACCINES USING FUSION PROTEINS FROM SALMONELLA
Salmonella is responsible for 1.3 billion cases of gastrointestinal and systemic disease annually in humans and food
animals and, with over 2500 varieties, recurring infections pose a serious public health care threat. In the United
States, Salmonella is the leading cause of hospitalizations and death due to food-borne illness. With the increasing
occurrence of antibiotic resistance, the best approach for disease prevention is vaccination—yet there is currently no
broadly protective vaccine available. To cause disease, Salmonella utilize essential virulence mechanisms conserved
among the different varieties, which is why we chose to use components of these systems as vaccine candidates.
Our previous work showed the protein components SipB, SipD and SseB confer partial protection against a lethal
infection in mice. To simplify production and reduce costs, fusions of SipB and SipD (S1F), and SseB and SseC
(S¬2F) were constructed. Immune responses to these are being tested using the mouse Salmonella model. Mice
were vaccinated with S1F and S2F along with an adjuvant either intranasally, intradermally or intramuscularly. For
each route, these fusions generated higher levels of antibody production at earlier timepoints than when the
components are administered individually. Mice will be challenged with a lethal dose of Salmonella orogastrically and
protection will be determined. Protection against infection in mice will allow us to optimize vaccine formulation and
investigate protection in other animal models, including calves and pigs. Our research shows these formulations are
effective using different administration routes and sets the groundwork for development of a broadly protective
Salmonella vaccine.
Dianarys Hernandez-Aquino, Molecular Biosciences
Poster #22
MEASURING SUMOYLATION
The development of biochemical tools to further understand the role of protein-protein interactions is important for the
successful study of cellular pathways. Specially, these tools will have a significant impact in the study of the posttranslational modifier SUMO; this protein becomes covalently conjugated to proteins to control multiple events in
cellular pathways. The aim of our research is to design a fluorescent assay in which SUMOylation can be measured
in real time. We started off by generating fluorescent fusion proteins; SUMO2hsGG and SUMO substrate
Topo2xlCTD were fused to mCherry and YFP, respectively. Once these were established, we verified that the fusion
between them did not interfere with the proper function of the proteins by completing an in vitro SUMOylation assay
and confirming it by Western Blot. On the blot we tested different time points of the same SUMOylation reaction
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starting at 0 minutes; we observed a shift upwards from the substrate bands indicating a change in their molecular
weight, thus verifying the conjugation of SUMO2hsGG to Topo2xlCTD. Similar to the western blot, a time-dependent
analysis was done using a spectrophotometer to measure the fluorescence emitted from the samples. The assay
works by exciting the YFP-Topo2xlCTD and reading the emission of mCherry-SUMO2hsGG, if SUMOylation is
occurring the emission of the YFP protein will excite the mCherry protein due to close proximity. Currently, we haven’t
had a clear reading due to background noise; with this in mind we are switching to a more sensitive
spectrophotometer machine in order to fix this problem.
Kara Hinshaw, Molecular Biosciences
Poster #23
QUORUM SENSING PROMOTES DEFENSE AND SELF-PRESERVATION DURING INTERSPECIES
COMPETITION
Many Proteobacteria use acyl-homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing to control the production of public
goods such as antibiotics whose benefits are shared among all cooperating members of the population. Quorum
sensing systems may be susceptible to invasion by social cheaters, such as a quorum-defective mutant, which can
benefit from the public goods without incurring the cost of production. In some species quorum sensing also controls
production of efflux pumps that may protect the cells from antimicrobials produced by other species. These efflux
pumps are not believed to be shared with other members of the population making them private goods. Quorum
regulation of such defensive strategies may be important for competing for limited resources in multispecies bacterial
communities. To investigate the importance of quorum sensing in defense during inter-species competition, we used
a model of competition between two soil saprophytes, Chromobacterium violaceum and Burkholderia thailandensis.
We demonstrate that C. violaceum quorum sensing mutants are more sensitive than wild type to a potent bactobolin
antibiotic produced by B. thailandensis. C. violaceum quorum sensing mutants have a growth advantage over their
quorum-intact parent in laboratory growth media. However in co-culture with B. thailandensis, quorum-intact C.
violaceum outcompetes the quorum-defective cells. This result was dependent on the production of bactobolin by B.
thailandensis. Our results suggest that quorum sensing is important for defense during interspecies competition and
that the defensive strategies are private. During growth in mixed microbial communities, quorum sensing-controlled
defense strategies may serve to restrain the emergence of quorum-defective social cheaters.
Aleah Henderson, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Poster #24
THE INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED CO2 EXPOSURE TIME ON FLOWERING TIME OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ECOTYPES
The influences of several environmental factors on flowering time are well understood, yet the effects of rising
atmospheric CO2 have received less attention. A recent review indicated that elevated CO2 can lead to delays and
accelerations in flowering time among species, although less is known about intraspecific responses to elevated
CO2. Previously, we showed that elevated CO2 (700 ppm) can delay the flowering times of some Arabidopsis
ecotypes, possibly due to signaling mechanisms from excess sugars. However, it is unknown if this occurs from a
“dose-dependent” effect of elevated CO2 (linear response with increasing exposure) or if there are thresholds that
occur in flowering time with increased exposure time. This issue is key since atmospheric CO2 is expected to reach
700 ppm by the end of this century.
Kyungjin Min, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Poster #25
TEMPERATURE RESPONSES OF MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON TO CO2
Microorganisms are a key player in producing CO2 as a result of transformation of soil organic carbon, providing a
positive feedback to climate change. Temperature can influence microbial CO2 respiration by altering their activities
(direct) or communities (indirect). However, microbial responses to temperature can be confounded by other factors
(e.g., soil moisture), challenging accurate estimation of microbial CO2 release with warming. Here I study the effects
of temperature on microbial carbon transformations with little concerns on confounding factors by using soils with
natural temperature gradient but with similar edaphic factors. I collected soils from three regions with different mean
annual temperature along the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect in 2014. While I
was incubating them at 5, 15, and 25°C for 84 days, I measured exo-enzyme activities (microbial tools for
transforming soil organic carbon to CO2) and CO2 respiration. I hypothesized that exo-enzyme activities and CO2
respiration will increase with incubation temperature (direct) and that these increases in microbial carbon
transformations with temperature will be smaller from microbes inhabiting in warmer regions (indirect). At all regions,
incubation temperature stimulated microbial carbon transformations. Exo-enzyme activities and CO2 respiration were
smallest at 5°C and exhibited increasing trends with incubation temperature. Changes in microbial exo-enzyme
activities and CO2 respiration with temperature did not differ among regions. This study highlights that temperature
can directly alter microbial carbon transformations by boosting exo-enzyme activities and CO2 respiration in a shortterm incubation, but that indirect effects of temperature are minimal in these boreal soils.
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Adolfo Gomez Delgado, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Poster #26
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MINDORO ISLAND, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES
We present the first comprehensive summary of the reptile and amphibian fauna of Mindoro Island, central
Philippines. From new survey data and synthesis of historical museum data, we provide species accounts for 71
species, including 16 species of amphibians (15 frogs and one toad) and 55 species of reptiles (30 lizards, 22
snakes, two crocodiles, and one turtle) from 54 localities across two provinces, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental
Mindoro. We compare our synthesis of all available data to findings from other recent herpetofaunal surveys set in
surrounding areas and discuss biogeographic affinities of Mindoro and surrounding landmasses. We highlight new
island records and natural history observations for many included species and discuss the anticipated effectiveness
of Mindoro’s few naturally forested regions and formally protected areas. Conservation of Mindoro’s unique
combination of amphibians and reptiles must be emphasized as an important priority for future conservation efforts in
the central Philippines.
Patrick Monnahan, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Poster #27
EPISTASIS IN MONKEYFLOWERS: HOW GENES INTERACT TO DETERMINE FITNESS IN NATURE
Epistasis, the interaction between genes, has important consequences for the evolution of populations in nature.
However, the emerging field of evolutionary genetics is only beginning to understand how genes identified in the lab
or greenhouse interact in nature to determine fitness. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating survival and
reproductive success of genetic lines of Mimulus guttatus in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an
otherwise uniform background. An allele at gene x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—
positively effects survival if combined with one genotype at gene x10a (aa), but has negative effects when combined
with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel differences for
developmental traits, specifically the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with
fecundity across genotypes indicating a tradeoff between fitness components. This tradeoff, dubbed antagonistic
pleiotropy, is an often hypothesized, but rarely demonstrated, phenomenon that may explain the maintenance of
variation at these genes. Overall, this study supports the necessity of field assays to understand the relevance of
genetic studies carried out in controlled settings to evolution in nature.
Weibo Liu, Geography
Poster #28
DEVELOPMENT OF A WEBGIS APPLICATION FOR CRYOSPHERE COMMUNITY BASED ON OPEN SOURCE
SOFTWARE TOOLS
Large amounts of geospatial data have been collected or generated from satellite imagery and other remote sensors
for advanced monitoring and investigation of environmental systems. In order to assist in the managing and analysis
of these geospatial data, web GIS applications based on web services, and cloud computing platforms are widely
used nowadays. This paper presents research and development of a prototype web GIS application for cryosphere
community using FOSS GIS. The URL of this web application (Open Polar Server, OPS) is https://ops.cresis.ku.edu/,
and the source code of OPS is maintained at GitHub and it can be downloaded by other developers from
https://github.com/CReSIS/OPS . The primary goal of this project is to develop a free and open source spatial data
infrastructure (SDI) capable of: (1) storing, managing, and presenting of geospatial data, and (2) creating, analyzing,
and distributing the dataset collected by Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) in a way that provides
ideal conditions for data users and primary producers of polar remote sensing data. The web application for
cryosphere community was deployed on a virtual machine running on CentOS Linux. This web application was tested
using data from different Radar surface and bottom layers such as radar depth sounders (rds), accumulation radar
(accum), snow radar (snow), and kuband (kuband) at CReSIS in different seasons (2006-2013) of Arctic and
Antarctic. In the future, the web application can be further improved in its capacity to create an interactive web-based
data picking system.
Samuel Lobby, Geography
Poster #29
FIRED UP: GEOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITY OF FEDERAL WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS
As fire seasons become more intense as a result of climate change, a century of fire suppression policies, and
suburban development in wildland-urban interface areas, the once little known profession of wildland firefighting has
been thrust into the public eye . While the hazards to federal wildland firefighters are mounting, less is being done to
address systemic safety issues that exists within federal fire safety policies; namely, the absence of a medic position
on federal wildland fire crews, as well as a lack of training to provide supervisors with the knowledge required to
identify serious medical emergencies. Recent changes to safety policy have placed the responsibility of safety on
firefighters themselves which requires the individual to be resilient during medical incidents, rather than address
systemic institutional problems that leave firefighters unnecessarily vulnerable. Based on current practices, it appears
that firefighter vulnerability varies geographically due to budgetary differences at different scales among federal land
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management agencies, local cultural attitudes towards safety, and differences in safety policy among and within
federal land management agencies. These factors will be investigated through comparisons of federal land
management safety policy documents, geographic comparisons of budgets, and interviews with firefighters and policy
makers. The objective of this study is to examine how current practices and policies leave firefighters unnecessarily
vulnerable.
Matthew Jones, Geology
Poster #30
NEOICHNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF A DIVERSE FAMILY OF NEOTROPICAL BATS (CHIROPTERA:
PHYLLOSTOMIDAE)
The New World bat family Phyllostomidae is the second most species rich family within Chiroptera. Phyllostomidae is
represented in Costa Rica by five subfamilies: Carolliinae, Desmodontinae, Glossophaginae, Phyllostominae, and
Stenodermatinae; each conforming to a different ecological niche. Consisting of nectarivores, frugivores, insectivores,
carnivores, omnivores, and sanguinivores, the phyllostomids are among the most ecologically diverse of all mammal
families. We studied the terrestrial behavior and resulting traces of each of these five groups in order to determine the
ecological and evolutionary basis for terrestrial behavior in bats. Bats were caught at Reserva Ecológica Bijagual de
Sarapiquí in northeastern Costa Rica in summer 2014 and were video recorded walking across calcium carbonate
sand in a custom made Plexiglas® enclosure. Resulting tracks were cast with plaster and transported back to the
University of Kansas for further study. Most bats studied were restricted to what we have termed the breaststrokelike
crawl, an uncoordinated swimlike gait. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) was the only bat to perform a
more typical tetrapod gait, exhibiting both a diagonal sequence gait and a bound. All non-Desmodus phyllostomids
also exhibited a nonambulatory searching behavior not observed in Desmodus. Both manus and pes tracks were
recognizable in casts produced by all bats, although only Desmodus produced consistent trackways. Clustered pes
tracks were common and represent the searching behavior. Results of this research will be combined with
tracemaking studies on other bat families as well as morphological studies to better understand the evolution of
terrestrial ability within Chiroptera.
Joshua Schmerge, Geology
Poster #31
CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY, ZYGOMASSETERIC SYSTEM, AND INTEGUMENTARY STRUCTURES OF THE
MIOCENE BEAVER PARAEUHAPSIS ELLICOTTAE (RODENTIA: PALAEOCASTORINAE: EUHAPSINI)
The cranial structure of the Miocene palaeocastorine beaver, Paraeuhapsis is reassessed and placed in a
phylogenetic context. Paraeuhapsis is unique due, in part, to the reduced size of the infraorbital foramen and
masseteric tubercle which are positioned below the zygomatic arch. This configuration suggests that Paraeuhapsis
possessed a protrogomorphous zygomasseteric system, which is demonstrated to be a secondary acquisition of the
primitive state. The position and shape of these muscles is reconstructed. The nasal bones of Paraeuhapsis are
dramatically thickened compared to other rodents and marked by a long boss along the suture. Micro-CT scanning
reveals a distinct zone of increased porosity surrounding the boss. Comparisons of superficial rugosity in nasal bones
of extant subterranean rodents bearing a furred nose or keratinous nose pad (rhinarium) to that of Paraeuhapsis and
its relatives demonstrates the uniqueness of the nasals of Paraeuhapsis. The most primitive euhapsine, Euhapsis
martini, has wide nasal bones with rugosity similar to that in extant burrowing spalacids, suggesting presence of a
rhinarium. The nasal rugosity of Paraeuhapsis is instead highly similar to extant rhinoceroses, so a keratin fiber horn
may be the most likely integumentary structure supported by the nasals of Paraeuhapsis. This is the only rodent thus
far proposed to possess such a structure, however the mylagaulids, the so-called “horned gophers” of the late
Miocene possessed bony horns situated along the posterior portion of their nasal bones. The possible structure and
function of these unique muscle arrangements and integumentary structures are discussed in regards to burrowing
behavior.
Matthew Medina, Geology
Poster #32
DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBIAL MOCK COMMUNITY FOR METAGENOME ANALYSIS
Metagenomics is an important method used to define the diversity of microorganisms and provide insight into
behaviors and interactions of unculturable microorganisms in natural environments. For example, in deep oligotrophic
subsurface environments, metagenomics reveals diversity and function of bacteria and archaea, prompting
awareness into environmental limits to life and the roles microbes play in those environments. Nevertheless, there
are some imperfections with sequencing DNA, which can cause challenges when analyzing metagenomes. Some of
the challenges with analyzing metagenomes are filtering ubiquitous artifacts, introduced during DNA sequencing, and
controlling for sequencing errors (incorrect base-calls). These challenges can lead to analyzing inaccurate
metagenomes, which can impact the authenticity of research that depend on the analysis of metagenomes. One of
the methods to overcome such challenges is to sequence environmental samples along side a microbial mock
community, to control for error rates and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assignment bias. Thus, the development
of a microbial mock community is important for the Center of Metagenomic Microbial Community Analysis (CMMCA)
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at the University of Kansas to develop and incorporate into our methods. The research poster will display the center’s
approach to developing a microbial mock community, a mixture of microbial DNA that simulates a microbial
community among the diverse research projects involved with the CMMCA. Developing this mock community
involved culturing various bacteria and one archaeon—organisms that are representative to each of the labs linked to
the CMMCA. DNA from each culture was isolated and DNA concentrations were quantified. Determining a strategy
for mixing DNA to simulate a mock relative abundance is in progress. Once developed, the mock community will be
tested to determine the accuracy of OTU assignment from amplicon reads using the Illumina MiSeq platform.
Developing this mock community will impact the analysis and quantification of OTUs investigated within the research
projects of the CMMCA.
Sarah Morton, Geology
Poster #33
CASE STUDY IN THE SANTA SUSANA MOUNTAINS: OBSERVING DISCONTINUITIES USING NON-INVASIVE
SURFACE WAVE METHODS
A case study was performed at a former industrial site in the Santa Susana Mountains in Canoga Park, California in
order to observe discontinuities such as faults and fractures that potentially affect groundwater flow and contaminant
transport within the study area. The active multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) was performed using a
landstreamer and weight drop source along a service road spanning approximately 0.7 miles. The subsurface is
composed of brittle to competent sandstone with intermittent shale beds that make up the Chatsworth Formation.
Collected data were used to construct 2-D shear-wave velocity profiles and for backscatter analyses. Noise tests from
an additional reflection survey along the same road was used as passive MASW to supplement the active data where
low frequency data was absent. The goal of this case study is to observe the presence and orientation faults and
fractures that could not be determined from surface mapping or downhole geophysical logging. As a result, the
combination of active MASW, passive MASW, and backscatter analyses provided velocity information at depths to 30
m. Several discontinuities were observed in the velocity profiles and backscatter analyses. These low velocity
features may provide information regarding the presence and orientation of faults and fractures after further
investigation. Only 51% of the stations were used for characterizing the subsurface before the signal-to-noise ratio
and the risk of artifacts and aliasing in the data became too great for extracting reliable results.
Rachael Boothe, Environmental Assessment
Poster #34
GEOTHERMAL PLANT IMPLEMENTATION - CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUCCESS
Increasing population and depletion of resources has led the world to look towards renewable energy in order to not
only keep up with current productions but improve by allowing for a more sustainable future. One renewable option to
consider is geothermal energy. Geothermal emerges as one of the cleanest and most environmentally benign forms
of energy. The engineering behind geothermal plants are constantly improving and since 2005 these plants have
added an additional 2.38GW of power to the United States alone. That amount of additional power could provide
electricity to around 833,000 homes. Additionally, the U.S. has 175 geothermal projects underway that experts
believe will provide additionally around 2,500MW of power. This renewable energy source coupled with a recent
extension of a federal grant to geothermal plants has created a large insurgent of new plants as well as a drastic
increase in geothermal regulation policy, monitoring, research and development. Because geothermal research is
improving drastically from year to year due to the increase in number of plants, there is a lack of information on
possible externalities and challenges that plants may face. This board will serve as an overview of why geothermal
energy growth is important, relevant concerns and considerations from experts working in the field of analysis today,
and why extra foresight will help achieve success with emphasis on a triple bottom line for federal agencies and
corporations alike.
Nesar Ramachandra, Physics and Astronomy
Poster #35
THE DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE OF THE COSMIC WEB
The large scale distribution of the dark matter in the universe forms a non-linear network structure--the cosmic web-due to the action of gravitational instability. This structure is characterized by the arrangement of galaxies along the
percolating network, and is analyzed using both cosmological surveys and N-body simulations. The features in the
universe are generally classified into voids, walls, filaments and dark matter haloes. We report the results of the first
6-dimensional phase space analysis of the dark matter halo environment in a cosmological N-body simulation. This
study of multi-stream regions reveals interesting hierarchical structure of the web: each halo is embedded in the
filamentary framework of the web at the filament crossings, and each filament is embedded in the wall like fabric at
the wall crossings. We arrive at quantitative thresholds for each of the classifications of the web. Locally, each halo is
a peak in the multi-stream field. Voids are uniquely defined by the local condition requiring to be a single-stream flow
region. The transitions from wall to filament is rather smooth; multi-stream thresholds are approximated for both using
an empirical technique. This analysis also highlights the highly complicated morphological structure of the universe.
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Donald Lee-Brown, Physics and Astronomy
Poster #36
SPECTROSCOPIC ABUNDANCES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 USING ROBOSPECT
Accurate measurements of the relative chemical abundances in stellar atmospheres are important in a variety of
astronomical contexts ranging from stellar and Galactic evolution to Big Bang cosmology. Current and planned multifiber spectrographs on large telescopes allow for the assembly of statistically robust and internally consistent sets of
abundances derived from hundreds to thousands of stellar spectra. However, the classic method of measuring these
spectra by hand is prohibitively time-consuming. In this study, using high-dispersion WIYN/Hydra spectra of 333 stars
in the open cluster NGC 6819, we tested ROBOSPECT, an automated spectral line measurement program. From the
200 main sequence and turnoff members in our sample, we derive a cluster iron abundance of [Fe/H]=-0.02±0.02 dex
from 17 Fe I lines. The associated uncertainty is dominated by external systematics, as our large sample size results
in an internal precision well below 0.01 dex. Abundances of Ca, Si, and Ni are solar within uncertainties. The slightly
subsolar metallicity of the cluster is in good agreement with recent results from intermediate-band Strömgren
photometry. Our results demonstrate ROBOSPECT’s ability to facilitate the analysis of large spectroscopic samples,
and will anchor future, cosmologically-motivated work on the cluster.
Hadi Madanian, Physics and Astronomy
Poster #37
THE ROLE OF TRANSPORT IN THE IONOSPHERE OF TITAN
We are proposing a research study to investigate the ionospheric transport in the upper atmosphere of Titan based
on a time-dependent approach. The physical and chemical processes of the upper atmosphere of Saturn and its
biggest moon Titan are amongst the main areas of investigation for the Cassini mission. Titan is located within the
magnetosphere of Saturn with a chemically dynamic ionosphere. Titan’s ionosphere acts as a conductive transition
layer between the co-rotating magnetospheric plasma flow from Saturn (space environment) and the lower levels of
its atmosphere. Furthermore, Titan’s ionosphere is affected and driven by thermospheric neutral winds as well as
pressure from the magnetosphere of Saturn. Titan has an atmosphere similar to Earth and, as in the case of Earth,
we believe that Titan’s ionosphere is a dynamic environment with plasma motions at high altitudes of the atmosphere.
This research effort is targeted at modelling the Titan’s ionosphere and quantifying the plasma transport contribution
to the dayside and nightside ionospheres. To test our hypotheses we modelled the ionosphere and included transport
mechanisms in the plasma environment. We employed a time dependent approach in our models to monitor the
electron and ion densities in Titan’s ionosphere. We looked at possible outcomes of having a dynamic plasma at
different altitudes and we compared the results with Cassini INMS instrument observations.
Ali Rahmati, Physics and Astronomy
Poster #38
OXYGEN PICKUP IONS AT MARS: MODEL COMPARISONS WITH MAVEN DATA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
OXYGEN ESCAPE
The exosphere of Mars is very extensive and the hot oxygen corona, produced photochemically in the ionosphere,
extends tens of Martian radii from the planet. This exosphere is a source of oxygen ions, picked up by the solar wind
electric and magnetic fields, and accelerated toward Mars. The pickup ion energies depend on solar wind conditions
and during high speed solar winds (> 500 km/s) with large angles between the solar wind bulk flow velocity and the
interplanetary magnetic field (> 50 degrees), oxygen pickup ions can reach energies high enough (> 60 keV) to be
detected by SEP. The SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) instrument is an energetic particle detector on board the
MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft, that arrived at Mars in September 2014. In this study,
the instrumental geometry and response function of SEP are included in a modeling analysis of the effect that
different solar wind conditions and SEP look directions will have on O+ pickup ion energy spectra. We describe a
method that provides constraints on neutral oxygen escape models by linking the SEP energy spectra to the
photochemical source of hot oxygen. Additionally, we present model results for pick-up ion distributions, and their
possible detection by the SEP, STATIC (SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition) and SWIA (Solar Wind Ion
Analyzer) instruments on board MAVEN, during the close passage of Comet Siding Spring to Mars on October 19,
2014. Large ion flux enhancements near Mars originating from the comet’s neutral coma were seen.
Brent Cook, Physics and Astronomy
Poster #39
ZINC OXIDE NANOFLOWERS FABRICATED ON GRAPHENE VIA SOLUTION METHOD FOR OPTOELECTRONIC
APPLICATIONS
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to fabricate graphene, which serves as a growing stage for zinc oxide
nanowires. The growth is achieved through a solution method of mixing deionized (DI) water, zinc nitrate
hexahydrate, and ammonia hydroxide, and then placed into a 90 0C oven. The pH is varied through changing the
amount of ammonia hydroxide of the solution to achieve dense zinc oxide nanostructures. The effects of ammonia on
the morphology were observed and the fabricated device was tested for ultraviolet transmission and used as a
photodiode.
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Garrett Fugate, Architecture
Poster #40
THREE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN CHURCHES IN THE MIDWEST: A STUDY ON THE INTERSECTIONS OF
SACRED SPACE AND LIVED RELIGION
In contemplating contemporary trends in architecture, Karsten Harries critiques how the sacred and aesthetic
functions of buildings have been marginalized. While it is clear that “we still require physical shelter… do we still look
to architecture for spiritual shelter?” (Harris, “Untimely Meditations on the Need for Sacred Architecture,” 2011, p. 53)
As a means to reimagine the role of sacred space today, this study takes Orthodox Christian spaces and practitioners
as participants of a qualitative research within a phenomenological paradigm. How do sacred spaces, spirituality, and
spiritual bodies interact with one another to relate, mediate, and project sacred and aesthetic meanings? If one is to
understand sacred space and spirituality today and the possibilities it has on design for tomorrow, it is important to
understand sacred spaces, communities, and spiritualities that are overlooked in architectural and religious studies.
Orthodox Christian churches and communities are especially appropriate because, unlike mainstream Protestant
denominations in the United States and normative understandings of spirituality (i.e. as an alternative to organized
religion), these Orthodox churches and communities embody ancient traditions in a contemporary American context.
Research focuses on case studies of three Orthodox communities in the American Midwest. Data for this study will
be gathered through both in-depth and semi-structured interviews, document/text analysis, photo analysis, participant
observation, and triangulation of data. The findings may shed light on what sacred space means and what religious or
spiritual persons do in contemporary America, especially as it relates to the material and corporeal embodiment of
religion.
Mohammed Alshayeb, Architecture
Poster #41
PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY PERFORMANCE IN RELATION TO ROOFING CHOICES: INVESTIGATION OF THE
THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN BUILDING ENVELOPES AND PV PANELS
One of the biggest challenges for human kind in the 21st century is tackling the energy problem. Buildings in the U.S.
consumed 41% of primary energy in the country and 7% of total primary energy worldwide. Solar energy is a
promising source of energy that has greater public attention in the last decade. The U.S. has installed close to 900
MW of new PV electricity generation to reach a cumulative PV capacity of 2.5 GW in 2010 and 16.6 GW are under
contract. The rooftop mounted systems accounted for 74% of the installed PV generation capacity in the U.S. Several
studies have been accomplished in the area of building integrated PV; however, there is still a gap in regard to the
thermal interaction between PV panels and building envelopes. PV panels install over building envelope help to cool
the surface by blocking solar irradiation, which also significantly reduce the heat flux and cooling load. The reduction
on the cooling load represents an important factor in the estimation of energy pay-back time (EPBT) of PV system.
Furthermore, there is a thermal interaction between the PV panels and surrounding surfaces. Previous A few works
have verified the interaction between PV panels and building roofs and report that PV install over green roof have
output increase ranging from 0.5 to 8.3% in reference to PV panels over conventional roofing materials. This study
improves on previous literature by quantifying the relationship between roof surface temperatures and PV electrical
output by comparing the performance of PV systems installed over wide varieties of roofing materials through an
experimental and computer simulation studies.
Maryam Ashkan, Architecture
Poster #42
“VERTICAL-TEACHING” IN THE DESIGN STUDIO CULTURE: THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF
TEACHING PROFESSIONALISM IN ARCHITECTURE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
Many universities are now interested in pedagogical changes that will enable them to better respond to the demands
of contemporary society. In consequence, conducting research into teaching practices in higher education has
become a growing field, and most universities have developed a range of strategies to improve teaching in
undergraduate programs. While there exists more expertise in teaching design in our studios today, many faculty
members continue to teach as they were taught, perpetuating an adherence to traditional deductive teaching
methods and features without reflecting on the appropriateness and effectiveness of such methods in bringing about
high-quality student learning (Ballantyne, Bain and Packer 1999, 237). This research focuses on a phenomenology of
teaching based on the constructivist perspective. For the purpose of triangulation, three data collection techniques—
literature review, observation, and interviews—will support a qualitative exploration of the phenomenon of
professional teaching in a design studio culture, with the aim of defining and developing a framework for professional
instruction, to include teaching methods and teaching planning. Findings from the proposed research will provide
insights for both professional and novice instructors, as well as authorities and policy makers, into the characteristics
of teaching in the design studio culture and the notion of staff development in the School of Architecture, Design &
Planning (SADP) at University of Kansas (KU) and beyond.
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Haider Mohamed, Architecture
Poster #43
TITLE: EFFECTIVENESS OF HIGH REFLECTIVE ROOFS IN MINIMIZING ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN IRAQ
Residential buildings in Iraq consume 48% of the country’s total electricity production. As residential air-conditioning
usage increases, so does the demand on the country’s electrical power infrastructure resulting in more frequent
power cuts and rolling blackouts. This paper investigates the effectiveness of applying high reflective roofs to reduce
the cooling loads of Iraqi houses and in turn electricity demand. Previous studies have shown high reflective roofs are
capable of reducing cooling loads by about 45% compared to typical roof finishes for various climates. However,
there are insufficient data for very hot and dry climates like that of Iraq. Findings from this study’s preliminary energy
simulations indicate that high reflective roofs can provide a significant reduction in cooling loads compared to the
typical roof finishes of Iraqi houses therefore potentially reducing the energy demand on the country’s energy
infrastructure.
Sabrina Shafique, Architecture
Poster #44
TOWARD AN OPTIMUM PATTERN OF URBANIZATION: CATHERINE BAUER’S POST-WAR PLANNING AND
PEDAGOGY, 1950-1964
The American planning pioneer Catherine Bauer, who co-authored the 1937 U.S. Housing Act, became an advocate
and mediator for integrating housing and planning research at the global scale during the post-World War II years. As
a consultant to the United Nations and armed with a vision to achieve an Optimum Pattern of Urbanization (1958)
based on local conditions, Bauer organized a series of international conferences to aid individuals and agencies
concerned with shaping public policies to share up-to-date knowledge about urban problems. This facilitated the
worldwide dissemination of design ideas and solutions to design educators. This research, examines the primary
archival documents of Bauer’s post-WWII academic career and professional involvement with the UN and the Ford
Foundation; it also, situates her in the context of the social and political transformations of her times; it further gives a
critical account of her role in the global exchange of ideas and highlights her significant yet lesser-known
contributions to urbanization in the Third World; finally, and most importantly, it aims to re-present Bauer through an
objective lens—in contrast to some earlier gendered perspectives of her contributions. This study not only fills the
long overdue scholarly gap of Bauer’s influence on post-war planning and pedagogy, but also positions her work at
the intersection of two bodies of literature: the history of the Americanization of Third World urbanism and the history
of American planning in a global context; both of these contexts will benefit from this original research.
Dhirgham Alobaydi, Architecture
Poster #45
THE URBAN MORPHOLOGY OF BAGHDAD
The purpose of this study is to identify the morphological differences between different phases of evolution of
Baghdad, Iraq, a typical Middle Eastern city, at different scales including street systems, spatial networks, building
forms, plots, and land use. Baghdad has been selected as a case study not only because it is one of the oldest cities
in the region, but also because it has observed phenomenal growth and change during the last one hundred years or
so. More specifically, this research seeks to address the following question concerning the urban morphology of
Baghdad: How have the urban form and structure of the city evolved over time and across space? Since Baghdad is
a huge city, a detailed morphological study of the whole city lies beyond the scope of this research. Therefore, for the
purposes of the study, Baghdad is divided into historically meaningful segments, called transects. The research will
study both diachronic (over several historical phases) and synchronic (at a particular historical phase) changes in
morphological patterns within several transects. In order to illustrate the research methodology, however, only one
transect is analyzed in this research proposal. The history of the transect selected for this proposal spans over a
period of 1500 years and extends from the inner city, Old Baghdad, to the peripheral areas of the city. This study
uses several historical maps, that were overlaid in GIS using geo-referencing based on important landmarks and
streets that did not change from one historical phase to another. The measuring tools available within the GIS
platform were used to measure street systems, building forms, plots, and land use. In addition, various techniques of
space syntax analysis have been used to describe syntactic properties of the spatial networks at the aforementioned
scales. The study shows significant relationships between different morphological properties within and between
scales, both synchronically and diachronically.
Fred Combs, Architecture
Poster #46
TRAFFIC DATA COLLECTION AND ESTIMATION METHODS FOR THE STATE OF KANSAS
This research applied emerging practices of traffic monitoring to Kansas with the aim of increasing accuracy of traffic
characteristic estimates and to improve the data collection process. Estimating traffic characteristics is a key tool for
the planning and administration of a highway network and there have been considerable effort by academics and
practitioners to develop alternative methods beyond the traditional factor-adjustment approach. Kansas traffic
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monitoring consists of generating adjustment factors for each day of the year and then applying them to similar roads
within the state. Previous research has shown error in traffic volume estimates is often caused during the assignment
of sampled roads to adjustment factors. This research presents a detailed quantitative methodology to evaluate the
potential for alternative methods of traffic volume estimation in Kansas. Two methods were tested to potentially
reduce error while retaining the factor-adjustment approach, first through statistical methods to group roads with
adjustment factors; and second, through incorporating additional data. Using predictive models and neural networks
in lieu of the factor adjustment method were also tested. Traffic volume data recorded from permanent counting
stations between 2000 and 2012 were provided by the Kansas Department of Transportation and used in this work.
The alternative traffic volume estimates were evaluated against the actual volumes for each permanent counting
station. A small-scale pilot study is planned for Franklin County, Kansas, to investigate alternative traffic sampling
strategies and is currently being developed.
Sarah Marten, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
Poster #47
DID NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND CHANGE TEACHERS' CONCEPTIONS OF THEIR WORK?
The accountability movement in education charted a more outcomes-driven, standardized approach to education that
emphasized labor-market outcomes. No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the cornerstone of this movement, used sanctions
to hold schools accountable for federal funding, which in turn pressured teachers to comply with federal expectations.
Critics argue that the movement undermined the discretion and improvisation that traditionally characterizes teachers’
work and fostered an overly technical orientation toward teaching. However, accountability’s impact on the way
teachers internalize professional attitudes and roles has been largely empirically ignored. Drawing on interviews from
teachers in the pre and post- NCLB eras, this study used a qualitative comparative design to address the question:
Did No Child Left Behind change teachers’ conceptions of their work? The author divided teachers’ conceptions of
their work into three dimensions: intuitive, instructional and social. Perrow’s Theory of Work (1967) was used to
demonstrate that NCLB’s impact on the instructional dimension of teachers’ work differed in magnitude and character
from its impact on the other two dimensions.
Ahmed Alanazi, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
Poster #48
INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY TOOLS WITH EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE CULTURAL
AWARENESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Educators are facing significant changes with the increasing diversity of populations in schools and the rapid growth
of technology. Accordingly, by tying technological tools and strategies to diverse classrooms in higher education,
students could experience more advanced cultural understandings, which is essential in order to be more openminded to other cultural contexts. Effective educators need to create collaborative, communicative, and motivational
learning environments in order to effectively promote understanding of cultural differences in educational settings. To
achieve cultural understanding in higher education classrooms, educators can successfully expand cultural
understanding goals by using educational tools and strategies. Instructors can use three types of teaching methods to
promote cultural understanding: asynchronous, synchronous, and geographic. In addition to that, other strategies
could be used to enhance diversity in higher education classrooms. This paper will view online instructional resources
that can be used for cultural understanding and how instructors can dynamically and efficiently use them.
Mohammed Alghamdi, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies
Poster #49
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION EVIDENCE FOR AN INSTRUMENT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF
HUMAN CAPITAL (SMHC) IN K-12 EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.
Toward a better understanding of the Strategic Management of Human Capital (SMHC) in education, this study will
be designed to develop and validate a multidimensional instrument for such construct. Efforts of developing the
content and investigating the construct validity of the instrument will be described. These efforts will include a critical
review of both the theoretical and practices of this construct. A team of subject matter experts will be asked in
developing the instrument. To examine the construct reliability and validity of the instrument, a sample of
superintendents, human resource directors, and principals across the United States will be targeted to respond to this
study. Supporting validity evidence for the instrument will be derived from several resources; including exploratory
factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, principal component, and Cronbach’s alpha. Implications of this
instrument will be addressed.
Johnnie Santos, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #50
WHAT FIRST GRADE TEACHERS REVEAL ABOUT VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION: ALIGNING INSTRUCTION TO
THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
This mixed methods study examined the vocabulary knowledge and instructional practices of four grade 1 teachers in
order to better understand how prepared teachers are to implement the First Grade English Language Arts Common
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Core State Standards (CCSS). Data collected included an audio-taped semi-structured interview, a teacher survey,
video-recorded class vocabulary instruction, researcher field notes, and artifacts of class activities. Findings indicate
that teaching experience is not a factor in the level of vocabulary instruction teachers provide. For example, veteran
teachers in the analysis rely on traditional spelling tests and basal based vocabulary instruction to teach vocabulary,
while the less experienced teachers utilize trade books to guide their instruction. However, veteran teachers provide
vocabulary instruction daily, while less experienced teachers did not. Findings suggest that all teachers would benefit
from professional learning opportunities related to vocabulary instruction and researchers are encouraged to
investigate vocabulary instruction and its alignment to the CCSS with larger sample sizes in other districts and across
all grade levels.
Fahad Alharbi, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #51
ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES (EAP) OR FOR ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES (ESP)
The disciplinary literacy is the ability to read and write to learn subject matter in a given discipline. The disciplinary
literacy approach advocates to specialized knowledge and skills by creating, using knowledge within each of the
disciplines.(Shanahan & Shanahan, 2012) That means school will focus on teaching writing and reading for specific
purposes. In the most cases, students are prepared for general purposes, where students from different fields take
the same language classes, and teachers do not focus on what students need for their discipline areas. For example,
the English composition course might has some students from medical, engineering, education and so on.
Engineering students, for example, will not be prepared how to write lap report, also, students from medical
disciplinary will not be taught how to write health care plan.
Abduljabbar Alshehri, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #52
AN EXPLORATION OF SAUDI STUDENTS’ AVOIDANCE OF PHRASAL VERBS
This paper aims to look at whether students from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia use or actively avoid phrasal verbs.
The sample group comprised of 23 Saudi students studying academic English in the UK. Their levels range from 5.5
to 6 in IELTS. They were given three written tests ‘Translation, Multiple choices and Blanks tests’. The results
indicate that the use of phrasal verbs as a category is avoided and its level of use is lower than that of nativespeakers. Written tests were followed up by semi-structure interviews for eight students who were chosen at random
approximately one week after the completion of the written tests. These interviews acted both to review the tests and
gain insight into their knowledge and use of phrasal verbs. The interviews also function to assess students’ use of
phrasal verbs in spoken language. The overall results of this study add weight to the hypotheses that phrasal verbs
are avoided in both written and oral forms. The reasons or factors behind this are informality of phrasal verbs,
semantic difficulty such as figurativeness of phrasal verbs, lack of basic syntactic knowledge of phrasal verbs, the
way of teaching phrasal verbs and the frequency of phrasal verbs. Finally, two implications were suggested for the
future of phrasal verbs, firstly, teachers should seek to implement cognitive approaches for teaching phrasal verbs,
and secondly, teaching figurative phrasal verbs should be the priority in teaching as literal ones are easily deducible.
Jihyun Song, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #53
TO WHAT EXTENT DO KANSAS PRESERVICE TEACHERS UTILIZE KANSAS ENGLISH LANGUAGE
PROFICIENCY STANDARDS IN CREATING LESSONS?
The purpose of this study is to explore how prepared the Kansas preservice teachers are in planning lessons driven
by Kansas English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards and what challenges they face. In addition, this study will
examine to what extent preservice teachers align Kansas Common Core Standards to Kansas ELP standards in their
thinking, planning, and practice, as well as their preparedness and challenges in aligning those two sets of standards.
The participants of the study are English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) endorsement seekers enrolled in
the School of Education at the University of Kansas. Lesson plan analysis, questionnaires, and structured interviews
were the data gathering techniques. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis procedures, such as descriptive
and inferential statistics and thematic coding, were implemented to investigate the research questions of the study. In
this presentation, preliminary results and findings from partial data analysis will be addressed, and a discussion will
follow. The research findings will provide useful information to teacher educators at the University of Kansas such as
faculty members of the Department of Curriculum and Teaching and ESOL practicum university supervisors as they
examine the effectiveness of their current teacher education curriculum. The findings will also benefit teacher
educators of TESOL-related programs in comparable contexts who have similar goals and concerns.
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Junfu Gao, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #54
LANGUAGE TEACHER IDENTITY AND GROUP WORK OF STUDENTS FROM DIFFERENT NATIONALITIES:
HOW DO TEACHERS' PERCEPTION IMPACT STUDENTS' LEARNING?
The purpose of this research is to help teachers to better understand how their identity impact students’ learning and
cooperation in classrooms, since college teachers are expected to provide “a rich web of meanings and expectations,
precisely during the most active period of meaning and identity construction in people’s lives” (Hirano, 2009, p. 35). In
this paper, I will argue that a full picture of the factors contributing to language teacher identity construction should be
provided and that when we look at teacher identity, it should always be situated in different contexts. The relationship
between teacher identity and students’ group work is revealed. I will present data that exemplifies that different
interpretations of teacher identity will result in students’ different outcome in GW. This study uses four case studies,
which will be conducted in Summer 2016 at the University of Kansas, examines the perceptions of GW from teachers
of different teaching sites. The use of case study is to thoroughly investigate an often used but rarely researched
classroom pedagogical practice – Group Work in the context of a Chinese university adult English as a Foreign
Language Learning (EFL); Chinese teachers teaching Chinese in the East Asian Languages and Cultures
Department at the University of Kansas; American teachers teaching Chinese/Japanese in the East Asian Languages
and Cultures Department at the University of Kansas; and American teachers teaching English to students from
different nationalities at the Applied English Center at the University of Kansas. I am aiming at examine how teachers’
perception influence students’ design, implementation of group work (GW) assignment in four different settings for the
purpose of drawing comparisons.
Sahal Alshammari, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #55
IMPROVING SAUDI STUDENTS INFORMATIVE WRITING THROUGH CUBING TECHNIQUE
The paper is testing a teaching model was developed by Cowan & Cowan (1980) to help advanced English learner to
develop their English writing skill by exposing them to different aspects of writing. The population of the study will be
advanced Saudi English learners. The model will show us to what extent it will improve learners’ narrative writing
ability; and how much the first language of leaners, Arabic, will effect the process of learning. The model is consisting
of six components in which three of them are more concrete: description, comparison, and association and the other
three are more abstract: analysis, application, and argumentative. It is predicted that Saudi students will have high
scores in the first group because of the influence of their L1 and score lower in the second group for their lack of
experience. Deep analysis of first language, Arabic, target language, English, and method of ESL will be conducted
through the paper.
Majed Wadaani, Curriculum and Teaching
Poster #56
TEACHING FOR CREATIVITY AND MATHEMATICAL TALENT DEVELOPMENT: TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES AND
FEATURES OF SUPPORT IN U.S. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
This study further discusses creativity and gifted mathematics education, and synthesizes rational support of a
proposed direction for teaching mathematics; Teaching for Creativity and Mathematical Talent development (TCMT).
It also examined three factors related to teaching for creativity and mathematical talent development: teachers’
attitudes, overall perceived support, and professional training. The major purpose was to contribute to understanding
teachers’ attitudes and enhancing school trends toward nurturing creativity for all students and meeting the needs of
gifted/talented mathematics students utilizing broad conceptions of creativity and talent, and internalizing positive
beliefs about student capability for success. The participants in this study included 93 elementary mathematics
teachers from several states in the United States of America. The findings indicate that teachers hold positive
attitudes toward teaching for creativity and mathematical talent development (M=4.02 (80%), SD=.45). In regard to
the extent of support, responses indicate that teachers are not adequately supported to teach for creativity and
mathematical talent development; the mean of the overall perceived support was 3.04 (61%), SD = .84. The
inferential analysis also revealed that overall perceived support did not contribute a statistically significant proportion
of unique variance in teachers’ attitudes toward teaching for creativity and mathematical talent development (R2
change < .0001, F change observed (1, 87) = .04, p = .85, α = .05). Professional training, however, was found to be
the major variable accounting for a statistically significant proportion of unique variance (10%) in teachers’ attitudes
(R2 change = .1, F change observed (1, 87) = 9.92, p = .002). The implications of such inadequate support and
training for teachers are discussed as detrimental factors on teaching effectiveness and student outcomes.
Accordingly, recommendations for improving school environments and teaching quality are presented.
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Ruby Chan, Special Education
Poster #57
USING SCRIPTED BOOK-SHARING INTERVENTION TO PROMOTE YOUNG CHILDREN’S EARLY
COMPREHENSION SKILLS WITHIN A MULTI-TIERED SYSTEM OF SUPPORT
The development of children’s early comprehension skills during preschool provides a critical foundation for
successful reading comprehension in later school years. Preschool children whose comprehension skills lag behind
the normal expectations during preschool years continue to exhibit poor reading comprehension skills in later school
years (Cain, Oakhill, & Bryant, 2000; Nation, Cocksey, Taylor, & Bishop, 2010). Shared book reading has commonly
been used as an approach to improve children’s language and literacy development (Pentimonti, Justice, & Piasta,
2013). However limited research is available on specific strategies that can be embedded during shared book reading
activities to facilitate children’s story comprehension abilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the
effectiveness of implementing a scripted book-sharing story comprehension intervention for improving preschool
children’s story comprehension skills within a Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS). Six preschool age children
with language delays participated in the study. A combined repeated acquisition and multiple baseline single-case
design was used to examine the effect. Preliminary results demonstrate that when children were introduced to the
intervention, growth was noted in children’s story comprehension skills in both mastery monitoring probes and
progress monitoring measures. This study provides early childhood teachers and practitioners feasible book-sharing
strategies such as asking thoughtful questions that incorporate story grammar elements, delivering prompts to elicit
correct responses, providing corrective feedback, and modeling correct responses.
Majed Alsalem, Special Education
Poster #58
SUPPORTING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS THROUGH THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING IN SAUDI ARABIA
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a powerful model and framework of instructional design that enables students
in general and particularly students with disabilities to access the general education curriculum. UDL is a model that
is designed to provide multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression that should be
embedded in curricula and lessons prior to their implementation. UDL is a common theme in education across the
US, but is just emerging as a conversation in other countries. This presentation will provide the initial perceptions of
K-12 teachers in Saudi Arabia and discusses implications for integration of UDL in day-to-day practice.
Rebecca Achen, Health, Sport and Exercise Sciences
Poster #59
MODELING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FACEBOOK ENGAGEMENT, RELATIONSHIP QUALITY, AND
CONSUMER BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS IN THE NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between National Basketball Association fans’
engagement with their favorite teams’ Facebook pages, relationship quality with their favorite team, and purchase
and referral intentions, using relationship marketing as a framework. A purposeful convenience sample was collected
by purchasing a panel from Qualtrics. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation
modeling. Results indicated that individuals who engaged more on Facebook also had higher relationship quality.
Additionally, a higher level of engagement with teams’ Facebook page had a statistically significant, positive impact
on purchase intentions. The indirect effects of engagement on Facebook on purchase and referral intentions as
mediated by relationship quality were statistically significant and positive, indicating more engaged individuals on
Facebook had higher relationship quality and were more likely to intend to purchase tickets and merchandise in the
future and refer others to do the same. The results from modeling suggest engaging individuals on Facebook has
positive impacts on relationship quality and future behavioral intentions, encouraging sport marketers to create
content strategy that meets the needs and wants of customers leading to increased levels of customer engagement
on Facebook.
Alan Martin, Music Education and Music Therapy
Poster #60
THE EFFECTS OF VARIED CONDUCTOR BACKGROUND COLORS ON THE LTAS, INTONATION, AND
PERCEPTIONS OF AN SATB CHOIR: A PILOT STUDY
This investigation tested the effects of observing a videotaped conductor framed by four different background colors
on the timbre (LTAS), intonation (pitch analyses), and perceptions (questionnaire) of performances by an SATB
chamber choir (N = 17 singers) performing a largely homophonic motet. The conducting stimuli, presented in random
order, employed the same video footage of the conductor to ensure no variation in conductor behaviors among the
sung trials, with the varied background colors inserted post-production via green-screen technology. Results
indicated (a) significant differences in the choir's timbre and (b) intonation variances of greater than 7 cents while
observing the varied background colors. Most participants (60%) perceived no change in conductor behavior during
the presented visual stimuli, while other participants (40%) thought the conductor altered tempo, gestures, or mouth
posture.
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Amelia Rollings, Music Education and Music Therapy
Poster #61
THE EFFECTS OF SINGER HEAD POSITION ON JAW OPENING, ACOUSTICAL, AND PERCEPTUAL
MEASURES OF FEMALE SINGING PERFORMANCES
Some vocal pedagogy textbooks recommend that singers avoid excessively lifting or lowering the chin during
phonation by maintaining a head position level with the ground (e.g., McKinney, 1994). Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) research has shown positive correlations between craniofacial skeleton and cervical spine positioning and
vocal tract structures (e.g., Miller et. al, 2010). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects, if any, of
lowered, neutral, and elevated head positions (determined from postural markers adhered to the Nasion, Tragus, and
a line extended to constitute the Vertical Plane) on jaw opening, acoustical (long term average spectra, formant
frequency) and perceptual (questionnaires) measures acquired from female singers (N = 30) performing the same
song. Results indicated that from lowered to elevated head positions, participants, on average, (a) increased Angle 1
head position measurements (VP-Tr-Na), (b) decreased Angle 2 head position measurements (C7-Tr-VP), (c)
decreased jaw opening, (d) increased mean LTAS energy, (e) raised formants 1, 2, and 3, and (f) lowered formant 4.
Perceptual results revealed that a majority (n = 29, 96.67%) of participants had been informed by a voice teacher that
the positioning of the head, chin, or neck could affect their singing. A majority of participants believed they sang best
in the neutral head position (n = 25, 83.40%), but participants were divided on whether they sang worst in the
elevated head position (n = 16, 53.34%) or the lowered head position (n = 14, 46.60%).
S. Thomas Scott, Music Education and Music Therapy
Poster #62
EFFECT OF RANGE AND NOTE DURATION ON EXTRINSIC LARYNGEAL AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE
EFFORT AND VOICING BEHAVIORS IN BARBERSHOP SINGING
Quantifiable measurements of muscular and phonatory effort are not used in current pedagogical practices of
barbershop singing. This suggests the need for biophysiological studies of muscular and respiratory characteristics of
this style. The present study examines male singers’ (N = 10) extrinsic laryngeal and respiratory muscle activity
during two phrases of a barbershop song. In each trial, the participant sings five times the melody of the final two
phrases of a traditional barbershop song, Sweet and Lovely; the first sung phrase has mid- to high-range frequencies
and the second phrase a single, high-range, held note. Surface electromyography (EMG) sensors attached to the
posterior neck, upper trapezius, suprahyoid, and sternocleidomastoid muscle regions of the neck along with bands
around the chest and abdomen will measure singer biophysiological activity during each of the trials, with emphasis
on the differences between initial and prolonged singing phases. The results of an EMG power analysis are used to
describe male barbershop singer performance practices and inform future research and barbershop singing
pedagogy.
Min Sung Kim, Psychology and Research in Education
Poster #63
THE EFFECTS OF IRT PARAMETER CORRELATION BETWEEN TWO GROUPS ON DIF DETECTION
The fairness of test has been discussed among psychometricians. Differential Item Function (DIF) has been regarded
as one of the method to detect whether or not there is any significantly different response patters among groups. If
so, clear explanation what caused that pattern between is required to achieve the test fairness. The different
response pattern could be caused by a sole mean difference of groups. Otherwise, the items or the test could show
systemically different response pattern between two groups. A lot of DIF methods have been developed under
various assumptions and hypothesizes. In this project, several DIF methods were compared by the degree of item
parameter correlation upon Item Response Theory (IRT) framework. The Mantel-Haenszel χ2, Lord’s χ2, Raju’s Z,
ETS Delta, and Logistic Regression were conducted by using software: DIFAS, BILOG-MG, R and IRT_AREA.exe.
The results of DIF statistics across several DIF methods showed similar patterns in relatively low correlation
coefficient between two groups. However, by increasing the correlation coefficient, the DIF detection agreement rate
(DAR) among methods went down. Also, the DIF statistics with the difference of IRT b parameter showed some clear
patterns in the one-Parameter Logistic (1-PL) model. In the 2-PL model, the patterns between correlation and
agreement rate were not clear as much as 1PL and the DAR also decreased.
Leslie DeLong, Psychology and Research in Education
Poster #64
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MINDFULNESS AND THE TENDENCY TO DISCLOSURE DISTRESS
Self-disclosure is defined as the process of making oneself known to other persons (Jourard & Lasakow, 1958). One
of the most essential aspects of therapy is client disclosure, in which the client tells the therapist some important
aspect of themselves or their reason for seeking help (Farber, Berano, & Capobianco, 2004). It may be argued that
self-disclosure is necessary to provide a focus for the therapy session. However, client disclosure does not always
occur; a study by Kelly (1998) found that over 40% of clients reported keeping a relevant secret from their therapist,
with the most frequent reason for non-disclosure being a fear of expressing their emotions. Without self-disclosure,
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therapists may be unable to assist clients with their presenting concern. Mindfulness may provide the awareness and
non-judgment of emotions to aid in disclosing feelings of distress to others. Mindfulness, rooted in Buddhist
philosophy, is defined as a way of paying attention to the present experience in a purposeful and nonjudgmental way
(Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Mindfulness yields elevated attentional resources, affect tolerance, emotional awareness, and
reduced avoidance (Bishop et al., 2004). The purpose of this study is to explore whether there is a relationship
between these two factors. The study is currently in the process of gathering data from participants regarding their
tendencies to be mindful in everyday life, as well as their tendency to disclose feelings of distress to others. It is
hypothesized that those showing higher trait mindfulness will also show a greater tendency to disclose distress to
others.
Cassi Franklin, Psychology and Research in Education
Poster #65
CREATION AND VALIDATION OF THE TRANSNEGATIVITY MEASURE
The level of prejudice and violence that members of the transgender community face is slowly entering the public
consciousness as evidenced by increased media coverage and social media attention. Attitude change research has
long utilized measures of racism, sexism, homophobia, and many others to investigate the efficacy of interventions
for attitude change. However, well validated tools for measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals are not yet
widely available. The current project developed the Transnegativity Measure (TNM) for assessing attitudes toward
members of the transgender community. Formats from existing homophobia and international transphobia measures
were used to inform item development. The test pool of items was presented to a six person focus group that
provided feedback and recommendations for revisions. The revised item pool was distributed via Qualtrics and
resulted in 91 completed surveys. Item consistency was determined to be acceptable using Cronbach’s alpha (α =
.94). Validity was demonstrated with positive correlations between the newly created scale and an existing measure
of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, as well as negative correlations between the TNM and both a
spirituality/religiosity scale , and measure of social desirability responding. Based upon results from the pilot study we
concluded that further validation with a broader population was necessary and appropriate. Participants for this study
have been recruited from university and broader public samples. The researchers expect the data from the current
sample to provide further evidence that the TNM is a valid measure of attitudes toward transgender individuals.
Qianqian Pan, Psychology and Research in Education
Poster #66
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT SURVEY: A PILOT STUDY
Study abroad has become an overwhelming phenomenon in the world. The number of international students are
increasing vastly in the past a few years. Compared with domestic students, international students have experienced
much more difficulties in adapting to learning in America. International Student Academic Adjustment Survey (ISAAS)
was developed to measure the level of academic adjustment of international students in America and explore the
process and influenced factors of their academic adjustment to the American University. The participants of this pilot
study were 31 international students who were enrolled at 7 different American universities or colleges. ISAAS
assessed two factors: school engagement and school attachment. Results found: (1) the process of academic
adjustment was dynamic and fluctuating, (2) English ability, number of American friends, and length of time abroad
are significantly related with the level of academic adjustment. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scores
produced by ISAAS is presented.
Tracy Schmidt, Psychology and Research in Education
Poster #67
ADAPTATION OF THE MEASURE OF SEXUAL IDENTITY EXPLORATION AND COMMITMENT FOR AN
ADOLESCENT SAMPLE
Increased risk for depression, substance abuse and suicide for the adolescent lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)
community have long been of concern for parents, mental health professionals, and community members alike. The
effects of discrimination, bullying and non-supportive environments have all been studied in efforts to understand and
prevent LGB youth from experiencing these risk factors. However, research on internal contributing factors, such as
internalized homophobia and sexual identity development of adolescents has lagged behind. The current project
adapted the existing Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC) (Worthington, Navarro,
Savoy & Hampton, 2008), created to measure sexual identity development in adults, to be developmentally
appropriate for adolescent respondents. The MoSIEC-A was adapted item by item to use language that incorporated
definitions used in the original measure, gave examples of values, behaviors, and thoughts being asked about, and
used synonyms more typical of adolescent vocabulary. Item revision was done with input from experts in
psychological research and adolescent development. The revised and original measures were distributed via
Qualtrics to a pilot sample of 18-20 year old university students. Participation was limited to students ages 18-20 for
the closest possible sample to the target as a way of assessing the measure’s validity and appropriateness prior to
recruiting an adolescent participants. Researchers expect data from the current sample to provide validation that the
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revised measure has a strong positive correlation with the original measure, a similar factor structure, acceptable
internal consistency, and is appropriate for further validation with the target population.
Zhen Qin, Linguistics
Poster #68
DOES SECOND LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE MODULATE PERCEPTION OF TONES IN A THIRD LANGUAGE?
It’s unclear what roles native language (L1) and second language (L2) play in perception of lexical tones in a third
language (L3). Listeners with different language backgrounds use different fundamental frequency (F0) cues in tone
perception. While English listeners use F0 height, Mandarin listeners rely more on F0 direction. The present study
addresses whether the knowledge of Mandarin, particularly as an L2, will result in speakers reliance on F0 direction
in their perception of L3 (Cantonese) tones. While 15 English-speaking L2 learners of Mandarin constituted the target
group, 15 English monolinguals and 15 native Mandarin speakers, with no background in other tonal languages, were
included as control groups. In the experiment, all groups discriminated Cantonese tones either by distinguishing a
contour tone from a level tone (F0 direction pair) or a level tone from another level tone (F0 height pair). The results
showed that L2 learners patterned differently from both control groups by using F0 direction as well as F0 height
under the influence of L1 and L2 experience. The acoustics of the tones also affected all listeners' discrimination.
When L2 and L3 are similar in terms of the lexical tones, L2 experience modulates the perception of L3 tones.
Trevor Swanson, Social Psychology
Poster #69
SUPPRESSING A MORBID MENTALITY: THE EFFECTS OF AVOIDING EXISTENTIAL CONCERNS ON
COGNITIVE DEPLETION AND RESTORATION
Self-control behaves like a mental muscle: when exercised, this “muscle” becomes temporarily fatigued – a state
termed “ego depletion” – and impairs subsequent efforts at self-control, such as the suppression of unwanted
thoughts. Although ego depletion is often a direct consequence of self-control, positive affect has been shown to
replenish mental energy after it has been expended by thought suppression. However, these replenishing effects may
depend upon which thoughts are being suppressed. Based on terror management theory (TMT), we predict that
certain thoughts – particularly those about death and mortality – can be so unsettling that it takes more than mere
positive affect to restore mental energy after suppressing them. Research on TMT has shown that the awareness of
death creates the potential to experience anxiety, and thus motivates people to engage in efforts that buffer against
this anxiety. The primary means of allaying mortality concerns is through enhancing self-esteem, which is valued as a
source of existential meaning and security, rather than simply a source of positive affect. This theorizing yields two
hypotheses: (1) cognitive impairments induced by death-thought suppression will be alleviated by increases in selfesteem, and (2) not merely by an increase in positive affect or mood. Studies 1 and 2 provide support for the first
hypothesis, showing that students who suppressed thoughts about death performed better on a cognitive measure of
self-control after writing about highly-valued personal traits, but not after writing about traits valued by other students.
Currently, Study 3 is aimed at further testing the second hypothesis.
Charles Sepers, Applied Behavioral Science
Poster #70
EVALUATING A COORDINATED CARE MODEL FEATURING DIABETES SELF-MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
WITHIN FOUR PATIENT-CENTERED MEDICAL HOMES TO REDUCE HEALTH DISPARITY
Minority individuals disproportionately experience the greatest incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
Innovative approaches are needed to reduce health disparities among vulnerable populations with diabetes. This
paper features the evaluation of a multi-site coordinated diabetes treatment model with a multi-level team approach to
diabetes self-management education (DSME) delivery and patient support within Patient Centered Medical Homes
(PCMH). DSME is an essential component of diabetes care with demonstrated impact in improving clinical health
outcomes. The PCMH is an evidence-based approach for delivering accessible care to patients that emphasizes
comprehensive service, coordination and communication among care providers. Coordinated care teams included
primary care physicians, nurse care coordinators, certified diabetes educators, health behavior coaches and diabetes
patient supporters. Culturally competent community health workers and medical assistants provided additional
individualized support. Care teams provided DSME as well as customized and coordinated patient support within a
PCMH setting. This evaluation was part of a larger evaluation effort of the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation’s
Together on Diabetes initiative. A significant decrease was seen in A1C across all four implementation sites; ranging
from 0.4% to 0.9% after 6 months. This was associated with implementation of the efforts of DSME and support.
Significant policy and practice changes were institutionalized at two of the four sites. Use of DSME within the PCMH
model is a promising strategy for reducing clinical markers for diabetes among vulnerable populations. Systems
changes, including policy and practice changes, have the potential to have lasting effects within PCMH practice for
reducing the burden of diabetes.
38
Sarah Walkley, Speech-Language-Hearing
Poster #71
DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT OF LITERACY ACQUISITION IN NON-READING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Introduction: The Dynamic Assessment of Literacy Acquisition (DALA) was developed as an early literacy measure
for preschoolers. The DALA consisted of teaching participants to associate five novel symbols with corresponding
sounds to spell words. A prompting hierarchy was utilized to help students learn the task.This study examines the
relationship between the DALA and other static assessments of literacy skills in preschool through third grade.
Methods: The DALA was administered to 20 children in the spring semester of their prekindergarten year (mean age
5 years, 4 months). The Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge subtests of the Test of Preschool Early
Literacy were also administered in preschool. Children were tracked for five years in a larger longitudinal study.
Performance on the DALA was compared to performance on the Word Identification and Word Attack subtests of the
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test administered in kindergarten and third grade.
Results: Pearson correlations suggest the DALA was highly correlated with letter identification and print knowledge in
preschool. The DALA was moderately correlated with letter identification and word identification in kindergarten. In
third grade, the DALA was moderately correlated with decoding and word identification. Other preschool literacy
measures were more highly correlated with decoding and word identification in third grade.
Discussion: Preliminary results suggest the DALA is highly correlated with early literacy skills; however, other static
measures may be better indicators of later literacy skills. Limitations include a small, homogenous sample. Future
research should be conducted with larger, more diverse samples to evaluate usefulness of the DALA.
Rouzana Komesidou, Speech-Language-Hearing
Poster #72
GROWTH OF EXPRESSIVE SYNTAX IN CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME
Introduction: Children with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) show delays in expressive language (i.e., vocabulary,
morphology, syntax) relative to their mental age matched peers (see Finestack, Richmond, & Abbeduto, 2009). The
few studies that have focused on expressive syntax in FXS (for a review see Price, Roberts, Hennon, Berni,
Anderson, & Sideris, 2008) included only boys and investigated syntactic skills at only one time point. In the present
study, we examined change of syntactic skills over time, including the effects of gender and autism comorbidity.
Method: Our sample consisted of 39 children with FXS, 31 boys and 8 girls, with varying degrees of autism
symptoms. Language samples were combined from naturalistic contexts (e.g., making and eating a snack together,
unstructured play, daily living activity) from 4 time points, and analyzed using the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn;
Scarborough, 1990).
Results: We found a significant linear growth over time. Girls demonstrated better syntactic skills than boys, although,
individual differences exist. Children who exhibited more autism symptoms scored lower on the IPSyn, than children
who exhibited fewer autism symptoms.
Conclusion: Most verbal children with FXS master basic syntactic skills (e.g. noun and verb phrases) over time, but
lag behind in terms of advanced syntactic structures (e.g., formulating questions/negations and complex sentences)
which are necessary for academic success. Thus, these more advanced skills may be appropriate targets for
language interventions. Moreover, the Index of Productive Syntax may be a useful tool for assessing syntax and
monitoring changes in syntax over time
Allison Meder, Speech-Language-Hearing
Poster #73
AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR SCHOOLBASED PERSONNEL
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
professional development for school-based personnel as described in the literature in order to determine trends in
design, implementation, and outcomes. A total of 23 studies that investigated professional learning for school-based
professionals in AAC met inclusion criteria. The 23 studies were coded based on quantitative and qualitative
parameters. The results reveal trends of limited collaboration opportunities, narrow understanding of professional
identity, and marginal impact of targeting skill acquisition in isolation. Recommendations for professional
development, which include incorporating high-quality collaboration opportunities and developing learning
experiences that thoroughly address professional identity, are discussed.
Krista Voelmle, Speech-Language-Hearing
Poster #74
EFFECTIVE WORD LEARNING TREATMENT INTENSITY FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE
IMPAIRMENT
Specific language impairment (SLI), according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication
Disorder, is a language disorder that delays the mastery of language skills in children who have no hearing loss or
other developmental delay. Children with Specific Language Impairment need two to three times as many exposures
to learn words as typically developing children. Currently there is no effective treatment for vocabulary for children
39
with SLI. Interactive book reading is an intervention strategy that adults use when reading to enhance young
children’s language and literacy skills. This intervention involves an adult reading a book to a child and using different
techniques to engage the children in the text. Interactive book reading has yet to be utilized with SLI. This strategy
has known effects on word learning with typically developing children with low vocabulary. The goal of this research is
to identify a promising treatment intensity that would support further investigation. Methods from an ongoing clinical
trial of interactive book reading will illustrate how this treatment approach can be delivered at a high intensity to
children with SLI. By assessing our current data, this poster will describe the most beneficial treatment intensity thus
far. The preliminary results from the ongoing clinical trial indicate that children with SLI need an intensity that is threetimes higher than their same age peers.
Margaret Lloyd, Social Welfare
Poster #75
DECONSTRUCTING THE PATHWAY FROM ALCOHOL USE TO RISKY PARENTING BEHAVIORS: A
STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL ANALYSIS OF MEDIATORS
Over 7 million American children live with a parent dependent on or abusing alcohol. These children are nearly 3
times more likely to experience physical abuse than their peers without substance-abusing parents. Although an
obvious risk factor, not substance-abuse parents maltreat their children. Other factors play a role. Currently, the
pathway from parental alcohol use to child abuse remains poorly understood. This study used ecological systems and
cumulative risk theories to test hypothesized direct and indirect paths from parental alcohol use and poverty to risky
parenting behaviors using structural equation modeling with multiple imputation. Statistical significance was set at p <
.01 probability level. The direct pathway from alcohol to risky parenting was statistically significant (β=.084).
Significant mediating paths included alcohol to depression (β=.087), depression to social isolation (β=.508), social
isolation to parenting stress (β=.198), and parenting stress to risky parenting (β=.457), suggesting that alcohol use is
indirectly associated with risky parenting behaviors. Poverty was not directly associated with risky parenting, but was
significantly associated with depression (β =.288) and social isolation (β=.167), suggesting that low income indirectly
increases risk of child abuse. Poverty and alcohol use were negatively correlated (β=-.060). Results suggest that
alcohol use is directly and indirectly associated with risky parenting. Consistent with the literature, parenting stress
exhibited the largest association with abuse. Poverty also indirectly increased risk of abuse, but was negatively
correlated with alcohol use, suggesting that each factor plays a unique role in predisposing a family with alcohol use
to child maltreatment.
Mindi Moses, Social Welfare
Poster #76
WORK AS A TEAM TO INTERVENE: PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN INVOLVED
IN CHILD WELFARE
Early childhood is a critical period for development. Infants and toddlers are the single largest age group entering
foster care and are at great risk for developmental delay. Early intervention services help to mitigate the negative
effects of abuse and neglect and support young children in their optimal, healthy development. Various states
including nearby local communities are implementing promising practices that demonstrate how to best serve these
vulnerable young children by engaging in collaborative work with child welfare, early intervention, and within family
systems to ensure all children receive supports for a proper start. This research highlights initiatives and programs
that have implemented effective means to collaborate and intervene to promote a positive future for the rising
generation. Within these diverse initiatives and organizations there are underlying common principles and patterns
that will be discussed that may be leading to the success of these strong collaborations and promising intervening
practices.
Ruth Stamper, Sociology
Poster #77
THE RIGHT INGREDIENTS: MAKING SENSE OF WOMEN IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTRE
The gendered division of labor and the structural inequalities women face reinforce traditional gender roles in our
society. These are plainly illustrated in the business of agriculture. Men still make up 86 percent of primary operating
farmers, while women make up only 14 percent. Women, on average, hold half the amount of acreage that male
farmers do, and have much more limited access to capital and agricultural education. One area where women are
making inroads into careers in agriculture is within sustainable farming. The 2012 U.S. Agricultural Census shows
that women are practicing sustainable farming at a higher rate than conventional farming, as well as at a higher rate
than men relative to the farming population. This poster compares conventional and sustainable agriculture in relation
to gender in order to better understand why women are increasingly becoming the face of sustainable food
production. The structural inequalities that women face and the increased workload that sustainable agriculture
entails should logically drive women away from pursuing a sustainable model, but women’s comparatively small
farms and the nature of environmental and community care-work involved in sustainable agriculture seem to place
women in a uniquely suited position to implement sustainable farming practices.
40
Kristine Beaty, Anthropology
Poster #78
MIGRATION AND EXPANSION: MATERNAL MARKERS OF THE GARIFUNA
Mitochondrial DNA has been used to provide a maternal side of history, and to better understand
populations in expansion. The Garifuna provide an example of this use. The Garifuna originated on the island of St.
Vincent following an admixture event between African slaves and native populations. Over a hundred years later,
2,500 Garifuna were forcibly removed from St. Vincent by the British in 1797, and placed on the island of Roátan. As
the population expanded, the Garifuna spread to the coast of Honduras, and later to over 54 villages along the coast
of Central America. Today, some estimates suggests that there are over 100,000 Garifuna living in Central America.
This study compared the mtDNA lineages of participants from Roátan, and three settlements on the Honduran coast:
Cristales, Rio Negro and Santa Fe. MtDNA was examined using sequence and RFLPs data. Two patterns emerged.
First, African lineages make up the majority of lineages found in the Garifuna, but frequencies vary within
communities. For example, the communities of Cristales and Rio Negro are both located in Trujillo, Honduras, but the
frequency of haplogroups L0-L2 are 62% and 80% respectively. Second, haplotypes that are shared between the
Garifuna villages are usually of African origin, belonging to haplogroup L0, L1, L2 and L3, whereas native haplotypes
A and C were not shared between villages. However, when shared, haplotypes are found in only one other
community, consistent with a matrilocal system that divides along maternal lines.
Samer Sarofim, Business
Poster #79
THE EFFECT OF STORE-BRANDED CREDIT CARDS ON CONSUMERS’ PURCHASING BEHAVIORS: MENTAL
ACCOUNTING MATTERS
Contrary to retailers’ main objectives, this research provides evidence that store (vs. regular) card users are less
willing to pay for future purchases, show less total expenditure in shopping bags, are less engaged in impulsive
purchasing, and are less likely to purchase discounted products from the card-issuing store. Mental accounting
suggests that people create budgets for different categories of expenses (Thaler 1985). In this research, we argue
that matching the store-expenses with the store-branded credit card makes the budget salient and reduces
subsequent purchase behavior. Across 3 studies, we find that compared to regular credit cards, store-branded credit
cards decrease various shopping behaviors from the card-issuing store. Study 1 and 3, together, showed that store
cards diminish consumers’ willingness to pay for single products and complete planned-for shopping bag.
Furthermore, study 3 indicated that store cards could hinder consumers’ likelihood to engage in unplanned
purchasing behavior. Results suggest that paying a store statement makes the amounts previously spent in the store
salient, whereas in regular cards these purchases are one among many, hence not very salient. Study 2 simulated a
real shopping experience by using realistic promotions for different products with different perceived prices and
controlled for the individual differences in pain of payment. These studies are indicative of the fact that store credit
cards may reduce purchase behavior and actually do opposite of what they are meant to do.
Jinan Liu, Economics
Poster #80
CAN EXERCISE INCREASE WAGES? EVIDENCE FROM THE NLSY
It is widely acknowledged that frequent exercise has a variety of benefits on human well-being, yet few papers study
the effect of exercise on employment and wages. This paper uses regression analysis to test whether exercise has
an impact on employment and wages or not, employing the data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979
(NLSY79) for the years 1998 and 2000 (N=9,209). I found that frequent exercise has a positive effect on weekly
wages for both men and women but does not have a significant impact on employment. The wage premium of
frequent exercise for women is around 10% and for men is around 14%. The wage premium of regular exercise for
women is 5.1% and for men is 7.7%.
Monique Robinson, Journalism and Mass Communications
Poster #81
A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO ADDRESSING THE GONORRHEA EPIDEMIC IN
WYANDOTTE, COUNTY KANSAS
Wyandotte County, Kansas is disproportionately affected by gonorrhea, a curable sexually transmitted infection. As of
2013, more than 600 cases of gonorrhea per 100,000 people were reported – more than the national rate (421.3 per
100,000), and more than double the state of Kansas’ rate (282.2 per 100,000). Wyandotte County represents 21% of
all gonorrhea cases in the state of Kansas, despite only representing approximately 6% of Kansas population.
Additionally, there is a racial disparity among the cases of gonorrhea in Wyandotte County. Nearly 73% of all
gonorrhea cases were among the black population. The following presentation is an analysis of the gonorrhea
epidemic and the health climate of Wyandotte County, Kansas. This presentation also proposes a community-based
participatory research approach to mobilize an effort that seeks to lower the prevalence of gonorrhea among 15-24
year-olds (a high prevalence group) in Wyandotte County, Kansas. To achieve this goal, this project suggests
interventions (e.g. community meetings, radio advertisement campaigns, mobile clinics) to accomplish three
41
objectives: 1) increasing participant awareness about gonorrhea prevention, transmission, testing, and treatment; 2)
increasing participant use of barrier methods to help prevent the spread of gonorrhea; and 3) increase gonorrhea
testing and treatment.
Timothy Luisi, Journalism and Mass Communications
Poster #82
BOY STORY: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE TOY STORY TRILOGY
Past research has indicated that gender identity is developed by the age of six years old. Females are currently
underrepresented in mainstream Hollywood films, with male characters being represented onscreen at twice the rate
of female characters. This ratio is even higher in g-rated animated films, with 2.75 male characters appearing for
every female character. The Toy Story trilogy is the most popular animated film series in the history of cinema when
accounting for combined critical and commercial success. This study employs a mixed method approach to examine
all named characters voiced by female actors in the Toy Story trilogy (n=17). The researcher sought to answer: 1)
Which gender stereotyped characteristics appeared most often in the trilogy, 2) How these characteristics changed
from the first film to the third film, and 3) how interactions between male and female characters were framed in the
three films. To answer the first two questions, the author used content analysis and coded each scene (n=71) in
which one of these characters appeared onscreen and spoke at least one line of dialog for the presence of
stereotypically masculine and stereotypically feminine behaviors as previously defined by England (2011). To answer
the third research question, the author used a qualitative textual analysis to determine how such interactions were
framed. The author found that the characters became progressively more gender ambiguous and that the nature of
male/female interactions also changed over the course of the trilogy.
Roseann Pluretti, Kristen Grimmer and Jessica Casebier, Journalism and Mass Communications
Poster #83
CONSTRUCTING GENDER IN A POSTFEMINIST SOCIETY: ADOLESCENT GENDER REPRESENTATIONS IN
PRETTY LITTLE LIARS AND GLEE
Adolescent girls are powerless, manipulative, sexual objects, according to television. These are just a few of the
stereotypical and disparaging gender representations of adolescent girls, ages 12-17, in adolescent television
programming. Adolescence is a crucial time of gender identity formation. Adolescent girls may use these
representations as sources of gender information or may model their behavior accordingly. However, mediated
representations often change with cultural shifts. Recently, there has been a shift in perceptions of women, from
feminism to post-feminism. This shift may bring about more empowering representations of adolescent girls in
adolescent television programming. Ranging from two to nine million viewers, teen dramas Pretty Little Liars and
Glee may be two relevant sources of gender identity information for current adolescent girls. This study examines the
prevalent gender representations in Pretty Little Liars and Glee. Through the lens of feminist theory and cultivation
theory, this study investigates how these representations compare to past stereotypical representations and if the
current representations contain postfeminist ideals. Qualitative textual analysis was utilized to capture these
gendered representations. A purposive sample of 12 episodes from Seasons 1 and 2 of both television series were
selected for the analysis. Over 200 scenes were examined for gendered representations through the use of a matrix.
Thematic analysis and axial coding were used to analyze these themes. The researchers found that though
postfeminist ideals were present, stereotypical and over-sexualized representations prevailed.
Amanda Boyle, Theatre
Poster #84
ARCHIVING THE WOUNDS OF THE VIETNAM VETERAN
Vietnam Veteran, David Boyle wrote, “One moment in my life I was a strong healthy person (human being) whose
mind was made up to help another injured human being and I was on my feet pursuing that goal and the next
moment my life changed forever.” The next moment was an explosion that left him wounded and scarred. This paper
will examine how veterans perform in their roles as soldier and veteran and how they carry their war experience by
investigating the extraction and capture of the archives within Vietnam War veterans. The experience of war is unlike
any other life experience; the training, the sacrifice, and the danger is unique to war. How can the experience of war
be captured? Communicated? Transferred? The veterans – theirs minds and their bodies and the wounds they carry
– are a unique form of the archive and the repertoire. This poster will show an exploration of how the archive and the
repertoire communicate the culture of war and, in turn, the culture of humans. I investigate the how the Vietnam
soldier and veteran experience, especially their wounds, can and cannot be captured within the archive. Wounded
Vietnam veterans archive the war in their body and in their medals.
Alexis Catanzarite, English
Poster #85
CONSTRUCTING A “CULTURE OF LIFE”: LEGISLATION, RHETORIC, AND PUBLIC DISCOURSE
The purpose of the study is to establish that 1) concurrently applying content analysis and audience theory is a
legitimate method for analyzing legislation, a frequently overlooked genre in political discourse, 2) demonstrate that
42
the rhetorical, linguistic, and contextual choices employed in legislation can shape public discourse about the issue at
hand, and 3) prove that more focused should be afforded to legislation in the field of rhetorical studies. The focus of
this study concerns itself specifically with Kansas House Bill 2253, or the “No Taxpayer Funds for Abortion Act.” A
close reading of the Democratic and Republican Party’s respective platform statements on reproductive rights in 2012
serves as the basis for the content analysis; key words and themes were identified from each of those statements as
aligning with the Pro-Choice and Pro-Life contexts, which were then applied to H.B. 2253. The legislation defines how
the public should consider and discuss the issue of abortion, which is framed as an undesirable and amoral act with
the multiple stipulations and mandates found in the legislation. Given the textual cues and the context within which
such politically charge language like “unborn child” is used, the legislation is clearly invoking a conservative audience
even though it is a addressing a general and diverse audience of women. Following this content analysis, the
comments section of a Huffington Post article on the bill was examined in order to determine whether the Pro-Life
words and phrases found within H.B. 2253 were echoed there – they were.
Saoussen Cheddadi, American Studies
Poster #86
PERCEIVING THE U.S. THROUGH POPULAR CULTURE: A TRANSNATIONAL CULTURAL APPROACH, THE
CASE OF ALGERIA
My research analyzes the effects of globalization of, both production and consumption, in shaping perceptions of a
propagated American culture in other countries where U.S. goods, services, and popular culture increasingly
proliferate. Contemporary scholars argue that the idea of Americanization is highly associated with Globalization, and
when US companies dominate the global markets they exercise what is called “soft power”. US cultural presence in
the world is expressed chiefly through selling US products, movies, songs, series…etc that symbolize US lifestyle,
culture and values. Americanization refers thus to the extent to which American culture, values, and lifestyle are
exported through American material goods and popular artifacts carrying cultural content. For the purpose of this
research, I administered an online questionnaire to 130 Algerian citizens in order to study their views of the US in
relation to their consumption of US products as well as their exposure to US movies, series, shows…etc. I examine
the tangible aspects (degree of adopting mainly US goods and services) vs. the intangible aspects (English language
acquisitions, western lifestyle, growing individualism…) of Americanization in Algeria. I supplement my research with
recent findings in relation to the globalization of former French colonies in North Africa to draw conclusions with
regards to Americanization, soft power, and the Algerian society.
43
Index
Achen, Rebecca .................34
Alanazi, Ahmed ..................31
Alenazi, Mohammed ...........15
Alfadeel, Mohammad ...........8
Alghamdi, Mohammed .......31
Alharbi, Fahad ....................32
Al-Naqshabandi, Mohammed
.........................................20
Alsalem, Majed ...................34
Alshammari, Sahal .............33
Alshayeb, Mohammed .......29
Alshehri, Abduljabbar ........32
Alshehri, Yahya ....................8
Ashkan, Maryam .................29
Baldwin, Matthew ...............11
Beaty, Kristine ....................40
Beneke, Maggie ....................7
Bharj, Natasha ....................12
Boothe, Rachael .................27
Borrell, Jordan ....................16
Boyle, Amanda ...................41
Campbell, Lindsay ...............3
Carlson, Emily ....................21
Carter, Jacob ........................2
Casebier, Jessica ...............41
Catanzarite, Alexis .............41
Chakraborty, Aishik ...........17
Chan, Ruby .........................34
Cheddadi, Saoussen ..........42
Cheng, Yufei .......................15
Colyott, Kaila ........................1
Combs, Fred .......................30
Compton, Benjamin .............4
Cook, Brent .........................28
Darban, Behnaz ....................9
DeLong, Leslie ....................35
Eisenstadt, Michael ..............4
Esterline, Kate ....................13
Falah, Abdulrazzag ..............8
Fortier, Marie-Odile P. ..........3
Franklin, Cassi ....................36
Freyermuth, Jessie ..............5
Fugate, Garrett ...................29
Gao, Junfu ..........................33
Ghazvini, Saba ....................17
Glick, Dorothy ...................... 6
Gomez Delgado, Adolfo .... 25
Grimmer, Kristen ............... 41
Mullinger, Lisa ...................... 5
Murphy, Max ....................... 16
Mustapha, Adijat ................ 13
Hakim, Nader ...................... 12
Harpel, Desiree .................... 1
Harrison, Kelly ................... 23
Hartwell, Brittany ............... 22
Henderson, Aleah .............. 24
Hernandez-Aquino, Dianarys
........................................ 23
Hinshaw, Kara .................... 24
Hirt, Ashley........................... 6
Hodel, Christina ................. 13
Houk, Amanda ................... 20
Humayed, Abdulmalik ....... 18
Nguyen, Truc Anh .............. 18
Northrup, Laura .................. 21
Jones, Matthew .................. 26
Kalyanaraman, Nishkriya .. 20
Kaur, Kawaljit ..................... 23
Kim, Bella ........................... 19
Kim, Min Sung .................... 35
Knackstedt, Kimberly .......... 7
Komesidou, Rouzana ........ 38
LaBrie, Scott ...................... 23
Lee, Brent ........................... 21
Lee-Brown, Donald ............ 28
Liu, Changhong (John) ..... 20
Liu, Jinan ............................ 40
Liu, Weibo .......................... 25
Lloyd, Margaret .................. 39
Lobby, Samuel ................... 25
Luisi, Timothy .................... 41
Madanian, Hadi .................. 28
Maleki, Cyrus ..................... 20
Marten, Sarah ..................... 31
Martin, Alan ........................ 34
McDaniel, Jay ..................... 18
Meder, Allison .................... 38
Medina, Matthew ................ 26
Miller, Christy ....................... 6
Min, Kyungjin ..................... 24
Modarresi, Amir ................. 18
Mohamed, Haider ............... 30
Mongue, Andrew .................. 1
Monnahan, Patrick ............. 25
Morton, Sarah .................... 27
Moses, Mindi ...................... 39
Mucci, Nicolas Joseph ...... 17
Pan, Qianqian ..................... 36
Perea, Rodrigo ................... 22
Pluretti, Roseann ............... 41
Qin, Zhen ............................ 37
Rahmati, Ali ........................ 28
Rai, Saatvika ......................... 2
Ramachandra, Nesar ......... 27
Rice, Mary ............................. 9
Robinson, Monique ............ 40
Rodriguez Manyari, E. Kelly
........................................ 16
Rollings, Amelia ................. 35
Sallinger, Elizabeth .............. 5
Santos, Johnnie ................. 31
Sarofim, Samer................... 40
Schmerge, Joshua ............. 26
Schmidt, Tracy ................... 36
Scott, S. Thomas ................ 35
Sepers, Charles .................. 37
Shafique, Sabrina............... 30
Shigo, Cynthia ...................... 9
Siuty, Molly ........................... 7
Smith, Nathan ..................... 19
Song, Jihyun ...................... 32
Stamper, Ruth .................... 39
Stops, Marvin ..................... 22
Swanson, Trevor ................ 37
Tameemi, Waleed ............... 19
Van Berkel, Laura............... 11
Vellinga, Haley...................... 4
Voelmle, Krista ................... 38
Wadaani, Majed .................. 33
Walker, Michael .................... 3
Walkley, Sarah.................... 38
Walsey, Victoria ................... 2
White, Mark ......................... 11
Zhang, Dongsheng ............ 15
Zhao, Xian ........................... 12
`