“Insight into Public Opinion” The National Democratic Institute in Kosovo

The National
Democratic Institute in
Kosovo
“Insight into Public Opinion”
ANNUAL QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT
JANUARY/ FEBRUARY 2007
This qualitative research report is a follow up
to similar national focus groups conducted
with Albanian Kosovars in September 2004
& December 2005.
A copy of those reports can be obtained by
contacting our offices in Pristina at
[email protected]
DISCLAIMER
The views contained herein are those collected from 118
randomly selected participants in 12 separate qualitative
focus groups conducted in January/February 2007.
The views expressed are those of the participants and
represented here after careful analysis by an impartial
expert facilitator as faithfully as possible. The information
contained herein is the best attempt by NDI to distill the
findings without altering their meaning.
The identities of the individual participants will not be
disclosed either by NDI or the contractor who provided
recruitment services.
Recordings of the groups, after such time as reports are
finalized, will be destroyed.
The views contained herein are not those of the National
Democratic Institute (NDI) or the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID).
Group Accuracy
• Qualitative Research has limitations
– it is not polling and therefore not statistically
replicable
• Why do we have faith in these results ?
– concordant with two previous flights of
research
– consistency of opinion amongst like groups
– adherence to standard focus group
methodology
Observers
• Observers were invited from all major political parties
– attendees: LDK, PDK, AAK, SLS
• Observers monitored by closed circuit television in an
adjoining room
• Observers met with moderators before and after each
group and could suggest questions for the moderator to
raise
• Used as a measure to build confidence and ensure no bias
is or appears to be present
NDI Programming
• These groups are used by NDI as a teaching/training
exercise for party activists
• Observers will attend a training on focus group
methodology
• A briefing will be held with moderator and observers to
discuss findings in detail
• Parties get the benefit of and are welcome to use what they
have learned from the research
• All parties and our NDI training graduates will receive a
briefing on the results of the research program
Methodology
• Simultaneous translation
– challenges to any groups conducted in a second
language
– use of two moderators
• Standard focus group methodology
• January 29th – February 3rd, 2007
• Split by ethnicity, gender and age
Groups
29.01.07
30.01.07
31.01.07
01.02.07
02.02.07
03.02.07
10:00
–
12:00
Prishtina
Men
20-45
Prishtina
Women
20-45
Zubin
Potok
Men
20-65
Gracanica
Men
20-65
Klina
Men
20-45
Klina
Women
20—45
14:00
–
16:00
Prishtina
Men
46-65
Prishtina
Women
46-65
Zubin
Potok
Women
20-65
Gracinica
Women
20-65
Klina
Men
46-65
Klina
Women
46-65
•NDI Offices in Pristina
•Community Radio Station, Zubin Potok
•Culture Centre, Gracanica
•Independent Women’s Centre, Klina
Participants
• 118 Kosovars
• Randomly selected
• Screened
– political party, media and senior government
representatives,
– working for Int’l community i.e. UNMIK, OSCE
– those who had participated in a research project in the
past year
• Remuneration of 10 euro
• Assured of the protection of their identity
Participants by Ethnicity
80
78
70
60
50
42
39
36
40
30
19
20
10
0
Albanian
Serbian
Total
Men
Women
20
Participants by Employment
70
65
60
50
53
42
40
33
30
23
20
20
10
0
Employed
Unemployed
Total
Men
Women
Participants by Age
5
5
61 - 65
2 3
56 - 60
5
6
51 - 55
9
9
6
46 - 50
9
6
3
36 - 40
2
31 - 35
5
3
26 - 30
15
7
2
41 - 45
15
9
7
7
10
10
20 - 25
0
5
10
Total
14
24
15
Men
Women
20
25
Trend Over Time
In September of 2004, it was all about Final
Status;
In December of 2005, it was still all about
Final Status;
In January/February 2007 it’s about
what status means and what comes
next.
So what’s changed?
• The public mood has worsened
– amongst Albanians, a feeling that the State has
become corrupted
– amongst Serbs a feeling of being abandoned
• Participants feel abandoned or ignored by
their political leadership on all issues
OTHER than status
Status*
• Amongst Albanian participants
– status is the obstacle to all progress
– status is a result of a multi-year struggle (since ’89/’91)
– status is not the solution to all problems, but a lack of status
prevents solution of problems
• Amongst Serb participants
– status is likely (more in Gracanica than Zubin Potok)
– status will be a temporary condition recognized by the
International Community
– Kosovo is Serbia
– status will provoke an exodus (security and services the trigger)
*Not necessarily term used by participants
The Status Process
• ‘Ahtisaari is a fair man but is controlled by US’
• The negotiations had little meaning but both sides represented their
nations adequately
• After the report, there is little understanding of what comes next in
the process
• Amongst Albanian participants, the negotiations yielded the
‘Decentralization’ plan
– not decentralization, just ethnic enclaves
– there should not be ethnic solutions
– the plan will not really be implemented
• Amongst Serb participants a belief their leaders will never agree
• Russia is in opposition to Kosovar independence
– little understanding of ‘veto’
Life Today
• Opportunity decreasing
• Benefit reserved for those with families in
power/in office/owners of businesses
• Prices increase as the situation stagnates or gets
worse
– ‘more things to buy, less money to buy them with’
• Electricity an issue for Serbs in central Kosovo,
mentioned less by Albanians this year than last
Public Education
• It depends on the teacher and the school principal
– amongst Albanian participants it was thought some
teachers are not qualified
– smaller the community the lower the quality
• Facilities are not great, but the education is of
similar quality to the one obtained when they
were children
• Prishtina has an overcrowding problem
• Need better equipment
– laboratory and practical equipment
• Little or no corruption
Post Secondary Education
• Amongst Albanian participants access to education or
employment, after completion of public schooling, not
considered realistic
– Prishtina residents focus on the few spots at university of Prishtina
– rural see university as too expensive an option (300 Euro a month
to send kids to Prishtina)
– private universities lower quality
• ‘you need to add one more person working to pay for a student’
• Amongst Serb participants
– inferior facilities are all that is available locally
– little opportunity within the community for future job outside of
public sector
– Belgrade a strong magnet but too expensive
– travel to other schools expensive & dangerous
• Corruption involving exams
The Economy
• Wages have stagnated in the past two years
• Amongst Serbs, a belief business relationships
are/would be first reconnect with Albanian
communities
• The key is employment
– the factories must re-open
– government is responsible to re-open enterprises to
create jobs
• Amongst Serb participants
– those with land in Serbia, resources etc have
already left
Jobs & Employment
• Hope that the situation will change post status
– foreign investment, privatization and more stability
• Little protection for women
– harassment in the private sector, pregnancy
– less opportunity
• Private sector jobs
– have more personal risk (no insurance)
– little protection for workers
– large pool of available workers means anyone can be
replaced by someone willing to take more risk/lower
pay
Prices
• Prices are increasing
– due to the euro
– ‘we pay Western prices and have Eastern salaries’
– food and electricity
• dairy and meat
• bread
• Competition lowers prices
– proof is in Prishtina
• No reservations about buying the cheapest good or the highest quality
good
– ethnicity or origin does not matter
• Amongst Serb participants, the use of Euro has no political
connotation
– Dinar remains official Serb currency
Healthcare
• Amongst Albanian participants
•
•
•
•
the system is failing
the entire system is corrupted
‘if you get sick you must have money’
‘doctors have abandoned their Hippocratic oath’
– public clinics only provide minimal services
• doctors refer you to private clinics that are user pay, offering the same
treatment they denied in the public system
– medicine and supplies are bought by the government and stolen or
allowed to expire
– sympathy for Doctors’ salaries has ended
• Amongst Serb participants
– the system is working but you must undertake dangerous travel to
Mitrovica or Serbia for serious treatment
– health insurance is expensive (20 euro per month) but works
Privatization
• Privatization was:
– in the eyes of Serbs, act of theft
– in the eyes of Albanians, an act of incompetence leading
to theft
– both agree it could and should have been used to create
jobs as opposed to wealth
• The process has not been transparent
• Value has not been received for the assets
• The value of the assets is their ability to employ
people
Security
• The KPS is seen as:
– poorly/newly trained
– capable of responding quickly and taking reports of
crime, but not following up with any investigation or
outcome
– having both Serb and Albanian members
• Amongst Serb participants, their personal security
is a constant worry
– economic crime widespread in their communities
• KPS or other agencies cannot tackle large scale
corruption in business or government
The Government
• Public sector best place to work
– pays well
– treat workers well
– too many perks
• Surprising faith in public institutions
– despite unhappiness with government services
– solution to problems still lies with a better
managed and more accountable government
Serb Concerns, General
•
•
•
•
•
Not represented or consulted
Safety of transit
License plates
Security of livestock
Most could cite an Albanian friend
– ‘we lived together before, could again’
– poverty was deciding factor in staying in community
• The International Community wants to paint all Serbs as
perpetrators of Genocide
– only wars of liberation or defense were fought
The Big Differences …
Albanians
• Feel safe
• Feel their health care
and university
education have
become corrupted
• Feel their leaders are
good
Serbs
• Feel threatened
• Are happy with their
public services
• Feel used by their
leaders (more in
North)
Shared Views
•
•
•
•
Albanians
Political parties are all about
self interest
The Status of Kosovo needs to
be resolved urgently
There is not enough
opportunity for young people to
find work
Public sector jobs are better due
to protection and benefits
•
•
•
•
Serbs
Parties (with the exception of
the SRS) have become
corrupted
There must finally be a decision
on Kosovo so people can move
on with their lives
There is not enough
opportunity for young people to
find work
Public sector jobs are better due
to protection and benefits
Leaders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What We Want
Courageous
Educated/qualified
Not corrupted
Sincere/honest
Intelligent
Determined
Wealthy (Albanian
groups)
•
•
•
•
•
•
What We Have
Average
Not sincere
Patriotic
Corrupted
Personal interests
Not educated
Issues
• Albanian participants could easily define the term
‘open lists’
– more democratic
– better to choose from individuals than parties
– means to fight corruption
• Albanian opinion of
JO NEGOCIATA VETEVENDOSJE
– too radical, should stay peaceful
– support idea/right, but would not attend unless things
get worse
Danger Areas
• There is little understanding of what follows
Ahtisaari’s report
• Decentralization is understood to be solely an
ethnic rights package
– Albanians are opposed
– do not believe will have to be implemented
• Serbs feel there will be crisis in their communities
– if the security situation worsens
– their state services are interrupted
Blind Spots
• Economics
– private vs. public sector
– free market literacy
• Reconciliation
• The Status Process
– what are milestones ?
– what are markers of success or failure ?
What we learned
Albanians
• Status
– what comes next in the
process
• Health care priority
• Job creation
Serbs
• Status
– what comes next in the
process
• Personal security
• Continuation of state
services
Support Team
• Moderators
– Chad Rogers, Country Director, NDI Kosovo
– Arta Zherka, Senior Program Manager, NDI Kosovo
• Support
–
–
–
–
–
–
Premtim Plakolli, Program Officer
Valon Kurhasani, Program Officer
Srdjan Djeric, Intern
Pranvera Lipovica, Program Assistant for Logistics
Shkelzen Domi, Assistant Director of Operations
Kushtrim Shehu, Director of Operations
• External
– Research Company “UBO Consulting”
The National Democratic
Institute in Kosovo is
supported in large part by
the United States Agency
for International
Development (USAID).
Copyright © National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI)
2007. All rights reserved. Portions of this work may be reproduced and/or
translated for noncommercial purposes provided NDI is acknowledged as
the source of the material and is sent copies of any translation.
For more information about NDI or to consult
“Access Democracy”, our online library of training
materials, please consult our webpage.
www.ndi.org
The National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Str. Andreja Gropa no.1
10000 Prishtina, Kosovo
+381 (0) 38 220 765 tel/fax
NDI has worked in Kosovo since 1999 to develop democratic institutions and transparent government bodies that
are responsive to citizens. NDI Kosovo programs include legislative strengthening; political party development
and civic participation. The programs of the National Democratic Institute in Kosovo are funded in large part by
the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is a nonprofit organization working to strengthen
and expand democracy worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides practical
assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. NDI works with
democrats in every region of the world to build political and civic organizations, safeguard elections, and to
promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government.
For more information on NDI please consult our website at www.ndi.org.
Copyright © National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) 2007. All rights reserved. Portions of this
work may be reproduced and/or translated for noncommercial purposes provided NDI is acknowledged as the
source of the material and is sent copies of any translation.
THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE IN KOSOVO: “INSIGHT INTO PUBLIC OPINION”
ANNUAL QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT
JANUARY/ FEBRUARY 2007
ATTACHMENTS
1. The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
2. Disclaimer
3. Introduction & Methodology
4. Recruiting Profile (provided to UBO Consulting)
5. Moderator’s Guide
6. Table: Leadership Descriptions (by group)
7. Table: Participant Age
8. Table: Participant by Employment Status
9. Political Parties (as identified by participants)
10. Political Leaders (as shown to participants)
11. December 2005 NDI Research Presentation
12. September 2004 NDI Research Presentation
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 2 of 31
NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is a nonprofit organization working to strengthen and expand
democracy worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides practical assistance to civic and political
leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. NDI works with democrats in every region of the world to build
political and civic organizations, safeguard elections, and promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government.
Board of Directors
Chairman
Madeleine K. Albright
Vice Chair
Rachelle Horowitz
Marc B. Nathanson
Secretary
Kenneth F. Melley
Treasurer
Eugene Eidenberg
Democracy depends on legislatures that represent citizens and oversee the executive, independent judiciaries that safeguard the
rule of law, political parties that are open and accountable, and elections in which voters freely choose their representatives in
government. Acting as a catalyst for democratic development, NDI bolsters the institutions and processes that allow democracy to
flourish.
Build Political and Civic Organizations: NDI helps build the stable, broad-based and well-organized institutions that form the
foundation of a strong civic culture. Democracy depends on these mediating institutions—the voice of an informed citizenry, which
link citizens to their government and to one another by providing avenues for participation in public policy.
Safeguard Elections: NDI promotes open and democratic elections. Political parties and governments have asked NDI to study
electoral codes and to recommend improvements. The Institute also provides technical assistance for political parties and civic
groups to conduct voter education campaigns and to organize election monitoring programs. NDI is a world leader in election
monitoring, having organized international delegations to monitor elections in dozens of countries, helping to ensure that polling
results reflect the will of the people.
Promote Openness and Accountability: NDI responds to requests from leaders of government, parliament, political parties and
civic groups seeking advice on matters from legislative procedures to constituent service to the balance of civil-military relations in a
democracy. NDI works to build legislatures and local governments that are professional, accountable, open and responsive to their
citizens.
International cooperation is key to promoting democracy effectively and efficiently. It also conveys a deeper message to new and
emerging democracies that while autocracies are inherently isolated and fearful of the outside world, democracies can count on
international allies and an active support system. Headquartered in Washington D.C., with field offices in every region of the world,
NDI complements the skills of its staff by enlisting volunteer experts from around the world, many of whom are veterans of
democratic struggles in their own countries and share valuable perspectives on democratic development.
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 3 of 31
President
Kenneth D. Wollack
Bernard W. Aronson
J. Brian Atwood
Harriet C. Babbitt
Elizabeth Frawley Bagley
Erskine Bowles
Joan Baggett Calambokidis
Thomas A. Daschle
Barbara J. Easterling
Geraldine A. Ferraro
Sam Gejdenson
Patrick J. Griffin
Shirley Robinson Hall
Harold Hongju Koh
Peter Kovler
Nat LaCour
Robert G. Liberatore
Judith A. McHale
Constance Milstein
Molly Raiser
Nicholas A. Rey
Susan E. Rice
Nancy H. Rubin
Elaine K. Shocas
Michael R. Steed
Maurice Tempelsman
Arturo Valenzuela
Mark R. Warner
Chairmen Emeriti
Paul G. Kirk, Jr.
Walter F. Mondale
Charles T. Manatt
Senior Advisory Committee
William V. Alexander
Michael D. Barnes
John Brademas
Bill Bradley
Emanuel Cleaver, II
Mario M. Cuomo
Patricia M. Derian
Christopher J. Dodd
Michael S. Dukakis
Thomas F. Eagleton
Martin Frost
Richard N. Gardner
Richard A. Gephardt
John T. Joyce
Peter G. Kelly
Paul G. Kirk, Jr.
Elliott F. Kulick
John Lewis
Donald F. McHenry
Abner J. Mikva
Charles S. Robb
Stephen J. Solarz
Theodore C. Sorensen
Esteban E. Torres
Anne Wexler
Andrew J. Young
DISCLAIMER
The views contained herein are those collected from 118 randomly selected participants in 12 separate qualitative focus groups
conducted in January/February 2007.
The views expressed are those of the participants and represented here after careful analysis by an impartial expert facilitator as
faithfully as possible. The information contained herein is the best attempt by NDI to distill the findings without altering their
meaning.
The identities of the individual participants will not be disclosed either by NDI or the contractor who provided recruitment services.
Recordings of the groups, after such time as reports are finalized, will be destroyed.
Qualitative Research has limitations; as it is not quantitative research it is not statistical replicable.
We have faith in these results as they build on our September 2004 and December 2005 studies, there is a high level of
concordance on some issues and the responses were consistent in like groups.
Additionally, NDI asked representative of parties to participate as observers in adjacent facilities to ensure no partisan bias was
present or detectable in any group on the part of the moderators or participants.
The views contained herein are not those of the National Democratic Institute or the United States Agency for International
Development.
This publication was made possible with the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID).
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 4 of 31
INTRODUCTION & METHODOLOGY
Introduction
NDI Kosovo has undertaken an annual survey of public opinion through a regimen of qualitative research for the past three years.
In 2004 and 2005 our focus was on Kosovar Albanian communities, looking at general mood, political opinion and attitudes toward
government and institutions. Copies of this research are available in English and Albanian upon request.
118 participants from a number of communities, representing both Albanians and Serbs, were invited to participate in facilitated 90
minute discussions.
The 2007 research reached out to Albanian and Serb communities assessing their views and opinions on a number of topics,
including but not limited to:
- asking participants to assess the quality of life within their homes and families focusing on elements that had gotten better,
worse or stayed the same
Methodology
Groups were conducted according to standard qualitative research focus group methodology. Moderators used simple questions as
well as visual aids and paper surveys to collect data and guide discussion. A moderators guide was prepared in advance and
employed in all groups (see Appendix II).
Groups were conducted in the language of participants, and English via simultaneous and consecutive interpretation conducted by
someone present in the room.
UBO Consulting was contracted to provide the logistical support to groups held outside of Prishtina, namely the selection of a
neutral facility, as well as recruit all participants.
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 5 of 31
Group participants were recruited anonymously according to criteria set out by NDI, namely eliminating any participants working
directly for a media outlet, a national political party, or at the senior management levels of a government institution (see Appendix
I).
Participants who had participated in a public opinion poll or focus group in the previous calendar year were screened out.
Groups were assembled according to ethnicity/language, separated by gender and in the case of the Albanian groups by age.
Participants were offered remuneration of 10 euro per person in exchange for their participation in accordance with normal
qualitative research practices and market norms.
In previous years NDI has had significant recruiting problems with women in rural areas, due to concerns about propriety and an
unwillingness to travel without spouses or a male representative from the family. Additionally, research projects often encounter
challenges with participants from Serb areas, citing concern about safety or how speaking openly might affect them in their
communities. In this research we have encountered neither of these issues and thank UBO Consulting, Research Company, for
their professionalism and assistance.
Group 1:
10:00 –
12:00
Jan 29th,
2007
Prishtina,
Men aged
25-45 (11)
Group 2:
14:00 – 16:
00
Prishtina,
Men aged
45-65 (11)
Jan 30th,
2007
Prishtina,
Women
aged 25-45
(10)
Prishtina,
Women
aged 45-65
(8)
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 6 of 31
Jan 31st,
2007
Zubin Potok,
Men (8)
Zubin Potok,
Women (10)
Feb 1st,
2007
Gracanica,
Men (12)
Feb 2nd,
2007
Klina, Men
aged 25-45
(10)
Feb 3rd,
2007
Klina,
Women
aged 25-45
(10)
Gracanica,
Klina, Men
Klina,
Women (10) aged 45-65
Women
(10)
aged 45-65
(8)
Green: Albanian, Red: Serbian
The groups, while homogenous in gender and in the case of Albanian groups’ age, were heterogeneous in background. A
distribution of those employed and those unemployed was sought, and amongst those employed a balance between those
engaged in both the private and public sector (see Appendices ‘VIII’ & ‘IX’).
Observers
The groups were used as a teaching training exercise by NDI Kosovo in that participants each registered party with whom we work
were invited to view groups in an adjacent room via closed circuit television. The viewing groups were not introduced or revealed to
participants.
Representatives from the Democratic League of Kosova (LDK) the Democratic Party of Kosova (PDK), the Alliance for the Future
of Kosova (AAK) and the Serbian Liberal Party (SLS) chose to attend a number of groups. All groups had at least two observers
from different political parties.
The presence of these observers is also used as a confidence building measure in the objectivity of the research and to
demonstrate to our party partners that no bias was present in the research collection.
NDI will work with the party representatives who attended in future to conduct a discussion on findings, as well as a discussion on
how the information can be presented to their parties and finally how qualitative research could be deployed within the parties
themselves.
This report of findings will be shared with donors, international actors ad well as political parties.
Support Team
Chad Rogers, NDI Kosovo Country Director served as primary moderator for the groups, conducting his work in English with
interpreter support. Rogers has extensive experience in quantitative and qualitative research in his work with governments and
political parties.
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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Arta Zherka, NDI Kosovo Senior Program Manager for Political Parties served as co-moderator. Zherka served as coordinator of
NDI’s previous qualitative research projects and has experience in qualitative research with civil society groups and international
organizations.
Additional NDI team members involved in the project included:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Premtim Plakolli, Program Officer, Political Party Development Team NDI Kosovo
Valon Kurhasani, Program Officer, Political Party Development Team NDI Kosovo
Sirjan Djeric, Intern, Minorities Program Team NDI Kosovo
Pranvera Lipovica, Program Assistant for Logistics, Operations Team NDI Kosovo
Shkelzen Domi, Assistant Director of Operations, Operations Team NDI Kosovo
Kushtrim Shehu, Director of Operations, Operations Team NDI Kosovo
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 8 of 31
FOCUS GROUP RECRUITING CRITERIA
1. The respondents must not be political party staff or paid political party activists.
2. The respondents must not be working / engaged in the media or have any members of the immediate family working for the
media.
3. The respondents’ monthly income must not exceed 500 euro per month.
4. The respondents must not be employed in an international organization (UNMIK, USAID, OSCE, Diplomatic Offices, and
International NGO working with Political Parties or Institutions etc.)
5. The respondents must not have participated in focus group research in the past two years.
6. The respondents must not have participated nor done survey in the past two years.
7. The respondents must be eligible to vote (UNMIK or Serb ID)
a. *UNMIK ID for Albanian respondents
b. *Republic of Serbia ID (or Yugoslav) for the Serb respondents
Albanian Groups (Prishtina & Klina):
• Women – age 20-45
• Women – age 46-65
• Men – age 20-45
• Men – age 46-65
Serbian Groups (Zubin Potok & Gracinica):
• age limit is not divided into young and old
• respondents can be of any age between 20–65
Timeline arrangement of Focus Groups:
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 9 of 31
Day 1
Prishtina
Male / Young
Male / Old
Day 2
Prishtina
Female /
Young
Female / Old
Day 3
Zubin Potok
Male
Day 4
Gracanica
Male
Day 5
Klina
Male / Young
Female
Female
Male / Old
Day 6
Klina
Female /
Young
Female / Old
Groups must be selected randomly & individually, participants cannot be selected in small groups, none should be aware of the
participation of any friends or colleagues in a group. An attempt should be made for no more than 12 participants in each group and
no less than 6.
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 10 of 31
MODERATOR’S DISCUSSION GUIDE
FOCUS GROUPS
Part One – 10 minutes
Explanation of process and expectations (mobile phones, respect for opinions, one at a time)
Introduction of facilitators
• Recording, viewing
• Confidentiality, No last names
• Paying for participation
• Who we are (NDI) and why we are doing this)
Introduction of participants (name, family, age, something about yourselves)
Part Two – 5 minutes
As you probably know, there may be municipal elections this fall and general elections in 2007.
Each of you has a piece of paper and an envelope in front of you. I would like you to now take a moment and write down the name
of the party you expect to be voting for in the next general election. Once you have done that, please put the piece of paper in the
envelope, seal it and return it to me. Just like in a real election, your choice will be secret. Thank you.
Part Three – 25 minutes
What has changed in the last year? What would you say the mood of people is like? Better? Worse? What would you say?
What does Kosovo look like one year from now? What is better? What is worse? What won’t change? How will your life be
different?
Status
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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Before we stalk about this important issue, can you help me understand a bit about what it means? What is involved? How will it
work? How will it come about? What will life be like the day after status is achieved? What about three months after that?
We have just finished talking about a number of issues and I am wondering how you think status will affect those issues, if it will
affect them at all. What about the negotiating process itself? How does it seem to be going? What do you think of the job Ahtisaari
is doing? What do you think of him?
Part Four – 35 minutes
NOTE: For each area, probe for current status, trend over time, hope for the future, who is responsible for taking action, who gets
credit and who gets blame
Jobs
Let’s start with jobs. Jobs for yourself, your families and your friends.
What’s the story? What’s going on?
Education
How about the education you need to get a good job. How are things with the education system here, by that I mean the whole
education system?
Healthcare
Is the healthcare system working for you? For your family? Any problems or issues?
Privatization
How is privatization being handled? What do you expect on this issue in the year ahead?
Part Five – 15 minutes
EXERCISE
-Think of one word that describes a perfect leader for Kosovo, a quality, or some characteristic to describe them
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 12 of 31
-Think of one word that describes the politicians we have today, no need to name names, but how would you describe the current
politicians?
What is the job of President?
What is the difference between the job of President and Prime Minister?
Part Six – 10 minutes
I would like to talk a bit about the parties here in Kosovo and the politicians that are associated with each. What about the
government itself?
Who is the Prime Minister?
I am going to show you know some pictures of politicians, first, please raise your hand if you recognize the person but don’t say the
name. Then we will talk about them. What are their strengths and weaknesses? What do you think about them? After this exercise
we will place the photos on a table. I would like you then to place your post it notes under the photo of the appropriate individuals.
What party holds power now? What about the parties themselves? Can you compare them for me? Are some old? Some new? Do
you need more? Fewer?
Other
What are ‘open lists’? Are they more democratic, less democratic or the same as the current situation?
What do you think of Albin Kurti and Vetevendosja?
Part Seven – 2 minutes
Thank, arrange payment and terminate.
-30-
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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LEADERSHIP QUALITIES (AS IDENTIFIED BY PARTICIPANTS)
Prishtina M/Y
Prishtina M/O
Prishtina W/Y
Prishtina W/O
Zubin Potok M
Zubin Potok W
Gracanica M
Gracanica W
Klina M/Y
Klina M/O
Klina W/Y
Klina W/O
‘What would you like to see in your political leaders?’
Able to do his job, brave (x4), restrain, professionally qualified,
intelligent (x4), successful politician, sincere
Value the will of people, wise (x5), brave (x2), sincere, determent,
wealthy, state visionary, educated, love Kosovo, cleaver, patriotic,
serious
Sincere (x3), educated, intelligent (x4), peaceful, intellectual, honest,
wise, responsible (x2), politician, brave
Brave (x4), intelligent (x4), moral, just, sincere
Sincere (x3), highly educated (x2), wise, able, leader who keeps
Kosovo in Serbia, in sync with time, professional, truthful, patriotic,
Serves his people, cooperative, young, honest, better, edgier
Wise (x3), educated, responsible, sensitive, multidisciplinary,
determined (x3), intelligent (x3), capable, Serb, brave (x2), good
politician, realistic, capable
Determined, hard working, educated, not corrupted, people's man, for
all nations, international, peaceful, works for the people, successful in
fulfilling duties, courageous (x2), delivers promises, not corrupted,
energetic, professional, honest
Honest (x2), not corrupted, educated (x2), sincere (x4), brave (x2),
wise (x2), determined, realistic, good, intelligent
Clever (x6), intelligent (x2), correct, able, honest (x2)
Honest (x4), brave (x3), professional, clever, educated, internationally
recognized, not corrupted, intelligent, determined (x2), trustful, able,
responsible (x2), intellectual, sincere
Intelligent (x4), brave, clever (x4), wealthy, honest, educated (x2), to
not have summer houses and cars
Know how to lead, able to lead towards Europe, wealthy (x2), work
for the good of people, no personal interest, ideals for freedom,
sincere, not corrupted (x2)
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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‘How would you describe your political leaders?’
Not that good, good in general, unable (x2), foxy, superiority, optimism, not
useful, not sincere
Modest, sincere, patriotic (x2), not corrupted (x2), un-determent, non partisan,
communist educated, Hard working for independence and economical
development of Kosovo
Not that good, average (x2), intelligent, discreet, professional, hard working, not
honest, passive, to be able to do everything for Kosovo
Impudent, good for us, visionary, unable, corrupted (x2), uneducated (x3).
Wise, no certain profile, diplomat, boring, educated, knows what he wants, brave,
sincere, always late, noisemaker, opportunist
Selfish, irresponsible (x2), macho man, untouchable (2), empty worded,
unreachable, positive (x2), hasty, unwise, unable to understand, unorganized
Sincere, held back, national/radical, fights for the chair, nepotism, corruption, no
common sense, honorable, unreal, doesn't keep promises, deceiving, does not
understand, better if he was a democrat, uneducated, nationalist, good
negotiator, corrupted (x2)
Unable to function, doesn't think independently (x2), no respect, fake, coward,
ridiculous, selfish, intelligent, cares about his chair, corrupted
Not corrupted, good (x3), negative (x2), very good, not good, corruption rising
Loyal, incompetent, personal interest (x2), unique, unified toward Kosovo
solution, weak, unstable, not the level wished for, irresponsible (x2), majority not
good, unprofessional, average
Everybody corrupted (x4), partisan, nepotism (x2), negative, wise but
irresponsible
Personal interests, fairly good, not corrupted, corrupted, our leader passed away
for the rest of them I don't have an opinion
PARTICIPANTS BY AGE
Prishtina M/Y
Prishtina M/O
Prishtina W/Y
Prishtina W/O
Zubin Potok M
Zubin Potok W
Gracanica M
Gracanica W
Klina M/Y
Klina M/O
Klina W/Y
Klina W/O
Age 20 - 25
4
Age 26 - 30
1
Age 31 – 35
3
6
2
1
2
3
2
1
2
4
3
24
10
3
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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1
1
1
1
Age 36 - 40
2
Age 41 - 45
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
7
9
1
1
1
2
9
Age 46 - 50
Age 51 - 55
4
3
6
2
1
2
1
1
2
15
Age 56 – 60
1
2
1
5
1
3
15
5
PARTICIPANTS BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS
Prishtina M/Y
Prishtina M/O
Prishtina W/Y
Prishtina W/O
Zubin Potok M
Zubin Potok W
Gracanica M
Gracanica W
Klina M/Y
Klina M/O
Klina W/Y
Klina W/O
Employed
8
8
4
2
5
8
7
4
7
7
1
4
Unemployed
3
3
6
6
3
2
5
6
3
3
9
4
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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GLOSSARY OF POLITICAL PARTIES
Albanian Political Parties
AAK
AKR
LDK
LD
ORA
PDK
PShDK
Alliance for the Future of Kosova
Alliance for a New Kosova
Democratic League of Kosova
Democratic League of Kosova (not registered)
Reformist Party ORA
Democratic Party of Kosova
Albanian Christian Democratic Party
Serbian Political Parties
DS
DSS
NS
SPS
SRS
Democratic Party
Democratic Party of Serbia
Nova Serbia
Socialist Party of Serbia
Serbian Radical Party
SLKM
Serbian List for Kosova and Metohija
SNS
SLS
Serbian People’s Party
Serbian New Liberal Party
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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KOSOVO ALBANIAN POLITICAL LEADERS
Fatmir Sejdiu, President
LDK: Democratic League of Kosova
Hashim Thaci
PDK: Democratic Party of Kosova
Veton Surroi
ORA: Reformist Party ORA
Ramush Haradinaj
AAK: Alliance for the Future of
Kosova
Behgjet Pacolli
AKR: Alliance for a New Kosova
Nexhat Daci
LD: Democratic League (not
registered)
Agim Ceku, Prime Minister
AAK: Alliance for the Future of
Kosova
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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KOSOVO SERB POLITICAL LEADERS
Marko Jaksic
DSS: Democratic Party of Serbia
Oliver Ivanovic
SDP: Social Democratic Party of Serbia
Goran Bogdanovic
DS: Democratic Party
Milan Jovanovic
DSS: Democratic Party of Serbia
Slavisa Petkovic
Serbian Democratic Party, Kosovo
Momcilo Trajkovic
Bishop
Artemije Radosavljevic
Rada Trajkovic
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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Bishop of Orthodox Church
in Kosovo
SLKM: Serbian List for Kosova and
Metohija
Head of Coordination Committee
Randjel Nojkic
SLKM: Serbian List for Kosova and
Metohija
Mihajlo Scepanovic
SNS: Serbian People’s Party
Slobodan Petrovic
SLS: Serbian Independent Liberal Party
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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2005 Research Presentation
Slide 1
Slide 3
DISCLAIMER
The National
Democratic Institute
in Kosovo
Methodology
The views contained herein are those collected form
more than 80 randomly selected participants in 8
separate qualitative focus groups conducted in
December 2005.
The views expressed are their own and presented here
after careful analysis by an impartial expert
facilitator.
The information contained herein is the best attempt by
the expert facilitator and NDI to distill the findings.
The views contained herein are not those of the National
Democratic Institute or the United States Agency for
International Development.
Kosovo
December, 2005
Insight Into Public Opinion
Qualitative Research (Focus Groups) Project
Slide 2
Slide 5
Slide 4
A copy of that report can be obtained by
contacting our offices in Pristina at
[email protected]
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 21 of 31
– NDI Offices in Pristina
– NGO Centre Gjakova
• December 6th and 7th, 2005
• Split by gender and age
– Women 17-34, Women 40 – over
– Men 17-34, Men 40-0ver
Slide 6
Group Accuracy
This qualitative research report is a follow
up to similar national focus groups
conducted with Albanian Kosovars in
September 2004.
• Eight groups conducted
• Qualitative Research has limitations
– it is not polling and therefore not statistical
replicable
• Why do we have faith in these results ?
– They are in agreement with our September 2004
study
– Due to the high level of concordance (agreement)
amongst all participants
– Confidence of expert facilitator in honest input by
participants
Methodology Cont’d
• Simultaneous translation
– Challenges to groups conducted in a second
language
• Standard focus group methodology
• Concordance of views except where
noted
– A few differences emerged between group
locations, addressed in presentation
Slide 7
Slide 9
Participant Overview Cont’d
So what’s changed?
Key Positive Attributes
• Certainty of achieving Final Status
• Age Range
– 17 to 24 - 29
– 25 to 34 - 9
– 35 to 44 - 10
– 45 to 54 - 17
– 55 to 64 - 5
– Over 65 - 6
Slide 11
•
•
•
•
•
•
– Independent country
– no compromise on borders and severing of ties w/
Serbia
17-24
25-34
35-44
• Increased certainty of what Final Status
means
45-54
– Status = FDI = Jobs = Improvements in all aspects
of life
55-64
65-over
0
20
• Countries who supported liberation should
help now with investment
40
Honest
Respectful
Puts people’s interests first
Acts in a unified way
Delivers promises
Professional / works hard
Age
Slide 8
Slide 10
Trend Over Time
In September of 2004, it was all about
Final Status
In December of 2005, it is still all about
Final Status
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 22 of 31
Slide 12
DISCLAIMER
Life Today
The views contained herein are those collected form
more than 80 randomly selected participants in 9
separate qualitative focus groups conducted in
September 2004.
The views expressed are their own and presented here
after careful analysis by an impartial expert
facilitator.
The information contained herein is the best attempt by
the expert facilitator and NDI to distill the findings.
The views contained herein are not those of the National
Democratic Institute or the United States Agency for
International Development.
• Disparity between Pristina and Gjakova
– Intensity of war experience
– Further from the centre of things; sense of
being left behind, isolation
– Sense of loss, gap between what the
community was and what it is becoming
– Particularly desperate for youth
Slide 13
Slide 15
Unemployment
Healthcare and Education
• Not only number one issue in terms of
concern but also in terms of intractability
Growing Issues
• Systems are failing and are expected to
continue to fail
– Feeling no party, person will/can solve problem
• KEK and their “ABC plan” is the source of
great concern
– Crisis of confidence
– Expectation of further decline
• Single biggest killer of hope
– “Work heals the soul”
– Unsure as to what it will mean
– Sense that it is fundamentally unfair
– Threat to stability and patience of public
• Plagued with corruption; encountered by all
• Wages are too low for all participants; Kosovo
government is to blame
• Talk about the “family job”
– as opposed to work for every able bodied member
of the family
• Heavy reliance on Status to fix; no sense of a
plan or anyone working on a plan
Slide 14
Slide 17
• Generalized concern about infrastructure and
the ability to improve it as necessary
– “I may not have had a computer but I did have a
light bulb that worked”
– Teacher’s strike clear example of Kosovo
government failure
Slide 16
Status
• Key to determining the future
• Certain of its arrival
• Little understanding/awareness of the
process
• Confidence in Ahtissari
– Awareness of Finnish experience, pre-war role
• Satisfaction with government’s handling
– Pleased with ‘Unity’ team
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National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
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Slide 18
Privatization
• Great hopes attached to these initiatives
• Concern about:
– the progress or lack thereof to date
– the transparency of the process
• Beginning to understand that privatization
may not create huge number of anticipated
new/resurrected jobs
– Realization but not acceptance
The President
• President Rugova
– Great concern for his health
– Great respect for his service to Kosovo
– Appreciation his skill and experience are
needed
Slide 19
Slide 21
National Symbols
Slide 23
Central Question
• Strong need for a flag
• One flag for the Albanian Nation and a
new flag for a Kosovo State
What Does This Mean?
• Axiom of politics: it must be someone’s fault
If people are generally unhappy with life
in Kosovo, not only today but into the
future, why is that they are relatively
satisfied with the parties and their
leaders?
– “No two countries can have the same flag”
• Want referendum
– At the moment, that means ‘internationals’
• Status now a given
– No appetite for negotiation on borders or
sovereignty
• Opportunity to solidify positions, gain
support of citizens/voters
– all citizens should have input, ownership
– Migrate “pride” to “on my side” or “stands up for
me”
Slide 20
Slide 22
Other issues
• Preference for open lists
Slide 24
Answer
You can not hold people accountable for
that which they are not responsible.
Internationals, specifically the SRSG and
UNMIK, have reserved the power
needed to deal with these issues
Result, elected officials are “off the hook”
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 24 of 31
Moderator
• Jaime Watt
– Chair, Navigator Limited
– Moderated more than 2500 focus groups
over a period of 20 years
– Navigator is a research-based public affairs
firm located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
– Watt’s services have been provided probono to NDI and USAID
Slide 25
Slide 26
Observation Team
• Each major Albanian political party was
allowed to have 2 observers of every group
– Observers monitored by closed circuit television in
an adjoining room
– Observers met with moderators before and after
each group and could suggest questions for the
moderator to raise
• Observers attended a training on focus group
methodology
• A briefing was held with moderator and
observers to discuss findings in detail
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 25 of 31
Support Team
• NDI
– Chad Rogers, Country Director, NDI Kosovo
– Arta Zherka, Senior Program Manager, NDI
Kosovo
– Mjellma Hapciu, National Program Officer, NDI
Kosovo
– Kushtrim Shehu, Director of Operations, NDI
Kosovo
• External
– Index Kosova
– ‘Coalition of Women NGO’s’, Gjakova
2004 Research Presentation
Slide 1
Slide 3
Slide 5
Key Positive Attributes
The National
Democratic Institute
in Kosovo
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Kosovo: It’s All About Final Status”
September, 2004
Insight Into Public Opinion
Qualitative Research (Focus Groups) Project
Methodology cont’d
Honest
Respectful
Puts people’s interests first
Acts in a unified way
Delivers promises
Professional / works hard
•
•
•
•
•
Simultaneous translation
Standard focus group methodology
Pre and post ballot test
Post it note exercise
Concordance of views except where
noted
– Broad strokes
• Urban more cynical
• Rural more hopeful / trusting
Slide 2
Slide 4
DISCLAIMER
The views contained herein are those collected form
more than 80 randomly selected participants in 9
separate qualitative focus groups conducted in
September 2004.
The views expressed are their own and presented here
after careful analysis by an impartial expert
facilitator.
The information contained herein is the best attempt by
the expert facilitator and NDI to distill the findings.
The views contained herein are not those of the National
Democratic Institute or the United States Agency for
International Development.
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 26 of 31
Slide 6
Methodology
• Participants randomly recruited by Reinvest
• Nine groups conducted at NDI Offices
– September 20, 21, 22
• Split by gender and geography
• Young to middle age
– Urban women
– Rural women
– Urban men
– Rural men
26
16
17
21
Life Today
• Very challenging; daily struggle.
Expected better five years out
• Everyone is waiting for Final Status
when everything will change
– Expected mid – 2005
• Unemployment terrible problem
– Tearing families apart
– Young people abandoning dreams to
support families
Slide 7
Slide 9
Slide 11
Life Today cont’d
• Nepotism / favourtism still rampant
– In both domestic and international
institutions
• Hard to see who is on the people’s side
• Believe they are Europeans but aren’t
treated as so
Life In A Few Years cont’d
Key Issue – Employment
• Not rationally based; what’s needed to
keep going
• Hope is moving them forward
• If this does not happen, many expect to
leave the country
• Desperate problem
• Clinging to hope of FDI after Final
Status
• Expect once plants start working things
will change
• Until then, little they can do
– Treated as children
– Held to a different standard
– Much like treading water
• Just hanging on
Slide 8
Slide 10
Slide 12
Life In A Few Years
• Life will be much better
• Final Status will trigger massive foreign
investment
• FDI response will be swift
– Factories will be up and running in no time
• Significant improvements in
– Education
– Employment
– Economy generally
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 27 of 31
Key Issues
• 1. Employment
– Twice the next issue
•
•
•
•
2. Final Status
3. (tied) Education
3. (tied) Working For The People
4. Corruption
Key Issue – Employment
cont’d
• Significant source of family stress
– Too many people to support on one wage
– Young people asking why bother with an
education
– Tough choices
Slide 13
Slide 15
Key Issue – Final Status
Slide 17
Who Is Working On Key
Issues
Working For The People
• Coming for sure mid – 2005
• Is in the hands of the International
Community
• Will revolutionize life in Kosovo
• Familiar theme
• Linked to lack of connectiveness to
parties and leaders
• Sense that leaders (domestic and
international) are working for
themselves; not the people
• Also linked to corruption
– FDI will pour in; almost instantly
– Business people literally waiting to invest
• The World will know us then
• How can they be sure?
• No one; although domestic leaders are
let off the hook due to reduced authority
• No sense authorities are concerned
about and working on the problems of
the average citizen
• Preoccupied with their own agenda
• Again, expectation much will be solved
with Final Status
– Domestic and International leaders have
promised
Slide 14
Slide 16
Key Issue -- Education
• Key to a better future
– For both themselves and the country
• Improvements seen; reforms very slow
– Teaching methods have improved
– Still too many outdated professors
– Serious lack of course materials
• Teacher’s salaries problematically low
– Teachers are too tired to teach
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 28 of 31
Slide 18
Corruption
• Impact is pervasive
• So bad, some hope simply for a
government that is ‘less corrupt’
• Don’t believe there is a level playing
field
• Driving a cynicism that allows inaction
Key Themes –
Desire For Cooperation
• Strong belief that no one group / entity
can solve problems
• Strong desire for all – especially
domestic parties to put aside differences
and work together
• Not seen to have been a strength of
parties to date
Slide 19
Slide 21
Key Themes –
Belief In A Better Tomorrow
• Participants simply believe it will get
better
• Unable to give a thoughtful, rational
answer as to how or why or what needs
to happen beyond Final Status
• Deeply held belief which allows a lot of
emotions to be kept in check
Slide 20
Slide 23
Key Themes –
Disconnect With Leaders
Key Negative Attributes
• Orchestra is missing its conductor
• Prime Minister’s March intervention
very well received
• Desire to have leaders
•
•
•
•
Corrupt; practices nepotism
Puts own interests first
Old; set in ways
Divisive; does not act together with
others
• Does not deliver promises
• Not professional / unqualified given
jobs
– Walk the streets
– Visit schools
– Visit victims of War
– Answer questions directly
Slide 22
Key Themes –
Study For A Better Day
• Many students had no short term hope
of getting any job; much less one in
their field
• They are preparing themselves for a
better day
• Continue to believe that it is an
investment worth making
Slide 24
Key Themes –
Contributions To Final Status
• Understand this is in the hands of
others
• Uncertain as to process; certain about
outcome
• Develop local competencies
– In other words, be ready
– Across all aspects of life
• Linked to working together
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 29 of 31
Topline Impressions -International
• Deterioration in performance approval
• Seen as an impediment to progress; not
a driver of it
• Not using the power they have taken to
make things happen
• Rampant nepotism / favourtism
• May not actually be competent afterall
Slide 25
Slide 27
Opportunities and Risks
• Significant risk if Final Status not
delivered as expected
• Opinion is decided but not hardened
• Opportunity for parties to connect with
voters by focusing on key issues and
developing relevant campaign tactics
• Positioning available to LDK, PDK, ORA
• Risk / opportunity to define ORA
Slide 26
Moderator
• Jaime Watt
– Chair, Navigator Limited
– Moderated more than 2500 focus groups
over a period of 20 years
– Navigator is a research-based public affairs
firm located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
– Watt’s services have been provided probono to NDI and USAID
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 30 of 31
Support Team
• NDI
– Heather Kashner, Country Director, NDI Kosovo
– Arta Zherka, Senior Program Manager, NDI
Kosovo
– Mjellma Hapciu, National Program Officer, NDI
Kosovo
– Kushtrim Shehu, Director of Operations, NDI
Kosovo
• External
– Reinvest
For more information, please contact:
The National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Str. Andreja Gropa no.1
10000 Prishtina, Kosovo
+381 (0) 38 220 765 tel/facsimile
[email protected]
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
2030 M Street NW
Washington DC 20036 USA
+1202 728 5500 tel/+1202 728 5520 facsimile
[email protected]
www.ndi.org
Copies of this report are available in English, Albanian & Serbian
Kopja e këtij raporti mund të gjindet në gjuhët Angleze, Shqipe dhe Serbe
Kopija ovog izvestaja se moze dobiti na Engleskom, Albanskom i Srbskom jeziku
Insight into Public Opinion: January/February 2007 Qualitative Research Report
National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Page 31 of 31
For more information, please contact:
The National Democratic Institute in Kosovo
Str. Andreja Gropa no.1
10000 Prishtina, Kosovo
+381 (0) 38 220 765 tel/facsimile
[email protected]
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
2030 M Street NW
Washington DC 20036 USA
+1202 728 5500 tel/+1202 728 5520 facsimile
[email protected]
www.ndi.org
Copies of this report are available in English, Albanian & Serbian
Kopja e këtij raporti mund të gjindet në gjuhët Angleze, Shqipe dhe Serbe
Kopija ovog izvestaja se moze dobiti na Engleskom, Albanskom i Srbskom jeziku
`