Hungarian and Eskimo-Aleut P

Hungarian
and Eskimo-Aleut
with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
BY
P ROF . D R . A LFRÉD T ÓTH
Mikes International
The Hague, Holland
2007
ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
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Publisher
Foundation 'Stichting MIKES INTERNATIONAL', established in The Hague, Holland.
Account: Postbank rek.nr. 7528240
Registered: Stichtingenregister: S 41158447 Kamer van Koophandel en Fabrieken Den Haag
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Address
The Editors and the Publisher can be contacted at the following addresses:
Email: [email protected]
Postal address: P.O. Box 10249, 2501 HE, Den Haag, Holland
_____________________________________
ISSN 1570-0070
ISBN-13: 978-90-8501-118-7
NUR 616
© Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007, All Rights Reserved
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
PUBLISHER’S PREFACE
Today we publish four new works of Professor Alfréd Tóth. Present volume is
entitled ‘Hungarian and Eskimo-Aleut — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates’.
The following volumes of Prof. Tóth were published electronically by Mikes
International:
1. TÓTH, Alfréd: ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF HUNGARIAN (in English) (792 p.)
2. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARIAN, SUMERIAN AND EGYPTIAN. — HUNGARIAN,
SUMERIAN AND HEBREW. Two Addenda to ‘Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian’
(EDH) (in English) (113 p.)
3. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARIAN, SUMERIAN AND PENUTIAN — Second Addendum to
‘Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian’ (EDH) (in English) (37 p.)
4. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARIAN, SUMERIAN AND INDO-EUROPEAN — Third
Addendum to ‘Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian’ (EDH) (in English) (118 p.)
5. TÓTH, Alfréd: IS THE TURANIAN LANGUAGE FAMILY A PHANTOM? (in English)
(36 p.)
6. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARO-RAETICA (in English) (39 p.)
7. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARO-RAETICA II. (in English) (38 p.)
8. TÓTH, Alfréd: SUMERIAN, HUNGARIAN AND MONGOLIAN (INCLUDING
AVARIC) (in English) (89 p.)
9. TÓTH, Alfréd & BRUNNER, Linus: RAETIC — An Extinct Semitic Language in Central
Europe (in English) (167 p.)
10. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNGARIAN-MESOPOTAMIAN DICTIONARY (HMD) (in English)
(152 p.)
11. TÓTH, Alfréd: HUNNIC-HUNGARIAN ETYMOLOGICAL WORD LIST (based on the
editions of the Isfahan codex by Dr. Csaba Detre and Imre Pető) (in English) (66 p.)
The Hague (Holland), November 24, 2007
MIKES INTERNATIONAL
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
CONTENTS
Publisher’s preface........................................................................................................... III
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 2
2. Etymological Dictionary ........................................................................................................ 4
3. Conclusions .........................................................................................................................174
4. Selected Bibliography..........................................................................................................175
About the author ............................................................................................................177
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
This study is dedicated to the blessed memories of
Marcus Wøldike (? 1699 – Copenhagen 1750)
Professor of Theology in the University of Copenhagen
Founder of Siberian-Hungarian Studies
Ferenc Otrokocsi Fóris (Rimaszécs 1648 – Nagyszombat 1718)
Professor of Law in the University of Utrecht
Founder of Semitic-Hungarian Studies
Heinrich Julius von Klaproth (Berlin 1783 – Paris 1835)
Professor of Orientalistics at the University of St. Petersburg
Founder of Altaic and Altaic-Hungarian Studies
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
1. Introduction
Uralo-Siberian is still considered to be a hypothetical language family consisting of Uralic, Yukagir,
Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Eskimo-Aleut and being a part of the highly hypothetical Nostratic macrofamily. Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Yukagir are part of the Paleosiberian languages to which also
Yenisean (Ket) and Gilyak (Nivkh) belong. The relation of the latter languages both to the TibetoBurman and to the Caucasian language families is controversial. The literature about possible linguistic
connections both as genetical relationships and Sprachbünde is galore. Especially unclear is also the
position of Ainu and Burushaski to the Paleosiberian languages. Recently, Heinrich Werner suggested a
Yenisean-North American-Indian Urverwandtschaft (Werner 2004) in the bigger frame of Greenberg’s
Na-Dene macrofamily (Greenberg 1987).
But like in all recent theories, also in our case, there have been the pioneers. In 1746, the Danish
theologian Marcus Wøldike compared Greenlandic to Hungarian (Wøldike 1746a, b). In 1818, Rasmus
Rask considered Greenlandic to be related to the Uralic languages (Rask 1818). In 1924, Aurélien
Sauvageot compared Eskimo and Uralic morphology (Sauvageot 1924). In 1959, Knut Bergsland
published his “Eskimo-Uralic Hypothesis” (Bergsland 1959), and in 1962, Morris Swadesh proposed a
relationship between the Eskimo-Aleut and Chukotko-Kamchatkan language families (Swadesh 1962).
An Uralo-Yukagir family was especially supported by Angere (1956) and Collinder (1940, 1965). Several
hundreds of word-equations were established especially in the works of Karl Bouda, René Bonnerjea
and Oliver Guy Tailleur (cf. bibliography). Even more confusing are the attempts to connect all or
parts of the mentioned languages and language families with Indo-European (cf. the synopsis of
Kortlandt 2005).
In our study we therefore want to find out: 1. Is there a genetic relationship between Hungarian and
the Eskimo-Aleut and/or the Paleosiberian languages? 2. And if there is one: Are Eskimo-Aleut and/or
the Paleosiberian languages closer to the Finno-Ugric, the Uralic or the Altaic languages? We therefore
base our present study on the one side on Tóth’s “Hungarian-Mesopotamian Dictionary” (Tóth 2007)
in which 1317 Hungarian root-words have been traced back to Sumerian and/or Akkadian and Rhaetic
always considering the traditional reconstructions of proto-forms by classical Finno-Ugristics, Uralistics
and Altaistics and on Fortescue-Jacobson-Kaplan (1994) on the other side.
The following map (taken from and copyrighted by Wikipedia) shows the present territory of the
Eskimo-Aleut languages:
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
2. Etymological Dictionary
Note: Where there is no meaning indicated, the word concerned has the same meaning as the last one
in the list.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
Akkadian
Rhaetic
a, az (definite article)
*o, *u “that, yon”
*o “that”
*o(w) “this, that”, *ta “that”
*na, nä “this”
a-ne (Old Sumerian) vs. e-ne (Old Babylonian) “he, she”
šū “he” vs. šī “she”
is, es “this”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ács “carpenter”
*aak- “to skin a small animal or bird”
ak (3643x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
acsari “sour”
*ciiRnaq- “to be sour”
zag ĝar, wr. zag ĝar “(to be) sour”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
acsarogni “to have a grudge against sb.”
*atcik- “to be far down”
šag dab, wr. šag4 dab5 “to feel hurt, to be angry, to be worried”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ádáz “ferocious, fierce, furious”
*attaq- “to pay back (in return)”
ud (266x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. ud “storm; storm
demon”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Yukagir
Sumerian
Rhaetic
adni “to give”
*amta*tun∂- “to give”
*aittuq- “to give”
tV- “to give”
ad gi (73x: Old Babylonian) wr. ad gi4 “to advise, give advice”
atu-, tin- “to give”, etu, etau “I give” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
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Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
ág “branch”
*šaŋka
*avayaq “branch”
a (6115x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. a2 “arm; labor; wing; horn; side;
strength; wage; power”
ahu; idu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
agár “greyhound”
*aδγuR- “to go against current or wind”
urgir (478x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ur-gir15 “(domestic) dog”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
agg “aged, senile, very old; old man”
*soŋkз-, *soŋgз- “to become old; old”
*aŋukaRaq “old man”
sugin (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešsugin “rot; decayed matter”
sumkīnum
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
agg- “to collapse, to fall down”
*aci “area below”, *acivaR “to go down”
sugin (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešsugin “rot; decayed matter”
sumkīnum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
aggódik “to worry”
*aŋke(-)
*aγwtaR- “to feel uncertain/uncomfortable”
šag dab, wr. šag4 dab5 “to feel hurt, to be angry, to be worried”
zenūm
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
agy “brain”
*ajŋge “skull”
*oj(wa) “head, neck”
ugu (1025x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ugu2; ugu; ugu3;
ugux(|U.SAG|); ugux(|A.U.KA|); ugux(SAG∂n∂g) “skull, pate; first
section of a balanced account, capital; on, over, above; against; more
than; top”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
ágy “bed”
*aδ’з, *oδ’з “a sleeping-place that has been covered; to go to sleep”
*wol’з
*aci “area below”
udi, wr. u3-di “(to be) dazed; sleep”
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Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
agyag “clay, loam, potter’ earth; terracotta”
*aci “area below”
im (680x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. im “clay, mud; tablet” + dug (3196x:
ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. dug; dugx(BI) “(clay) pot; a unit of liquid capacity”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
agyar “fang”
*ońća-rз “tusk”
*k∂γun “tooth”
gug (45x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gug; gug6 “tooth; blade;
beak; dogbite”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
ágyék “groin, loin”
*ańćз “the bottom”
*aci “area below”
išdum, wr. išdumx([email protected]|) “root”
išdum
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
ágyú “cannon, gun”
*kuk∂γ-, kukuγ- “to light a fire”
gug (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. gug6 “stick; weapon”
kakku
Hungarian
aj, áj “fissure, slit; ravine, valley”, ajak “lip”, ajazni “to distend, to
stretch out, ájó “mark in the form of a half-moon in the ear of
cattle”, ajtó “door”
*ágà, *áge- “mouth; to open the mouth”
*aŋe “opening”
*aŋ∂ “opening”
*qisiq “lip”
ig gub (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešig gub “to let a door stand open?; to
dislodge a door” (ig “door”, gub “stand”)
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
ajánlani “to commend to sb., to offer, to recommend, to suggest,
to dedicate, to propose”
*aγ∂- “to go (over or past)”
a, aĝ (116x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. a2 aĝ2 “to command; to
instruct”
akadni “to fall into, to get stuck; to occur; to stumble upon”,
akasztani “to hang up”
*S8kkз- “to find, to meet; to get stuck”
*∂ž∂t- “to fall (into water”
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Sumerian
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
akarni “to want”
*aγ∂- “to go (over or past)”
a aĝ (116x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. a2 aĝ2 “to command; to
instruct”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
al- “underpart”
*ale “below, lower”
*ala “lower, to space something, sub”
*al(a), ïl(a) “below”
*aci- < *al-t∂ (?) “lower part”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 “(to be) small, little; minus
sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; diminution”
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ál- “false, imitation, sham”
atla “other” (< *at-la)
asl- “time/position corresponding to –“
łva “id.” (< *aet-vae?)
ael-vae “other”
alan (399x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. alan; urudalan “statue; form”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
alak “figure, shape”
*alaq “sole”
alan (399x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. alan; urudalan “statue; form”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
áldani “to bless”
*alз*ala- “desire”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, cross; to
pour out, libate, make a libation; reign, rotation, turn, term of office; to
revolt; to hoist, draw (water); to transfer (boats over weirs etc. blocking
a stream); to carry; to boil (meat in water); to change, transgress (the
terms of an agreement); conversion (math.)”
palūm; elūm
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
alkotni “to call into begin, to create; to compose, to write; to
construct, to form, to make”, alku “trade, business”, alkuszik “to
trade”
*alaq “sole”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
ak (3643x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)” or alĝar (12x: Old Babylonian)
wr. ĝešal-ĝar; al-gar “a musical instrument”
alūm
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumeria
áll “chin, lower jaw”
*oŋlз, *8ŋз, *8ŋз-lз “lower jaw”
*ol(u) “cheek, jaw”
∂lp∂-lŋ∂n “cheek”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head; person; capital”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
állni “to be, to exist; to stand”
*salkз*qikaR- “to stand”
(l)qut- “to stand up”
silig (29x: Old Babylonian) wr. silig “to cease”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
alma “apple”
*alγnaq “type of red berry” [?]
ul (19x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ul “fruit; bud”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
alom “bedding”
*ala-ma, *alз-mз
*al(a), ïl(a) “below”
*aci- < *al-t∂ (?) “lower part”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 “(to be) small, little; minus
sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; diminution”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumeria
álom “dream, reverie; sleep”, aludni, alsz-, alv- “to sleep”
*oδa- “to lie, to sleep”, *oδa-mз “dream”
*qavaR- “to sleep”
u ku (47x: Old Babylonian) wr. u3 ku; u3 ku4 “to sleep”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ángy “sister-in-law”
*ańa “wife of the older brother”
*ama- “tu suckle”
ama (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ama “mother”, amagan (8x: Lagash II,
Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ama-gan “breeding female animal; childbearing mother”
ummu
Akkadian
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Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
Koryak
Wakashan
Sumerian
anya “mother”
*ańa “wife of the older brother”
*an’a “older female relative”
nana “mother”
ama (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ama “mother”, amagan (8x: Lagash II,
Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ama-gan “breeding female animal; childbearing mother”
ummu
apa “father”
*áp’a
*appe
*ap(p)a, *ïp(p)ï “grandfather”
*aepae “grandfather”
abba (107x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ab; abba; abba2 “old (person); witness; father; elder; an official”
abu
apadni “to decrease (moon)”, to ebb, to be on the ebb (of the sea),
to fall, to subside (river)”
*šoppз-, *šappз*∂p-naR “cliff”
∂p- “steep; to fall into sea/river”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to inspect exta; to incise; to draw,
design; to gather together, collect, scrape up; to break off, deduct; to
trim, peel off; to dig, hollow out; to have a grooved shape; to cut, fell (of
trees); to become loose, fall out; to disintegrate; to disappear; to make
clear”
esēpum
ápolni “to take care of”
*∂ppaRiR “to lick clean” [?]
ibila (133x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. ibila; i3-bi2-la;
ibila2; i3-bi-lu “heir” or ubara, wr. ubara “divine protection”
aplum
ár “flood”
*Sarз “lake caused by flood”
aer- “to flow out”, aer-iŋ “shore”
aj-γ∂jŋ∂n “low tide”
erxe- “to flow”, eri “river”
a ĝar (102x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a ĝar “to
irrigate” (a “water” + ĝar “place”
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Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ár “article of trade, commodity; price”
*arwa, *arγa “price, value”
*aeRRi “to hurry, to be busy”
ar (56x: Old Babylonian) wr. ar2; a-ar2; a-ar; a-ar3 “(hymn of) praise;
fame”, aratta (5x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. aratta
“heavy; important; praise, glory”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ártani “to harm, to hurt”
*arз- “to rend, to rip, to tear”
*ał∂γ- “to rip”
bur (197x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. bur12; bu7 “to tear out”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ara “fiancée”; daughter-in-law; mother or sister’s brother”
*arз, *arwa
*aRnaR “woman”
*aRnaRaq “girl”
erib (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. e-ri-ib; e-rib; erib “sister-in-law; father-inlaw”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
arány “proportion, rate, ratio”
*arз, *urз
*aR∂nqiγ- “to fix, to arrange”
*aRaR- “to move”
arahi (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. a-ra-hi “a mathematical term (math.)”
arahū
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
aratni “to reap”
*aRcaR- “to grab”
ur (612x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ur4; ur5 “to pluck; to gather, collect; to
harvest”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
árny “ghost, spectre; shade, shadow”
*aRli(C) “to be overwhelmed or overburdened”
gu’erim, wr. gu2-erim2 “hostile, enemy”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
árok “ditch”
*aeRRi(t)naR “bag for hunting”
hiritum (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. hi-ri-tum2 “ditch”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Akkadian
árva “orphan”
*∂liγaR(aR) “orphan”
*orpa(sз), *orwa(sз) “orphan, orphaned; widow, widowed”
erūm; urrūm “to be empty”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
ásni “to dig”
*at(∂)- “down”, at∂R “to go down”
sidug (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-dug4; sidug; sidug2 “cavity, hollow;
depth; tream, wadi, gorge; (hunter's) pitfall; pit”
šuttatu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
ásítani “to yawn”
*8ćз*aγittaR- “to open mouth”, *aγittaRuR- “to yawn”
nesūm “to open”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
aszik “to wither”, aszú “dry”
*Sasз- “to dry”
caluγ- “to tan, to be tanned dry”
saaluX “dry weather”
sig (343x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. sig “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be)
thin; (to be) narrow”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ászok “gauntry (for supporting barrels)”
*at∂tu- “to be wide below”
esaĝ (21x: Ebla, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. e2-saĝ; esaĝ2 “grain-store”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
asszony “lady; queen”
*aRnaR “woman”
kisikil (158x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ki-sikil; lu2ki-sikil;
mu-tin; mu-ti-in “young woman”
aššatu “wife”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
átkozni “to curse, to scold”
*attз- “to say”
*attaq- “to pay back (in return)”
aš (51x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. aš2 “curse”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Yukagir
atya “father”
*attз “father, grandfather”
*ata “father”
ec’e(C) “father”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
adda (178x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ad-da; ad “father”
Hungarian
Akkadian
avik “to grow into, to penetrate”, avatni “to dedicate, to
inaugurate; to initiate sb. into sg.; to (pre-)shrink, to sanforize”,
avatkozik “to interfere, to meddle”
*siúŋu “to sink”
*soŋe- “to enter”
*ataaq- “to go down (towards coast)”
si (401x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. si “to
draw water; to brew beer; to fill, load up”
sabūm; sâbum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ázik “to get wet”
*S8ćз- “to become wet”
*aRi(t)- “to become wet”
šeš (14x: Old Babylonian) wr. šeš2 “to anoint”
Hungarian
-ba/-be “into”, -ban/-ben “in”, -ból/-ből “out of”, bel “inner”,
bél “intestines”
*bēlke, bēlki “waist, lap”
*pälз “the inside”
*paδ∂ “opening, entrance”
pah, wr. pah “leg of an animal, haunch, lap”; bi- (locative-terminative
prefix), bad (11x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešbad “leg or foot of a
piece of furniture”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
bácsi “uncle”
*ap(p)a “grandfather”
pap (86x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. pap “first and
foremost, pre-eminent; father; male, virile; brother” + šeš 1579x: ED
IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. šeš "brother; junior worker,
assistant”
abu “father, male, brother” + ahu “brother”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bágyadni “to become weak; to grow faint”
*pa(C)a- “to fight, to struggle”
dada (15x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. da-da; da3-da3da “(to be) hostile;
to be difficult”
Hungarian
baj “ailment, complaint, sickness, bother, vexation; evil, ill,
misfortune, trouble; misery, woe”
*pa(C)a- “to fight, to struggle”
bul (27x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bul; i3-bul5-bul5 “to shake”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
báj “charm, grace”
*bā- “to bind”
*paγuγ- “to fasten down with pegs”
ebēţu “(to be) tied, cramped up”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
bajusz “mustache”
*uŋak “beard or mustache”
munsub (5x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. munsub; munsub2;
munsubx(|KA×SUHUR|); sumunsub; sumunsub2; u2-šu-p? “hair;
barber”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bakó “bag, satchel”
*pak∂γ- “to bend, to flex”
pag (2x: Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. pag “to enclose,
confine, cage (a bird)”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Kuman
Uigur
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bakó “hangman”
bakavul “taste-tester in the court of a prince”
bogaul “custos, vigil”
bögäül “secret guard or sentry”
*pak∂γ- “to bend, to flex”
pagdu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. pag-du3 “expert”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sumerian
bal “left”
*palз “left”
*palu- “to be lying on one’s stomach”
palu- “to be sad; to starve; to lie on stomach”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, cross; to
pour out, libate, make a libation; reign, rotation, turn, term of office; to
revolt; to hoist, draw (water); to transfer (boats over weirs etc. blocking
a stream); to carry; to boil (meat in water); to change, transgress (the
terms of an agreement); conversion (math.)”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Rhaetic
ballagni “to move slowely, to wander”
*maliγ- “to follow, to accompany”
bala “to rotate, to turn over”
alākum “to go”
elukum “id.” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 61)
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
Akkadian
balta “axe”
*qalqa “axe”
bal (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. na4bal “type of stone”
allu “hoe, pickaxe”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Akkadian
bár “albeit, although, notwithstanding”
*p∂γn∂m “barely”
balum “without”
Hungarian
Tatarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bátor “brave”
mādyr “hero”
*pat∂γ- “to slap” [?]
mes (29x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
mes “hero; (to be) manly; young man”
eţlu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Sumerian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Inuit
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
bece, boca “calf”, becenév “surname”
ab (5272x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. ab2 "cow"
pe(j)ecvak “young male reindeer”
p’e-c “child, son”
becs “value, worth”
*pik∂- “to own”
mu (135x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
mu5 “good, beautiful”
banū
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
begy “animal’s stomach”
*pijra
*paγuγ- “to bring food to” [?]
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur “liver;
innards”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
béka “frog”
*p∂k∂- “to jump up”
bizaza (16x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bi2-za-za; bil2za; bi-za-za “frog; ~ figurine”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
béklyó “fetter, shackle; hobble”
*ipiq(-) “tie; to tie”
be (99x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. be4; be6
“to deduct, remove; to diminish, reduce; to withdraw, receive (as an
allotment)” + kalag (2398x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kal-ga; kalag; kal-la "(to be)
strong, powerful, mighty; to reinforce; to provide for”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
bélyeg “stamp”
*tull∂q- “to trample”
ti-bala (3x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešti-bal; uruduti-bal “sign”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
bér “rent; wages”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
*p∂Riŋa “to be bent”
bur (176x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, uncertain)
wr. bur2; bur “to release, free; to reveal; to spread out, cover”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
berek “bushes, grove; marshy pasture”
*perз “excrement; swamp”
*p∂lu(R) “dust, dirt”
aburriš “meadow, pasture”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Rhaetic
berke “bud (of a tree)”
*paγunRaR “berry”
gurun = buru7 (38x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gurun “fruit, flower; ~
figurine; sexual appeal”
inbu, enbu, unbiu (Brunner and Tóth 1987, pp. 97, 99)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
betű “letter, typ”
*p∂t∂-, *p∂tuR- “to penetrate or pass through”
abātum “to carve, cut; to engrave”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
beze “gland”
*q∂n∂cir “tonsil; gland”
*p∂ŋuy(y)ak “swelling on skin” [?]
maz (9x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ma-az “to swell, rejoice”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
bíbor “purple, scarlet”
*kaviR “to be red”
babbar (1109x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. babbar2; babbar “(to be) white”, but cf. also
tabarru “purple”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bicsak, bicska “pocket-knife”
*k∂γun “tooth”
bazu wr. ba-zu2; ĝešba-zu2? “a toothed knife”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
bilincs “shackles”
*ipiq(-) “tie; to tie”
be (99x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. be4; be6
“to deduct, remove; to diminish, reduce; to withdraw, receive (as an
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
allotment)” + la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur
III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to bind;
binding, (yoke-)team”
alālu
Akkadian
bocsátani “to admit to, to let go”
*paq∂t- “(to go and) find”
bur (176x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, uncertain)
wr. bur2; bur “to release, free; to reveal; to spread out, cover”
pašāru; šuparruru
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bog “bend, knot”
*pakša “gnarl, knot; protuberance (on the tree)”
*puŋka, *poŋka “blister, boil, swelling”
*paγuγ- “to fasten down with pegs”
bun (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uzubun; uzubun2 “bladder”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
boglya “hayrick”
*p∂ŋuR “mound, hillock”
bul (15x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. bul4; bul; bun; bul5 “to blow; to
winnow; to sift; to inflate”, bun (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uzubun;
uzubun2 “bladder”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bogrács “cauldron; kettle, stew-pot”
*paγuγ- “to bring food”
bariga (57x: Ur III) wr. ba-ri2-ga “a unit of capacity; a measuring
container”
parsiktu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric,
Proto-Uralic (?)
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bogyó “berry”
Akkadian
Rhaetic
*pola
*paγunRaR “berry”
abulillum, wr. a-bu-lil-lum “boxthorn berry”, buluh, wr. buluh;
šembuluh; ba-lu-hum “an aromatic tree or its resin”
bulīlu; balahhu
enbu, enpu, unbiu “fruit; berry” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, pp. 97, 99)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Old Armenian
Akkadian
bojt “pompon, tassel”
*pavlu “drum handle”
boyth “earlobe; thumb”
ubānu “finger; a unit of length”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Manchu
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
boka “ankle”
baqalji “bones between a horse’s hoof and pastern-hairs”
*pit∂kce “bow”
eqbu “heel, hoof”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
bókolni “to bow, to curtsey”
*pit∂kce “bow”
bangi (11x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ba-an-gi4 "taper, bevel, slant,
incline"
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Central Siberian Yupik
Sumerian
bonyolítani “to complicate, to entangle”
*puńa “spun, winding; to twist, to wind”
*puR∂t∂- “to deceive, to pretend”
puuXt∂- “id.”
pana (63x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešpana; ba-na;
ĝešpanax(|ŠE.NUN&NUN|) “bow; a geometric figure”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
borjú “calf”
*nuRRaR “caribou calf”
amar (2771x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. amar “calf; young,
youngster, chick; son, descendant”
būru; māru
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Eastern Canadian Inuit
Rhaetic
boróka “juniper”
*paunRaqun “juniper or crowberry bush”
paurŋaquti “plant on which small black berries grow”
*burāšu “id.” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
boszorkány “witch”
*puqiγ- “to be intelligent”
puzur (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. puzur4; puzur5; puzur; puzur2 “secret,
shelter; protection, aegis, shadow, shelter”
puzru
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bot “stick”
*put- “to stoop or bend forward”
pa (293x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
pa; pa9 “wing; branch, frond”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Sirenikski
Akkadian
over”
botorkálni “to stagger/stumble along, to totter”
putŋuR- “to bend forward”
bâ'um + etēqum “to pass, go along; to go past; to go through; to cross
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
bödön “jar”
*putu “hole”
bandudu (61x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. ba-an-du5; giba-an-du8-du8
“seeding basket of a plow”
banduddū
Hungarian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Akkadian
bögöly “gadfly, horsefly”
wapaqa “fly agaric” (< *paŋka, cf. Fortescue 1998, p. 149)
baqqu “(small) fly, mosquito”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
bölcső “birthplace; cradle”
*pula- “to slip under cover”
hula- “dawn; to begin (month or day), to be new (moon); to bloom”
peš (147x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st
millennium) wr. peš; peš5; peš4; peš6 “innards; to breathe; grandson;
descendant; to give birth (to); (to be) pregnant; pregnancy; to gather; (to
be) thick; (to be) wide”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
bősz “anger”, bőszíteni “to enrage, to make furious”
*puqla “heat”
mir (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. mir “(to be) angry; anger, rage”
uzzu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
bújik, búv- “to creep into, to nestle in, to slip into; to hide”, búvár
“diver”
*puke- “to hide”
*puqtu- “to be high (in water)”
p∂k∂- “to jump up”
hiki- “to disappear”
bu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. bu-u2bu-u2 “secret”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
búcsú “farewell, parting; pilgrimage”
*pucit- “to turn upside down”
pag, wr. pag “to leave behind”
ezēbu
Hungarian
Sumerian
buga “of small horns, hornless”
bunga (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. bunga “child, suckling”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
buta “stipid”
*puqiγit- “to be stupid”
Probably to bu (28x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. bu; bu2 “perfect”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
búsz, búz “haze, mist, steam”
*puqla “heat” [?]
muru (21x: Old Babylonian) wr. muru9; muru3 “rainstorm; mist;
drizzle”
murū
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
buzogni “to bubble, to sprout, to well”
*p8śз- “to dribble, to drip”
*puvlaγ, *puvlaR “bubble or air in sth.”
biz (12x: Old Babylonian) wr. bi-iz; biz “to trickle, drip”
başāşum
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
buzogány “mace”
*puvlaR- “to be frightened away”
pêşu “to break up, crush, grind; to split, split up; to cut open”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Central Siberian Yupik
Sumerian
bűbáj “charm”, bűvész “conjurer; magician, wizard”, bűvös
“bewitching, charming, enchanting, magical”
*bògé “wizard; holy”
*puvała “whaling festival”
puvala “a certain ceremony”
mu (18x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu7
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumeria
bűn “crime, sin”
*puv∂- “to swell”
bun (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uzubun; uzubun2 “bladder”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
bütyök “bunion; gnarl, knot, lump; knuckle”
*put- “to stoop or bend forward”
dibida, wr. di-bi-da “to swell, to have colic”
Hungarian
cábár “ill-bred, ill-raised; liberated, released, roaming; prostitute;
slovenly, sluttishly; uneducated; vulgar
ciδam∂(t)- “to scatter, to pulverize”, ciδaγ- “to spread out; to stretch”
cimaet- “to break up” [?]
sapāhum “"to cut down; to untie, loosen; to cut; to scatter, disperse; to
decide”
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
cemende “dirty, flithy; soiled linnen; prostitute”
ciq∂R, ciqqi- “to splash”
cq- “wet”
ciŋkae- “to spit”, ciŋqe(ciŋ) “spurt of water”
sumun (522x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. sumun “(to be) old; old wood, rot, decayed matter”
sumkīnum
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
cickány “shrew”
*k∂γi(C)aR “beaver”
zu gaz (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. zu2 gaz “to chew”
gaşāşum
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
csabak “a kind of fish”
*t∂puk “whitefish”
ku’abak, wr. ku6-ab-baku6 “sea fish”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csákány, csáklya “pickaxe”
*k∂γinaR “blade”
šukara (32x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeššukara2 “tool, implement, utensil”
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
csalni, cselni “to cheat”
q∂la “spirit; to perform sorcery”
qlat- “to deceive, to tempt”
silig, wr. silig2; silig4 “hand; (cupped) hand”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csapa “trail (of game)”
*t∂p∂ “smell”
sabu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. sa5-bu8 “gain”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
csapat “company, troop”
*s’ap(p)∂- “to hack”
s’avk∂- “to knock, to crack”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to gather together, collect, scrape
up”
esēpu
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
csapni “to strike”
*č’ap’a, *č’ap’u, *č’ap’i “to chop”
*ćappз- “to strike”
*s’ap(p)∂- “to hack”
s’avk∂- “to knock, to crack”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
šub (495x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. šub “to fall; to drop, lay (down); to
thresh (grain)”
habātum
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Akkadian
csarnak “a kind of ferry boat”
*q∂RaRun “to sail”
kāru “quay, port; bank”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Rhaetic
csatak “mush, mud, dirt”
tutuk “dirt”
śade, śate “field, soil” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
csatolni “to buckle, to clasp; to bind, to fasten; to annex a territory
to (another); to enclose, to inclose”
tat∂- “to jam in”
caci- “to cover, to close”
kad (20x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kad5; kad4; kad6;
kad8 “to tie, gather; to itch, scratch; to weave a mat?”
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
csavarni “to screw, to twist”
*qi(C)∂t-, *qit- “to be convulsed”
Akk. šapāşu “to grip, to twist”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Chukchi
Yukagir
Sumerian
csegely “wedge-formed field, isle or meadow”
*s’ak∂-, *s’äk∂- “to freeze”
*c∂q-, *l∂q- “to be cold”
c’aq∂- “to freeze; fish”
zag “side”, zag dib (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. zag dib “to pass, to
surpass”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
cselekedik “to act, to do”
*aδγa(R), *aδγaγ “hand” “hand”
silig, wr. silig2; silig4 “hand; (cupped) hand”
Hungarian
Eskimo
Eskimo, Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
csendes “quiet, calm, still”
t’am- “to stay calm”, tamar “still”
t∂msazin “to stay calm”
t∂mγ∂- “to be still, calm”
huĝ (5x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. huĝ “to pacify”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
csepegni “to dribble, to drip, to drop”
*ć8ppз- “drop; to drop”
*k∂p∂t- “to dye”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
šub (495x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. šub “to fall; to drop, lay (down); to
thresh (grain)”
habātum
csép “flail, csépelni “to thrash”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
šub (495x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. šub “to fall; to drop, lay (down); to
thresh (grain)”
habātum
Akkadian
csere “exchange, cserélni “to alter, to exchange”
*kiput- “to exchange, to reverse”
sa (991x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sa10 “to pay for, buy; to be paid for,
sell”
šâmum
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
cserény “pen”
*t∂r∂tquq “angle, corner”
ĝarig (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝa2-rig7 “animal pen”
Hungarian
csiga “block, pulley; curl, helix; snail; (spinning/whipping) toy
top; volute”
*t∂γγun “hook”
si, wr. si14 “spider?, snail?”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Old Turkic
Khanty
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csigolya “osier; vertebra”
*si_àgi “a kind of a foilage tree”
sögüt “tree”
saxte(pā) “willow”
*t∂γγun “hook”
šagkal (10x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeššag4-kal “a tree, a type of
willow”
šakkullu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csiholni “to strike (a match)”
*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
sig (17x: Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. sig3 “to burn (of
digestion)”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
csík “stripe”
*t∂kkuk- “to stick out”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
North. Alaskan Inuit
Sumerian
tikkuk- “bristle; to stand out stiffly” [?]
zag “side”, zag dib (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. zag dib “to pass, to
surpass”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csiklandani, csiklandozni “to tickle”
*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
sag (186x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sag3; sag2
“to strike, beat; weave”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
csillag “star”, csillogni “to shine”
*č’i_ōli, *c’i_ōle, *č’i_ālo “grey; light”
*ć8lkз- “to glimmer, to shine, to sparkle”
*aγyaq “star”
zalag (135x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. zalag;
zalag2; su-lu-ug; sulug “(to be) pure; (fire) light; (to be) bright, to shine”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csillapítani “to appease, to calm, to pacify, to quell; to relieve, to
quench, to soothe”
*k∂luvaR- “to move back”
zil (23x: Old Babylonian) wr. zil2 “(to be) good; (to be) benificent”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csípni “to pinch”
*č’abo “to pinch”
*ć8ppз(-) “fingertip, pinch; to pinch”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
sib “to touch” (Bobula)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csipa “rheum, secretion of the eyes”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to inspect exta; to incise; to draw,
design; to gather together, collect, scrape up; to break off, deduct; to
trim, peel off; to dig, hollow out; to have a grooved shape; to cut, fell (of
trees); to become loose, fall out; to disintegrate; to disappear; to make
clear”
esēpum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csipke “thorn; lace”
*k∂p∂t- “to penetrate”
si (262x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. si “horn; finger;
fret”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csipő “hips”
*cipyaR “hip”
ib (36x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ib2 “hips; middle”
qablu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
csir “hinge (e.g. of a door)
*ćara “cone, hinge (of a door)”
*ciRu “cover”
sur (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. sur5; surx(ERIN2) “to harness, tie up; to
suspend, be suspended; harness team (of draft animals or workers)”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
csira “bud, germ, ovum; nucleus”
*ć8rз, *ć8rkз “germ”
*ciRu “cover”
šir (13x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. šir “testicle; bulb”
Hungarian
Sumerian
csóka “jackdaw”
šaghab (2x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. šag4-hab2mušen “a bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csókolni “to kiss”, csók “kiss”
*ć8kkз(-lз)*ciq(q)i “to splash”
sag (2955x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian) wr. sag8; sag9; sag10; šeg10; sag12 “(to be) good, sweet,
beautiful; goodness, good (thing)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
csokor “bouquet”
*č’ugu “bundl”
*ćukk3, *ćukkз-rз
*ciquq “cottonwood”
sagi (12x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. sa-gi “reed bundle”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Yukagir
Sumerian
csomó “bundle, knot”, csoma “bulb” (?)
*ćolme “bundle, knot; to tie”
c’olo- “to tie on, to add”
sa (4558x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sa; gisa “reed-bundle”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
csont “bone”
*ćutte “ankle-bone”
*caun∂q “bone”
zingi (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. zi-in-gi4 “ankle bone”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csoport “group”
*cip∂(γ)- “to split”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to gather together, collect, scrape
up”
esēpu
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
csög “knot (in wood, etc.)
*ć8ŋkз “knot; to tie into a knot”
cukaR “post, support”
sig (91x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sa2; sig9 “to tie (shoes)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
csög, csök “root, stump”
*č8økkз “block (of wood)”
cukaR “post, support”
sig (343x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. sig “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be)
thin; (to be) narrow”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Yukagir
Sumerian
csúcs “point, top (of a hill)”
*ćukkз “hill, point, top”
*tuδka “tip”
*t∂kkuaq- “point”
kic’- “end, top”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head; person; capital”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Ugric
Sumerian
csuhé “fishing-net”
*kuvδaR “net”
*cujз
sa (50x: Old Babylonian) wr. sa “net”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
csukni “to close, to shut”
*čukka- “to enclose”
*cikunRiq- “to close eyes”
za, wr. za “to close?”, sig (74x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-ig; šeg5 “(deathly)
hush; (to be) silent” (Bobula)
šaqummatu “to be silent”
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
csuklik “to bend one’s knees (and fall down); to have the hiccups”
*cajuγ- “to tug, to twitch”
saju- “to pull”
dub gurum (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. dub3 gurum “to sit down, to take a
rest”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csukorodik “to crouch, to extend, to stretch”
*ćukkз-, *ćokkз- “to bend oneself, to pull together”
*taci(γ)- “to stretch”
šu sud (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. šu sud “to stretch the hand out” Akk. ?
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csupor “small container”
*ćuppз “little pot made of birch-bark, vessel”
*cupluγ, *cupluR *tube”
zabar (810x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zabar; zabar3 “measuring vessel made
of bronze; a metal bowl”
sappu; siparru
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csücsülni “to sit down”
*cittuR “to sit with legs extended”
su (54x: Old Babylonian) wr. su; su3 “to submerge; to sink”
ţeb “to submerge; to sink” or šegū “to go up or down”?
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
csüd, csög, csüg, csűg “bird’s foot; pastern”
*ć8ŋз “joint (?), knuckle”
*it∂gaR “foot”
zid (1475x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. zid “right; to be right, true, loyal”, su (2785x: ED IIIa,
ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. šu; sum5; šu-x “hand”
qātu “hand”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
csülök “hoof, hooves”
*aδγa(R), *aδγaγ “hand” “hand”
silig, wr. silig2; silig4 “hand; (cupped) hand”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
csűr “barn”
*ciRu- “cover”
sur (127x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. su7
“threshing floor; abandonment”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
dadogni “to stutter”
*kutak- “to speak in an indistinct way”
dug (3878x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. dug4 “to speak, to talk, to
say”
dabābu
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Wakashan
Sumerian
dagadni “to swell”
*toŋз-, *taŋзt∂nu- “to push”
hnu- “to reach”
t∂nup “hill”, t∂not-γ∂rγ∂n “swelling”
tinu(pa). “to swell (like a boil)”
daĝal (745x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. daĝal; dam-gal; di-am-ga-al; da-ma-al
“(to be) wide; width, breadth”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
dal “song”, dalolni, danolni “to sing”
*t∂li- “to tell”
du (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. du9-du9 “lament”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
derék “waist”
*t∂riqšaq “belt”
dara (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. tug2dara4; dara2; tug2dara2 “belt, sash,
girdle; string”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
dob “drum”
*tap∂R “frame of drum”
adab (42x: Old Babylonian) wr. a-da-ab; a-da-ba “a drum; a song”
adapu
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
doboz “box”
*taput∂- “to include”
dab (8723x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dab5; dab; dab5-dab5;
dabx(|LAGAB×GUD|) “to seize, take, hold; to bind; to envelop,
overwhelm; to choose (by extispicy); to accept; to take charge of”
şabātum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
dőlni “to fall, to topple over; to lean, to tilt; to pour (of rain)”
*tuluR- “to butt or bump into”
dirig (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. dirig “to become loose, fall out; to
disintegrate; to disappear; to fall down, collapse”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
dugni “to cram, to hide, to put in, to stuff”
*tuŋke- “to break through, to cram, to stuff”
*tutquq- (< *tunquR-) “to store away”
*tuŋvaR- “id.”
taka (667x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. tak4 “to set aside, leave behind; to
save, keep back, hold back”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
dúlni “to devastate, to ravage”
*tuluR- “to butt or bump into”
dul (10x: Old Babylonian) wr. dul2 “to lower; (to be) deep”
Hungarian
e-, i-: e, ez “this”; i-tt “here”, i-de “hither”, innen “from here”; így “so”; i-lyen “such as this”
*e-, *i*e- “this”
uv(a)- “this”
wa- “id.”
waj “here you are”. waj∂ŋ-qen “that just there”
e(duŋ) “id.”
ti/tu “this”
a-ne (Old Sumerian) vs. e-ne (Old Babylonian) “he, she”
šū “he” vs. šī “she”
is, es “this”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Koryak
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
Rhaetic
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
égni “to burn”
*äŋз- “fire; to burn”
*∂k∂- “to burn”
šeĝ (261x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šeĝ6 “to
cook; to dry a field; to fire (pottery)”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
egy “one; (indefinite article)”
*ataRuciR “one”
ataqan “one”
ge4 “one”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ék “spike, wedge”
*S8ŋз “plug, wedge”
iq∂R “corner of mouth”
iiqi-X “inside corner”
jeqa- “nose”
*iq∂k “point, tip”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head; person; capital”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
elő “forward”, el- “away”
*ílék’a, *élík’a, *élíka “front; before”
*eδe- “forward, that which is in front of ...”
ali “place far off”
ul (161x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ul; ul-li2; ul-li “(to be)
distant (in time); distant time”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Kamassian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
élni “to live”, élelem “food”
d’ili “alive”
*elä*el(ä)- “to be, to exist”
til (770x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til3 “to live; to sit (down); to dwell”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
elég “enough; rather”
*al∂γ- “to feel confident”
ul, wr. ul4 “greatly”
Hungarian
elleni “to bear, to bring forth, to droup (young), to give birth (to a
litter), to yean”
*sente- “to give birth”
*∂l-tur “grandchild; grandfather (?)”
(w)alādum “to bear young; child-bearing”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ellik “to mount, to ride; to place, to set”
*sälз-, sälkз- “to mount, to place (oneself) onto/on top of ...”
*∂lγaR- “to settle; to be settled”
zal (2798x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zal “to get up early; to finish,
come to an end; to dissolve, melt, disintegrate, break down, collapse; to
quake; to pass time”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Rhaetic
élvezni “to enjoy”
*aŋla- “to enjoy”
lavise “enjoy (imperative pl.)” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
Rhaetic
emik “to suckle”, eme “female of an animal”, emse “sow”
*emV-, *ami- “to suck”
*ime- “to suckle”
*emä “mother”
emej “mother”
ama (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ama “mother”
ummu
em, emu, um (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
én “I”
*bi
*m8ø
*uvaŋa “I”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
me (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me
“Being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; (cultic)
ordinance”, me (2860x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. me; em; am3 “to be”
mū
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ének “song”
*ane “noise, sound, voice”
*∂me “voice”, ∂m∂ŋ∂(R)- “to sing, to hum”
inim (1317x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. inim; e-ne-eg3 “word; matter (of affairs)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
enni, esz-, ev- “to eat”, étek, étel “food”, etetni “to feed”
*sīju-, *sījo*seγe-, *sewe*seγ∂- “to eat”
leγ “to eat”
sud, wr. zu2 sud2 “to bite”
gaşāşum
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
enyelegni “to chatter, to gossip, to talk; to flirt; to dawdle, to loaf,
to lunge”
*8ń3- “to flirt, to gossip”
*uŋul∂γ- “to shake”
en, wr. en2 “incantation, spell”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
enyh “reconciliation; relief, soothing”
*8nз “place”
*uŋlu “nest”
in (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. in “sector”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
North Siberian Yupik
Sumerian
epe “gall”
*säppä
*cuŋa(R) “gall”
suŋaq “bile, bead”
ze (16x: Old Babylonian) wr. ze2; ze4 “gall bladder; bile”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
Koryak
Wakashan
Sumerian
ér “vein; source, well, brook”
*säre “rivulet; vein”
aer- “to flow out”, aer-iŋ “shore”
aj-γ∂jŋ∂n “low tide”
erxe- “to flow”, eri “river”
sur (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. sur3; sur6; sur7 “canal, ditch; foundation
pit of a building”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
sūru
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumeria
érni “to attain, to reach; to touch”
uR-n∂γ- “to go towards”
*uR-niR- “to aim at”
joR(∂)- “to reach”
ere (68x: Ur III) wr. re; er; e-ra; erx(|DU.DU|); re6; re7; er-re; i-ri
“perfect plural stem of ĝen[to go]”
alākum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Inwit
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumeria
Akkadian
esik “to fall”, ejteni “to drop”
*ećз- “to fall”
est- “id.”
it- “to fall”, icaRi- “to drip”
jit- “to drip”
šeĝ (70x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šeĝ3; šeĝx(|IM.A.A|);
šeĝx(|IM.A.AN|) “to (fall as) dew; to rain; rain”
šahāhu “to fall down”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
esketni “to marry”, eskü “oath”
*ečkз- “to praise”
*it∂r- “to enter”
saĝba (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ-ba; saĝ-ba-a “oath”, su-gid: su (495x:
ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. su “flesh; body; entrails (omen); body” + gid (13x: Ur
III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 "to drag, tow (a boat
upstream); to pass along, transfer; to flay?; to milk"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ész “mind”
*itaγ- “to take care of”
sa (46x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sa2
“advice, counsel; resolution, intelligence”, si, wr. si “to remember”
hasāsum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ev “matter, pus”
*säje(-) “to fester, to rot; rottenness”
*aRu- “to rot”
sissi (160x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si12-si12; sissix(GI) “(to be)
green-yellow, pale”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
North Siberian Yupik
evet “squirrel”
*säpз, *šäpз or *täpз
*qiγuiq “squirrel”
qiwik “ground squirrel”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
si (262x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. si “horn; finger;
fret” + pa (293x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. pa; pa9 “wing; branch, frond”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
evezni “to row”
*suγe*iput “to row”
zigan (12x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešzi-gan “rudder”
sikkānu
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
fa “tree; wood”
*p’(iù)ju “a kind of tree”
*puwe “tree; wood”
puq∂ “bottom; behind”
pa (293x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
pa; pa9 “wing; branch, frond”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Akkadian
facsarni “to wring; to wring out”
*pućз-rз- “to press, to squeeze”, *päćзrз- “to press, to wring”
putjuγ-/pumjuγ- “to pinch”
mazū “to squeeze”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
fagyal “privet”
*p’ude, *p’udi
*pajз “a type of salix”
*uqviγ “willow (shrub)”
uqf∂x “tree”
buluh, wr. buluh; šembuluh; ba-lu-hum “an aromatic tree or its resin”
balahhu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Mokša Mordvin
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
fagyni “to freeze”
*pal’a “to freeze; frost, ice-crust”
pulta- “to burn”
paliR “to be parched”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
fágyni “to roll into a ball”
*p8čз- “to place in a layer, to wind; stratum”
*paŋkiγ- “to grasp”
pakeγ- “to bend, to flex”, pakiγ- “to hook fingers into, to dig into”
vak(∂Ro)- “to sit”, vaeγ∂lku- “to scratch”, vaeγ- “claw”
pahar (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. pa-har “gathering”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
faggyú “suet, tallow”
*p8l’ćз “fat, tallow”
*puvala- “to be fat”
peš (147x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st
millennium) wr. peš; peš5; peš4; peš6 “(to be) thick; (to be) wide”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Yukagir
Akkadian
fáj “hurt, pain”
*poδ’з- “shaving; to split”
paj- “to hit” [?]
būdum “to cut open, to slit, to split”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fajd “wood grouse”
*paδ’tз “Tetrao urogallus”
*qat∂- “deep or loud voice”
pec, wr. peš2mušen “a bird”, peš (1x: ED IIIa) wr. peš2mušen “a bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fakadni “to blossom”
*p’ók’ù- “to swell”
*pakka “to burst, to rend”
*puv∂- “to swell”
pag, wr. pag “to leave behind”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
fal “wall”
*p’ádo “wall”
*paδe “dam, weir”
paδ∂ “entrance”
haδγi-X “channel, narrow entrance (to bay)”
bad (2910x: ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bad3 “wall, fortification”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
falni “to devour”, falat “morsel”
*pala- “te devour; morsel”
*palu- “to be lying on one’s stomach”
bala, wr. bala “wastage (in processing grain)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-(Finno-?)Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Rhaetic
falu “village”
*palge “town”
*palγз
*palliq “dry willow twigs”
barim (24x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bar-rim4; barim “dry land” [?]
*ālu “village” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97)
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
fan “down, hair”
*p’úńe “hair; feather”
*puna “hair”
*pun∂rt∂- “skim surface”
munsub (5x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. munsub; munsub2;
munsubx(|KA×SUHUR|); sumunsub; sumunsub2; u2-šu-p? “hair;
barber”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
far “bottom, rear; rump, stern”
*p’i_òrí “back; west”
Hungarian
*purkз “back, rear”
*p∂quR, p∂kuγ “upper back of neck”
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur “back,
shoulder”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
faragni “to carve, to cut, to whittle (wood), to hew, to trim”,
forgács “wood splinters”
*puŕi-, *puŕe- “to crush2
*parз- “to cut, to remove, to scrape, to shave”
*pilaγtuR- “to cut up”
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur “ to cut
open, slit, split”, bur (3x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. burx(|KA׊U|)
“to cut”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Inuit
Chukchi
Sumerian
fasz “man; penis”
*paćз “male sex organ”
*pat’k(∂)- “to penetrate”
*p∂t∂- “id.”
*p∂ttaq “hole”
pat-γ∂rg∂n “hole”
penzer (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. pe-en-ze2-er “female genitals”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Inuit
Chukchi
Sumerian
fazék “pot”
*pata “kettle, pot”
*pat’k(∂)- “to penetrate”
*p∂t∂- “id.”
*p∂ttaq “hole”
pat-γ∂rg∂n “hole”
ba (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. dugba “type of vessel”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fedni “to cover”, fedél “cover, covering; roof”
*bi_ót’è “to cover”
*bat*büte*pentз- “to close, to cover”
*p∂tluγ- “to survive”
bad (2910x: ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bad3 “wall, fortification”
Hungarian
feddeni “to rebuke, to reproach”, fegyelem “discipline”, fegyver
“weapon”
*pilaun “knife for butchering” [?]
badara (12x: Old Babylonian) wr. ba-da-ra; ba-dar “dagger, weapon”
pattarum
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fejni “to milk”
*päδ’з-, *pije- “to milk”
*ituγ “milk of animal” [?]
bad (147x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bad; ba;
be2 “to open”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
fejsze “axe”
*p8jćз “axe, hatchet”
*paki(γ)uR- “to take a stroke” [?]
pašu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. pa-a-šu “type of axe”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fejteni “to unstitch, to undo, to remove the husk/pod”
*pejз- “to undo”
*paδ∂ “opening, entrance”
bal (511x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ba-al; bal; bal3; bal4; pe-el "to unload
(a boat)”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
fék “brake; fetter”
*päkkз “bridle”
paekul “knife” [?]
be (99x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. be4; be6
“to deduct, remove; to diminish, reduce; to withdraw, receive (as an
allotment)”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
fekély, fekel “chancre, ulcer”
*p8kkз- “to break apart; chancre, ulcer”
*poŋk∂ “hillock”
pöŋk∂ “hill”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*p∂ŋuR “rounded hillock on tundra”
pag, wr. pag “to leave behind”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fekete “black”
*p8kkз-ttз “black”
*paγu(la) “soot”
ukuk (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. u2-ku-uk “to burn”, bar (20x: Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. bar7 “to burn; to fire (pottery)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
fekszik, feküd-, fekv- “to be situated, to lie”
*päkkз- “to sit”
puci- “to turn over, be upside down”
hasuγ- “to lie prostrate”
pag, wr. pag “to leave behind”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
fel, föl “above, up, upper”, föl- “skimmings”, fenn “above”
*piδe, *piδe-kä “high; long”
piŋ- “up there”
hiŋ- “right there”
bad (147x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bad; ba;
be2 “(to be) remote; to open, undo; to thresh grain with a threshing
sledge”
fel (phel), bel “sir” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97)
Rhaetic
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Akkadian
fél-: ajtófél “doorpost”
*pele, *pēle “post, stand”
*pel(aγ)- “to cut up, flense”
pilaγ- “to cut up”
hilγi- “to dig (out)”
bulug (56x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bulug; urudbulug; mu-lu-ug; bulu-ug “needle; stake; boundary; seal pin”
pulukku
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Central Alaskan Yupik
Sumerian
félni “to be afraid/scared”
*belV “hysterics, panic; mourning”
*pele- “to frighten, to scare”
*p∂llicci- “to be unable to keep one’s eyes open”
p∂lli- “to have a nightmare”
buluh (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. bu-luh; bu-lu-uh2; bu-lu-uh3; buluh “to
fear, tremble, be afraid”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
fél, fele- “fellow human, friend”, feleség “wife”
*bołe “an indirect relative”
*pälä “half; side”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
Akkadian
ila “relative, friend, part”
ba (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. ba3; ba7 “half; thirty”
palāhum “to work (the earth), to plow” > Arabic falahā “to plow”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Aleut
Sumerian
fél “half; one side (of two)”
*pälä “half; side”
*pel(aγ)- “to cut up, flense”
hilγi- “to dig (out)”
ba (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. ba3; ba7 “half; thirty”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
felhő “cloud”
*bulu, *bula, *bulo
*pilwe-, *pilŋe
*p∂lu(R) “dust”
ibi (18x: Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. i-bi2; i3-bi2; ibbi;
ibbix(NE) “smoke”, bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil
“to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
fém “metal”, fémlik “to shine”, fény “light”
*qauma- “to be bright” [?]
bur (78x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. bur2; bu7 “light; to glow,
shine”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
fenni “to hone, to sharpen, to whet; to rub in”
*pänз(-) “whet; whetstone”
piŋu- “to push”
hiŋu- “id.”
p∂nae- “to whet, to sharpen”
kin (2x: Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. kin2 “to grind”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fene “damned, devilish, infernal”
*pene
*p∂ŋ∂γ- “to be worried”
ib (35x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ib2 “(to be) angry; to curse” + nam
kud (72x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. nam kud “to curse”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
féreg “noxious animal; vermin; worm”
*p’iáru “a kind of worm”
*perkз, *perkkз “worm”
*P∂r∂- “to bend”
piriĝ (205x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. piriĝ; piriĝ3; bi2-ri-iĝ3; ĝešpiriĝ; piriĝ2 “lion; bull, wild
bull”
parākum “to wriggle, to squirm (snake)”
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Rhaetic
*farāk-, *farāg
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
férfi “man”, férj “husband”, fiú “boy, son”
*āri, *ēra “man”
*irkä, *ürkä “boy, son, husband”
*iRni- “to give birth”, *uγi “husband” [?]
ili (3x: Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. i3-li2 “man”, pil, wr. pil6
“male”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric (?)
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
férni “to arrive, to reach; to fit, to have room”
*purз-, p8rз- “to go into”
*p∂r∂- “to bend”
haXt “to stand up, to get up”
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur
“outside, (other) side; behind; outer form, outer; outsider; to cut open,
slit, split”
parūm “to cut, to cut open”
*far-
Akkadian
Rhaetic
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno-?)Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
feslik “to become unsewn; to burst”
*päće “to loosen, to stretch out”
*p∂tuRaq- “to come through; to reach”
ba (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. ba3; ba7 “half; thirty” + sil (119x: Ur III,
Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|); sil5 “to split apart;
to split, slit”
šalātu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
festeni “to paint”
*p8čз “colour; paint”
*miŋul∂q- “to paint, to smear”
pendu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. pe-en-du “spot” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
fészek “nest”
*pesä
*p∂tuγ- “to fasten, to secure”
puzur (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. puzur4; puzur5; puzur; puzur2 “secret,
shelter; protection, aegis, shadow, shelter”
puzru
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
feszíteni “to tighten (tr.)”, feszülni “to tighten (itr.)”
*p∂tuγ- “to fasten, to secure”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
si sa (410x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. si sa2; si si-sa2 “to
make straight; to make vertical”
ešērum
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
figyelni “to notice, to observe, to pay attention”
*piδaq∂(naR)-, *piδaR(naR)- “to be difficult”
pad (2313x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. pad3 “to find,
discover; to name, nominate”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
fog “tooth”
*piŋe “tooth”
k∂p∂- “to cut” (with metathesis?)
k∂pk∂p “tooth”
gug (45x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gug; gug6 “tooth; blade;
beak; dogbite”
Hungarian
fogni “to catch”, fogoly “prisonner”, fogadni “to take”, foglalni
“to occupy, to seize”
*puŋз- “to catch, to get”
pakiγ- “to hook fingers onto”
paŋk(u)-l “net” [?]
pag (2x: Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. pag “to enclose,
confine, cage (a bird)”
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Yukagir
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
fogyni “to decrease, to diminish, to lessen, to wane; to loose
weight”
*pučз- “to decrease, to reduce, to shrink”
*p∂k∂- “to jump up”
hiki- “to disappear”
*piŋku- “to jump”
pöγ-, pöŋk- “to run away”
be (99x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. be4; be6
“to deduct, remove; to diminish, reduce; to withdraw, receive (as an
allotment)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fojtani “to drown; to strangle”, fúlni “to suffocate”
*póga “to tie up”
*puwз-, *puŋз- “to suffocate, to smother”
*∂p∂- “to suffocate”
bul (27x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bul; i3-bul5-bul5 “to shake” [?]
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Proto-Yupik
Central Siberian Yupik
Akkadian
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
folyik “to flow, to run, to stream; to ensue, to follow, to go on, to
be in progress”, folyó, folyam “river, stream”, folytatni “to
continue, to go ahead/on, to run on; to extend, to prolong, to
follow, to lead (a life), to pursue, to wage (a war)
*p8lз- “to gush, to stream”
*puγ∂- “to flow”
hux “bag”
pvat- “to float”
*p∂γ-at- “id.”
*p∂γt∂- “to drop, to let go”
puγ-naan “inflated poke, float”
palgu
par (130x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
pa5; pa6 “(small) canal, irrigation ditch”
fordítani “to turn (tr.)”, fordulni “to revolve, to turn (itr.)”, forogni
“to turn (itr.)”
*p8rkз-, *p8rgз- “to revolve, to turn”
*pucit- “to turn upside down”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, cross”
palūm
Akkadian
forrani “to boil”, forradalom “revolt, revolution, uprising”,
forradás “scar”
*qała- “to boil, to churn”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, cross”
palūm
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fos “thin, liquid excrement”
*pućka, *paćka “excrete; thin excrement”
*puγ∂- “to surface, to emerge”
bed (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. bed3 “to defecate; excrement”
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno-?)Ugric
Proto-Inuit
North Alaskan Inuit
Sumerian
foszlik “to fray, to get threadbare/tattered”
*puśз- “to tear; to tear oneself”
*putžuq “hole worn in sth.”
pužžuq “hole worn in boot sole”
bir (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. bir7; bir6; bir9 “to shred”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
fő, fej “main; head”
*p’èk’V “brain; head”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
*päŋз “head”
*päŋ∂ “top”
paeŋ-kae(l) “hat”
ba (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. dugba “type of vessel” (cf. Latin testa
“vessel” > “vessel of the brain” > Italian testa, French tête, etc. “head”)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Koryak
Chukchi
Wakashan
Sumerian
főlni, főzni “to cook, to heat”
*p’uje- “to whirl; to boil”
*peje- “to cook”
*pej∂(γ)-, *poj∂(γ)- “to cook, to steam”
*pujae- “to cook on hot stones in pit”
puj?epuj “soot”
poju- “to smoke”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Khanty
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fú “a species of waterfowl”
*p8jзpai “a type of black duck”
*puvyar “bird’s crop”
buru (13x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. buru4mušen; guur2mušen; buru15mušen; buru16mušen; buru6mušen “crow; a bird of
prey or a vulture”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
fújni “to blow”
*p’ulgi*puγз-, *puwз*puw∂, *puγ∂- “to swell”
*puvak “lungs”
hum- “to swell, inflate”
bul (15x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. bul4; bul; bun; bul5 “to blow; to
winnow; to sift; to inflate”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
fullánk “dart, sting”
*pulз- “to stab, to thrust”
*pul∂nt∂- “to hit on the right spot”
bulug (56x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bulug; urudbulug; mu-lu-ug; bulu-ug “needle; stake; boundary; seal pin”
pulukku
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
fúrni “to bore, to drill”
*p’i_òŕ-, *p’èŕo- “to screw, to carve”
*pura(-) “borer; to bore, to drill”
*pura “to go in”
-ra- “house, yaranga”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
bulug (4x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bulug “to sew”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
futni “to run”
*póki “to run, to run away”
*pukta- “to flee, to hop, to run, to skip”
*paaqtuq- “to go (continually) towards sth.”
pag, wr. pag “to leave behind”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
fül “ear”
*peljä “id.”
*pel(ju) “leaf or ear”
pełu “leaf” (< *p∂lalu[γ]?)
p∂la (p∂l) “leaf”
kul (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kul “a handle”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fűlik “to become warm, to heat”
*pilз- “to burn”
*puqla “heat; hot water”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fürdik “to bathe, to take a bath”
*pilkз- “to bathe (oneself)”
*puqla “heat; hot water”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
fürt “bunch of grapes; bundle; tuft of hair, tress”
*p8rз “bunch”
*p∂r∂- “to bend”
buru (206x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. buru14; gur7; gur16 “harvest, summer”
ebūru
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
füst “smoke”
*pičз, *pićз
*puyuR “smoke”
mes (56x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mes;
ĝešmes “blackness, black spot; black wood”
Hungarian
fűzni “to bind (e.g. flowers into wreaths), to knit, to lace, to fasten;
to sew, to stitch (of books)”
*pitä- “to hold”
*pit(uγ)- “to tie up”
p∂z- “id.”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Inuit
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Chukotko-Kamch.
Akkadian
*v∂t- “to tie up”
patālum “to turn, to wind, to tie up”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
fűz “osier; willow”
*pećз “willow”; *pesз, *pečз “withe”
*uqviγ “willow (shrub)”
uqf∂x “tree”
buzin (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. bu-zi2-in “a plant”
buşinnu
Hungarian
gamó, kamó, kajmó, kampó “crook, hook”, gáncs “click, trip
(with a leg)”, gönc “odds and ends; old clothing that is bound into
a knot”, gomb “button; knob”, gomba “mushroom”, gombóc
“ball; dumpling”, gombolyag “ball, clew, coil; cop, hank, reel,
skein”, gomoly “isolated mass of cloud, fog or smoke”,
gomolyogni “to puff up, to wreathe (of smoke)”; to swirl, to whirl
(of clouds)”, göb “little bundle or knot”, gömb “ball, orb; globe;
sphere”, gömbölyű “rounded”, göncölni “to cram, to press, to
stuff”, göngyölíteni “to roll into a cylinder shape”, gubancolni “to
entangle”, homorú “concave, hollow”, homp “clod of earth”,
kanyar “bend (in a river, etc.), kanyarítani “to bend”, konya “bent
downward”, konyulni “to bend down”, kunkorodik “to curl (of
hair)”
*kúmi, *komi “cavity; hollow; inner angle”
*k8mз “hollow”
*käm(∂γ) “footware”
kamlu “round cap”, kaδ∂v∂(t)- “to go round” (< *kavδ∂-?)
koma- “to dress, to put shoes on” (< *kame-)
kaemlil “circle”, k∂mγ∂t- “to bunch up”, k∂mRukaet- “to roll up in a
ball”, kawra- “to go round”
gam (33x: Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝeškab; ĝešgam3; ĝešKIN “shepherd's crook, bent stick; haft, hilt”,
gurum (138x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gurum; gur8; gur;
gurumx(GURUN) “to bend, curve, wrap around; to bow; to roll up; to
curb, restrain; to watch over”. Also the Gönc(z)ölszekér “Ursa
maior/minor” has his name for Sum. gam, since this constellation of
stars describes a kind of chain.
gamlu; kanāšu, kanānu
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
gar “arrogant, disdainful, haughty, presumptuous”
*qaRa “decoration (on parka)” [?]
kur (489x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. kur2; gur “(to be) different;
(to be) strange; (to be)estranged; (to be) hostile; to change; to become
strange; to alternate (math.)”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
gatya “linen trousers worn by peasants; underwear”
*kuδjз “blanket, cover”
*kuδ’∂, kul’∂ “above, cover”
*qu(C)∂k “bone in rear flipper of seal”
qulγ∂n “(fish) skin; bark”
kuδ∂- “to rise, to go up”
gada (633x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gada “flax; linen”
kitū
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
gebe “worn-out horse”
*gibe “mare”
*kebel
*geγó-n
*gibu*kewe “mare; female (of animal)”
k∂v∂g- “to raise”, kumsa- “id.”
kaew(ji)- “to rise”, kaewkaew “hill”
kab (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kab “wing of a horse bit; noserope”
kappu “wing; hollow hand; paw”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
gége “windpipe”
*k8ŋkз “Adam’s apple, throat”
qak∂R(luγ) “throat”, quŋ∂ciR “neck”
gu (753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. gu2 “bank, side; neck”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
gerinc “spine”
*q∂r- “height”
*q∂RaR- “to rise up”
eĝir (393x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. eĝir; eĝir5(LUM); egir4;
eĝir6(MURGU2) “back, rear; after; estate, inheritence”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gödény “pelican”
*quγδuγ “swan”
guddu (2x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. gud-du7mušen; gud-temušen;
gud-damušen “a bird?”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
görcs “gnarl, knot; spasm”
*p∂R∂- “to bend, to flex”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gördíteni “to push, to roll, to wheel”, gördülni “to move, to roll
(along), to travel, to trundle; to revolve, to turn”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
gurum (138x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gurum; gur8; gur;
gurumx(GURUN) “to bend, curve, wrap around; to bow; to roll up; to
curb, restrain; to watch over”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
görény “skunk”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
gur (4x: ED IIIa) wr. gur8 “a designation of animals”
Hungarian
gügyü “a little part of mown grass; a handful; reed-bundle ready
for the stove”
*k∂γaq- “notch”
gug (76x: Ur III) wr. u2gug4; gug4; gug; u2|ZI&ZI|; u2|A.ZI&ZI|;
u2|ZI&ZI.A|; u2|ZI&ZI.EŠ2.ŠE| “a grass; rush, sedge”
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
gyakni “to hit”
*δ’8kkз- “to poke, to prick, to sting”
*j8kkз- “to prick, to stab, to thrust”
∂gu(z)- “to pierce, to sting”
γu- “to penetrate”
j∂γu- “to bite”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
gyakor “numerous”, gyakori “frequent, repeated”, gyakorolni “to
practise”
*jowkkз “heap, mass”
*uγlaR- “to be many”
du (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. du8 “to heap up, pile up”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
gyalulni “to cut, to slice; to plane; to shred”
*j8rз “planing iron, shaver; to scrape, to shave”
k∂liγ- “to scrape”
kele “to write”, kle- “to rub”
kaeli- “to draw”, kili-/kele- “to rub”
dal (9x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. dal “dividing line, transverse line”, gul
(518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to destroy; to break; to flatten; to carve,
cut; to engrave”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Central Alaskan Yupik
gyanú “suspicion”
*kama- “to be nervously attentive”
kama- “to feel suspicious”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
sun (16x: Old Babylonian) wr. sun7; sun5 “to be haughty”
Hungarian
gyarmat “colony”, gyarapodik “to grow strong”, gyarapítani “to
add to, to enlarge, to increase”
*qaRmaR *temporary dwelling”
gur (124x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gur3-ru; guru3; gur; gur17; guru6
“bearer; to lift, carry”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
gyékény “bulrush, matgrass; doormat, matting”
*uqviγ “willow”
gi (4900x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gi “reed, cane; a unit of length”
qanū
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyenge “weak”
*uqiŋit to be light”
gigan, wr. gi-gan “twig”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
gyeplő “rein, ribbons”
string, thread
*t∂p∂- “drift ashore”
dab (8723x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dab5; dab; dab5-dab5;
dabx(|LAGAB×GUD|) “to seize, take, hold; to bind”
şabātu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyep “lawn”, gyepű “hedge(row), fence”
*t∂p∂- “drift ashore”
dubban (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. dub-ba-an; gidub-ba-an “fence”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyér “scarse”
*ir(∂)l∂g “to be stingy”
dirig (110x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dirig “to tear
out”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyerek, gyermek “child”
*iRni(C)aR “offspring”
dumu (28245x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian, uncertain)
wr. dumu; du5-mu “child, son, daughter”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
gyom “weed”
*tukuRnaq “kind of seaweed”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
gin, wr. gin4; u2|ZI&ZI|; u2|A.ZI&ZI|; u2|ZI&ZI.A|;
u2|ZI&ZI.EŠ2.ŠE| “a grass”
Hungarian
Common Turkic
Kipchak
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyomor “stomach”
yum- “to press”
yumur “one of the parts of a ruminant’s stomach”
*uŋuman “heart”
gum (18x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. gum; gum2 “to crush”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
gyónik “to confess (to a priest)”
*qana- “to be ill”
dun (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. dun5-na “humble”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Akkadian
gyopár “cudweed”
*tumaγliq “plant type”
daprānu, duprānu “juniper” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyors “fast, quick”
*k∂vaγ- “to do fast”
sar (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sar “to run, hasten”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyökér “root”
*j8kkз-rз
*iqquR “buttock or end of sth.”
ur (441x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ur2; ur5 “root, base; limbs; loin, lap”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyöngy “bead; bubble; pearl”, gyönyörú
*qip∂- “to twist”
gun (1x: Early Old Babylonian) wr. al-gu2-gu2 “to twist”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyönyörű “splendid”
*uŋul∂γ- “to shake, to tremble” [?]
ugunu (20x: Old Babylonian) wr. u3-gun3; ugunu; ugunu2; u3-gun; ugunu “decorative inlay; ointment”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyötörni “to agonize; torment, to torture; to trouble, to worry”
*q∂tER- “to jump (on)”
gud (28x: Old Babylonian) wr. gu4-ud; gud2 “to jump (on); to attack; to
escape; to dance; hero, warrior”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
győzni “to win, to triumph”
*q∂tER- “to jump (on)”
gu us (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. gu2 us2 “to raise the neck”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyúrni “to knead, to press”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
gurum (138x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gurum; gur8; gur;
gurumx(GURUN) “to bend, curve, wrap around; to bow; to roll up; to
curb, restrain; to watch over”
Hungarian
Turkish
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
gyűjteni “to collect, to gather”
yığ- “to heap, to pile up”
*q∂ŋžuR-, *q∂ŋžaR- “to gather, to assemble”
gu kin, wr. gu3 kin; gu3 kin5 “to gather”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turksih
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
gyűlölni “to hate”
*dūli “mad, crazy”
*jül- “to be mad, to be crazy”
*pivli- “to be crazy”
gul (518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to destroy; to break”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
gyümölcs “fruit”
*tukšuk- “to crush”
gum (18x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. gum; gum2 “to crush”
(common semantic development: “to crush” > “to eat” > “food”)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyűrű “dogberry bush; maple tree”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
GIR (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešGIR3 “a type of tree”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
gyűrű “ring”
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”
Hungarian
Turkish
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
gyűszű “thimble”
yüksük
*tukšuk- “to crush”
sug (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. sug4 “(to be) empty”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
hab “foam”
*k’óp’i, *k’op’e
*kumpa
qapuγ “foam”
uhpu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uh2-pu2 “foam”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Karakhanid
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Koryak
Akkadian
had “army; host”
*kòt’V “village, locality”
*kunta “clan, gens, progeny, large family”
qutu “group of people”
*kunta “fellow(s), tribe”
*-qan, -qat∂ “fellow-“
-qasi “fellow-“
kudej∂ “tribe, family”
kimtu “clan”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hadarni “to speak quickly and incomprehensibily”
*qat∂kit- “to have a soft or high voice”
ad (26x: Old Babylonian) wr. ad “voice; cry; noise”
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hágni “to ascend”
*kaŋз-, *kaŋkз- “to ascend, to climb”
*kaγu- “to reach in or under sth.”
saĝ “head”, in: saĝ il (181x: Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ il2 “to
raise the head”, saĝ us (41x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ us2 “to raise the
head”, saĝ zig (14x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ zig3 “to raise the head”
šaqū “high”
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hagyni “to leave, to let”
*ga- “to take; to put”
*kaδ’a- “to abandon, to leave, to remain”
*qaδ∂(t)Rut∂- “to go over”
sud (488x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. sud; su3-ud “(to be) distant; (to be) remote”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
hagyapni “to spit; to kiss”
*kuδ’з-, *kulз- “to spit”
ciq∂R, ciqqi- “to splash”
cq- “wet”
ciŋkae- “to spit”, ciŋqe(ciŋ) “spurt of water”
sud, wr. sud5 “to purify”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Wakashan
Sumerian
hagy-, in: hagymáz “spotted fever”
*kolja “angry ghost”
*k8ńć “an illness accompanied by a fever; to be feverish, to be sick”
kama- “to be nervously attentive”
kamak “evil spirit”
kamaγ- “to be angry”
gidim (45x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gidim; gidim2 “ghost”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Rhaetic
Akkadian
Vitamu, Vitammu
eţemmu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo
Wakashan, Inuit
Nivkh
Sumerian
hagyma “onion”
*kaćmз, *koćmз
haγi “allium victorialis”, gekoč “bear root (meum athamanticum)”
xekem “bear root (meum athamanticum)”
hagi “allium onion”
šum (2958x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. šum2; šum2sar “garlic; onion”
šūmū
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
haj “hair”
*kajз
*qaδqaR “top of mountain”
siki (4753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. siki "wool, fleece; hair; (animal's)
pelt"
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
háj “blubber; leaf-lard”
*kujV “thick; saturated”
*kuje “blubber, fat”
*qaiq- “to be smooth”
gur (133x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. gur4; gur14; gur13 “(to be) thick; (to be) big, to feel big”
Hungarian
hajítani “to throw, to toss”, hajlik “to bend (itr.)”, hajolni “to bend
down”, gacos “club-footed”, kajcsos “bent, curved; knockkneed”, kajla “bent down”
*kaja-, *kajз- “to throw; to bend (itr.)”
*aj(aγ)- “to push forward”
*kaju- “to be strong; to have hopeful expectation”
*kajuŋŋiq “to be eager to go”
γajma- “to be eager, happy”, ajtat- “to chase, to herd”
gu la (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. gu2 la2 “to lean over”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian:
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hajnal “dawn”
*gi_òjńu “dawn, daylight”
*koje
*qaRu- “dawn”
gug (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. gug “(to be) bright”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
hajó “ship”
*gàjá “oar, boat pole”
*kappз “a kind of tree which can be worked into; aspen, etc.”
kap∂- “to stab”
gabatab (94x: Ur III) wr. ĝešgaba-tab; gaba-tab “a wooden pole used for
manual seeding”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
hajtani “to drive, to lead”
*kujз-, *kajз- “to drive, to steer”
ajtat- “to chase, to herd”
gu (1850x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gu “cord, net; unretted flax stalks”
qū
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Yukagir
Sumerian
hal “fish”
*kalu “a kind of a fish”
*kala “fish”
*iqałuγ “fish”
kal- “id.”
kad (1x: ED IIIa) wr. kad4ku6 “a fish” + IL (1x: Old Babylonian) wr.
ILku6 “type of fish”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
halni “to die”
*kola*qul∂ “area above” [?]
hal (55x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hal-ha; ha-la; hal “to
divide, deal out, distribute; to perform an extispicy; to open; a secret; to
pour away; to sieve; to slink, crawl away; a qualification of grain”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hálni “to sleep”
*kalз- “to spend the night”
*qavaR- “to sleep”
ku (96x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ku “to place, lay (down)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Akkadian
haladni “to depart, to proceed”
*k’òlke “to row; boat”
*kulke- “to go, to travel (on land or water)”
*kal∂γ- “to tow, to drag”
qal(a)- “direction, side, area round”
alākum “to go”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
halk, halok “incision, notch in a tree that is being cut down”
*kolз “fissure, gap, split”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
*k∂γaq- “notch”
gul (518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to destroy; to break; to
flatten; to carve, cut; to engrave”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-(Finno-?)Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
hallani (< *hadl-) “to hear”
*k’ùjlu-, *k’ùjlo- “ear; to hear”
*kule- “ear; to hear”
*kunta-kз- “to hear, to perceive”
*kul∂- “to make sound”
quli- “to cry, to shout”
kul (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kul “to collect; to collect”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Komi
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
háló “net”
*kalз
*kalз-mз
kulem “net, (weir-)basket
*kalŋak, *kalŋaq “bag”
hal (154x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gihal “a
basket”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Yupik
North Alaskan Inuit
Koryak
Sumerian
halom, halm- “hill; heap”
*caulluq- “to remove marrow”
caγil “thigh(bone)”
saulluq “spinal cord”
c’oRul “spinal cord, marrow”
hal (3x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hal; u2-lum “upper thigh”
Rhaetic *aluw “hight, hill” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
hályog “film, skin”
*k’ałi “napless skin, membrane”
*kal’wз “film, membrane, skin”
qul∂- “above”
quixi- “(fish) skin; bark”
qulγ∂n “id.”
kul (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kul “to remove, take away”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Akkadian
hám “cuticle, peel”, hámlik “to cover, to wrap”
*kama “peel, skin”
kam∂γ “boot”
kamū “sth. which is on the outside”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hamu “ash”
*k’uli, *k’ule “to heat, to burn”
*kul’mз
*kuδ’mз
*qaveyaR “sand”
kum (78x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kum2; kum4 “(to be)
hot”
Hungarian
hant “clod, lump of earth; grave”, hany “clod, lump of earth;
marsh, moor, swamp”
*kanз “band, edge”
*k8mз “hill in the moor”
*kaŋ∂R “top”
gana (666x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. gana2; gan2-ne2 “field; area (of a geometric figure)”
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Khanty
Turkish
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
Akkadian
hányni “to cast, to fling; to throw, to toss; to vomit”
*k’ūńe “ladle”
*kanз- “to dig; to strew, to throw”
χanda- “to draw, to ladle, to scoop”
kaşık “spoon”
qaniγ “falling snow”, qanax “winter”
ganum (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. gan; ga-an-nu; ĝešgan-nu-um “(vessel)stand; a large vessel”, kunrim, wr. kun-rimzabar; kun-du3; dugkun-rim;
dugkun-ri “a libation vessel”
kannu
Hungarian
Eskimo
Eskimo, Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
hanyagni “to be careless, indifferent, negligent”
t’am- “to stay calm”, tamar “still”
t∂msazin “to stay calm”
t∂mγ∂- “to be still, calm”
huĝ (5x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. huĝ “to pacify”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
hany-att “supine; on one’s back”
*konз- “on the back”
q∂ŋaR “nose”
qeqeŋ “(animal) nose, beak”
qiŋ- “(animal) nose, beak”
könte- “to lie”
huĝ (5x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. huĝ “to pacify”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
harács “a kind of tax; booty”, harácsolni “to gather up, to amass”
*qaRit- “to bring or hand over”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
ar (11x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ar2; arx(|URU×A|?)
“ruin”
karmu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
harag “anger”
*kurз(-) “anger; to become angry”
*qaRya “deep voice”
kur (489x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. kur2; gur “(to be) different;
(to be) strange; (to be)estranged; (to be) hostile; to change; to become
strange; to alternate (math.)”
Hungarian
Chuvash
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
harang “curch bell”
xuran “boiler, cauldron, kettle”
*qaRya “deep voice”
hurum (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. hu-ru-um “a designation of a pot”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
harap “a dry fallen leaf”
*korз
*∂δ∂-vkaR- “to fall”
*∂ž∂t- “id.”
aeraet- “to fall”
hara, wr. ĝešha-ra “palm shoot”, haran (64x: Ur III) wr. u2har-an “a
plant”
harū
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
harapni “to bite”
*karз-, *korз*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
ur (53x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ur3 “to go along; to
wipe clean; to beat, sweep away; to drag; to raise a boat”
kapāru
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
harkály “woodpecker”
*karз, *karз-kajз
*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
arak (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. a-ra-akmušen; a-rakmušen; a-rig2mušen “a
bird”, harhar, wr. har-harmušen “a bird”, karkid, wr. kar-kidmušen “a
bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
harmat “dew”
*k’irma “snow, hoar-frost”, *ki_āra “thin snow, hoar-frost”
*kura “fine snow, frost”
*quRluR- “to stream, to flow”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
kur (17x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. kur “to burn, light up”
(semantically cf. s.v. fagyni)
hurbāšu “shivers”
három
*ŋ[i_u] “three; thirty”
*gu*kolme, *kulme
*qul∂(t) “ten”
gur (27945x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gur; gur9 “unit of capacity; a measuring
vessel”
kurru
hárs “lime/linden tree”
*koćkз, *końćkз “(tree) bark”
*kanaγ “shin”
ĝeš (5552x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeš; mu; u5 “tree; wood”
işu (< *wişu)
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sumerian
hárulni “to fall to the lot/share (of sb.)”, hárítani “to refuse, to
defend”
*kurз “bent, curved; to make bent/curved”
*quRluR- “to stream, to flow”
quXłuR- “to fall; cascade (water)”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”, gur (659x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur
III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gur “to reject (legal
evidence), to turn away; to turn, return”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
has “belly”
*kačз “something bent”
pukiR “white belly fur”
haš (20x: Old Babylonian) wr. haš2; haš4 “lower body, abdomen; thigh”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Ekismo
Sumerian
hasadni “to burst, to crack”, hasítani “to cleave, to split”
*kaćз- “to burst, to split”
*qup∂- “to split (lengthwise)”
haš (13x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. haš “to break off; to
break; to divert (water)”
haşābum; hašūm “to crush”
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
használni “to use”, haszon “advantage, benefit; gain, profit”
*kaćз(-) “to give; gift”
*kaswa- “to gain, to grow, to increase”
*pik∂- “to own”
qiāšum “to give (a gift)”, qīštu “gift”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hatni “to affect, to impress, to influence”, határ “border”
*kattз- “to move, to penetrate, to proceed”
*tap∂t- “to permeate, to penetrate”
gid (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 "to drag,
tow (a boat upstream); to pass along, transfer”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hat “six”
*kutte
*putu “hole”
kud (1111x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. kud; gur5
“to break off, deduct; to separate, cut off; to cut” (“cut” in the row of
numbers in the Sumerian sexagesimal system)
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
hát “back”
*kuttз
*kiŋuRaq “back part of sth.”
gú-tál “back of head” (Lieberman 1977, no. 276)
kutallum “back of head, back side”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hattyú “swan”
*kottзŋз
*quγδuγ “swan”
guddu (2x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. gud-du7mušen; gud-temušen;
gud-damušen “a bird?”, cf. s.v. gödény.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sirenikski
Sumerian
ház “house”
*kota “house, hut, tent”
*qut∂ “(steep) shore”
quta “land seen from sea”
quta “dry land”
ĝa (67x: Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝa2; ma
“house”, kadu (11x: Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ka-du3
“cover”, katab (8x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
kuška-tab; ĝeška-ta-pu-um “a lid, covering; an object”
katammu; katappu
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
hazudik “to lie, to tell a lie”
*iqlu- “to lie, to deceive”
gu šub, wr. gu2 šub “to neglect; to scorn”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
hegy “mountain”
*kaδ’a “mountain”
*kaśa “end, peak, summit, top”
*kaδ’a “mountain”
qacXi-X “skin, bark”
qalγe-jp∂ “to go across mountain, to hang across sth. (itr.)”
ĝeškur (2x: Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeš-kur “a tree”, hursaĝ
(598x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
hur-saĝ; PA.DUN3 “mountain, foothills; steppe”, iš (15x: Old Akkadian,
Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. iš “mountain(s)”, kur (2494x: ED IIIa, ED
IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. kur; kir5 “underworld; land, country;
mountain(s); east; easterner; east wind”
giškurrū; hursānu; šadū
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
héj “bark, crust, shell”
*koja “bark, crust, peel, skin”
*iqaRt∂ “(outer layer of) skin”
kadu (11x: Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ka-du3 “cover”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Rhaetic
hekus “cop, bull”
*kannuyaR “copper”
enkus “bronze” (> Hebrew nhšās, Aramaic, Syric n’hašā, Arabic nuhās
“copper, brass” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98). Also Engl. “cop” is
shortened from “copper”. Hung. hekus is thus both phonetically and
semantically a clear proof that a part of the Hung. vocabulary goes
directly (and not via Akk.) back to Rhaetic. This proof is even confirmed
by the fact that the same word went to the ancestors of the Eskimos
while it is neither conserved in any Uralic nor Altaic language.
Hungarian
Eskimo
Eskimo, Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
henyélni “to dawdle, to idle, to lounge”
t’am- “to stay calm”, tamar “still”
t∂msazin “to stay calm”
t∂mγ∂- “to be still, calm”
huĝ (5x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. huĝ “to pacify”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
here “drone; testicle”
*koj(e)-ra “male” < *koje “man; husband”
*koj(ra) “male animal”
qora “domestic reindeer”
köj “man”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
ĝuruš (9902x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝuruš “young adult male; ablebodied male worker; semi-free male worker”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
here “clover”, tyúk-húr “chickweed”
*koj(ra) “male animal”
qora “domestic reindeer”
köj “man”
haran (64x: Ur III) wr. u2har-an “a plant”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Akkadian
Sumerian
herélni “to castrate”
*koj(ra) “male animal”
qora “domestic reindeer”
köj “man”
kurū “cripple; lame”
guru (46x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gur5 “to grind, grate; to
cut up, chop; (to be) trimmed, pruned”
urrū (< *wurrū)
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
hervadni “to wilt, to wither”
*korpe- “to burn, to become burned/singed”
*kurз- “to come to an end, to finish, to stop”
*isu(k) “end” (< *iyu(γ), iyuŋŋaR)
kur (489x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. kur2; gur “to change; to
become strange”, kur (17x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. kur “to
burn, light up”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
hés “bridegroom, wooer; hero; young man”, hős “hero”
*kaća “young unmarried man”
*uγiŋ(ŋ)uδaR “man a women lives with is not her real husband)
ĝeš (47x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeš3; mu “penis; male”
išaru (< *wišaru)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hév, hé, hő “ardour; heat, warmth”
*kiδaγ “heat; summer”
kum (78x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kum2; kum4 “(to be)
hot”
Hungarian
hiba “fault, mistake”, hibázik “to make a mistake, to be
mistaken”, hibáztatni “to rebuke”, hibbant “crazy, foolish, mad”
*ul∂q- “to mistake, to confuse”
ib (35x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ib2 “(to be) angry; to curse”,
SIG7.abala (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. SIG7-a-bal “a defect”
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Ossetian
Sanskrit
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
híd “bridge”
xīd, xōd
sétav
*tat∂k “bridge of nose”
gid (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 “to drag,
tow (a boat upstream); to pass along, transfer”
šadādu
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
hím “masculine”
*ki_úne “person; people; country”
*koj(e)-mз “man, husband”
*koj(ra) “male animal”
qora “domestic reindeer”
köj “man”
Either to ĝuruš (9902x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur
III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝuruš “young adult
male; able-bodied male worker; semi-free male worker”, cf. s.v. here, or
because of the Proto-Altaic form to ki (32379x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla,
Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian,
1st millennium) wr. ki “place; ground, earth, land; toward; underworld;
land, country; lower, down below”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hír “fame; news”
*ququR- “to call”
ar, (56x: Old Babylonian) wr. ar2; a-ar2; a-ar; a-ar3 “(hymn of) praise;
fame”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
hiu “attic, garret, loft; breach, gap”
*kiγ(aγ)- “to perforate”
*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
*k∂γaq “notch”
kiγ- “to bite”
*k8mз “cave, hollow”
KU, wr. KU “hole”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hívni “to call; to invite”
*kanз-, *kaŋз- “to call”
*ququR- “to call”
kiĝ (108x: Old Babylonian) wr. kiĝ2 “to seek”
Hungarian
hízelegni “to adulate; to flatter”, hízeledik “id.”, hízik “to gain
weight; to gloat over sg.”
*katз- “to become fat”
khot- “to gain weight”
Proto-Ugric
Mańśi
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*quγi- to be fat”
kud (65x: Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ku7 “(to be) good;
(to be ) (honey-)sweet”
Hungarian
ho-: hogy “how”, hol “where”, honnan “whence”, hová “wither”,
ha “if”
*k’a(j) “who (interr.)”
*ku-, *ko- “where, which, what”
*qanuq “how”
qaŋa “when”
qana- “which, where”
akkil, wr. akkil2 “where; when”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
hó, hava- “snow”
*kóbe “to freeze”
*kumз “thin snow”
*kan(iγ) “cold, winter”
kan∂R “frost”, kankaz “winter”
kank- “to spend winter”
halba (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. halba2; halba6; halba; halpi “frost, ice,
cold weather; (to be) cold”
halpū
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Yupik
Sirenikski
Sumerian
hó-nap “month”, hold, hód “moon”
*kuŋe “month; moon”
*n∂ržuγ- “to be bright”
*iRaluq “moon”
nur∂X “id.”
kun (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. kun2 “to shine brightly”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hód “beaver”
*kumtз, *kuntз
*k∂γi(C)aR “beaver”
kundar, wr. kun-dar “an animal”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
holló “raven”
*k’ùła “a kind of a big bird”
*kulз(-kз)
*tulukaR “raven”
gurgal, wr. gur8-galmušen “a bird”, gurgur (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. gurgurmušen; gur4-gur4mušen “a bird”, kirkir (5x: Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. ĝeškiri6-ĝeškiri6mušen; ka5-kar2mušen; ki-kar2mušen; kar-karmušen
“a bird”
kurkurru; kirikarru
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Yukagir
Sumerian
hol “dawn”, in: hol-nap “tomorrow (nap “day”)
*galV “clear (of sky, weather)”
*kuδз “morning”
*kuδ’(∂), kul’(∂) “above, cover”
kuδ∂- “to rise, to go up”
ud (29106x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ud “day; heat; a
fever; summer; sun”, ul, wr. ul4; ul6 “to become bright, shine”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
hólyag “bladder”
*k’i_oba(kV), *k’i_abu(kV) “bladder; scrotum”
*kupla- “to bubble; to make bubbles”
*nakacuγ “bladder’
kupputtu “a measuring pot”, kupputu “growing rampant (liver)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
homály “dim, darkness”
*k’òlmV “shadow; cloud”
qavlu(R) “eyebrow”
qami-x “eyebrows”
*kumз “cloud”
kana (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kana6; kana5; kana3 “(to be) dark,
gloomy; gloom”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
hombár “granary”
*qumiγ- “to put object or arms inside parka sleeves”
* qumiu *to bring or keep back food for sb.”
kimu (10x: Ur III) wr. ki-mu “storage, a store house” + guru (849x: ED
IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
guru7 “grain heap, grain store; unit of capacity”
Hungarian
homlítani “to lay (seeds, etc.), homlok “forehead”, homorú
“concave, hollow”
*k’i_ōme “to throw (upside down)”
*kuma- “to bend oneself; bent, crooked position”
*pak∂γ- “to bend, to flex” (metathesis k – m > m – k and substitution
of m by homorganic p)
gam (33x: Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝeškab; ĝešgam3; ĝešKIN “shepherd's crook, bent stick; haft, hilt”
gamlu
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
homok “sand, dust”
*qaveyaR “sand”
imanak (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. na4im-ma-an “a stone; a type of sand”,
or kum (78x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kum2; kum4 “(to be)
hot” (cf. s.v. hamu)
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
immanakku; emēmu
Hungarian
hon “homeland”, honn “at home”, itt-hon “(here) at home”, otthon (there) at home”
*kunз “belly, gut”
*an∂ “place”. This is one the 86 Greenlandic-Hungarian etymologies
already found by Wøldike (1746, p. 160).
unu (1511x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. unu6; unu2; unu
“banquet; dining hall; the most sacred part of a temple; seat, throne;
dwelling, domicile, abode; temple”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
hón “shoulder”
*k’ò(b?)*kōjn
*koŋ
*xobanī
*konз, *kanз
*kiγay∂γ “shoulder blade”
gu (753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. gu2 “bank, side; neck”
ahu
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
hordani “to carry”
*kurз- “to drag, to pull”
*k∂v∂γ- “to lift”
*k∂vγumiaq- “to carry in arms”
gur (124x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gur3-ru; guru3; gur; gur17; guru6
“bearer; to lift, carry”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Eastern Canadian Inuit
Sumerian
horkolni “to snore”
*qamRui-, *qamŋui- “to snore”
qaRŋui “id.”
hur (44x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hur “to scratch,
draw”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hornyolni “to incise, to notch”
*kurńa “furrow, groove”
*qupn∂R “to crack, to split”
hur (44x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hur “to scratch,
draw”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
hor-hó “cleft, narrow passage”
*kurз “indentation; to pass”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*qupn∂R “to crack, to split”
hur (44x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hur “to scratch,
draw”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
horolni “to graze, to scratch”, horzsolni “id.”
*k’[ù]ri- “to rake up”
*korз-, *korwз- “to scrape, to scratch, to shave”
*qupn∂R “to crack, to split”
gur (470x: Ur III) wr. gurx(|ŠE.KIN|); gur10; gurx(|ŠE.KIN.KIN|)
“to reap”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hossz-ú “long”
*końće, *koćз
*tak∂- “to be long”
niĝul (33x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. niĝ2-ul “an
everlasting thing”
Hungarian
hozni “to bring, to carry, to convey, to fetch; to bring forth, to
produce; to bring in, to yield”, -hoz/-hez/-höz, hozzá
“to/towards sb.
*kućз “edge or side of sth.
χo_źi, χoźà “for/to/towards sb. or sth.”
*k∂v∂γ- “to lift”
*k∂vγumiaq- “to carry in arms”
kašādum “to bring, to carry”
Proto-Ugric
Khanty
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hölgy “lady; ermine”
*kaδ’wa, *kaδ’wз “female; female animal”
*aŋ∂- “to be big”
gal (6612x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gal; gu-la; gu-ul; gal-gal; kuul “(to be) big, great, noble”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
húg “younger sister”
*sac’(c’)a(γ)- “paternal aunt”
accaγ “id.”
∂ccaj “aunt”
egia (69x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. e2-gi4-a
“bride”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
húgy “star”
*k’ùčV “a kind of star”
*kućз, *kuńćз
*umluR “day”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
*uvluRiaq “star”
gug (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. gug “(to be) bright”
kakubu, kakkabu “star”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sumerian
húgy “urine”, húgyozik “to urinate”
*k’uDŽV “part of stomach; bladder”
*kuńće(-), *kuće(-) “urine; to urinate”
*quR∂- “to urinate”
quX∂-, uX∂- “id.”
kaš (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. kaš3 “urine”
Hungarian
hullani “to die; to drop down/off, to fall off; to flow, to fall out”,
hulla “corpse”, hullám “wave”
*kulзul∂- “to overflow”
ulRi- “id.”
hal (55x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hal-ha; ha-la; hal "to
open; a secret; to pour away; to sieve; to slink, crawl away”
halālum; šahālum
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
hunyni “to turn a blind eye; to close or cover the eyes in a game of
hide-and-seek; to die”
*kuńa*qunik “matter in eye, tear”
huĝ (5x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. huĝ "to pacify"
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
hupolyag “bubble-shaped swelling; bulge on a tree; pustule”
*kuppa “blister, bump”
*puvlaγ “bubble”
kupputtu “a measuring pot”, kupputu “growing rampant (liver)”
Hungarian
húr “intestine; string”, hurka “intestine; sausage made from
intestines”
*iŋaluk “intestine (of animal)”
gu (1850x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gu “cord, net; unretted flax
stalks”, gu u2-rum testified in VS 14, 108 o ii
qū, kurrū “short cord”
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
hurok “loop, noose, sling, slip-knot; mesh, snare”
*n∂γurluR loop”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”, gur (2x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝešgur2 “(circular) rim”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
húzni “to pull”
*kupз-tз- “to rend, to pull, to tear”
*qamuR- “to pull, to tow”
kapārum “to wipe, to wipe off”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
hűlni “to cool (itr.)”, hűteni “to cool (tr.)”, hűvös “cool”
*qiRu- “to freeze to death”
halba (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. halba2; halba6; halba; halpi “frost, ice,
cold weather; (to be) cold”
halpū
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
hüvely “pod; sheath, vagina”
*kymзl’з “pod”
*qumiγ- “to put object or arms inside parka sleeves”
* qumiu *to bring or keep back food for sb.”
gum (18x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. gum; gum2 “to crush”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
ia: iafia “child”
*äγз, *äwз, *äkз “daughter, girl”
*mik∂- “to be small”
*mik∂ql∂qtuq “child”
egi- in: egizid (18x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. egi-zid; egi2-zid; igi-zid
“a priestess”
igişītu
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ibrik “mug, pot”
*tuqmik “container of some sort”
ebir (6x: Ur III) wr. ĝešepir2; ebir; ĝešebir3; ĝešebir4 “a large vessel”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
ici: ici-pici “itsy-bitsy, very small”
*ićä, üćä “few, small”
*mik∂- “to be small”
i’iz, wr. i-iz “seed”
zēru
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
ideg “nerve; bowstring”
*jänte “sinew, tendon”
*ivalu “sinew”; *uli(C)un “sinew from back of animal”
gunu (39x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gu-nu “flax”
qū
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
idő “time”
maqaq “heat”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Classical Mongol
Sumerian
üde “midday”
ud (29106x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ud “day; heat; a
fever; summer; sun”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
i-fyú “young; a youth”
*äjз “small, young”
*mik∂- “to be small”
a’e, wr. a2-e3 “foster-child”
Hungarian
Proto-FinnoVolgaic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
igaz “authentic, genuine, real, true, veritable; honest, just, loyal,
straight, true; truth”
*wojke “straight”
*ilumun “truly”
igi (3906x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. igi; i-bi2; igi3; i-gi “first,
earlier; front; face”
Hungarian
Old Turkic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ige “verb; word”
üge “magic word; word”
*iciγwa “that is what I thought”
ug, wr. ug2 “lamentation”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
igen “yes”
*šeŋä “good, healthy; straight”
*i(i) “yes”
sig (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-ig “to be clear”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ígérni “to promise”
*eŋkз-rз- “to chant music words, to swear, to vow”
*n∂Riuqšuq- “to promise”
en, wr. en2 “incantation, spell”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
íj “bow”, ív “arch, bend”
*DŽēja “sharp point, arrow”
*joŋ(k)sз “bow”
*jāń > jāj
*ivalu “sinew”; *uli(C)un “sinew from back of animal”
gun (1x: Early Old Babylonian) wr. al-gu2-gu2 “to twist”
Hungarian
Turkish
Chukotko-Kamch.
Proto-Inuit
iker “twins”
ikiz
aek∂k(ae) “son”
*akkak “paternal uncle”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
igi (1133x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. igi; i-bi2; i-gi “eye; carved eye (for
statues)”
Hungarian
iktatni “to intervene; to note down, to register, to take the minutes
(down); to put in, to set up”
*jakka- “to get (into), to go, to reach”
*iγaq “mark”
ak (3643x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Hungarian
Turkic
Manchu
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
ildomos “becoming, courteous, tactful”
yïl “to slip, to slide”
ildamu “nimble, quick; funny, witty”
*ila(C)aR “patch; addition”, *ilaγaR- “to join in”, *ilak∂- “to be part or
one of”
jelRa “cousin”
ul (39x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ul4 “to hasten, (be) quick; (to be)
early”
illik “to belong to, to be someone’s right; to concern, to refer, to
relate; to be decent”
*ila(C)aR “patch; addition”, *ilaγaR- “to join in”, *ilak∂- “to be part or
one of”
jelRa “cousin”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to supervise, check; to
weigh, weigh (out), pay; to hang, balance, suspend, be suspended; to
show, display; to bind; binding, (yoke-)team; to press, throttle; to
winnow (grain); to carry”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
illik “to disappear; to decay, to fall to pieces”, illat “odour,
perfume”
*ilu- “move”
*il∂q∂- “to shake head”, *il∂qšaq- “to squirm”
ilu- “to move, stir”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to rain; to fall, to fall”.
According to EWU (pp. 606s.), the semantic development is: “to fall” >
“to disappear” > “to disappear like odour/perfume”.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Komi
Proto-Yupik
imádni “to adore, to worship”, ima “prayer”, imádkozik “to pray”
*w8mз “to enchant; magic word”
vomid’ź “illness, pain”
*umi- “to be distant”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
emeĝar (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. emeĝarx(|KAx(ME.GAR)|) “magic”
Hungarian
Sumerian
ím, ime “ecce”
e-ne (Old Babylonian) “he, she” + me (2860x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian,
Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. me; em; am3 “to be”
*me “here, this”
ma(δ)- “this, here”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Komi
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
ín “sinew”
*síŋri “sinew”
*sene, *sōne “sinew; vein”
sõn “sinew; vein”
*uli(C)un “sinew from back of animal”
sa (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sa “gut; sinew, tendon; string (of a bow,
musical instrument); catgut string”. The stem on nasal is present in:
saĝkešed (104x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ-keš2; kušsaĝ-keš2 “a strap; loop, string”. Akk.?
dāmu
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
indítani “to initiate, to get underway, to set off; to set in motion, to
start”, indulni “to start (itr.)”
*jomз- “to be on one’s way, to go”
*jut∂(γ)- “to go (in)to”
it∂R- “to go in”
j∂t- “to go for/to”
im (10x: Old Babylonian) wr. im2 “to run”
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
ing, ümög “chemise, slip; shirt”
uŋ∂R “to tie, to lace up”
gunu (39x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gu-nu “flax”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sumerian
ingerelni “to excite, to stimulate; to irritate, to nettle, to vex”
*un-, *ut∂- “means for doing sth.”
un, (u)taq “instrument; device for doing sth.”
in dub (18x: Old Babylonian) wr. in dub2 “to insult”, in (32x: Old
Babylonian) wr. in; e-mu “abuse”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
inká-bb “more, rather, sooner”
*uδ∂γtuR- “to measure”
aĝ (219x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. aĝ2 “to measure”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
inni, iszik, iv- “to drink”
*ōp’à
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
*ōp*uγ(u)*juγe-, *juke*im∂(γ)- “to suck (breast)”
∂m∂R- “to drink; drinking water”
ma-qδa- “suck breast”
anaĝ (10x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a-naĝ “drink”
Hungarian
ínség “dearth, want; distress, misery, need, penury, poverty;
famine, hunger, starvation”
*ŋicaγ- “to be in need of”
aĝ (219x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. aĝ2 “to measure”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
inteni “to admonish, to exhort; to beckon, to make a sign; to warn
against; motion, nod, wave, wink
kiŋu- “after, behind”
-γiŋ “below”
igiĝal (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešigi-ĝal2 "sign, signal"
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Komi
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
íny “gums, palate”
*ēŋa(k’V) “chin; jaw”
*ike-ńз, *ike-ńe
an “gum”
*tamlu “chin”
unu (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. unu2 “upper cheek”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ipa “father-in-law”
*áp’a “father”
*appe “father-in-law”
*ap(p)a, *ïp(p)ï “grandfather”
*aepae “grandfather”
abba (107x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ab; abba; abba2 “old (person); witness; father; elder; an official”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ipar “handicraft; industry”, iparkodik “to take trouble, to make an
effort”
*ip∂Raq- “to release”
ibira, wr. ibira; ibira2 “merchant, businessman”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugri
c
Mańśi
Proto-Eskimo
ír “balm, ointment”
*terз(-) “to rub; a substance that is rubbed on”
tērpi “mash, mush, ointment”
*uluγ- “to soften skin by rubbing”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
zir (373x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. zi; zi-ir; ze2-er “to tear out; to break, destroy; to be troubled; to
erase”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
ír “root”
*iqž∂k “point, edge” [?]
ur (441x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ur2; ur5 “root, base; limbs; loin, lap”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
írni “to write”
*jarз- “to mark, to paint, to write”
*iγaq “mark”
sar (277x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sar; sarar “to write”
Hungarian
iramlik “to hurry, to run, to rush, to scurry, to sweep”, iramodik
“to start to hurry; to run after sb.”
*aR∂R- “to move”
ere (68x: Ur III) wr. re; er; e-ra; erx(|DU.DU|); re6; re7; er-re; i-ri
“perfect plural stem of ĝen[to go]”
alākum
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Akkadian
ir-: iránt “about, for, in the direction of, to, toward(s); opposite,
facing”
*arз, *urз
*aR∂R- “to move”
ere (68x: Ur III) wr. re; er; e-ra; erx(|DU.DU|); re6; re7; er-re; i-ri
“perfect plural stem of ĝen[to go]”
alākum
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
irgalom “compassion, mercy, pity”, irgalmas “merciful, pitiful”
*j8rз- “to loose one’s way”
*iRa- “to be horrified”
uru (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uru9 “support; imposition; repair”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
irigy “envious”
*caŋiak- “to be jealous”
*cikna- “to be jealous”
hulu (13901x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. hul; hul3 “to destroy; (to be) bad-smelling,
maloderous; (to be) bad, evil; (to be) slight, lightweight; (to be) false; (to
be) criminal, dishonest; enemy; to raid; to strike the eyes; blinker,
winker, one with vision problems”, igi hulu (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. igi
hul “to look with envy” Akk. ?
qallum
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Osman, etc.
Sakha
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
iró “buttermilk”
airan “mildly alcoholic drink made of fermented mare’s milk, koumiss”
arī “melted Russian butter”
*ituγ “milk of animal”
ara (58x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. ara3 “designation of milk”
Hungarian
irtani (< ortani) “to exterminate (insects, pests); to clear, to root
out”
*šurз- “to cut, to divide”
*k∂pδaR- “to cut off”
šar (23x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šar2 “to slaughter”, sur,
wr. sur4 “to cut cloth”
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
Sumeria
ismerni “to know, to get to know”
*alicima- “to know”
šamūm “to listen”
zu (964x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. zu “to
know; to learn”, umuš (52x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. umuš
“(fore)thought, plan(ning); understanding; instruction; consideration,
sagacity”
Hungarian
Persian (Farsi)
Eskimo
Sumerian
isten “god”
eztahn “god”, hahstahn “creator”
atausek “one” (Kleinschmidt 1851, p. 37)
aš (191x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. aš “one”,
diš (5x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. diš; de-eš-šu2; di-id; di-t- “one”, ešda,
wr. eš3-da “one”
ištēn
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
isz, ísz, iz “bane, canker; a kind of gum disorder in children that
soon hinders speech”
*iće, *iśe “shadow”
*iŋkiR “gum”
ĝissu (68x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝissu;
aĝ2-ze2 “shade, shadow; protection, aegis”
ívik “to copulate (especially of fish), to pair, to spawn”
*jokse-, *jookse*nulik- “to copulate”
eban (381x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian) wr.
e2-ba-an; e2-ba; e-ba-an; e-pa-na; e2-pa-na “pair”. The PFU
reconstruction is thus mistaken. Estonian jookse- “to beget, to breed; to
flow, to run; to rut” and Finnish juokse- “to flow; to run” do not belong
to Hung. ív-.
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
íz “taste; jam”, ízes “tasty; with jam, sweet”
*ipз, *ip-sз, *ipз-śз “odour, taste”
*ama- “to suckle”, *mamaR- “to taste good”. Substitution of original –
p- by homorganic –m-, then partial reduplication.
ir (36x: ED IIIa, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ir; ir7 “smell,
scent; sweat, exudation”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
íz “limb, particle”, izmos “muscular”, izom “muscle”
*jäse, jäsne “joint, limb”
*j8t∂ “joint, limb”
*ipi(γ) “limb of a quadruped”
ed (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. e11 “strengthen”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumeria
izé “something, ‘watchamacallit’”
*ytз “thingamy”
*itaq- “to take care of (belongings)” [?]
i dUtu “woe, O Sungod” (Edzard 2003, p. 169)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
izzadni “to sweat”, izzik “to be glowing”
*äsз- “to heat; to become hot”
*kiδaγ(-) “to heat; summer”
izi (257x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. izi; izi2 “fire; brazier”
išātu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Turkish
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
járni “to go; to travel”
*jorз-, *jorkз- “to spin, to turn, to wind”
yürü- “to go, to march”
*ca(C)u “to turn and face”
gur (659x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. gur “to turn, to return”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
ját “close friend; namesake”
*j8ttз “comrade, friend”
*cat∂ “inside or skin-side of a pelt”
gud “team”, in: gudapin, wr. gud-apin “plow team” (apin “plow”)
Hungarian
játszik “to play (e.g. a game, a musical instrument, with a toy,
etc.)
*jukta “to recite, to speak, to tell”
*ayyutaR- “to play game (like hockey)”
gud (28x: Old Babylonian) wr. gu4-ud; gud2 “to jump (on); to attack; to
escape; to dance”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sirenikski
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
jég, gyég “ice”
*k’i_óŋo “cold”
*jäŋe “ice”
*n’∂γ-i|aR “parka ruff”
n’∂γ∂R “north wind”
γi-δγi- “to breeze”
j∂γica “wind”
j∂γ/iγ∂ “id.”
šeg (11x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šeg9; šeg4
“snow; sleet; cold weather; frost, ice; burning, incineration; chills,
shivers”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian:
Proto-Eskimo
Koryak
Yukagir
Akkadian
Sumerian
jegy “mark, sign; ticket”, jel “mark, signal”
*jälke
jel∂γ- “to burn”
*∂l∂g- “to get burnt”
jelož∂ “sun”
jel’∂- “to boil, to be cooked”
eqū “to use make-up”
igiĝal (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešigi-ĝal2 “sign, signal” (ĝal2 “to be”)
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
ProtoYupik
Sumerian
jó “good”, jól “well”
*jomз
*asiR- “to be good”
mu (135x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
mu5 “good, beautiful”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
jó, -jó “river, creek”
*i_ge(ŕV) “river, small river”
*ügüŕ
*üjer
*ugē(r)
*joke
*kuδ∂γ “river”
id (1086x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. id2; id3; id6; id7; id5 “river, watercourse, canal”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
jonh (< *juχun [?]) “belly, guts; interior; body-soul”
*än(∂)-, an(∂γ)- “to breathe”
an∂R “to breathe”, an∂Rn∂R “breath, soul”
an∂ŋ- “inside”
su (495x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. su “flesh; body; entrails (omen); body”
zumru
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
jönni, gyönni, jöv- “to come”
*j8ŋз-, *j8gз-, *j8kз*aju- “to go further”
*ajumiq “long ago”
ajŋon “long ago”
gin (924x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gin6; gi-na; gi-in; ge-en; gin “(to be)
permanent; to come”, ĝen (2789x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II,
Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝen; ma “to go; to
flow”
kânum; kīnum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
juh “ewe, sheep”
*uče “sheep”
*∂pnaRiR “mountain sheep”
u (4255x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. u8; u8munus; u10 “sheep, ewe”, us, wr.
us5 “sheep”
Hungarian
jutni “to arrive, to come; to attain, to come by, to get at; to
become”
*juta- “to go, to wander”
*juktз- “to come”
*jut∂(γ)- “to go (in)to”
it∂R- “to go in”
j∂t- “to go for/to”
sa dug (10x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sa2 dug4 “to arrive; to
cause to arrive (regularly)”, šu dag (65x: Old Babylonian) wr. šu dag “to
roam about”
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kabak, kobak “skull; pumpkin; pear”
*s’ep(u) “neck”
civu “front”
caew∂t/ laew∂t “head”
hab (241x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. u2hab2 “a plant”
Hungarian
Yukagir
Sumerian
kacs “a narrow clinging shoot or sprout, tendril; loop, noose”
kök∂ “head (of fish or other animal)”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kacsa “duck”
*qaγiŋŋiR “(kind of) duck”
GAKI, wr. GA2.KImušen “a bird”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
kádár “cooper; a kind of chieftain or priest who is a dignitary”
*qaδ∂- “top or surface of sth.”, *qaδ∂liR- “to cover”
kad (20x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kad5; kad4; kad6;
kad8 “to tie, gather”
kaşārum
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
káka “(bul)rush, reed”
*k∂k∂- “to break off (after notching)” [?]
kakkala (4x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb) wr. kakkala(KU7); kakkala “a designation
of plants”, ga-ga-lum in Ebla Sign List 36
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kalauz “conductor (of a streetcar or train); guide
*qalmaR- “to call to dogs” [?]
kalag (2398x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kal-ga; kalag; kal-la “(to be) strong,
powerful, mighty; to reinforce; to provide for”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
kallantyú “bolt, latch (of a door); fastener; hook”
*nuŋiRt∂- “to fasten with drawstring”
gilim, wr. gigilim “type of clasp”, gilim (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. gilim;
gilibx(|GI%GI|)ib; gi16-il; gil-gilil “to lie across; to be entwined; to
entwine, twist; to block”, gilim, wr. ĝešgilim “barrier, bolt”
Hungarian
kallódik “to be thrown about (in neglect), to decay and perish (by
degrees), to get lost”
*uγžiγ- “to go down”
gul (518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to destroy; to break”
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
kalokány, karakány, kolokány, karlokány “a prickly grass that
grows in lakes, aloe”
*ciilavik “kind of grass”
kankal, wr. kankal "oil-processing, perfume-making"
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Yupik
Akkadian
kalpag “a kind of rimless fur headgear; hat”
*qaγla(k) “circular rim”
qaγlak “upper part of bucket”
qalpum “peeled, skinned”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
kancsó “jug, pitcher; tankard”
*ki_àntú “a kind of vessel”
qan∂R “mouth; to speak”
ganum (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. gan; ga-an-nu; ĝešgan-nu-um “a large
vessel”
kannu
Akkadian
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
kancsuka “knout”
*qanžak “small sled”
gam (33x: Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝeškab; ĝešgam3; ĝešKIN “shepherd's crook, bent stick; haft, hilt”
gamlu
Hungarian
Sumerian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukchi
kánya “milan”
akan, wr. akanmušen “a bird”
kaŋuR “snow goose”
kaŋolγ∂n “kind of seagull”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kantár “bridle, reins”
*qaγ∂(R) “wave breaker”
kad (20x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kad5; kad4; kad6;
kad8 “to tie, gather; to itch, scratch; to weave a mat?”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kanyaró “measles”
qaramuq “a kind of disease which gives a rash”
*kaviR- “to be red”
gum (28x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gan;
gum2 “mange, scab, leprosy”
garābu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumeria
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kapni “to get, to receive; to grasp, to grab”
*k’ap’V- “to press, to grasp”
*kap∂- “to stab”
dab (8723x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dab5; dab; dab5-dab5;
dabx(|LAGAB×GUD|) “to seize, take, hold; to bind; to envelop,
overwhelm; to choose (by extispicy); to accept; to take charge of”
şabātum
kapu “gate”
*k’ap’u “barrier”
*kapput∂- “to stick into”
gababum (3x: Early Old Babylonian) wr. ga-ba-bu-um “shield”,
kababum (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. kuška-ba-bu-um “shield”
kabābu
kar “arm”
*tałiR “arm”
gur (470x: Ur III) wr. gurx(|ŠE.KIN|); gur10; gurx(|ŠE.KIN.KIN|)
“to reap”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kár “loss, damage; too bad!, what a pity!”
*qacu “to become loose” [?]
kar (158x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kar “to
take away (by force), remove; to deprive”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
karám “(sheep-)pen”
*qaRiaq “storage alcove”
kar (251x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kar “harbor, quay”
kāru
Akkadian
Hungarian
Karachai
Middle Turkic
Osman
Uigur
Modern Uigur
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
karó “post, prop, stake, stick, support”
kazak “post, stake”
kazuŋuk “id.”
kazyk “id.”
kazγuk “id.”
kozuk
*ayaγta “pole or support”
gaz (402x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gaz; gaz2; kaz8 “to kill, slaughter; to
grind, grate; to beat; to thresh (grain); to execute, impose a death
sentence; to break”
hašālu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
karom “claw”, köröm “nail, claw”
*kukiγ “claw, nail”
gur (35x: Old Babylonian) wr. gur21; kuš-buru4-mušen; eur2 "shield
(birds)"
Hungarian
Chuvash
Karachai
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
karvaly “sparrow-hawk”
χ∂rχi “eagle; a kind of mouse-eating bird”
qïrγïy “hawk”
*qilriq “rough-legged hawk”
gurgal, wr. gur8-galmušen “a bird”, girgilum (4x: ED IIIa, Old
Babylonian) wr. giri16-i-lumušen; gur8-galmušen?; gir-gi-lummušen;
gir-gi4-lumušen; ĝir3-gi-lumušen; kir4-gi4-lummušen “a bird”, kirkir
(5x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeškiri6-ĝeškiri6mušen; ka5kar2mušen; ki-kar2mušen; kar-karmušen “a bird” Akk.
girgilu; kirikarru; kurkurru
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Rhaetic
kása “mush”
*akut- “to mix”
*kaššu “cheese” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98). *kaššu means
“massive, bulky”, which fits both for “mush” and for “cheese”. Engl.
cheese, Germ. Käse, Rhetor. chaschöl, etc. go also directly back to the
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Rhaet. word.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kászu “a little container or pot made of bark”
*ka(C)∂Ru(R) “(birch) bark”
kasu (4x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. gu2-zi; dugKU.ZI; duggu2-zi;
dugka-a-su; dugKA.ZI “goblet; bowl”
kāsu
katáng “a plant with sky-blue coloured flowers arranged in a
nest-like shape, cichory”
*q∂t∂ŋŋun “half-sibling”. Obviously, the nest-like shape of the plant
made its name.
gid (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 “to
drag, tow (a boat upstream); to pass along, transfer; to flay?; to milk”.
The cichory plant contains a milky liquid.
Hungarian
Osman
Chuvash
Proto-Eskimo
North Alaskan Inuit
Sumerian
kazán “boiler”
kazan “boiler, cauldron”
xuran “boiler, cauldron, kettle”
*qaltaR “bucket”
qattaq “water barrel with lid”
hurum (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. hu-ru-um “a designation of a pot”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
-ke (diminutive suffix)
*-kk (diminutive formant)
qaej-/quaej “small, young”
genna (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. genna “small”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kebel “bosom, breast; lap”
*kepV “upper part of body, trunk”
uvin∂γ “body, skin”
uvik(i) “body”, uvig-ril “trunk”
gaba (821x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr.
gaba “breast, chest; frontier”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kéd-: ekkédig “until now”
*kentз, *käntз “time”
*qaŋa “when”
kid (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. kid7 “to cut, fell”
Hungarian
kedv “mood”, kedves “nice, friendly”, kedvenc “favourite”, kegy
“favour, mercy”, kegyelni “to love, to like”
*k8ntз “mood”
Proto-Ugric
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
*keδ’e(γ) “warmth, summer”
kiδaγ “summer, heat”
gandu, wr. ga-an-du8 "a position of responsibility; friendship"
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Khanty
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
kégy “arena, circle, stadium”
*kećз “circle, hoop, ring”
kusi “barrel-hoop
*qaγla(k) “circular rim”
gud (55x: Old Babylonian) wr. gud3; gigud3 “coil of bird's nest; reed
nest, shelter; nest”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
kéj “delight, pleasure; lechery, lust”, kény “arbitrariness; lust”
*keje-, *k8jγз- “to delight, to enjoy, to take pleasure (in); rutting; to
mate”
*keδ’e(γ) “warmth, summer”
kiδaγ “summer, heat”
gu (283x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gu3 “voice,
cry, noise”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Manchu
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kék “blue”
kuku “blue-gray”
*qiyu(γ)(-) “blue (esp. berry)”
kukku (63x: Old Babylonian) wr. ku10-ku10; kukku5 “(to be) dark” or
giggi (941x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian,
1st millennium) wr. giggi; gi6-gi6 “(to be) black”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
kelni “to arise, to ascend; to go, to start traveling”
*kela “to rise”
*kaδa- “to arise”; *kälä “to wade”
*käl∂- “to wade across”
*qu(C)∂k “bone in the rear flipper of seal”
quδγ- “top, back”
ĝal (3954x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝal2; ma-al; ga2gal2 “to be, to exist”
+ am “bird”
Hungarian
Osman
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kelengye “dowry”
gelinlik “dowry”
*pilliun “gift”
gir, wr. gigir “dowry; gift”, gil (50x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr.
gil “treasure”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
kelleni “to be needed, to be necessary”
*kelke “to be important, must, should”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
*γiaqaq “must” (< yaR- + ŋkaR)
kal (389x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kal “(to be) rare, valuable”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kém “spy”
*qiiŋa- “to grimace (rolling eyes)”
kiĝ (108x: Old Babylonian) wr. kiĝ2 “to seek”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
kemény “solid”
*kämä “hard”
*käm(∂γ)- “hard, strong”
k∂m∂k “flesh”
kimaš (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. na4ki-maš “a stone”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kémény “chimney”
*qam∂- “to go out (fire)”
qamū “to burn (tr.)
Hungarian
kende “the head of the Magyar confederation in the 8th and 9th
centuries A.D.), kend “you (ancient and rural formal address)”
*kunta “fellow(s), tribe”
*-qan, -qat∂ “fellow-“
kudej∂ “tribe, family”
kingal (23x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Babylonian) wr. kingal; kingal “grandee; crown authority over land, labor recruiter”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Koryak
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kengyel “stirrup”
*qaδvaR- “to rise, to put on top”
kuĝ (51x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝeškuĝ5; kun4; ĝeškuĝ4; kun5; ĝeškuĝx(LUM) “stair(case); ladder;
threshold”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kenyér “bread”
*k∂γ∂- “to bite”
kagu (106x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. ka-gu7 “a type of bread” +
ninda (11296x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur
III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ninda; inda “bread;
food”
Hungarian
kény-szer “compulsion”, kény-szeríteni “to compel, to force, to
oblige, to press”
*k∂γiR- “to be in pain”
kiĝ (1111x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kiĝ2 “to work”, gu (2x: Old
Babylonian) wr. gu2 “force”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kép “picture”
*k∂ppaR “piece cut off” [?]
gub “to write” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 204)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kepe “shock (of corn)”
*k∂ppaR “piece cut off” [?]
kappu “hollow hand”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kér “membrane (of brain, belly)”, kéreg “bark”
*k’éŕŕ “bark”
*kere “crust, rind, skin”
*ker∂, *kor∂ “skin”
k∂l∂(t)- “to cut skin into strips (for rope)”
*k∂l∂v∂- “id.”, *qalt∂ “bark”
ker(ker) “woman’s fur combination suit, clothes”
guruš (12x: Old Babylonian) wr. guruš3; guruš4 "to cut, fell, trim, peel
off; a cutting; stubble"
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kérni “to ask for, to look for”
*kerз- “to ask, to request”
*ap∂R∂- “to ask”
gir (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. gir5 "to ask for asylum; slip (in or
through), glide"
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kerek “round”, kerék “wheel”, keríteni “to enclose, to fence in”,
kert “garden”, kerülni “to avoid; to go in a roundabout route”
*kerä-, *keerä- “round; to roll, to turn, to wind
*p∂R∂- “to bend”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”, kiri6 “garden”: kirimah (14x: Ur III)
wr. ĝeškiri6-mah “pleasure garden, park”, ukiri (4x: Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. u2-ĝeškiri6 “garden produce” (u2 “bed”)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
kérész “mayfly”
*caq∂l∂kitaR “butterfly”
giriš (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. giriš “butterfly”
kurşiptu
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kés “knife”
*k’i_ut’u “a kind of knife or arrow”
*kečз “knife”
*q∂c(c)uγ- “to scratch or dig claws into”
qazāzum “to cut, to cut off”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
késa “a provincial term used to describe legal battles over
territory near rivers”, késálni, késálkodik “to fight, to struggle, to
battle”
*kiśkз- “to rend, to tear”
*q∂c(c)uγ- “to scratch or dig claws into”
ĝeš-kiĝ-ti “artisan, forge” (Lieberman 1977, no. 295)
kiškattu, kiškittu “weapon”
keseregni “to grieve over sth.”, kesergő “dirge, lament”,
keseríteni “to embitter”, kesernyés “tart”, keserű “bitter”
*k8ćз(-rз)
*k∂γδaγ- “to be rough”
ĝiškim (60x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝiškim “sign, omen; trust,
aid”
giskimmu; cf. also kišpum “magic, witchcraft, omen”, kišubu “end of a
song”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
keshedni “to become frayed/threadbare, to wear out”
*käńćз(-), *käćз(-) “thin; to thin out”
*caat “to be thin”
qātū “to come to an end; to be finished”, qatnu “thin”. A perfect
match in sound and meaning between Proto-Inuit and Akkadian.
Hungarian
Tatarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Akkadian
késik “to be late”
kič “evening; late”
q∂cuγ- “to tear out, to scratch”
qiciX “sth. sharp”
qātū “to come to an end; to be finished”, qatnu “thin”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
keskeny “narrow”
*känčз, *käčз “narrow, tight”
*caat “to be thin”
qatnu “thin, narrow”; cf. keshedni.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Akkadian
kész “finished, ready; prepared (to), ready (to); obliging, willing”
*k8ćз “ready, willing”
q∂cuγ- “to tear out, to scratch”
qiciX “sth. sharp”
qātū “to come to an end; to be finished”, qatū “finished, ready”
Hungarian
Komi
Chukotko-Kamch.
Nivkh
keszeg “bream; extremely thin”
gyć “Crucian carp”
ukiδ “capelin (fish)”
ukk “kind of carp”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
Sumerian
qatnu “thin, narrow”
kizi (10x: ED IIIb) wr. ki-ziku6 “a fish” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo
Mańśi
Sumerian
két, kettő “two”
*gàgtà “one of a pair”
*kat
*gagča
*gagda
*kakta, *käktä
pingasok “two” (Kleinschmidt 1951, p. 37)
kit “two”
kid (7x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. kid2; gir8; kid4; kid7 “to break
off, pinch off”, gag (304x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. ĝešgag; gag; urudgag “arrowhead; peg, nail” (Akk.
sikkatu “id.”)
šitta “two (fem.)”
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kéve “sheaf”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
kib (599x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gig; gib
“wheat”
kibtu
kevés “few; small”
*kup’e “light (of weight); floating on the surface”
*kepu-, *kopu-
Akkadian
*kepä
*uqiŋit- “to be light”
kabduga (2x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kab-dug4-ga “capacity
measure (container)”
quppu “container”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kéz “hand”
*käte
*aδγa(R), *aδγaγ “hand”
kišib (11x: Old Babylonian) wr. kišib-la2; kišib “hand, wrist”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kezdeni “to begin, to start, to lead off”
*liq- “to begin” [?]
ku (96x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ku “to place, lay (down), lay eggs; to spread,
discharge”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ki “out”, kinn “outside”, kívül “outside; without (derivative)”
*ki(-mз), *kü(-mз) “the outside”
uŋa(n) “area on other side”
ŋa-rŋ∂n(en) “outside; weather”
ki (32379x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. ki “place;
ground, earth, land; toward; underworld; land, country; lower, down
below”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ki “who”
*k’a(j) “who (interrogative)”
*kem, *ka
*ken, *ka
*xia, *xai
*ken
*ki “who”
ki-na “id.”
k’e “id.”
mae-ki “id.”
ĝá-e, ĝe24-e “I, me”, akkil, wr. akkil2 “where; when”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kicsi, kicsiny, kis “small”
*mik∂- “to be small”
gi17 “small” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 175)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
kígyó “snake”
*k’ile “a kind of fish or lizard”, *kulV “snake; worm”
*kije, *küje
kumaγ “louse”
k∂mR∂(k∂m) “worm, caterpillar”
kelinc’∂ “worm”
gi (1485x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gi4; gi “to turn, return; to go
around; to change status; to return (with claims in a legal case); to go
back (on an agreement)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
kilenc “nine” (< kil-, kül- to kí-vül “outside” + -nc “ten”?)
*kilз-, *külз- “to decay, to disintegrate, to fall; to become worn, to
worn out”
*iγt∂- “to fall”
ì-li-mu, ilimmu “nine”, gul (518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II,
Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to
destroy; to break”
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
kímélni “to save, to spare, to protect”
*q∂m∂lRu- “to examine”
geme (4025x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. geme2; gi4-in “female worker”
amtu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kín “pain”
*k∂γiR- “to be in pain”
gana (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešgana2 “shackles”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kincs “treasure”
*aŋŋi- “to keep secret”
aeŋi- “to tell sth. secret”
giĝ (18136x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. giĝ4 “a unit of weight,
shekel; a unit of area; a unit of volume”
šiqlu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kísérni “to accompany, to escort, to follow”, kísérlet
“experiment”, kísérteni “to seduce; to haunt”, kísértet “ghost”
*kećз- “to follow a path”
*atuaq- “to follow”
us (9695x: ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. us2 “to accompany, to follow”, kiši,
wr. kiši12 “secret”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Kazakh
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kívánni “to wish”
*kúbé “to wish, to hope, to like”
*küb-, *gübquvan- “to be happy”
*q∂l∂n∂R(aR)- “to want sth. urgently”
gub (5043x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gub "to stand; (to be) assigned (to a
task)"
Hungarian
koboz “a kind of four- or five-stringed lute/lyre-like instrument
of old Hungary”
*q∂δuγ “wood”
qēbū “wooden flute?”
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kóc “tow”, kócos “dishevelled, tousled, unkempt”
*qacal(l)uq “bark of tree)
guz (110x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. guz "to be tufted”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Akkadian
kocsány “stalk, stem (of a blossom)”
kita- “foot, kit-miγ “heel”
ketxed “feet”
k∂t-ka “foot”
gu (1850x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gu “cord, net; unretted flax
stalks”
qū
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
kókadni “to fade, to wither; to bend down faded”
*gùk’à(-) “curve, hook; to cling to”
*qaviR “curve”
gug (76x: Ur III) wr. u2gug4; gug4; gug; u2|ZI&ZI|; u2|A.ZI&ZI|;
u2|ZI&ZI.A|; u2|ZI&ZI.EŠ2.ŠE| “a grass; rush, sedge”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
komócsin “Phleum pratense, a sweet-grass”
*qama(C)uγ “sled”
gam (33x: Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian)
wr. ĝeškab; ĝešgam3; ĝešKIN “shepherd's crook, bent stick; haft, hilt”
gamlu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
konda “swineherd”
*qanit(t)aR “porch of a traditional house”
gan “swine”, in: šagan (150x: ED IIIb) wr. šaganx(|GA2×AN|)gan;
šagan; šaganx(AMA)ša “a designation of pigs”
Hungarian
koppintani, koppantani “to knock, to tap; to wolf down (food); to
extinguish (a candle)
pako- “to flick, knock against”
*pakak- “to knock into” (with metathesis?)
kappu “wings (of a bird)” [?]
Chukotko-Kamch.
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kopó “hound, foxhound; detective, sleuth”
*puŋŋuuq “(shaman’s word for) dog” (metathesis k – p > p – k and
substitution of k by homorganic ŋŋ).
qīpum “thrustful; representative, commissioner”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
koporsó “casket, coffin”
*kop’é “to bend; elevation; convexity”
*koppa “something hollow”
*putu “hole”
qubūru “grave; hole”, kipūm, kapāpum “to bend”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Inuit
Sumerian
kor “age; epoch, era, period, time”
*kilγaq “wilderness”
kułX “tundra”
gara (1x: Ur III) wr. gar4 “(to be) deserted”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Rhaetic
kor “ill; illness”
*q∂n∂ “to be ill”
karabu, garapu “leprosy” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
korbács “scourge”
*tukku(R) “host”
qarābum “to approach hostily; to bring a weapon”
Hungarian
korcs “bastard, half-breed, freak, mongrel; crippled, freakish;
degenerate; hybrid”
*tukku(R) “host”
kur (489x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, uncertain) wr. kur2; gur “(to be) different;
(to be) strange; (to be)estranged; (to be) hostile”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kóró “thistle; stalk”
kita- “foot, kit-miγ “heel”
ketxed “feet”
k∂t-ka “foot”
gur (133x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. gur4; gur14; gur13 “(to be) thick; (to be) big”
Hungarian
Sumerian
korom “soot”
kur (2494x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. kur; kir5
“underworld; land, country; mountain(s)”
*qiRn∂R- “to be black or dark”
kudāru “a kind of territory”
kudra “dark color” (cf. Tóth und Brunner 2007, p. 117, s.n. “Grabs”).
Interesting, but not unique semantic development: “territory” >
“world” > “underworld” > “black” > “soot”.
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
Arabic, Rhaetic
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
korsó “beer glass, tankard (1/2 liter)”
*kuciR- “to drip”
kur (607x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kur2;
gur2 “unit of capacity based on a vessel size”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
kosár “basket”
*qantaq “container”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Rhaetic
khus, kus “vessel”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kosz “dirt; scab, scabies”
*iqa(R) “dirt”
ĝešgisaĝkešed (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝiš-gi-saĝ-keš2 “disease”. The
cuneogram ĝeš-, ĝiš- is nothing but a phonetic indicator, sag 2 means
“to strike, to beat” and has thus the same meaning like keš2, so that
either gi-saĝ or keš2 are the Sum. basis for Hung. kosz.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kő, köv- “stone”
*kiwe
*qaluR “rock”
kim, wr. kim3 “a stone” with –m < *-b/-p < -w-/-v-.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
köcsög “milk-jug; mug, pot”
*k’āč’V “a kind of vessel”
*kičз, *küčз “vessel made of birch bark”
*cupluγ, *cupluR *tube”
gaZUM, wr. ga-ZUM “a vessel”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
köd “fog”
*k’edò “wind; fog”
*kintз “fog, mist, smoke”
*taγ∂tuγ “fog”
ki (32379x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. ki “place;
ground, earth, land; toward; underworld” + di6 “to bring”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ködmön “a kind of overcoat made of fur”
*qasp∂q “parka cover”
gadamah (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. gada-mah “a garment”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kökény “blackthorn, wild-plum”
*qiyu(γ)(-) “blue (esp. berry)”
giggi (941x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian,
1st millennium) wr. giggi; gi6-gi6 “(to be) black”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kökörcsin “anemone”
*qiyu(γ)(-) “blue (esp. berry)”
giggi (941x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian,
1st millennium) wr. giggi; gi6-gi6 “(to be) black” + kiĝ (108x: Old
Babylonian) wr. kiĝ2 "to seek"
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
kölcsön “loan”
*aŋŋi- “to keep secret”
aeŋi- “to tell sth. secret”
gilsa (62x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gil-sa; gi16-gi16-sa
“treasure”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
köldök “navel”
*qalaciR “navel”
gilim, wr. gigilim “type of clasp”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kölyök, kölök “puppy”
köšäk “young camel”
*qal∂R.- “to make characteristic cry (animal)”
kisikil (158x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ki-sikil; lu2ki-sikil;
mu-tin; mu-ti-in “young woman”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kölyű “hand-mill”
*ciŋaR- “to crush”
gilim (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. gilim; gilibx(|GI%GI|)ib; gi16-il; gilgilil “to lie across; to be entwined; to entwine, twist; to block; (to be)
difficult to understand”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
könnyű “easy, light; thin”
*k’èńó “light; thin”
*k8nз “easy”
*piδa-q∂nit “easy”
gin (924x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gin6; gi-na; gi-in; ge-en; gin “(to be)
permanent; to confirm, establish (in legal contexts), verify; (to be) true;
a quality designation; medium quality”
kânu; kīnu
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
könyök “elbow”
*k’i_ùnč’o “sleeve; top of the boat”
*kińa, *küńä or *kinä, *künä
gun (1x: Early Old Babylonian) wr. al-gu2-gu2 “to twist”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
könyörögni “to beg, to supplicate”
*kenз- “to growl, to roar, to scream”
*q∂l∂ŋu “to growl”
kiĝ (108x: Old Babylonian) wr. kiĝ2 "to seek"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
könyv “book”
*qaliR “covering; seal”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
Akkadian
kišib (17468x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. kišib3; kišib; na4kišib “cylinder seal, sealed tablet”
kunukku
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
köpönyeg “cloak, gown; mantle, cape, wrap”
*qapt∂t- “to tighten”
kapālum “to wrap, to wind, to tie”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
köpű “beehive; churn”, köpűlni “to churn”
*quδu- “to close in” [?]
quppu “container, vessel”
Hungarian
kör “circle”, köré “around, about”, körül “close, nearby”,
környék “environs, surroundings”
*ki_úŕu “a kind of vehicle”
*kyŕ*kür*kur*kere “circle, ring”
*p∂R∂- “to bend, to flex”
gur, wr. gur2 “loop, hoop, circle”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kőris “ash”
*arδa “ash”
harāşu “to break off, cut off; to cut”. Cf. Latin fraxinus “ash” to
frangere “to break”.
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Seward Peninsula Inuit
Akkadian
kőrő “brittle, crumbly, fragile”
*k∂k∂- “to break off”
kiγi- “to make a notch in”
harāşu “to break off, cut off; to cut”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
köszörülni “to whet, to grind”
*k8śз- “to sharpen, to whet”
q∂cuγ- “to tear out, to scratch”
qiciX “sth. sharp”
guz (110x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. guz “to be tufted”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
köszvény “gout”
*keśз- “to rend, to rip, to tear”
*kut∂- “to drip” (cf. “rheuma” < Greek rheîn “to flow, to drop, to
drip”)
kuš (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. kuš7 “devastation”
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
kötni “to bind, to fasten, to tie”
*kitke-, *kütke- “to bind, to tie”
*k∂t∂k “strap for fastening sth.”
kad (20x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kad5; kad4; kad6;
kad8 “to tie, gather”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Estonian
Eskimo
Inuit
Wakashan
Chukchi
Sumerian
köveszteni “to (par)boil bacon”
*keju- “to boil”, *k’ùńe “to burn”
Akkadian
*keje- “o be cooked; cooked”
keema “to be boiling, to simmer”
qav- “id.”
qejv(e)- “to boil”
q’av- “very hot, boiling”
qewj-at- “to evaporate”
kum (78x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kum2; kum4 “(to be)
hot”
emēmu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
követni “to accompany, to follow”
*kijз-, *küjз- “to follow, to trail”
*maliγ- “to follow” (k- > m- like in PE mik∂- vs. Hung. kicsi, cf. ici)
gi (1485x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gi4; gi "to turn, return; to go
around”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
köz “interspace”, közép “middle”
*kitз, *kütз, *kitз-ppe, *kütз-ppз
aku “space between”
gi (1485x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gi4; gi "to turn, return; to go
around”. Probably közép < *köz-zép with –zép < PFU *seka “gap,
interval, middle, inside” < Sum. šaĝ, wr. šag4; ša; ša3-ab “inner body;
heart; in, inside”.
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Rhaetic
kullogni “to stroll, to saunter”
k∂lu “area at back”
klu- “to go into (e.g. bay)”
*khūlu “way, path” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kupak “cap, bowl; cover, hood, piece; lid”
*kap∂- “to cut”, *p∂ppaR “piece cut off”
kappu “hollow hand”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
kúszik “to climb; to crawl, to creep”
*ku(C)im∂- “to swim”
kas4 “to run”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kút “well”
*kut∂ “to drop”
kutū “vessel, jug”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
kutak “small, tiny”
*kut∂ “to drop”
qatnu “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be) thin”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
kutya “dog”
*qiluγ- “to bark”
kuda (5x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. kud-da “an
animal”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
küllő “spoke (of a wheel)”
*t∂γu(R)liq “handle”
kul (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kul “a handle”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Yukagir
Sumerian
kürni “to bind, to tie, to be bound in the yoke (of oxen)”
*kèra- “to bind, to wind around”
*kärз- “to bind, to tie”
c’olo- “to tie on, to add”
gir, wr. gir11 “to yoke, harness”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
küsz “a kind of freshwater fish, Alburnus alburnus”
*kiśkз “a kind of small fish”
*citu(C)aR “beluga”
gizi (1x: ED IIIa) wr. gi-ziku6 “a fish”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
küszöb “threshold, doorstep”
*avluR∂q “threshold” [?], perhaps with metathesis sz – b > v – s and
rhotacism s > r.
askuppu “threshold”
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
küzdeni “to battle, to fight, to contend, to strive for”
*k8śз “game, race; to play, to race”
*curδuγ- “to attack”
gaz (402x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gaz; gaz2; kaz8 “to kill, slaughter; to
grind, grate; to beat; to thresh (grain); to execute, impose a death
sentence; to break”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
kaşāşum; šagāšum
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
láb “foot, leg”
*l8mpз
*niRulu “root or foot of sth.”
lib (3x: ED IIIa) wr. lib “inner body; heart”
libbu “heart; body; trunk”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
North Alaskan Inuit
Seward Pen. Inuit
Sumerian
lágy “mild; soft”, langyos “lukewarm; mild, slack, soft”
lońća “mild, weak”
n’∂vγuR “fish slime”
niuγuq, juuγuq “id.”
juγγuq “id.”
luGAM (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. lu2-GAM “weak”
Hungarian
lak “dwelling”, lakik “to dwell”, lakás “apartment”, lakat “doorlock”
*lakka “eaves, roof”
(l)q∂t- “to go off” (~ *lak “to arrive”)
la (10x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. la2 “to stretch out; to be in
order”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
láng “flame”
*lomз, *lamз “flame; warmth”
*∂k(∂)n∂R “fire” [?]
lum (107x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. lum
“(to be) full, replete, satisfied (with); (to be) grown (tall); to fruit; (to
be) fructified; to shine”
Hungarian
lankadni “to droop, to flag; to wilt, to wither”, lanyhulni “to
become tepid; to weaken”
*nuk∂niq- “to be weakened”
lah (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. lah2 “to dry”
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
lap “page; sheet; flat surface”
*láp’ì “flat; broad”
*lappз “flat; flat surface”
*nat∂R(aR)naR “flat fish”
la (10x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. la2 “to stretch out; to be in
order”
lapāpum “to wind sth. round sth.”, lippu “cover”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
láp “marshy meadow; moor”
*lébù(-nV), *lépù- “swamp”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
*lampз “bog, marsh, pond, *l8ppз “debris floating on the water,
driftwood, fallen tree”
m∂caγ “swampy ground”
la, wr. la6 “flooding”
lapātum “to moisten”
Hungarian
Sumerian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Yukagir
lapát “shovel”
lubi (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. urudlub-bi; ĝešlib-bi “an ax”
*lep(p)∂ “oar”
ipu-t- “row”, ipu-γ- “to lever up”
lip∂ “snow shovel”
Hungarian
Mańśi
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lassú “slow”
let’šäl “low, small, soft (of a sound)”
*naq∂klo “to become lower”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 "(to be) small, little;
minus sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; diminution"
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
látni “to see”
*l8ttз*nuγ∂- “to appear” [?]
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to supervise, check”
alālum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
laza “loose, slack”
*l8ćз “loose, wide”
*mak∂- “to become loose”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to hang, balance,
suspend, be suspended; to bind; binding”
alālum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Akkadian
le- “to become; to be, shall be, will be”
*le- “to be, to become, to live”
*∂liR- “to become a certain way”
alālum “to be strong”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
le-: leány, lány “girl”
*l8jз “small, young”
*al(a), ïl(a) “below”
*aci- < *al-t∂ (?) “lower part”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
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Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 “(to be) small, little;
minus sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; diminution”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
le- (< lewe) “down (prefix)”, lenn, lent “below, down”
*l8 “lower, the lower part, sub, under”
*al(a), ïl(a) “below”
*aci- < *al-t∂ (?) “lower part”
qale-lle-ŋ “downriver”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 “(to be) small, little;
minus sign; (to be) insignificant, low-value; diminution”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Chukotko-Kamch.
n∂mi(n∂m) “broth”
Sumerian
lé, levet “juice”, leves “broth, soup”
*leme, lēme “sap, soup”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Eskimo-Aleut
Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
li, wr. li2 “oil; fat; cream”
lebegni “to float, to hover; to hang”, lobogni “to blaze; to blow”,
lobogó “flag”
*lempз-, *lämpз- “to fly, to hang”
*napatkaq- “to fall head first”
n’apa- “to be upright”
japaR- “to raise”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to hang, balance,
suspend, be suspended”, lu (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. lu9 “to flare up”.
The Hung. apophony thus already exists in Sum.
alālum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
leg- “most, -(e)st (superlative suffix), legesleg- (elative suffix)
*l8ŋз “fairly, very”
*ilumun “truly”
limum (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. li-mu-um; li-im “one thousand”
limu. These word-equations belong to the best proofs of the continuity
between Sum., Akk., Uralo-Sib., Ural., FU and Hung.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
légy “fly”
*l8ńćз
*n∂vyuvaγ “fly”
lili, wr. li-limušen “a bird”
liligū
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
lék (< weyk) “hole in the ice; leak”
*le(j)kka(-) “crack, fissure; to split, to cut”
*nayuγ- “to hollow out”
laqūm, leqūm “to take; to take away, to remove”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lelni “to find”
*lewδδ*nani “to find”
lal (9977x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. lal; lal2 “to diminish;
diminution". The PFU form that is only reconstructed of the basis of
Finnish löytä- and Estonian leidma is thus wrong.
Hungarian
lélek “soul, spirit, breath-soul (vs. body-soul, cf. jonh)”, lélegzik
“to breathe”
*lewlз “breath; spirit”
∂p∂- “to choke, to suffocate” [?]
w∂je-ŋto- “to breathe”, w∂ji- “air”
lil (92x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. lil2 “wind, breeze; ghost”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
lépni “to step, to take a step, to tread; to move; to play (e.g. a
chess-piece)
*läppз- “to enter, to go into”
*napa- “to be standing (upright)”
lib (3x: ED IIIa) wr. lib “inner body; heart”
lép “milt, spleen”
*li_ap’V “spleen”
*japal
*niγalta
*lip-če
Akkadian
*läppз, *δäppз, *leppз, *δeppз
*napu “cross-piece of sled” (cf. German Zwerch-fell, Zwerch “cross-,
crosswise”)
lipiš (40x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. lipiš; lipišx(|AB2.ŠA3|)
“inner body; heart; anger, rage”
libbu
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sirenikski
Sumerian
lepke “butterfly”
*l8ppз
n’apa- “to be upright”
japaR- “to raise”
lib (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. lib “dazed silence; (to be) dazed”. The
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
dazing effect is due to the quick movement of the wings, from which
also German Falter (to flattern “to flutter”), Italian farfalla and Latin
papilio (> French papillon) originate.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
lesni “to lurk, to keep watch on, to spy, to watch”
*läćз(-) “hideout; to spy on”
*nakima “to wander around” [?]
li (26x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. li2; li9 “to press, to push”
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
levél “leaf, sheet; letter”
*l8pз, lepз “sheet”
*lepa-, *lempa- “flap”
∂ve(R)-luγ- “flap”
leval- “wave”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to hang, balance,
suspend, be suspended”, lub (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. lu-ub2 “a type
of bag”
Hungarian
Wakashan
Eskimo
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
lidérc, lüdérc “demon, will-o’-the-wisp”
ligs “wolf”
ligz “id.”
Xivne, Xigne “id.”
l(∂)Riγ∂ “id.”
li (26x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. li2; li9 “to press (oil)” (cf. incubus)
+ dirig (2166x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. diri; RI “(to be)
very great, supreme, excellent” (a demon).
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
liszt “flour”
*leśe, *liśe “crushed, ground”
*n∂q∂ “food”
liš (2x: Ur III) wr. liš “crumb, scrap”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lódítani “to throw”, lógni “to dangle, to hang down, to swing”
*loŋe- “to throw, to toss”
*miluR- “to hit with thrown object”
*milluuq- “to throw things at sth.”
la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to hang, balance,
suspend, be suspended”
alālum
Akkadian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lom “broken ice floating in a river in spring; hoar-frost on trees;
mud, slime, sludge; urine; junk, rubbish”
*lume “snow”
*niiquq- “to crunch (snow underfoot)”
lum, wr. lum “excrement”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lőni, löv- “to shoot, to fling”
*lewe- “to shoot, to throw”
*miluR- “to hit with thrown object”
*milluuq- “to throw things at sth.”
lah (167x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. lah5;
lah4 “plural stem of de [to bring, to sail, to driv off, to fling away,
etc.]”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
lökni “to cast, to fling, to throw, to toss; to give a push or shove,
to knock, to push, to thrust”
*likkä-, lükkä- “to push, to shove”
*miluR- “to hit with thrown object”
*milluuq- “to throw things at sth.”
lah (167x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. lah5;
lah4 “plural stem of de [to bring, to sail, to driv off, to fling away,
etc.]”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
lúd “goose”
*lunta “bird; wild goose”
*n∂rl∂r, n∂ql∂r “goose”
luĝa, wr. luĝ2 “to submerge oneself in water”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
lyuk “cavern, den, pit; aperture, hole, opening”
*lowkkз “hole, opening”
*nayuγ- “to hollow out”
laga (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. la-ga “vulva”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo
Sumerian
-mad- (ordinal number suffix)
*-mt (ordinal suffix)
-at- (ordinal suffix; cf. Kleinschmidt 1851, p. 38)
-am: “A secondary means to form ordinal numbers [from cardinal
numbers, A.T.] was to put the number in the genitive followed by the
copula [am]: u4-2-kam [u(d)-min-ak-am] ‘it is of the day two’ = ‘the
second day’” (Edzard 2003, p. 67).
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
mag “grain, seed; gist, pith, core, the main point”, mag(reflexive pronoun), magas “high”, magasztalni “to praise
highly”
*muŋkз “body”
*mäk∂- “to go up”
mak∂(t) “to get up”
haγ “to grow up, to open”
mug, wr. mug2 “female genitals, vulva”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
máj “liver”
*piàki “liver”
*maksa
m∂cu(γ) “liquid” [?]
peš (147x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st
millennium) wr. peš; peš5; peš4; peš6 "innards; (to be) thick".
Semantically, also German Leber and English liver mean originally
“the fat one” < Greek liparós “fat” to lípos “fat, oil”, cf. also Italian
fegato < Latin (iecur) ficatum “fattened liver” (Kluge 2002, p. 563).
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
makacs “obstinate”
*mait- “to be sensitive”
makkaš (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. makkaš2; makkaš “lamentation”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Akkadian
mál “slope of a mountain; belly part of the skin of an animal”
*m8lз, *m8ljз, *m8lkз “breast”
majuR- “to go up”
hajuR- “id.”
majo-lγ∂n “low hill”
mēlū “hill”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
malát, malád “a bushy or grassy area after the return of a
flooding”
*malkз “a kind of willow”
*palliq “dry willow twigs”
mulgana (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. mul-gana2 “type of plant”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Rhaetic
málha “luggage”
*mal∂γ- “to press up against”
malka “herd, property” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
mámoros “ecstatic; drunk, wrecked”
*qavaR- “to sleep”
*qavaŋuq “dream”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
mamud (45x: Old Babylonian) wr. ma-mu2; ma-mu “dream”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Rhaetic
marha “cattle; property”
*mal∂γ- “to press up against”
malka “herd, property” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
marni “to bite, to gnaw”
*mi_úru “to press, to damage”
*buŕ-, *boŕ*muru*mura, *murз “to break apart; crumb, fragment, piece”
*paruq “bug” [?]
mu (9x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu11; ma5; mu7 “to crush, mangle”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mar “withers (on an horse’s back)”
*m8rз “sth. extraordinary; convex form of a body-part”
*paδviγ “wrist”
mur (20x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mur “lung”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
maradni “to stay”
*m8rз- “to bold back”
*paγi- “to stay at home”
mar (8x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. mar “louse; worm; parasite”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Central Alaskan Yupik
Sumerian
mart “bank, beach, shore; edge or side of a ditch; ravine, hillside,
brow of a hill”, part “bank, shore”
*māro “sand; stony earth; marsh”
*bōr
*mara*mar*mortз “edge, end”
*maRRaR “mud”
maraq “marshy, muddy low land”
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur
“outside, (other) side; behind; outer form, outer; fleece; outsider”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mártani “to douse, to souse; to immerse, to plunge”
*marз*maRu- “to sink into soft ground or snow”
mar (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. mar “to smear, to immerse”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
más “other”, másik “the second”
*mu “other; this”
uv(a)- “this”
wa- “id.”
waj “here you are”. waj∂ŋ-qen “that just there”
maš (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. maš “twin”, or ba (2x: Old Babylonian)
wr. ba3; ba7 “half; thirty” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
-máz: hagymáz “spotted fever”
*mučз “some form of sickness”
*puyuR “smoke”
mes (56x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mes;
ĝešmes “blackness, black spot; black wood”
Hungarian
meg “and, but, then, thus”, meg- (aoristic prefix, sometimes also
indicating the return of an action), mögé “to the back”, mögött
“behind”, mögül “from behind, from the back”
*miŋä, *müŋgä “space behind sth.”
*q∂r- “height”
*q∂RaR- “to rise up”
eĝir (393x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. eĝir; eĝir5(LUM); egir4;
eĝir6(MURGU2) “back, rear; after”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
menni, megy, mé-sz “to go”
*meŋa- “to run, to trot”
*baŋ*meŋde*meŋmene
*men∂- “to go”
m∂n∂t- “to pass over at distribution”
man-ŋ “dispersing, in different directions”
ma “to go” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 304)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
meggy “sour-cherry”
*melu “a kind of berry”
*beleł
mojil*m[e]likte
*mol’з, *moδ’з “a kind of edible wild berry”
*paγunRaR “berry”
mudum (6x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. mu-dum “a fruit”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Udmurt
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
méh “bee”
*mekše
muš
*∂v∂γtaR “bee”
mušen (454x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. mušen; mu-ti-in; mu-tin “bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
meleg “warm”
*mälз(-) “warm; to become warm”
*mal(iγ), mïil(iγ) “wave”
*mal∂k “wave”
hal- “windward”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
mell “bosom, breast, chest; bust”
*mälke, *mälγe
*mäl(k∂) “chest”
malak “chest”
hala- “to turn head”
meli, wr. mel3; melix(|KA×GAR+ŠA3+A|); meli2; melix(|KA×U2|)
“neck”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
méltó “deserving of, fit to, worthy of; fair, just; worthy of sb.
*m8lз- “enter into, to fit in, to go into”
*m∂laR- “to plug”
mu, wr. mu6 “manly; young man” +
eţlum “manly, reliable”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
mély “deep”
*m∂laR- “to plug”
mar (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. mar “to smear, to immerse”
Hungarian
mely “which”, melyik “which one”, mennyi “how much”, mi
“what”, mikor “when”
*mV (an interrogative root)
*m8 “thing; what”
*nat∂- “which”
mea (155x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. me-a;
ma6; ma-a; ma-a-a "where?, whither?"
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
mén “stallion”
*mänз “any sort of animal”
manniγ “egg”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
nunuz (130x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. nunuz; na4nunuz “ovoid bead; egg”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mén “sweep of a well”
*mōŋi, *mōŋe “round”
*bōn-čuk
*möγer
*muŋu-, *muŋbu-
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*minз(-) “bending, curve; to bend, to bow, to curve”
*p∂qu- “to bend; to be bent”
men (83x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. men; men4
“tiara, type of crown”
menekedni, menekülni “to escape”, menteni “to resue”
*mänз- “to rescue/save oneself”
*annaγut∂- “to save”
ma (5559x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ma2; ĝešma2 "ship, boat"
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sirenikski
Koryak
Sumerian
meny “daughter-in-law”
*mińä “daughter-in-law; young woman”
*an’a “older female relative”
nana “mother”
n’el “daughter-in-law” (< *nVjVl)
munus (3079x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. munus; nu-nus
“woman; female”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sirenikski
Sumerian
meny: menyhal “burbot”
*an’a “older female relative”
nana “mother”
mun (5x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb) wr. munku6 “a fish”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
menny “heaven”, mennyezet “ceiling”
*mińз
*qilaγ “sky”
men (83x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. men; men4
“tiara, type of crown”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
menyülni: kimenyülni “to be/to become dislocated, sprained”
*menз
*annaγut∂- “to save”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
kimanzer (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. ki-ma-an-ze2-er “slippery place”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
merni “dare, to make bold, to venture”
*märз- “to believe, to venture”
*p∂R∂- “to stand up”
me (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me
“being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; (cultic)
ordinance”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
merni “to dip, to immerse, to plunge”
*märзamu “to pull up”, amlu- “to draw, to bail out”
amilRi-X “fishing place”
me (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me
“being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; (cultic)
ordinance”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
mérni “to measure”
*merз- “to measure”
mul∂(γ) “nipple”, m∂luγ “nipple; to suck”
huluX “nipple; seed” (for semantic development cf. meredni)
me (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. me “stiffness”
Hungarian
meredni “to become fixed; to fix; to gaze, to stare; to rise; to
stand out, to stand up”, meredek “steep”, meredt “stiff”
*merз-, *märз- “to press, to wring”
mul∂(γ) “nipple”, m∂luγ “nipple; to suck”
huluX “nipple; seed”
me (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. me “stiffness”
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
méreg “poison; anger”
*mirkkз “poison”
*naR∂- “to smell” [?]
mir (347x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mir;
tumumir “north wind; north; storm”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mese “fairy tale”
*mańćз-, *maćз- “to narrate; story”
*maniγuR- “to soothe, cajole”
maškim (3492x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. maškim “an administrative position; a
demon”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Yupik
Sirenikski
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
messze “far”
*mōč’a “edge, end”
*būč*muč*mećä “the edge or side of sth.”
*muγ∂- “to roam”
*m∂g∂-/muγu- “to go off far”
muγu|?ij “caravan”
m∂γu- “to nomadize”, m∂γu-jil “reindeer caravan”
meše (22x: Old Babylonian) wr. me-še3 “where to?”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mét: métháló “driftnet made from stalks”
*mäktз(-) “a kind of net; to cast a net”
*kuvδaR “net”
mehi (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. me-hi “tissue”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Akkadian
méz “honey”
*mete
m∂cu(γ) “liquid”
matqu “syrup, honey”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
mező “domain, range, field”, mez “cloth”, meztelen “naked”
*mećз-, *meśз- “to clothe oneself”
*∂vγun “cloth”
mur (66x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mur10
“to get dressed, clothe oneself”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mi “we”
*ba, *bi_u-n
*bi-ŕ
*ba, *man*bue, *mü-n
*m8
*uvakut “we”
me
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
mi “what”
*mз “what; thing”
*mi “what”
miŋ-(k∂) “where, which”
ana “what”, niĝ (1641x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II,
Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
niĝ2; aĝ2 “thing”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
mohó “avid, greedy, eager”
*aR-maγ “greedy”
mah (3271x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. mah; mah2 “(to be) great”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Yukagir
Sumerian
mondani “to say, to speak”
*m8nз-, *monзan∂R- “to breathe”
anR(i)- “breath; voice; soul”
mon- “to say”
mu (8x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. mu7 “to make a sound” + ana
(3x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. an-na “upper”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
mony “egg; penis”
*úmu*jumu*öm-, *em*umū*muna “egg; testicle”
manniγ “egg”
nunuz (130x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. nunuz; na4nunuz “ovoid bead; egg”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
mór, mor: mórágy, morágy “kind of forest”
*mūro “tree; forest”
*morз “a type of tree”
*maRRaR “mud”
maRtu- “to be thick”
mu (520x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. mu2; mu2-mu2 "to grow"
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mosni “to wash”
*muśke-, *mośke*tan∂γ-, *tan∂t- “to wash”
mul (129x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. mul; mul2;
mul4 “star; to shine, radiate (light)” + šun, wr. šun2 “to shine”, or me,
wr. me “to wash, refine”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mosolyogni “to smile”
*mućз-, *muśз*aŋlaR- “to laugh”
mud (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. mud5 “joy”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
mozogni “to move”, mozdulni “to begin to move”
*m8ńćз-, *m8ćз*maŋat- “to get to move”
ma “to go” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 304)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
múlik “to elapse, to go by”, mulatni “to spend time, to entertain
oneself”
*mulз- “to elapse, to go by, to pass over”
mulu- “to stay away a long time”
ma “to go” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 304) + la (1399x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb,
Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. la2; la; lal2 “to hang, to be suspended; over"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Central Alaskan Yupik
Sumerian
murcos “dirty, muddy”
*maRRaR “mud”
maraq “marshy, muddy low land”
mudur (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu-dur7 “dirt”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mutni, mutatni “to show, to demonstrate”
*muja- “to feel, to touch, to touch lightly”
*maniγuR- “to soothe”
mud (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. mud “to create”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
mű, műv- “handicraft, work; opus”
*meke(-) “deed, work; to do, to make, to work”
*ca-vaγ- “to work”
mu (9x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu11; ma5; mu7 “to crush, mangle”
Hungarian
-(e/o/ö)n (superessive suffix, e.g. ház-on “on a house”, ház
“house”)
-na, -nä (locative suffix)
∂n∂ “place”, -me-, -ne (casus localis, cf. Kleinschmidt 1851, p. 79)
na(γ)- “inside”
-a (locative suffix), -na (possessive locative marker): dub-ba-na
“his/her tablet”
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
nagy “big, tall”
*n8ńćз “hard, strong”
aŋ∂- “big”
aŋu-na- “big”, aŋax “power; steward”
aeŋaeŋ “spirit, god”
niga (12565x: Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. niga; niĝ2-gu7-a “(to be)
fattened”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
-nál/-nél (adessive suffix), nála “at/by him/her/it”
*na- “nearness”
*na “that/this (one) here”
*na, nä “this”
-na (singulative of dem./q-words”)
-n “id.”
ne-e(n) “this”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nap “sun; day”
*macaR “sun”
na (527x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. na4; na; na4na “stone” + Akkadian
abnu “id.”. Semantically, cf. mennykő “lightening”, lit. “heaven-stone”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sirenikski
Sumerian
napa “mother-in-law”
*anзppē
*an’a “older female relative”
nana “mother”
nunus, munus (3079x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. munus; nu-nus
“woman; female”. The second part seems to be Sum. –bar that occurs
in “in-law” parentships: ušbar (19x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr.
ušbar; ušbar3; ušbar2 “father-in-law; mother-in-law”, cf. also Hung. ip,
ipa “father-in-law” and Sum. pap (86x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. pap “father; male, virile; brother” related to Akk.,
Rhaet. abu “father”. The first part er- in Sum. erib “father-in-law;
sister-in-law” seems to be the still unexplained word –er in emb-er
“human” and may be related to Sum. ere “to go”.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
nem, ne “not”
*nä-mi
-(ŋ)il- “not”
-la(γ) “id.”
na, nu (785x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. nu “(to be) not, no; without, un-“
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo
Sumerian
-nak/-nek (dative and directional suffix), neki “to him/her/it”
*nä “this” + *-k (lative suffix)
-mik-, -nik- (casus modalis, cf. Kleinschmidt 1851, p. 84)
ne; ne-en; ne-e “this” + (a/V)k (genitive suffix)
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
néni “aunt”, néne “older sister”
*naj(aγ) “girl”
najaγ “younger sister”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Central Asian Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
najaγ “unmarried girl”
∂ninae-lR∂n “elder brother”
nunus, munus (3079x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. munus; nu-nus
“woman; female”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
nép “people, folk”
*iŋuγ, *inuγ “human being”. This etymon may also be the basis for
Hung. ember. In this case, Hung. ember and nép would go back to the
same root.
me (2860x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. me; em; am3 “to be” + pap (86x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. pap “father; male, virile; brother”
abu “father”; cf. also for the first part Akk., Rhaet. nammaššū “to
move; living being; population, people”
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukaghir
Sumerian
Akkadian
név “name”
*nime
*nim∂ “name; call”
n∂p∂ “sound, voice”
*n∂maaq- “to groan”
n∂nn∂ “name” (< *n∂m(n∂m)?)
neve, nim, niu “id.”
nam (567x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. nam; naaĝ2 "ticket of of destiny, sign, mark", mu (2994x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb,
Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. mu “name; line of text; son”
nību “name”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nevetni, mövetni “to laugh”
*m8kз- , *m8gз*mak∂- “to become loose” [?]
mu (18x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu7 “incantation, spell”, or from a
word with the meaning “to make noise” (like e.g. “laugh”, German
“lachen”, etc.): mu (9x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu11; ma5; mu7 “to
crush, mangle”, mu (8x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. mu7 “to make a
sound”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Akkadian
nézni “to watch, to glance”, néző “augur (person)”
*näke- “to see, to watch”
*naku(R)- “to squint; to stare at”
natālum “to watch, to glance”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo
Sumerian
-nól/-nől, -núl/-nűl “from”, -nott/-nitt/-nött “at” (adessive/allative-locative)
*-nä (a locative suffix)
-me-, -ne (casus localis, cf. Kleinschmidt 1851, p. 79)
ne-e(n) “this”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
nő “woman”
*néŋu “female relative, sister’s or brother’s wife”
*jeŋe
*naga*neŋu*ńiŋä “wife; woman”
n∂ŋjuR “oldest woman in household”
mim-sx, older ŋim-sx “woman”, ŋi-c “wife”
ŋaev (< *n∂ŋaev?) “woman”
nunus, munus (3079x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. munus; nu-nus
“woman; female”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
nyak “neck”
*ni_ake “neck; vertebra”
*jaka
*nigu*niki*ń8kkз
cik∂(t)- “lower head”
ciikit- “tilt”
cik(jae)- “to dive”
gag (304x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešgag;
gag; urudgag “arrowhead; peg, nail”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Yukagir
Sumerian
nyalni “to lick”
*ńole-, *ńōlen’el- “to lick”
ĝeli (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeli3 “throat; windpipe”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
nyál “saliva; slime, mucus”
*làlè “sticky substance”; *DŽālu “saliva”
*jilik; *jālga*nila; *DŽal-gi-, *DŽal-ka*lala; *DŽali*ń8lз “sap; slime; to be slippery; to come off”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
*nuvaγ “saliva”
*ńolke “mucus, snot”, *ńila “sap; slime; to be slippery; to come off”
ĝeli (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeli3 “throat; windpipe”
Hungarian
nyaláb “armful, bundle, faggot, file, truss” (< nyolc “eight” + -áb
[nominal suffix])
*tałiR “arm”
gal (6612x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gal; gu-la; gu-ul; gal-gal; kuul “(to be) big, great” + -ab (nominal suffix, e.g. adab, wr. a-da-ab; ada-ba “a drum; a song”, ad (26x: Old Babylonian) wr. ad “voice; cry;
noise”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
nyár “summer”
*ńi_āŕ[ŕ] “young; spring; summer”
*jāŕ
*nirai
*ńar-gu
*maqaq “heat”
buru (206x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. buru14; gur7; gur16 “harvest, summer”
Hungarian
Wakashan
Eskimo
Salishan, Inuit
Uka
Sumerian
nyárs “spear, spit”
q’ax “lance”
qaX “id.”
quaquanoč “lance, spear”
kokonoc “id.”
gar (31x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
gar3 “knob”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyék “game preserve; neighborhood; pen, stable”
*näkз-, *nekз- “to bind”
*nayaŋaR “nod” < *nay∂- “to bend head”
niĝin (214x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. niĝin2; niĝin “to prowl, roam; to enclose, confine; to
encircle; to search; to turn; to return; to go around; to tarry”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Yukagir
Sumerian
nyelni “to swallow”
*ńolō*ńele, *ńēlen’el- “to lick”
ĝeli (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeli3 “throat; windpipe”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
nyelv “tongue; language”
*ńälmä “tongue”
*ulu(q) “tongue”
ĝeli (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeli3 “throat; windpipe”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyerni “to win”
*ńärз- “to pull, to rip”
*nelŋu(R) “to be tough”
gir, wr. gigir “dowry; gift”, nir “omen” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 374)
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyereg “saddle”
*närkз
*nelŋu(R) “to be tough”
giri (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. girix(|GIŠ.LU2|); girix(|GIŠ.ŠU.LU2|)
“a seat”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyers “raw”
*uγuŋilaR “raw food”
girah (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. girah “a raw material”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyesni “to trim, to prune”
*ńeč’V “to scrape off (skin); to fade”
*ńećз-, *ńečз- “to rend, to tear”
*ałeγ- “to tear”
mes (81x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešmes
“a tree”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
nyest “marten”, nyuszt “id.”
*nak’i, *nak’o “a kind of skin”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Japanese
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
*ńukśe, *ńukз-śз “marten, sable”
*qavcicuaq “marten” [?]
kuš (3818x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kuš “skin; leather”
nyíl “arrow”
*ńóro “arrow; harpoon”
*DŽoruγa
*ńuru
*m∂rí, *muarí
*ńele
*qaRδuR “arrow”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
ĝiri (198x: ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
ĝiri2; urudĝiri2; me2-er; me-er; me-ri “razor; sword, dagger”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Ugric
Selkup
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
nyír “birch; reed, sprout, stalk (of reeds); twig”
*nèra “a kind of big tree”, *níre “a kind of foilage tree”
*n8rз, *ń8rз, *ń8rkз “rod, young shoot”
njärh “willow-tree”
*ulγil∂ “birch”
mir (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. mir “a mythical snake; a snake-like
weapon”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyír “the frog in the horsehoof”
*nerkз, *ńörke “cartilage”
*natanqur “cartilage”
bir (35x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. bir5; buru5; bur5 “locust”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
nyírni “to cut, to lop, to trim, to prune”
*ńirз- “to scrape, to shave”
ŋiR- “to remove; to be deprived of”
bir (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. bir7; bir6; bir9 “to shred”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Yukagir
Sumerian
nyirkos “humid”
*ni_úŕe “to become wet; to soak”
*jüŕ*nor*ń[ü]r*norз “swamp”
n’or(i)l “swamp, meadow”
ĝiri3 “flood”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Sumerian
nyom “footprint’, nyomni “to press”
*ńi_ŕmi “trace”
*jam
*DŽim
*ńiam
*nolз(-mз)- “to press”, *ń8mз- “to press down together”
*n’om(∂γ)- “to squeeze”
gul (518x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gul; gu-ul “to flatten; to carve, cut; to
engrave”
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© Copyright Mikes International 2001-2007, Alfréd Tóth 2007
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
nyugszik, nyugod-, nyugv- “to rest”, nyugodt “quiet, calm”,
nyugat “west”
*ńuŋз- “to rest, to relax; to sleep”
n’∂ka- “to feel inferior”
ni gid, wr. ni2 gid2 “to stretch oneself, to relax?”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
nyújtani “to offer; to lengthen”, nyúlik “to seize, to grab”
*n8jз-, *ń8jз- “to stretch oneself”
nulqaR- “to stop, to hesitate” [?]
nu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. nu “male genitalia; sperm; offspring”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
nyúl “hare”, nyuszi “little hare; rabbit”
*ńoma-lз
ukaδiR “hare” (-k- represents here – as in intial position q- does –
Hung. ny-)
gilim, wr. gilim2; gir12 “rodent wild animal”
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
nyúzni “to skin an animal”
*ńujз-, *ńowз*n’ar(u) “skin with hair removed”
n’alu(C)aR “bleached sealskin”
kuš (3818x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kuš “skin; leather”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
nyű “maggot”
*neji “louse, nit”
*ńiŋз, *ńiwŋe “maggot, worm”
n∂R∂sta “louse”
mar (8x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. mar “louse; worm; parasite”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
nyűni “to pull out/up; to wear down/out/threadbare”
*ńikз-, *ńükз- “to rend, to rip”
nuccuγ- “to tug”
mu (9x: Old Babylonian) wr. mu11; ma5; mu7 “to crush, mangle”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ocsú “refuse of wheat, tailings”
*ut∂- “to fall out (hair)”
us (9695x: ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. us2 “(to be) of a lesser quality; to
drag; to stretch; to accompany, follow; a qualification of grain; to
thresh (grain) by treading; to coagulate?”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
odor “cavity; lateral room in a barn”, odros “glutton”, odú
“hollow, cavity”, odvas “hollow”
*omte “(abdominal, chest) cavity”, *oŋte “hole, hollow”
*uki- “to get a hole”
udug (41x: Old Babylonian) wr. dudug; u2-dug4; udug “a demon (of
desert, mountain, sea, tomb)”, sidug (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-dug4;
sidug; sidug2 “cavity, hollow; depth; stream, wadi, gorge; (hunter's)
pitfall; pit”
ok “cause, reason, motive”, okos “bright, reasonable”,
okoskodik “to brood, to muse”, okozni “to cause”
*uki- “to want more of sth.” [?]
ak (3643x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
okádni “to throw up, to puke”
*ōki-, *ōke- “to belch; to nauseate”
*okз- “to spew, to vomit”
*q∂ciR “to spit” [?]
ahan (2x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a-ha-an “to vomit”, or ak (3643x:
ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Eskimo-Aleut
North Siberian Yupik
Aleut
Estonian
Finnish
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
oldani (< ovdani) “to loosen, to open, to unravel”
*àŋa “hole, crack, gape”
*aŋa- “to loosen, to open up”
aŋ-va “open”
aŋi- “to loosen (by soaking)”
aŋit- “to unwrap”
aŋi- “to start”
ava- “to open”
auko- “to open”
uvi(t)- “to open eyes”
ub (6x: Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ub4 “cavity”.
Obviously, -b > v > *g > k.
Hungarian
oltani “to graft (of plants); to inculcate/instill in sb.; to inoculate,
to vaccinate; to quench (of thirst)”
*alз-(ttз) “to add, to fit”
*ilat∂- “to add”
al du (29x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. al du3
“to perform a type of hoeing; to dig”
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
olvadni “to melt”
*ši_òlí “juice; fluid”
*söl
*silö
*šōla
*sula(-) “fluid, melted; to liquefy, to melt”
*sula- “to thaw”
*ul∂- “to overflow”
*ulRi “id.”
aelae “summer”
al’(a)- “to melt”
zal (2798x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zal “to dissolve, melt”
Hungarian
omlik “to crumble, to fall into pieces”, ömlik, ömölni “to flow,
stream”, ontani “to pour out”
*kum∂ “to flow”
*kuv∂- “to pour”, *kuδ∂γ “river”
*kum- “id.”
kiv “river”
hum (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hum “to snap off; to run, flow
(bodily fluids); to move, be in motion”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
Hungarian
Chagatai
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ondó “semen, sperm”
un “meal”
*n∂q∂ “food”
unu (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. unu2; unu6 “meal, food; meal(-time);
table”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
orr “nose”
*were, *wōre “mountain”
*ioŋRiR “mountain” [?]
bur, wr. bur8 “crotch”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Akkadian
orsó “arbor, bolt, pin, reel, shaft, spindle; bobbin, spool”
*uRluv∂R “bow”
ur (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. ur4 “to be convulsed”
arārum “to bind, to tie up”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
orv “sinister, sneaky; thief”
*ujvi “mental ability”
*ujvala- “to practise sorcery”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ujwael- “(to pronounce) magic spell”
erim2 “hostile”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolian
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Estonian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
orvos “physician”
*arV “witchcraft; craft”
*ar*arga
*ar*w8rpз
arp “destiny, fate; magic, sorcery”
*ujvi “mental ability”
*ujvala- “to practise sorcery”
ujwael- “(to pronounce) magic spell”
irhandi, wr. irhandi “sorcerer”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
óvni “to advise sb. not to do sth., to caution/warn sb. against
sth.; to guard (against, from), to protect (against/from), to save
from”
*w8jз- “to see”, *8mз- “to wait”
utaq∂- “to wait” [?]
eme, wr. eme2 “wet nurse”, u, wr. u5 “shepherd”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Yupik
Sumerian
ő “he, she”
*hen “he, she”
*∂ł(∂)ŋa “he, she”
∂łiin “id.”
a-ne, e-ne
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
őblíteni “to rinse”
*m∂Rq∂- “to rinse”
gub (4x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. gub2 “to bathe, wash oneself;
(to be) pure”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
öböl “bay, creek, gulf, inlet; bosom, cavity, hollow”
*∂k∂R “bay, sound, strait”
ubur (42x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. ubur; ubur2; u3-bur; u2-bi-ur
“breast”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
öcs “younger brother”, öcsi “little friend”
*āk’V “elder brother”
*ećз
*äk(k)ä “male relative (of father)”
*akkak “paternal uncle”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Yukagir
Sumerian
c’aca “older brother”
ug, wr. ug2 “tiny, very small”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ölni “to kill”
*oli- “to die; to be hungry; to be exhausted”
*weδз*tuqut- “to kill” (metathesis)
ul, wr. ul4 “to grind”
Hungarian
Osman
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
ölteni “to stitch”
ïlt-, ilet “to carry, to conduct, to lead, to take”
*käl(uγ) “to lace up”
k∂luγ “to stitch”
kala- “string (beads or fish on line)”
il (1362x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. il2; il5; il2li2 “to raise, carry”
Hungarian
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ölyv “hawk, buzzard”
*elige
*qilRiq “rough-legged hawk”
il (1x: ED IIIa) wr. il2mušen; alURUmušen “a bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ördög “demon, devil”
*š8rtз “angry spirit”
*iδ∂rar “spirit being”
udug (41x: Old Babylonian) wr. dudug; u2-dug4; udug “a demon (of
desert, mountain, sea, tomb)”
utukku
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
öreg “old”
*erз “big, many”
*serä “aged, old”
*uvlaaq “morning” (cf. régi)
šar (245x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šar2; šar; šar2-šar2
“totality, world; (to be) numerous; 3600”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Serenikski
Sumerian
örök “eternal”, örökös “eternal; heir”, örökölni “to inherite”,
örökség “inheritance”
*paγit∂- “to inherit”
hur (42x: Old Babylonian) wr. hur “ever (again)”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
őrölni “to grind”
*aγiγ- “to file, to rub, to grind”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
ara (416x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ara3 “to
grind”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
öröm “joy”, örülni “to be glad”
*irwз “glad, happy”
*iRyaγ- “to grimace” [?]
ar (56x: Old Babylonian) wr. ar2; a-ar2; a-ar; a-ar3 “(hymn of) praise;
fame”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
őrülni “to make crazy/furious/mad”
*uRulu “to be angry”
ur (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. ur4 “to be convulsed”
arāru
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
örv “collar (for dogs); verticil, whorl”
*uRluv∂R “bow”
ur (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. ur4; ur-ru-ur “to roam around, to
surround”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
ős “ancestor; ancient”
*ač’V “ancestor”
*ićä “father”
*civuliRaR “ancestor”
aš (191x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. aš “one”
išten
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ősz “autumn”
*sikśe, *sükśe
*ukyuRaR “autumn”
sig (48x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sig7; sig8
"to pluck hair or wool; (to be) trimmed, pruned"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
Rhaetic
pajtás “bud, chum, companion, comrade, fellow, mate, pal”
*p∂t∂-, *p∂tuR- “to penetrate or pass through”
bītu, bētu “house”
*beita “hut” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 97). According to EWU, p.
1097s. borrowed from Osman paydaş “comrade, person involved”.
According to our etymology the meaning is “one who shares the house
with sb., familiar” and proves that initial Hung. p- can be inherited,
either from b- or from p (v.s.).
Hungarian
para “light piece of wood on the edge of the fishing net that
prevents it from sinking”
*p’árà “cross-beam, constructing piece”
Proto-Altaic
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Komi, Udmurt
Proto-Eskimo
Central Asian Yupik
Sumerian
*Ara*(h)ara*para*parз, *porз “group, mass, pile”
pur “raft”
*paRt∂(R) “string, rope”
paXtak “spruce root stretched above water’s surface”
bur, wr. ĝešbur “a tree” (inherited Hung. p-).
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
paskolni “to clap, to slap, to hit”
*pat∂γ- “to slap”
pašu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. pa-a-šu "type of axe". Inherited Hung.
p- (EWU, p. 1123: onomatopoetic).
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
patak “brook”
p∂t∂- “to penetrate”
pu (95x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. pu2
“well; fish pond; source (of river)” + tag4 “to open” (Oberhuber 1990,
p. 465). Inherited Hung. p- (EWU, p. 1129: borowed from a Slavonic
language).
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
peregni “to move in a circle, to rate”
*p’erkV “to tie around, to surround”
*hergi*perke-
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
*pire(-), pirä(-) “circle, ring; to enclose, to surround”
*p∂R∂- “to bend, to flex”
bir (37x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bir; bi-bi-re; bir9 “to scatter,
disperse”
perem “edge, rim, margin, seam”
*p’èrì “edge”
p’∂lXaŋ “cheek”
∂lp∂-lŋ∂n “id.” (with metathesis)
bar (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur
“outside, (other) side; behind; outer form, outer; fleece; outsider,
strange; back, shoulder; liver; because of; to set aside; to cut open, slit,
split”. Without doubt also related is Sum. par (130x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb,
Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. pa5; pa6 “(small) canal,
irrigation ditch” (cf. the name of the river Ó-Perint in Vas megye). The
etymology given by EWU, p. 1145 (Germ. Bräme “seam”) is thus
mistaken, and we have another proof for inherited Hung. p-.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
pír “flush of dusk; red colour”, pirítani “to toast, to roast”, piros
“red”
*p’òre “fire; to burn”
*ört
*(h)örde.
*puri-/piripiR-tuR “snowstorm” (< *puq∂-?)
bir9 “to blow; to flame up” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 59). Inherited Hung.
p-. When EWU (p. 1165: onomatopoetic) keeps denying the existence
of inherited Hung. p-, then the Proto-forms cited above at least prove
that also “onomatopoetic” words can be inherited, which implies also
the inheritance of Hung. p-. But as the Proto-forms with concrete,
non-onomatopoetic meanings prove by themselves, this word-family is
not onomatopoetic, either.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
pohár “glass, tankard”
*putu “hole
*puγγutaq, *puuγutaq “bowl”
pihu, wr. dugpi-hu; dugpihu; dugpihu2; dugpihu3; dugpihu4; dugpihu5;
dug|NUNUZ.AB2×[email protected]| “a beer jar”. Inherited Hung. p- (EWU,
p. 1179: borrowed from Old Bavarian pehhari, German Becher
“tumbler, mug”). The problem with the EWU’s etymology is why
Germ. b- changed in Hung. p-, while it did not e.g. in the case of
Hung. boglár “clasp, buckle” which is borrwed according to EWU (p.
116) from Middle High German buckelaere. EWU (loc. cit.) gives as
alternative a borrowing of pohár from High German, but then pcannot be explained because only Old Bavarian b- > p- from the
beginning of the 8th c. and most of all at this late time vowel harmony
did not apply anymore (e.g. pantofli “slippers”).
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Yukagir
Sumerian
ponk “hillock, little hill”
*poŋk∂ “hillock”
*p∂ŋuR “rounded hillock on tundra”
pöŋk∂ “hill”
bun (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uzubun; uzubun2 “bladder”. Inherited p.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
por “dust; powder”
*bóru “dust; smoke; whirlwind”
*p∂lu(R) “dust, dirt”
bur (176x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, uncertain)
wr. bur2; bur “to release, free; to reveal; to spread out, cover”.
Inherited p-.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
pödörni “to twirl, to twist”
*qip∂- “to twist” [?]
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
dub (30x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dab6;
dub “to go around, encircle, turn; to search; to tarry”. Metathesis dub
> *bud > pöd- like in Hung. pökni vs. köpni “to spit”? (EWU, p.
1198: “probably onomatopoetic”.)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
pökni, köpni “to spit”
*q∂ciR “to spit”
uhpu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. uh2-pu2 “foam”. EWU, p. 819, s.v.
“köp”: “onomatopoetic”; pök- is lacking.
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
rab “captive, prisoner”
*arvak- “to catch a whale”
raba (37x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešrab3; ĝešraba; raba; rab-ba “clamp;
neck stock; hoop”
rappu
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ragyogni “to glitter, to shine”
*akiR- “to shine”
ra, wr. ra3 “(to be) pure; (to be) clear”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ránc “fold, plait, pleat; wrinkle”
*q∂l∂γ-, *q∂luγ- “to get scorched or wrinkled”
rah (597x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. rah2; ra-ah “to beat, kill; to break,
crush; to flood; to thresh (grain with a flail)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
ravasz “cunning, shrewd, sly”
*repä(-ćз) “fox”
*ulaγaq “arctic fox”
rib (62x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. rib; ri-ba “(to be) surpassing,
outstanding; (to be) strong, massive”. The Hung. denominative noun
suffix –sz < Sum. terminative particle –šè (cf. Edzard 2003, p. 42).
Hungarian
reg, reggel “morning”, rég “long ago”, régi “old”, rögtön
“immediately”
*reŋkз “hot, warm”
*uvlaaq “morning”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru "to lay down, cast, place; to throw down; to
release, let go; to imbue; to pour out; to lead away". The Sum.
etymology clearly shows that the original meaning of the Hung. word
family is “old”, not “hot”: The morning releases the old day, imbues it
(to which the night also belongs).
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rejteni “to hide, to conceal”, rejlik “to be hidden”
*iδ∂R- “to hide”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to lay down, cast, place; to set in place; to lead
away”. The original meaning of Sum. ri is “to remove, to sweep away”
and then “to hide”. “to sweep away” developed to “to graze” in Akk.
and Rhaet., where we find re’ū “to graze; shepherd”, in which the
meaning of the supervisor of the grazing animals is thus included. The
feminine form of re’ū, rē’ītu “shepherdess”, became the name of the
highest goddess of the Rhaetians who got their name for her which
appears in Rhaetic inscriptions as Reitu and Ritu (cf. Brunner and Tóth
1987; Tóth and Brunner 2007). Therefore, while rej-l-ik goes directly
back to Sum., rej-t-eni must either originate in Rhaet. rē’īt-, or the
“causative suffix” was – like the verbal derivative suffix –l-, already
present in Sum.
Hungarian
rém “apparition, ghost”, rémálom “nightmare”, rémíteni “to
frighten”
*iγvaR- “to appear”
erim2 “fiend” (Oberhuber 1990, p. 147)
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Yukagir
Sumerian
Akkadian
repedni “to crack, to burst”
*r8ppз-, *reppз- “to burst, to rend, to split”
lepe “to break off”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to throw down”; cf. also:
rapāsum “to be cracked, burst”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Central Siberian Yupik
Sumerian
repíteni “to sling, to throw”, repülni “to fly (itr.)”
*r8ppз- “to beat with the wings, to fly”
*qaR∂- “to come up”
qarleγ- “to rise in the air”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to lay down, cast, place; to set in place, imbue;
to lean on; to impose; to throw down; to release, let go; to walk along;
to pour out; to lead away”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rés “fissure; hole, opening”
*raćз “hole”
*∂laγ- “to dig”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to throw down; to pour out”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
rész “part, piece, section”
*räćз “piece”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*ilak∂- “to be part or one of”
ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to lay down, to cast, to set in place; to lean
on”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
révület “ecstasy, trance”
*rekз, *reŋз
*iγvaR- “to appear”
rib (62x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. rib; ri-ba “(to be) surpassing,
outstanding; (to be) strong, massive”. The root-enlarging elements –k
and –ŋ are based solely on the Mańśi forms rèγ and rei and are
mistaken in view of the Hung. form ending on –v < -b. Thus, révület
is phonetically related with ravasz “sly” to which it also belongs
semantically.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
rezegni “to quiver, to shake, to tremble”
*reńćз-, *rećз- “to quake, to shake”
*∂vcuγ- “to shake”
*ikciq- “id.”
zir (373x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. zi; zi-ir; ze2-er “to tear out; to break, destroy; to be troubled; to
erase”. Metathesis like e.g. in pökni vs. köpni.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ríni, rív- “to cry, to howl”, rivallni “to cry out; to shrill”
*qiδa- “to cry”
RI, wr. RI “to cry out”, er (242x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II,
Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. er2; i-ra “weeping,
mourning; tears; to weep”
Hungarian
róni, rov- “to carve, to engrave, to notch”, rovásírás “Magyar
runic writing”
*rokз-, *roγз-, *rowз- “to cut, to notch”
*cana- “to carve”
hur (44x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hur “to scratch,
draw”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rogyni “to fall”
*uł∂R-, *ułRu- “to fall”
ru, ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to lay down; to lean on; to walk along”
Hungarian
Finnish
Proto-Yupik
ró-ka “fox” (-ka is diminutive suffix, cf. EWU, p. 1275)
repo
*ulaγaq “arctic fox”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
rib (62x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. rib; ri-ba “(to be) surpassing,
outstanding; (to be) strong, massive” + -ga (derivative suffix of
unknown meaning, possibly also diminutive), cf. ab2 “cow”, ab2-ga
“milk; cow”
Hungarian
rokkanni “to descend continuously closer”, rokkant “crippled,
disabled; invalid”
*r8kkз- “to collapse, to fall down”
*uł∂R-, *ułRu- “to fall”
ru, ri (475x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. RI; ru “to lay down, cast, place; to set in place, imbue;
to lean on; to impose; to throw down; to release, let go; to walk along;
to pour out; to lead away”
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rokon “relative, kin” (-n is a locative deverbative or denominative
noun suffix)
*rakka(-) “to draw near; nearby”
*qanli- “to approach”
uru, wr. uru9 “immediate vicinity, adjacent (place)”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
romlik “to crumble, to fall into pieces”
*kum∂ “to flow”
*kuv∂- “to pour”, *kuδ∂γ “river”
*kum- “id.”
kiv “river”
hum (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hum “to snap off; to run, flow
(bodily fluids); to move, be in motion”, cf. omlik. bomlik, omlik and
romlik build a series with assumingly free variation of the initial
consonant.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
rongy “rag, clout, floor cloth”
*kum∂ “to flow”
*kuv∂- “to pour”, *kuδ∂γ “river”
*kum- “id.”
kiv “river”
hum (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hum “to snap off; to run, flow
(bodily luids); to move, be in motion”, cf. omlik.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
rohadni, roshadni, rossadni, rothadni “to rot, to decay”
*kum∂ “to flow”
*kuv∂- “to pour”, *kuδ∂γ “river”
*kum- “id.”
kiv “river”
hum (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hum “to snap off; to run, flow
(bodily luids); to move, be in motion”, cf. omlik.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Aleut
Inuit
Sumerian
rossz “bad, evil, ill, vicious, wicked”
*roćз “meager, tired, weak”
*kum∂ “to flow”
*kuv∂- “to pour”, *kuδ∂γ “river”
*kum- “id.”
kiv “river”
hum (8x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hum “to snap off; to run, flow
(bodily luids); to move, be in motion”, cf. omlik. The Hung.
denominative noun suffix –sz < Sum. terminative particle –šè (cf.
Edzard 2003, p. 42). Cf. omlik.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rövid “short”
*rikз(-), *riγз(-) “(cut-down) piece; to cut up”
*k∂ppaR “piece cut off”
lugud (115x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. lugud2; lugud3 “(to be) short; (to be) tight; (to be)
short of breath”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rúgni “to kick”
*r8ŋkз- “to give a kick”
*it∂γmiγ- “to kick”
rugu (32x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ru-gu2 “to
withstand; to sail upstream”
Hungarian
Proto-(Finno-?)Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
rút “base, mean; hideous, ugly”
*r8tз “fragile, rotten”
*qayak(naq)- “to be fragile”
uru, wr. uru12 “litter; dung"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
rügy “bud, burgeon”
qałaciR “navel”
ur (189x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ur3 “roof, top”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ság “forest, grove; hill, mountain”
*ć8ŋka
*iŋRiR “mountain”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
-ság/-szág/-ség (derivational suffix)
*čeŋke “dampness, humidity”
*ćeŋз, *ćiŋз “time”
*iŋRiR “mountain”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
-saĝ (suffix with unknown basic meaning, e.g. esaĝ “heir; store”, but
often denominating the agent or the place where an action takes place,
e.g. bursaĝ “servant; building”)
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sajtó “press”
*čajз- “to press”
*inuaq- “to murder” (< ŋaR-)
su (54x: Old Babylonian) wr. su; su3 “to submerge; to sink”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sápadni, sápulni “to turn pale”
*čappз(-) “pale; to become pale”
*qak∂(R)- “to be pale or bleached”
sisa (335x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. si-sa2 “fair”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian:
Sumerian
sár “dirt, mud”, sárga “yellow”
*si_áŕi “earth, sand, marsh”
*siaŕ
*siraγu
*siru*ciγ(uγ), *cuγ(uγ) “sand”
sahar (982x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sahar “earth, soil; dust”. sárga <
sahar-gi4 "dust-guard”, Akk., Rhaet. sahargūm.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sarj “bud, shoot, sprout; descendant, offspring”
*caRliγaR “child held in lap”
šir (13x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. šir “testicle; bulb”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
sárkány “dragon”
*caRayak- “monster”
hurin (23x: Old Babylonian) wr. u11-ri2-inmušen; ĝešu11-ri2-inmušen;
A.BALAGmušen; BALAGmušen; erinmušen; u11-ri-inmušen; u2-riinmušen; u4-ri-inmušen; u4-ri2-inmušen; u5-ri-inmušen; urinmušen;
uri3HUmušen “eagle”
urinnu
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
sárlik “to be in heat, to rut (horse)
*caRat “to be moist or slippery on surface”
sar (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sar “to run, hasten”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sarló “sickle”
*qaRδuR “arrow”
zur (35x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. zur-zur “to
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
break”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
saru “cradle, rocker; sandal, shoe”
*qaltaR “bucket”
esir (212x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. kuše-sir2; e-sir2; kušesir3; kušesir4; kušesir5; LAK173
"sandal(s), shoe(s)"
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sas “eagle”
*qat∂ “deep or loud voice”
ses, wr. sesmušen “a bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
sátor “tent”
*qatviaq “kind of hide or skin”
šubtum (7x: Old Babylonian) wr. šubtu6; šubtu3; šubtu5; šubtu4;
šubtu7 “dwelling, encampment; ambush”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
savanyú “sour”
*šappa(-) “sour; to become sour”
*čawз(-), *čapa(-) “id.”
*quγ∂l∂m- “to be sour”
sumun (522x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. sumun “(to be) old; old wood, rot, decayed
matter”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
seb “bruise, hurt, injury, sore, stab, wound”
*ip∂γ- “to be sharp”
zib (16x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. za3; zib “a mark; mark, token; colour,
paint”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
séd “rivulet, steam”
*itδ∂ “cold”
si (401x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. si “to
draw water; to brew beer; to fill, load up”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ség “hill, mountain”
*ćiŋkä, *ćüŋkä
*iŋRiR “mountain”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
segéd “assistant”, segíteni “to help”
*čäŋk8*ikayuR- “to help”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
sig, wr. sig10 “to equal”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
Akkadian
segg “buttock”
*śäŋkз “back, rump”
*t’ono, *t’eno “back”, teno “shoulder”
*tunu “id.”
*cunu-X “back of neck”
sigba (3x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sig-ba “lower body”
šuhhu
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sellő “mermaid; rapid”
*ćärlз “rapid”
*q∂la- “to urge; to be urged on”
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”, or tul (109x: Old
Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. tul2;
|LAGAB×TIL| “public fountain; fish pond, pit; ditch, channel;
excavation, trench”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Akkadian
seperni, söpörni “to sweep”, seprő “broom”
*iqaniR- “clean”
šu sub, wr. šu su-ub “to gather up, to collect, to scrape together”
esēpu
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Akkadian
seprő “lees (of wine)”
*iqaniR- “clean”
šuburru “Boden”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sereg “army”
*iRtuR- “to break or crack (skin)”
šar (245x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šar2; šar; šar2-šar2
"totality, world; (to be) numerous; 3600"
Hungarian
sérteni “to insult; to wound”, sérik “to be in pain, to suffer”,
sérelem “affront, insult”
*ćärз- “to burn”, *ćärkз- “to break; to be in pain; to do pain”
*iRtuR- “to break or crack (skin)”
∂ra- “to cut up”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze”, or tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash
II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. tar; tarar “to cut down; to untie, loosen;
to cut; to scatter, disperse; to decide”
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
seríteni “to turn, to twist”
*iRtuR- “to break or crack (skin)”
sur (200x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. sur “to spin; to twist; to slither”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
serke “nit”
*iŋqiR “louse nit”
tur (1719x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. tur; tu “(to be)
small”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Akkadian
serkedni “to begin to grow, to sprout”
*quRluR- “to stream, to flow”
śurrū “to begin”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
serte, sörte “bristle”
*iRtuR- “to break or crack (skin)”
suhur (95x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. suhur “tuft, plume; crown (of a tree)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sietni “to hurry”
*čejз-, *čekз-, *čeŋз-, *čijз-, *čikз-, *čiŋз*q∂la- “to urge; to be urged”
zig (8574x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. zig3 “to issue; to levy, raise, muster;
to swell; to expend; to rise”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sík “flat ground”
*iqaq- “to be stiff”
sig (343x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. sig “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be)
thin; (to be) narrow”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sima “even, plain, smooth”
*iqaq- “to be stiff”
sig (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. sig10 “to flatten, lay flat”
Hungarian
sínylik “to pain; to suffer”, sínylődik “to languish, to long for, to
pine away, to vegetate”
*iŋŋit- “to come upon people”
inni(t)- “to come upon sb. wounded; to get refuge”
sumun (522x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. sumun “(to be) old; old wood, rot, decayed
matter”
Proto-Eskimo
Inuit
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sír “grave, tomb”
*ćiγз-rз, *čiγз-rз, ćikз-rз, čikз-rз
*qiR∂- “to freeze”
*qiRa(ta)- “to be stiff”
sur (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. sur3; sur6; sur7 “canal, ditch; foundation
pit of a building”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sírni “to weep, to cry”
*ciRl∂R- “to have a hard time”
širsaĝ (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. šir3-saĝ “ament” (-saĝ (suffix with
unknown basic meaning)
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Mańśi
Selqup
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
só “salt”
*sak’o
ćih, śäh
sak, šak
*taR(∂)yur “salt”
sikil (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. na4sikil “a stone”
sikillu
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
sodorni “to turn, to twist”
*qutu(γ) “collarbone”
*qutŋuR- “to bend forward”
šu dug (93x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šu dug4 “to turn
into something” Akk. ?
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sóhajtani “to sigh”
*sìgà- “to sigh; holding breath”, *soge- “to breathe; breath”
*šoka- “to breathe; to sigh”
*iqci- “to be afraid”
suham (3x: unknown) wr. suh-am3-bi; suh-am3 “cry”, zi (815x: ED
IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. zi; ši; ši-i “to breathe; life”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sok “much, many”
*č’ák’o(-) “many; to be full; enough”
*čokkз, *čukkз “dense, thick”
*quγi- “to be fat”
saĝ ĝal (39x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ ĝal2 “(to be) measured out as a
heaped amount; to measure out a heaped amount”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sólyom “falcon”
*k∂δ(∂)kaviγ “falcon”
šillum-gu, wr. ši-il-lum-gumušen “a bird” (gu “bird”, so the stem is
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
šillum-)
šilingu
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Serenikski
Sumerian
som “cornel, dogberry”
*ciRunaq “horn, antler”
si (262x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. si “horn”. Like in
many languages (e.g. Engl. cornel, French corneille, Slowakian drien,
etc.), the name of the cornel is derived form the word for “horn”.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sorvadni “to have atrophy, to decline, to pine/waste away”
*šorwa- “to dry up, to become dry”
*iyaŋa- “to be weak”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze; to flash; to drip; to rain; to milk”, cf.
semantically German Aus-Zehrung, aus-zehren, lit. “to pull out, to
squeeze out”.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sovány “lean, meager, thin”
*čupa
*qup∂- “to split (lengthwise)”
sumun (522x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. sumun “(to be) old; old wood, rot, decayed
matter”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
sőreg “sterlet”
*q∂RiR- “to be shiny”
šer (29x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sir2; šeer “reddening, sunburn (?); (to be) bright; brilliance, ray”. Semantically,
the Latin name of the sterlet is Acipenser stellatus, whereby stellatus
means “with stars, shining”.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
sügér “perch”
*qac∂li- “to sting”
suhur (66x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. suhurku6;
ku6suhur “carp”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
süket “deaf”
*tucilaR- “to be deaf”
sig (74x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-ig; šeg5 “(deathly) hush; (to be) silent”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sün, sül “porcupine”, sün-disznó “hedgehog” (disznó “swine”)
*śije-le
*isaluq “porcupine”
zuhul (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. zu-hu-ul “to pierce”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
süllő “zander, pike-perch”
*qac∂li- “to sting”
zuhul (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. zu-hu-ul “to pierce”. The zander is
zoologically a stizostedion, whereby Greek stízein (cf. Latin stingere,
stīg-) means “to prick, to sting, to pierce”.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Karelian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
süly “scurvy; tumor”
*si_òge “wart”
*sigöl, *sögil
*söγel
*sogi*ćiklä, *ćüklä, *ćikl’ä, *ćüklä “wart”
süglä “wart”
*avδaR “wart”
asag (23x: Ur III) wr. a2-sag3 “a demon; a disease”
asakku
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
süppedni “to give way, to sink, to subside”
*čeppз- “to drown, to sink, to submerge”
*qappit- “to sink down”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to become loose, fall out; to
disintegrate; to disappear”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
sűrű “close, compact, dense, thick”
*ciRu- “to cover”
sir (11x: Old Babylonian) wr. sir2 “(to be) dense”
Hungarian
sütni “to bake, to broil; to shine (sun)”; sülni “to be baked, to be
boiled”
*čittз- “to bake, to broil; to shine”
∂l∂γ- “to get burnt”, ilγ “stench”
zil (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. zil “to boil”. So, sülni and not sütni (as
assumed by EWU, p. 1375) is the basic word, sütni is derived with the
usual causative suffix –t-, while the –l belongs to the root, as the Sum.
form shows. Thus, the problem with –tt- > -t- as well as the
explication of the –l- in sülni as analogy given by EWU are mistaken,
and so is the PU form.
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Porto-Eskimo
Sumerian
süv “uncle; brother-in-law”
*aŋaγ “maternal uncle”
ušbar (19x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. ušbar; ušbar3; ušbar2
"father-in-law; mother-in-law"
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Chagatai, Osman
Chuvash
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
süveg “high (fur-)cap”
jelek “ruling hat”
∂sl∂k, ∂śl∂k, š∂l’∂k
*kamlu “(rounded) cap”
dul (260x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dul; dul9; dul5;
dulx(DUN3) “to cover”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Proto-Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Yukagir
Sumerian
szabni “to cut”
*s’up(p)∂- “to cut, to stab”
caviγ “knife”
saami-X “stone knife”
*civ∂- “to cut through”
c∂vi-/l∂vi “to cut”
c’owï-n∂ “spear”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to incise; to trim; to cut, fell (of
trees)”
esēpum
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szád “river-mouth”, száj “mouth”
*śuwe
*isu(k) “end”
sub (126x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. su-ub; sub; sub6 “to suck; to
rub”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szádok(fa), száldok, szaldék(fa) “linden tree” (fa “tree”)
*č’ali “membrane; bark”
*čel*čal*śal’з “tree-bark”
*qacal-(l)uq “bark (of tree)”
asal (338x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ĝešasal2; ĝešasalx(|A.TU.NUN&NUN|);
ĝešasalx(ASAL2~a); ĝešasalx(|A.TU|);
ĝešasalx(|A.TU.GABA.SIG.GAR|) “poplar”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szag “odour, scent, smell”
*śaŋkз(-) “odour, taste; to smell, to taste”
*t∂p∂ “smell”
zig (8574x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. zig3 “to swell; to expend; to rise”.
Semantically, cf. s.v. illik, illat.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
száguldani “to run at full speed, to rush”
*ś8ŋз- “to flee, to gallop, to jump”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
*saγ∂- “to come, to go”
aγ∂- “to go over”, aγγiR- “to come”
aγ- “to go by, to pass”
saĝgul (28x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. sag-kul; saĝ-gul “globe-lightning”.
According to EWU (pp. 180s.), -uld is a suffix, but the Sum. form
clearly shows that only –d- is a suffix, wile –ul belongs to the second
syllable. The semantic connection between “to run” and “lightning” is
given by the Hung. saying: “Megy, mint a villámlás = száguld, vágtat”
(O. Nagy Gábor, Magyar szólások és közmondások. 8th ed. Budapest
1999, p. 725, no. 495) that originates in Sum., as the following example
proves: “The sixth beats at the flanks of the mountains like a battering
flood. The seventh flashes like lightning, and no one can deflect its
power” (Gilgameš and Huwawa [Version B]: c.1.8.1.5.1). This
etymology is an incontestable proof for the genetical relationship
between Hungarian und Sumerian.
Hungarian
szak “age, era, period; branch, profession, subject; division, part,
section; stanza, strophe, verse”
*śakkз, *śukkз “piece”
*taq∂- “to stop, to give up”
saĝ ĝal (39x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ ĝal2 “(to be) measured out as a
heaped amount; to measure out a heaped amount”
Proto-(Finno?-)Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szak “hanging chin (of pigs, sheep); double-chin”
*tak∂- “to be long”
siki (4753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. siki “(animal's) pelt”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szakáll “beard”
*tak∂- “to be long”
siki (4753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. siki “(animal's) pelt”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szál “fibre, thread”
*śalkз “rod, stick; tree-trunk”
*ayaγun “push pole”
sal, wr. sal3 “a pole”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szál “raft”
*ayaγun “push pole”
sal, wr. sal3 “a pole”. A raft made of poles (in accordance with EWU,
p. 1385).
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
szaladni “to run”
*ćaδa(-), śaδa(-) “to flee, to run; fleeing, running”
*aqva- “to run”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
zal (2798x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zal “to get up early; to finish,
come to an end; to dissolve, melt, disintegrate, break down, collapse; to
quake; to pass time”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szalag “ribbon”
*s’alз(-) “to bind; ribbon, strap”
*śalз*qa(C)∂Rul∂γ “ribbon seal”
sur (200x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. sur “to spin; to twist; to slither”
Hungarian
szállni “to fly; to embark in, to get into/on< to put up at< to stay
at (a hotel)
*soŋ∂- “to get into/onto sth.”
iŋ∂t- “to sit down”
uŋut “id.”
ŋae- “to get in or on” (< *soŋe- “to go in)
zal (2798x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zal “to dissolve, melt, flow; to
pass time”
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szalu “a hoe-shaped axe”
*ś8lkз, *ś8lγз “axe”
*qalqa “axe” < Chukchi ał∂gatte “id.”
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”
Hungarian
Chagatai, etc.
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szám “number”
sana- “to think”
*icuma- “to think”
sa (452x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. sa2; sax(ZAG); se3 “to equal, compare, compete, be equal to, rival”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szánni “to regret, to determine; to dedicate”
*qiγluk- “to regret a loss”
sa (452x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. sa2; sax(ZAG); se3 “to equal, compare, compete, be equal to, rival”
Hungarian
Bashkir
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szapu “little chest; lye”
haba “container for koumiss”
*qat∂γ- “chest”
gub (4x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. gub2 “to bathe, wash oneself;
(to be) pure”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szar “shit”
*sèrV(-) “buttock; to defecate”
*syry-, *sary*sari*seri*śarз(-), *ćarз(-) “shit; to shit”
*taR∂- “dark”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze; to flash; to drip; to rain; to produce a liquid”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Yukagir
Sumerian
szár “bootleg; stalk, stem”
*ś8rз “leg, shank, skin”
sar- “root”
zar (425x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. zar3; zar “sheaf (of barley); stack of
sheaves”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
száradni “to become dry, to dry up, to wither”, száraz “dry”
*śarз- “to dry, to become dry”
caluγ- “to tan, to be tanned dry”
saaluX “dry weather”
sa (19x: Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sa “to
roast; to parch”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
származik “to descend, to issue, to originate, to spring (from”
*quR-luR- “to stream, to flow”
sar (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sar “to run, hasten”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szárny “wing”
*iyaquR “wing”
sur (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešsur9 “plectrum?; a musical
instrument?”. The plectrum was a little piece tortoiseshell, similar to a
wing, to touch the strings of musical instruments.
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
szarv, szaru “horn (of an animal)”
cirun∂q “horn, antler”
*śorwa
si (262x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. si “horn; finger;
fret”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szedni “to collect, to gather, to pick, to pluck”
*śentä “to pluck, to rip, to tear”
*itaγ- “to take care of belongings”
sig (48x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sig7; sig8
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
“to pluck hair or wool; (to be) trimmed, pruned”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
szédülni “to be/feel dizzy/giddy”
*ś8jз- “to wind; to be dizzy”
*iŋut- “to stir up”
suh (64x: Old Babylonian) wr. suh3 “to confuse; confusion”
ešītum
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Proto-Chukchi
Sumerian
szegni “to border (along sth.), to fringe, to hem; to break, to cut”
*ćäŋkз-, *śäŋkз- “to break”
*s’äŋk∂- “to break”
ciγi- “to be brittle, to crack”
sixsi- “to break in two”
*ciγ- “egg”
zag (902x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zag “side; border,
boundary, district; limit; right side, the right”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
szeg, szög “angle; nail; point”
*śeŋkз “spike, wedge”
*i*q∂(R) “corner of mouth”
*iq∂žRaq “corner”
sahin, wr. sa-hi-in “peg”
sikkatu
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szegy “brisket”, szügy “breast of animals; brisket”
*śićä, *śińćä “innards”
*∂vyaŋ(ŋ)iR “breast”
sug (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. sug “back, upperside, upper part”
Hungarian
szégyelleni “to be/feel ashamed”, szégyen “shame, discredit,
dishonour, disgrace, scandal”
*aγl∂R- “to observe taboo”
azag (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. azag “taboo, forbidden thing”
asakku
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szék “seat, stool, chair; egg-yolk”
*∂γγi(R) “yolk”
zig (8574x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. zig3 “to issue; to levy, raise, muster;
to swell; to expend; to rise”, or zig, wr. zigx(|PA.GI|) "town, center".
According to EWU, p. 1406, szék “egg-yolk” has nothing to do with
the other word szék and is “of unknown origin”. The Sumerian
etymology presented here, however, shows that starting form a basic
meaning “to rise”, both words are one and the same.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szekér “cart, wagon”
*säkзrз “a kind of vehicle”
*caka- “to rock back and forth”
zig (8574x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. zig3 “to issue; to levy, raise, muster;
to swell; to expend; to rise” + hara, wr. harax(|NUNUZ.AB2×BI|) “a
part of a wagon”. Since in Sum. “the rising” one is associated with
“seat”, szekér means a wagon with a seat.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
szelni “to slice”, szelet “slice; part; schnitzel”
*śälä-, *čälä- “to cut”
całiγ- “to scrape skin clean”, cili- “to sharpen”
saaliklaasi-X “skin scraper”
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szél “edge”, széles “wide, broad”
*śelз “edge, rim”
*aRvaγ “edge of hand”
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szél, szel- “wind”
*anuq∂ “wind”
til (770x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til3 “to live”. Semantically, we have
here the connection of “to breathe, to live” with “to blow; breath,
wind”, cf. Greek ánemos “breath, wind”, Latin animus “mind”, Greek
pneîn “to blow”, pneūma “breath, wind” > “mind, soul of the world”.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
szem “eye”
*śilmä
*∂δ∂ “eye”
c∂lae, l∂lae “eye”
sim (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. sim; si-im “to sieve, filter”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Aleut
Sumerian
szén “coal”
*śine “charcoal”, *ś8ne “tinder”
*una- “to handle”
una- “to cook, boil, bake, prepare food”
šeĝ (261x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šeĝ6
“to cook; to fire (pottery)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
szép “beautiful, handsome, pretty”
*śeppä “clever”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*ip∂γ- “to be sharp”
šab (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. šab “to trim; to make clear”. Since a
participle in the sense of inflectional languages does not exist in
Sumerian (non-finite verbal forms lack prefixes and suffixes, cf.
Edzard 2003, p. 130), šab means also “trimmed, made clear” and thus
“beautiful”.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
szeplő “freckle”
*isuRiq “spotted seal” < Aleut isuX, isuRi-X “id.”
zib (16x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. za3; zib “a mark; mark, token; colour,
paint”
Hungarian
szer “instrument, appliance; material, means; order, succession”,
-szer/-szor/-ször “... times”, sor “row, line, order”
*śerз “order, progression, series”
*s’erä “surroundings, nature”
cila “weather, nature, outside”
sla-X “id.”
šar (245x: ED IIIa, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šar2; šar; šar2-šar2
“totality, world; (to be) numerous; 3600”
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szérű “barn floor, threshing yard”
*ilu “inside”
šu rah (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šu rah2 “to beat; to knead”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szesz “alcohol, spirit”
*iδ∂RaR “spirit being”
ses (42x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ses “(to be)
bitter, brackish”. Obviously, it concerns beer; there are not less than 12
denominations for “beer”.
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Finno-Volgaic
Sumerian
szidni “to scold”, szitkozódik
*aRyuR- “to scold”
*śoδa(-), *śoδ’a(-), śota(-) “battle, strife, war; to battle, to fight”
šud (115x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. šud3; šu-tu; šudx(|KA.ŠU|) “prayer,
dedication; blessing”. Semantically, cf. Latin sacer “holy; damned”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szíj “strap”
*ś8wз “draught-cord”
*k∂t∂k “strap for fastening sth.”
sa (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sa “gut; sinew, tendon; string”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
szik “natron, alkali”
*ć8kkз “salt”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
*quqcuq-, *quqcuk- “to be yellowish”
sig (343x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. sig “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be)
thin; (to be) narrow”. “weak” concerning the soil means dry, and
natron-soil is dry, which makes the etymological connection to aszik,
aszú (v.s.). Thus, the meaning of the PU form is wrong.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Finnish
Yukagir
Sumerian
szil “elm”
*śala
salava “brittle willow”
s’al
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”. Sum. sil may also be
the origin of Germ. Sal-weide “a kind of willow, Salix caprea”, which is
of uncertain etymology (cf. Kluge 2002, p. 783), because to be brittle is
a characteristic of willows (but not of the Salix caprea who thus must
have gotten its denomination by analogy from other types of willows).
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szilni “to chop, to cut, to plane, to slice”
*śale- “to splice, to split”
*t∂ža- “to slice for drying (fish or meat)
sil (119x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. si-il; zil; silx(|EZEN×LAL2|);
sil5 “(to be) remote; to split apart; to split, slit”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szimat “flair, foresight; scent, sense of smell”
*t∂p∂- “to smell”
šim (819x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. šim “aromatic substance”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szirony “a colourful, narrow lather strap”
*k∂t∂k “strap for fastening sth.” [?]
sir (4x: Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sir3; sir2 “to bind”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szirony “sleet, wet snow”
*č’era “crust; snow crust”
*śarз “frozen snow, ice-crust on the snow”
*aRi(t)- “to become wet”
kar (52x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. kar2-kar2; kar2 “to blow; to light
up, shine; to rise”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szirt “cliff, ledge, rock”
*qiRa(ta)- “to be stiff”
sir, wr. sir5 “(to be) pointed”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szív “heart”
*śiδä(-mз), *śüδä(-mз)
*uŋuman “heart”
sub (126x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. su-ub; sub; sub6 “to suck”. The
heart not as “pumping”, but as sucking organ. The PU form with –δis solely based on Finn. sydän, Lapp. čāδâ and Mordv. sedej, sedeńg,
while all other FU reflexes show –m-, -l- or –j-. Given the Sum.
etymology, the Finn., Lapp. and Mordv. words do not belong here and
the PU form is thus mistaken.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szívni “to suck”
*šimi “to suck; to soak”
*mamaR- “to suck breast”, *m∂luγ- “id.”
sub (126x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. su-ub; sub; sub6 “to suck”. The
etymological connection, denied by EWU, p. 1441, is shown clearly
not only by our Sum., but also by the PA etymology.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Yupik
Sumerian
szó “word”
*sāba “sign”
*sawз
*akp∂t- “to start to sing or talk”
akuzi- “to speak”
sa (46x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sa2 “to
advice, to counsel”, or zib (16x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. za3; zib “a mark;
mark, token; colour, paint”, perhaps a contamination of both words,
not unusual in Sum.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szomj “thirst”
*śomз “hunger, thirst”
*ka(C)∂γ- “to be hungry”
išim (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. u2-šim; i3-šim “hunger”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Yupik
Proto-Chukchi
Sumerian
szomorú “sad”
*śomз-rз(-) “grief; to be sad”
*s’om(∂γ)- “to worry, to think”
cumiγ- “to be anxious”
cum∂R- “to think”
*cimğ∂Ru- “id.”
sum, wr. sum5 “(to be) poor; pauper”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szórni “to scatter, to spread, to sprinkle, to strew”
*ciδaγ- “to spread out, to scatter”
šurum, wr. šurumx(|URU×GU|) “to sprinkle oil”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Akkadian
zarūm
Hungarian
szorgalom “diligence, industry, zeal”, szorgalmas “diligent,
industrious”
*sarз “fast, quick”
*k∂γδaγ- “to do fast”
sar (68x: Old Babylonian) wr. sar “to run, hasten”. Semantically, to run
in order to be punctually at a certain place, thus “diligent”.
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
szórítani “to force, to urge, to restrict; to hurt, to pinch”, szoros
“narrow, tight, dense; mountain pass”, szorulni “to become
narrow; to be jammed, to be stuck”
*śorз(-) “tight; to become tight”
*q∂la- “to urge; to be urged on”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze”
szőni, szöv- “to weave; to plot, to spin”
*śäŋз(-) “to spin, to weave; hair”
*qilaγ- “to knit, to weave”
sig (48x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sig7; sig8
“to pluck hair or wool”, siki (4753x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian,
Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. siki
“wool, fleece; hair; (animal's) pelt”
šīpātum “wool”. Since the Akk., Rhaet. word with it enlarged root
must be a borrowing from Sum., Sum. -g, -k- > Akk., Rhaet. –p- >
Hung. –v-, so that the PFU form with its –ŋ- is mistaken (it is strange
anyway, since a nasal doesn’t occur in any Uralic word). Moreover, the
Hung. word, as the phonetical development shows clearly, must have
come from the Rhaetians and not directly from the Sumerians.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
sző, szőke “blond”
*šàŋu “clear, light”
*čaŋ
*čaŋ
*sā(ŋ)
*säŋз “bright, clear, light”
*quama- “to be bright”
sig (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-ig “clear”
Hungarian
Chuvash
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szökik “to jump, to skip”
sik- “to skip”
*q∂t∂γ- “to jump”
zig (8574x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. zig3 “to swell; to rise”, zig, wr. zig
“threshold” 2002, p. 833. Semantically, we have “to rise” > “to go
out”, which may include the meaning of “threshold” (“to go out” =
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
“to walk over the threshold”). The two Sum. words zig “to go out”
and zig “threshold” may even be one and the same, cf. in German
Schwelle “threshold” and schwellen “to swell” (connection denied by
Kluge 2002, p. 833).
Hungarian
Bashkir
Sumerian
szőlő “grape”
yeläk “berry”
gilim (25x: Old Babylonian) wr. gilim; gilibx(|GI%GI|)ib; gi16-il; gilgilil “to be entwined; to entwine, twist”. Thus, the original meaning is
“vine”.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
szőr “body hair”
*śäγз-rз, *säkrз
*ulaRiq “apple berry”
suhur (95x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. suhur “tuft, plume; crown (of a tree)”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szösz “tow, flax; junk”, szöszke “flax-coloured, blond”
*säćз, *sećз “fine fibre”
*∂paγ “grain, fibre”
šusar (38x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šu-sar; urudšu-sar “string, cord,
wire”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szú “wood-borer, worm”
*ćuγз, *śukз
*quam(R) “intestinal worm”
gu (1672x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. gu7 “to eat, consume”
akālu
Akkadian
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
szúnyog “midge, mosquito”
n∂vju-vaγ “fly”
su (1x: ED IIIa) wr. su7mušen “a bird” + nu (1x: Old Babylonian) wr.
nu “(small) fly, mosquito”. One of the few double-words in Sum. (cf.
rima)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szupojkó, szupujkó “suddenly grown thin; shrivelled; small”
*ćuppa “narrow, tight”
*amilRuq “narrow part”
šub (495x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. šub “to fall”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
szúrni “to prick, to stab”
*śurwa- “to shove, to stab, to thrust”
*kap∂- “to stab”, *kapuR- “to stab repeatedly”. –R- is here obviously
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
iterative suffix that is common both in PE and in Hung, although the
PFU etymology does not make that clear.
sur, wr. sur4 “to cut cloth”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szurok “pitch, tar”
*śurз “resin”
*kuccuR “resin, gum”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze; to flash; to drip; to rain; to milk”, but cf. also
esir (1097x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. esir2; esir; esir2(|LAGABxHAL|)
“bitumen, pitch” the palatal vowel of which fits to Komi śir “bitumen,
resin, tar”.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szűcs “furrier”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
sug (863x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. sug4 “to cut clear, strip”. Semantically, “to cut clear”
> “to skin”.
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Rhaetic
szűk “tight”
*cukak- “to be tight; to tighten”
sig (91x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sa2; sig9 “to tie (shoes)”
seg-, seke “to bring sb. in distress” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szülni “to give birth”
*śilз- “to acquire, to gain, to get”
*iRni- “to give birth”
zal (2798x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. zal “to get up early; to finish, to
come to an end”. Semantically, cf. also Engl. to get vs. to be-get.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Chuvash
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szűnik “to cease, to stop”
*si_ūni “to fade, to extinguish”
sün- “to fade”
*in∂q- “to finish”
kun (225x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian,
1st millennium) wr. kun “tail”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
szür, szürke “gray; dark”
*ćerз “gray”
*tar∂- “dark”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 "to flash”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
szűrni “to filtrate, to strain”
*t∂ŋuq∂- “to strain”
*ciŋuk- “id.”
sur (69x: ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sur;
sur8 “to press, squeeze; to drip”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
szűz “virgin”
*sićз, *śüćз “clean, clear”
*iqaŋiR “clean”
sig (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. si-ig “to be clear”
Hungarian
Wakashan
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
-(e/o/ö)tt (fossilized locative suffix, e.g. itt “here”, ott “there”
and still used in certain place names, e.g. Kolozsvár-ott “in K.”,
Pécs-ett “in P.”, Győr-ött “in Gy.”)
*t’a, *t’e “that”
*tä, *te, *ti “this”
*ta “that”
-mit-/-nit- (casus ablativus); -kut-/-gut- (c. vialis); -mut-/-nut- (c.
terminalis) (cf. Kleinschmdit 1851, p. 80ss.), txy “on”
-t’xy “on”
-tky-n “on top of”
-da (comitative suffix)
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tábor “camp”
*taŋmaq “camp”
tab (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. tab; tab4 “companion, partner”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tag “limb; member”
*ipi(γ) “limb of a quadruped”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
tág “ample, large, loose, spacious, wide”
*uyatu- “to be wide”
tah (274x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tah “to add, increase”
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
tagadni “to deny, to contest; to negate”
tuk∂R “to brace or push against with feet”
tuk, wr. tukx(|IM.KAD3|) “to break off, pinch off; to cut, fell; to
demolish; to scratch; to soften, dissolve”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
táj “country, land, region”
*tàku “to attach, to touch, to reach”
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
*takka- “to hang, to remain stuck”
*takkз- “to hang, to model, to work”
*taγз-, *takз- “to place, to spot”
*taγ∂- “to go up (on shore)”
*taγi- “to come (towards speaker)”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
tákolni “to assemble hastily; to patch together (badly); to slap
together (crudely)”
*katŋuR-, *katuR- “to assemble”
tuku (151x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. tuku5
“to beat, strike of cloth; to weave”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
tál “charger, dish, platter; course, dish”
*talз “dish (made of wood?)”
*kalukaq “wooden bowl”
utul (221x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. utul2; u2-du; u2-da; dugutul2;
ĝešutul2 “tureen, large bowl”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
találni “to find; to meet (with) sb.”
*tule- “to come”
*paδ∂RcaR- “to go to meet”
dul (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. du6-ul “to gather”, or du (5868x: ED
IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. du “imperfect singular stem of ĝen[to go]”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
talp “sole”
*aluR “sole”
*alaq “id.”
ałŋiγ “id.”
atłemk’a-n∂ŋ “id.”
ar-im∂ “id.”
al-p∂nŋ∂n “patch on sole”
dul (10x: Old Babylonian) wr. dul2 “to lower; (to be) deep”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
táltos “priest-magician, shaman”
*tultз “magic power, sorcery”
*aqiun “magic song”
tu (1x: ED IIIa) wr. tu “priest”, lal (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. lal3 “type
of priest”, atua (76x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. a-tu5; a-tu5-a-tu5; lu2atu5-a “a type of priest”. Triple-word? About double-words cf. rima,
szúnyog.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tanítani “to teach”, tanulni “to learn”
*t’uŋe- “to inform”
*tuna- “to accustom oneself, to learn”
*∂licaR- “to learn; to teach”
du (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. du8 “to heap up, pile up”, dub (107x: ED
IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. dub “to heap up, to pile”, tub (29x: Old
Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. tu11; tu10 “to heap up” + na (411x:
ED IIIb, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. na
“(compound verb nominal element)”. Obviously, the original meaning
is “to heap up knowledge” (in Proto-Altaic, there was for sure no word
for “to inform”!).
Hungarian
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Alutor
Sumerian
tántorogni, tántorodik “to stagger, to sway”
*t’ant’∂-, *t’unt’∂- “to step”
*tut∂- “to step, to tread on”
taeŋti- “to tread on”
caŋci, taŋti “id.”
dun (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. dun5 “to roam around; to rock, churn”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tanú “witness”
*∂n∂ŋiR- “to take sb.’s place”, *∂ŋqaR- “to remember”
dan (32x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dan6; dan3; dan4; dan2
“(to be) pure, clear; to clean”, or cf. s.v. tanítani.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tapló “tinder; a kind of tree fungus (Phellinus ignarius)”
*∂k(∂)n∂R “fire”
tab (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. tab; tab2 “to burn, fire; to dye (red); to
brand, mark”. The fungus’ botanical name ignarius is derived from
Latin ignis “fire”.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
taposni “to trample”
*tāp’V “to stamp; to press”
*tappa- “to stamp with the feet; to strike”
*tap(p)a(γ)- “to strike”
tupaγ- “to startle”
tuhmδa- “to produce a crack, to explode”
tava- “to crush”
tab (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. tab “to flatten”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tar “bald, barren; crippled”
*tu(C)utcin∂q “bald place”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut down”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Rhaetic
tár “depot, warehouse”
*qaRiaq “storage alcove”
tur (277x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. tur3; e2tur3 “animal
stall”
*torva “granary, warehouse” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 98)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tárni “to open up wide”
*tara(-) “free, open; to open”
*q∂łpaR- “to open”
dar (402x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. dar “to cut open”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
taraj “comb, crest; rowel”
*il(l)aγiRun “comb”
dirig (2166x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. diri; RI “(to be)
big, huge; on, over, above; to build high”
Hungarian
tarhonya “granulated dried pastry made of flour and eggs, ‘eggbarley’”
tarhana “a kind of soup made of flour and milk”
*∂vt∂R “juice”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut down; to untie, loosen; to cut; to scatter, disperse;
to decide” + kana (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. kana6; kana5; kana3 “(to
be) dark”. The Tarhonya dough is traditionally pressed through/cut by
a special sieve in order to get the “egg-barleys” (so the American name,
derived from Austrian German “Eiergerstel”: Germ. Gerste “barley”).
After the tarhonya are dry, they are roasted (“darkened”) in lard. Our
etymology thus shows that the pastry is primary and the soup
secondary. Therefore, the Hung. word cannot be borrowed (as usually
assumed; cf. EWU, p. 1484) from the Turkish word, but the Turkish
word is borrowed from the Hung., which explains that the two words
are phonetically almost identical. Both words, however, go back to
Sumerian.
Turkish
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tarja “spare rib”
*turja
*tulimaR “rib”
dirig (2166x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. diri; RI “(to be)
big, huge; on, over, above; to build high”. Same etymology as taraj
(v.s.), but with already Sum. metathesis dirig > *dirgi > tarja. The spare
rib is taken from the neck part of the animal, thus from there where
the “crest” is (cf. German Kamm “crest; spare rib”).
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Kazakh
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
tar, tarka “multi-coloured; mottled”
tarlan “reddish-yellow or black spotted white (of horses)”
*isuRiq “spotted seal”
dara (43x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dara4 “(to
be) red; (to be) brown”
Hungarian
Classical Mongolian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tarló “stubble-field”
tari- “to plow the land”
*kiliR- “to cut”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut; to plow”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tartani “to hold, to keep”
*terta- “to pull”
*dart*tata- < *data*derde*tarttз- “to get stuck, to stick”
*kal∂v∂(t)- “to sink into mud”
dara (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. tug2dara4; dara2; tug2dara2 “belt, sash,
girdle; string”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
tat, tatfa “crossrail (in a ship); poop, stern” (fa “tree; wood”)
*tuktз “crossrail”
*kaγaluq “stern of boat”
tug (54x: ED IIIb) wr. tugx(LAK483) “a kind of plow?”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
tathal “tench (Tinca tinca)” (hal “fish”)
*totke
*kaγaluq “stern of boat”
tug (54x: ED IIIb) wr. tugx(LAK483) “a kind of plow?”. The tail of
the tench has a high stalk with a fin that ends even and thus resembles
to the knive of a plow or a crossrail.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tavasz “spring”
*towkз
*kδaR “(early) spring” (cf. Fortescue 1994, p. 377, s.v. up∂n(∂)RakδaR)
tab (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. tab “begin”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
távol “far”, tova “away”, túl “beyond”
*to “that”
tulaγ- “to arrive; land”, cala- “id.”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Inuit
Wakashan
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
t’al- “far”
tala- “to be far”, tylf “far
t∂lae- “to go”
dub (30x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dab6;
dub “to go around, encircle, turn; to search; to tarry”. EWU (p. 1537)
explains –v- as “Hiatustilger” which is ad hoc; as the Sum. word
shows, it belongs to the stem.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
te “thou, you”
*si “thou”
*t8 “you (here)”, *to “you (there)”
*∂lp∂t, *∂łv∂t “you”
za-e, zé (contracted) “you”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tegezni “to shoot with arrows”
*t’úŋgi- “to quiver”
*täŋ-tз- “id.”
*quiliqta- “to tremble”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to attack”. The phonetically identical verb Hung.
tegezni “to address sb. in the informal way (German: duzen)” and its
counterpart magázni “to address sb. in the formal way (Germ.: siezen)”
are built of the basis of te “thou” and maga “you (formal)”, whereby
the derivational suffix –az/-ez is probably formed according to Germ.
–z- (du-z-en, sie-z-en, lit. “to say ‘thou’ (to sb.); to say ‘you’ (to sb.)”.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tekerni “to twist, to wind”
*qip∂- “to twist”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to bind”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tekinteni “to look, to watch; to regard as”
*täkkз- “to notice, to observe”
*∂δ∂k∂- “to watch”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
teknő “trough”
*∂k∂- “to get or put in”
dug (3196x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dug; dugx(BI) “(clay) pot; a unit of
liquid capacity”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
tél “winter”
*tälwä
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*ukyuR “winter; year”
til (627x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til; til3 “(to be) complete(d); (to be)
old, long-lasting; to end”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
telik “to be filled”; tele, teli, teljes “full”, tölteni “to fill, to stuff”
*täwδe, *tälkз “full”
*ul∂vkaR- “to fill; to be filled”
til (627x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til; til3 “(to be) complete(d); (to be)
old, long-lasting; to end”
Hungarian
telek “plot (of land), building site”, telep “colony, settlement”,
telepedik “to settle”
*täwδe, *tälkз “full”
*katcuq- “to be settled”. The PFU etymology is thus wrong.
til (770x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til3 “to live; to sit (down); to dwell”.
The PFU etymology is semantically highly improbable.
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
temetni “to bury”, temető “cemetery”
*quŋuR(-) “to bury; grave”
dim, wr. dim3 “corpse”. EWU (p. 1500) derives temetni from tömni
“to stuff” with causative suffix –et, which is semantically senseless.
Probably Hung. tetem “corpse” is related to Sum. dim, too.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Central Siberian Yupik
Sumerian
tengely “axle; spindle”
*tat∂ “support”
tat∂k∂ “intersection of poles at top of traditional houses”
dimgal (11x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dim-gal; di-im-guul “a pole”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Turkish
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tenger “sea”
täŋiz
deniz
*taŋ∂R- “sea”
diĝir (1837x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. diĝir; dim3-me-er; dim3-me8-er;
dim3-mi-ir; di-me2-er “deity, god, goddess”. Since Turkish has also
tanrı “god” and Mongolian tenger “god”, the semantic development is
probably: “god” > “heaven” > “sea”, whereby the connection between
“heaven” and “sea” is made by the common blue colour or by the fact
that the heaven is mirrored in the sea.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
tenni, tesz, tev- “to do, to make, to place, to put”
*t’ebV “to put”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
*teγe*teb*teke- “to do, to make”
*toγ∂- “to take”
taejk∂- “to do, to make”
tag (266x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle
Babylonian) wr. tag “to touch, take hold of; to bind; to attack”
Hungarian
tépni “to pluck (of feathers or petals); to rip, to split open; to tear,
to shred”
*qup∂- “to split”
dab (8723x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dab5; dab; dab5-dab5;
dabx(|LAGAB×GUD|) “to seize, take, hold; to bind; to envelop,
overwhelm; to choose (by extispicy); to accept; to take charge of”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tér “room, space”
*tärз “space”
*pula- “to slip in under cover”
tir (404x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tir; ĝeštir “mud; forest, wood”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
térd “knee”
*t’i_ūŕe “leg; knee”
*dīŕ
*tür*tür*ciγeδquR “knee”
tir (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. tir; ĝeštir “bow”, cf. Latin genu, Greek
góny “knee” < “angle”.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
térni “to fit”
*terз- “to find or make room”
*pula- “to slip in under cover”
tir (404x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tir; ĝeštir “mud; forest, wood”. Hung. térni is derivated from tér <
Sum. tir.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Rhaetic
térni “to turn”
*qiv∂(R)- “to turn back”
tir (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. tir; ĝeštir “bow”
turu “return” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p. 99)
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
test “body”
*t∂m∂ “body”
diš (5x: Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. diš; de-eš-šu2; di-id; di-t- “one”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tetű “louse”
*t’ijV
*taigi*ti-kte
*kumaγ “louse”
dih (132x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešdih3; dih3; ĝeštehi “a weed
with thorns”.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
teve “camel”
*t’ibŋe “camel; elk”
*debe
*teme-γen
*tibŋa
*paγn∂R “caribou bull”
dibid, wr. di-bi-id “camel”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tévedni “to be mistaken/wrong, to err, to slip”
*tepз- “to err, to make a mistake”
*k∂nluR “wrong”
dub (186x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dub2;
dub “to tremble, make tremble; to push away, down; to smash,
abolish”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ti “you (pl.)”
*t’i “thou”
*t8
*∂lp∂t, *∂łv∂t “you”
me-en-zé-en, za-e-me-en-zé-en, i.e. the pronoun of the 2nd pers. sg.
za-e, zé with prefixes and suffixes (Edzward 2003, p.55)
Hungarian
tidó “birch-bark; a small torch made of bound birch-bark used
by fishermen; a salt shaker made of the bark of birch- or
cherrywood” (Székely)
*t8ntз “birch brake”
*k∂nataγ- “to apply brake”
te (31x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. te
“membrane”
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tikkadni “weaken (due to exhaustion, heat or thirst)”
*iyaŋa- “to be weak”
dig, wr. dig “(to be) paralyzed, to suffer paralysis”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tilni, tiltani “to forbid, to prohibit”, tilos “forbidden”
*tan∂R- “to forbid”
til (627x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. til; til3 “(to be) complete(d); (to be)
old, long-lasting; to end”
Hungarian
tiló “flax or hemp meant to be stripped; the household machine
used for this purpose”
*uliγ(-) “blanket; to cover”
dul (10x: Ur III) wr. dul4 “a textile”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tinó “heifer”
*iRni(C)aR “offspring” [?]
dumu (28245x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian, uncertain)
wr. dumu; du5-mu “child, son, daughter”
Hungarian
titok “secret (noun)”, titkos “secret, confidential”, tit-kár
“secretary”
*tajз-ttз- “to hide > to keep secret”
*taqiγ- “to be secretive about sth.”
di (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. di “to go, to escape” + taka (667x: ED
IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. tak4 “to set aside, leave behind; to save, keep back,
hold back”. One of the few double-words in Sum.
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
tó, tav- “lake”
*towз “lake, pond”
*qaγan “lake at head of river”
tul (109x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. tul2; |LAGAB×TIL| “public fountain; fish pond, pit;
ditch, channel; excavation, trench” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tojik “lay (eggs)”, tojás “egg”
*p∂kyu “egg”
du (2639x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. du8 “to bake; to spread out mud to
make bricks; to caulk” or utud (847x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash
II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. tud; u3-tu; tu-ud “to give birth (to),
bear a child”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tok “box, case, chest, scabbard, sheath”
*qat∂γ- “chest”
dug (3196x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dug; dugx(BI) “(clay) pot; a unit of
liquid capacity”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
tokhal “sturgeon” (hal “fish”)
*ayaγta “pole” (cf. German Stock-fisch, Stock “stick, pole”, Northern
German Kabel-jau, Kabel “cable > cord > stick, pole”)
dug (3196x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. dug; dugx(BI) “(clay) pot; a unit of
liquid capacity”. Same etymology as Hung. tok “box”, cf. semantically
the parallele of Hung. tok and tokhal with English sturgeon (via
Normannic < Old French esturjon) and to stir from the common
Germanic etymon sturio “sturgeon” (> Old English styria).
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
toklyó “one- or two-year old lamb”
*∂pnaRiR “mountain sheep”
tukur (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. tukur2; tukur; tukur3 “to shear, pluck
wool”. Semantically cf. Engl. sheep, Germ. Schaf to Germ. schaben
“to scrape” > “to cut, to trim, to shear”.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Yupik
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
toll “feather; pen”
*tulka “feather; wing”
*tuγlï, *tiluγ “wing, feather”
culuγ “wing feather”
telxp “id.”
siluk “id.”
til(til) “wing”
dal (59x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dal; dalx(HU) “to fly”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tolni “to push, to shove; to delay, to postpone”
*tojз- “to push, to shove, tu thrust”
*kayu- “to be strong”, *kay∂m∂(t)- “to push (forward)”
du (82x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. du7 “to push,
thrust, gore”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
tolvaj “thief”
*sala(-) “to hide; to steal; thief”
teγleγ- “id.”
cxa- “id.”
tu-lRaet- “to steal”
sul, wr. su-ul “to cover”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
tompor “hip, waist; a hump located between the hip and hind
quarters”
*tuppз “rear”
*tup(∂γ)- “cover”
tup∂R “tent, temporary dwelling” [?]
top- “to cover” [?]
dub (55x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. dub3; ze2-eb “knee”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
top “ham from a pig’s back”
*tuppз “loin”
*∂γunaq “meat or whale skin left to rot”
dub (55x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian) wr. dub3; ze2-eb “knee”. “knee”
instead of “back” because both body parts share the curving, cf.
tompor.
Hungarian
tor “feast (especially after a funeral and a pig-slaughtering
[disznóölés])”
tor “dinner with guests, hospitality”
*kasiyuq “(bladder) feast”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut down; to untie, loosen; to cut; to scatter, disperse;
to decide”.
Chagatai
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
tor “thorax”
*qilaγ- “to knit, to weave”
qił∂R- “to tie”, qilağ- “to knit”
qisat- “to tie”, qilRi-X “umbilical cord”
dur (28x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. dur; gidur “binding, knot,
bond, tie; umbilical cord; rope”. Same etymology as szőni.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
torok, tork- “gullet, throat, windpipe; mouth, muzzle”
*turз “neck, throat”
tuqluR- “throat; to call out”
cuqa- “throat”
dur (28x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. dur; gidur “binding, knot,
bond, tie; umbilical cord; rope”
Hungarian
Karachai, etc.
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
torma “horseradish”
turma “turnip”
*quliR “upper part” [?]
turmahba (82x: ED IIIb) wr. tur-mah-ba “a kind of ration” [?]
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
torontál “kind of falcon; former district (megye) in the Bánát”
*qilRiq “rough-legged hawk”
durum (1x: Ur III) wr. dur-ru-ummušen “a bird”. Cf. also s.v. turul.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tő “root; trunk (of a tree)”
*tèmò “root; strength; soul”
*damor
*taŋ-gi < *dam-gi
*p∂kn∂R “kind of edible root”
dim (38x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
dim; dim3; ĝešdim “post, pillar, pole”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tőgy “udder, mamilla”
*tuδ’ka-mз(-) “sth. that protrudes; tip”
*∂vyaŋ(ŋ)iR “breast”
tuditum (48x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. tu-di-da; urudtu3-di3-da; tudi-tumzabar; urudtu3-di-da; urudtu-di3-da “toggle pin”
tudittum. Considering the 3 consonant-root, here we have most
probably an Akk.-Rhaet. loanword in Sumerian (which proves, in
accordance with Lieberman 1977, p. 20 that Sumerian was still spoke
in Old Babylonian time).
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tölgy “oak”
*t∂γ∂γ “to be hard or stiff”
tillug (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. til-lu-ug “elephant”. The semantic
connection between “oak” and “elephant” is the hardness of the wood
and the teeth, resp., similar to Engl. oak = Germ. Eiche, which are
denominated after the word for “ice” (*ajeg-, Kluge 2002, p. 230; cf.
Hung. jég).
Hungarian
tömény “concentrated; numerous; crowded”, tömni “to cram, to
fill, to stuff”
*temз(-) “full; to jam, to stuff”
*ul∂vkaR- “to fill; to be filled”
idim (12x: Old Babylonian) wr. idim “(to be) heavy, (to be) important”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
tömlő “tube, bag”, tömlőc “dungeon, prison; a kind of fish-trap”
*tuqmik “container”, but cf. also PE *ul∂vkaR- “to fill; to be filled”
(telni).
tun (6x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeštun3; tun3 “bag; stomach; a container”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
tőr “dagger; rapier, foil”
*terä “edge”
*aRvaγ “edge of hand”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Sumerian
dur (9x: Old Babylonian) wr. dur10 “ax”, but cf. also ĝiri (198x: ED
IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝiri2; urudĝiri2;
me2-er; me-er; me-ri “razor; sword, dagger”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tőr “snare, trap”
*pullan “stone trap”
dur (28x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. dur; gidur “binding, knot,
bond, tie; umbilical cord; rope”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
törni “to break, to crack, to crush, to pound, etc.”
*ułiR “to crack (open)”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut down; to untie, loosen; to cut; to scatter, disperse;
to decide”
Hungarian
törölni “to wipe, to dry (with a towel); to abolish, to annul”, törlő
“hand-towel”
*allaR(iR) “to wipe clear”
dirig (313x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dirig "to drift (clouds); to float,
glide (along/down); to go; to soak, steep, dissolve in liquid”, dirig (2x:
Old Babylonian) wr. dirig “to become loose, fall out; to disintegrate; to
disappear; to fall down, collapse”
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
törvény “law”
*ułiR “to crack (open)”
tar (237x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. tar; tarar “to cut down; to untie, loosen; to cut; to scatter, disperse;
to decide”. Same etymology as törni.
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tőzeg “peat, turf”
*tutuk “dirt”
de (702x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. de2 “to pour; to winnow” + sig
(836x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. sig10 “to
cast” (double-word?), or ze, wr. ze2 “dirt” [?]
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Sumerian
tudni “to know (a fact), to be able to”
*tumte- “feel, to touch, to touch upon”
tucaR- (< *tut-jaR-) “to hear”
tut(a)- “to hear, to feel”
zu (964x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. zu “to
know; to learn”
edūm (double-word?)
Akkadian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tulok “(young) ox, young cow”
*kulavak “caribou cow”
šul (305x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. šul “(to be) manly; youth; young man”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
túrni “to dig”
*tokrз-, *toŋreз-, *toprз*∂laγ- “to dig”
dun (32x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Old Babylonian) wr. dun “to dig”
Hungarian
Chagatai
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
turul “a totemic eagle or mythological falcon-like beard”
turgul “a type of small black falcon”
*qilRiq “rough-legged hawk” [?]
dur (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. durmušen; dur2mušen “a bird”, duršul
(1x: ED IIIa) wr. dur2-šulmušen; dur-šulmušen “a bird”, cf. also dug
(1x: ED IIIa) wr. dug3mušen; dumušen “a bird” (contamination?); cf.
also s.v. torontál.
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
túzok “bustard, Otis tarda”
*qilRiq “rough-legged hawk” [?]
dug (1x: ED IIIa) wr. dug3mušen; dumušen “a bird”, šag.ZIZIA (1x:
ED IIIa) wr. šag4-|ZI&ZI.A|mušen “a bird”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tű “needle”, tövik “to puncture, to stab”, tövis “thorn”
*tekз- “to push, to shove”
*kay∂m∂(t)- “to push (forward)”
dih (132x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešdih3; dih3; ĝeštehi “a weed
with thorns”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tüdő “lung”
*täwe
*k∂maγnaq “lung”
*puvak “id.”
ti (27x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. uzuti “rib”
Hungarian
tündér “elf, fairy, nymph”, tündöklik “to shine, to gleam, to
glisten”
tengri “god”
*akiR- “to shine”
diĝir (1837x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. diĝir; dim3-me-er; dim3-me8-er;
dim3-mi-ir; di-me2-er “deity, god, goddess; cf. s.v. tenger.
Chagatai
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
tűnik “to appear; to seem”, tüntetni “to demonstrate, to show”
*akiR- “to shine”
teĝ (454x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. teĝ3; teĝ4 “(to be) near to; to approach”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
tűrni “to bear, to endure; to suffer”
*∂lp∂k∂-, *ikviγ- “to suffer”
dirig (2166x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. diri; RI “(to be)
powerful, to exceed”
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
tűrni “to roll up, to fold”
*quγluk- “to fold, to pleat”
dur (28x: ED IIIa, Old Babylonian) wr. dur; gidur “binding, knot,
bond, tie; umbilical cord; rope”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
tűz “fire”
*t’oge
*tüγз-tз, *tüwз-tз
*uγut- “to burn” (with metathesis, cf.:
t∂lv∂- “to burn (oneself)”
tab (13x: Old Babylonian) wr. tab; tab2 “to burn, fire; to dye (red); to
brand, mark”. Probably also tüstént “immediately”, cf. rögtön “id.” <
PFU *reŋkз “hot, warm”.
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
ugar “fallow (field/ground/land)
*tamlaγ- “(to come to) land” [?]
agar (135x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a-gar3; agar4; agar2; agar3; ada-ar “meadow”
ugāru. Since Sum. shows traces of vowel harmony, Sum. agar < Akk.,
Rhaet. ugāru, so we have here another possible Akk. and Rhaet.
borrowing in Sum. and thus another proof that Sum. was still spoken
in Old Babylonian time (cf. Lieberman 1977, p. 20). The Akk. and
Rhaet. word is also phonetically closer to the Hung. and may be the
etymon for ugor “Ugric” > Germ. Ungar, Engl. Hungarian, French
Hongrois, Russ. Vengerskiy, etc.
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
ugrik “to jump, to leap, to spring”
q∂t∂γ- “to jump”
ug (1x: ED IIIa) wr. ugx(EZEN) “(to be) exalted”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
új “new”
*wuδ’e
*nutaR- “to renew”
ud (29106x: Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ud “day; sun”. On
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
the semantics cf. s.v. reg, reggel.
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
ujj “finger; toe; sleeve”
*soja “arm”
*suδ’з
aδiR “sleeve”
aδiX “lip; edge”
ajval “wind side, wind break”
sud (488x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. sud; su3-ud “(to be) distant; (to be) remote, longlasting; (to be) profound”, or zag (902x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old
Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian)
wr. zag “arm; shoulder; side; border, boundary, district; limit; right side,
the right”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
úr “sir; lord”
*i_òre “male; young man”
*er*ür*ur
*urз “husband”
*uγi “id.”
ur (22x: Old Babylonian) wr. ur “man”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
úszik “to swim”
*òje “to swim”
*üj-, *oj*ujV*uje-, *oje*ku(C)im∂- “to swim”
u (156x: ED IIIb, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. u5 “to ride;
attatchment to a plow; upper pivot of a door; ship's cabin; to gain
control”
Hungarian
Nenec
Selqup
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
út “path, way”
ŋu’, ŋut “path, track, way”
muõtt∂, wat “id.”
*utka “path, track”
*nuγ∂- “to appear; to rise (water)”
*nuγ- “way”
inti (10x: Old Babylonian) wr. in-ti; en-ti “way, path”. As it seems in
this unique case, the Samoyed people have conserved the Sum. etymon
phonetically much closer then the other Uralic languages, incl. Hung.
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
utálni “to abhor, to detest, to hate”
*aktз- “to vomit”
*nak∂Rit- “to go crooked” [?]
ahan (2x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. a-ha-an “to vomit”, or ak (3643x:
ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ak; a “to do; to make; to act,
perform”. Same etymology as okádni (s.v.).
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
üdíteni “to freshen, to refresh”, üde “fresh”
*uŋuma “to be alive”
*uummaq “fresh green plant or wood”
a tu (150x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
a tu15; a tu17; a tu5 “to wash, bathe”
Hungarian
üdv “well-being; salvation”, üdvös “salutary; advisable”,
üdvözíteni “to bless”, üdvözölni “to greet, to welcome”
*uŋuma “to be alive”
*uummaq “fresh green plant or wood”
a tu (150x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr.
a tu15; a tu17; a tu5 “to wash, bathe” + dub (30x: ED IIIb, Old
Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. dab6; dub “to go around”
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Inuit
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
ügy “matter; affair, business, concern; deal, transaction”, ügyelni
“to pay attention”, ügyes “skilfull”, ügyés “lawyer”
cuk(k)a- “to be fast”
*cuq(q)ut∂- “to care about sth.”
*siδ’з “aspiration, rush; busy, eager, quick”
zid (1475x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. zid “right; to be right, true, loyal”, ziddu (19x: Old
Babylonian) wr. zid-du “righteous(-acting)”
ügy “lake, swamp; river, brook”
*sid’з “humidity, marshy, wet place”
*m∂caγ “swampy ground”. The FU etymology that has the same root
for both words Hung. ügy is for this case thus wrong.
id (1086x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. id2; id3; id6; id7; id5 “river, watercourse, canal”. EWU, p. 1586,
has the same etymon for ügy “matter” and ügy “lake”, which is
semantically impossible.
ük “great-great grandmother; one’s distant ancestor”
*ò[k’]è “wife, female”
*ög, *ök “mother; sister”
*oki-, öki- “girl; daughter”
*uku- “female; daughter-in-law”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
*ewkkз “grandmother; old woman”
*aγ∂- “to go over or past”
ugu (98x: Old Babylonian) wr. ugu; ugu4 “to give birth (to)”
Hungarian
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
ülni “to sit”
uŋ-lu “nest”
u (49x: Old Babylonian) wr. u3 “sleep”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
üldözni “to chase, to follow, to hunt”
*ile- “to drive”
*jälз- “to go”
*maliRq∂- “to chase”
ul (39x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ul4 “to hasten, (be) quick; (to be)
early”
Hungarian
ürge “kind of squirrel that lives in the earth, Spermophilus
citellus”
örge, örke
*qaŋanaq “squirrel”
irgilum (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ir-gi-lum “locust”. Semantical
connection between “squirrel” and “locust” probably via their
common habit of eating (locust swarms were infamous). Alternatively
to urgir (478x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. ur-gir15 “(domestic) dog”, which causes, however,
also semantical problems.
Khakass
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
üröm “wormwood”
*qaŋanaRuaq “wormwood”. Cf. ürge: Since lit. “squirrel-wood”,
Hung. ürge and üröm must have the same root.
hurium, wr. u2hu-ri2-um “a plant”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
ütni “to beat, to hit, to strike”
*süttз- “to beat, to strike”
*unataq- “to beat, to struggle”
tu, wr. tu14 “to beat; to weave”, tud (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. tud2 “to
hit, beat”. Probably with metathesis tu > *ut.
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
űzni “to chase, to hunt, to pursue”
*itз- “to jump, to run”
ajaγ “to push, thrust at with pole”
ajaquδaax “sea otter spear, small harpoon”
aj-tat- “to chase, herd”
ed (595x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ed3; |UD×U+U+U.DU| “to go up
or down, to ascend”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
vad “wild; inhabited”
*vamta
*kilγaq “wilderness”
bad (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. bad4 “hard ground”. Engl. “bad”,
according to traditional etymological dictionaries a “mystery word, no
apparent relatives in other languages” is most probably besides Hung.
vad the phonetically closest successor of Sum. bad.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
vágni “to chop, to cut, to hash; to slaughter; to throw”
*waŋз*caki(t∂)- “to chop, to cut into”
pana (63x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešpana; ba-na;
ĝešpanax(|ŠE.NUN&NUN|) “bow; a geometric figure”. In order to
chop meat one still today best uses a bow-shaped knife (Germ.: Wiegemesser, but “wiegen” = “weigh” has nothing to do with cutting; thus
perhaps Wiege- < Hung. vág- < Sum. pan-?).
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
vágyik “to desire, to long, to wish, to yearn, to crave”
*wačз- “to chase, to drive, to hunt”
*pikšamaaq- “to desire, to look forward to”
ed (595x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ed3; |UD×U+U+U.DU| “to go up
or down, to ascend”. Same etymology as űzni.
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Mari
Mordvin
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vaj “butter”
*majV “fat”
*bań
*maj*maj*woje “fat, grease”
ü, üj “butter, oil”
oj, vaj “butter, margarine; fat”
*quγi “to be fat”
i (8654x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. i3; u5; u2 “oil; butter”. The Sum.
apophony is mirrored in the FU reflexes. As the Sum. and the Mari
words show, diphthongization happened only in the single languages.
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vájni “to hollow, to dig out”
*uki- “to get a hole”
u, wr. u “hole”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
vajúdik “to eke out a bare existence”
*woje- “to be able to”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
*uγžiγ- “to go down, to come down”
u (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. u8; u2 “defeat”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vak “blind”
*∂δ∂- “eye”, *∂δ∂łuγ- “to be blind”
igi (1133x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. igi; i-bi2; i-gi “eye”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic (?),
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
-val/-vel (instrumental suffix), vele “with him/her/it”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Eskimo-Aleut
Inuit
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
*welje “brother, friend”
*wel(ja) “thing or person next to”
w∂lt∂- “close together”
guli (91x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gu5-li; gu-li;
gu7-li “friend, comrade”
válik “to become; to divorce; to part, to split off”, váltani “to
change, to exchange”
*walka “to decend, to drop, to fall, to go down”
*wol∂(γ) “knife; to cut”
wal- “to cut”, ulu(R) “semi-lunar knife”
fałc “id.”
wala “knife”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, to
cross; to turn”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Aleut
Sumerian
váll “shoulder”, vállalni “to take it upon oneself to do sth.”
*wolka
*tuy∂ “shoulder”
cuyu-X “arm”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to carry”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vallani “to admit, to confess”, vallatni “to interrogate”
*t∂li- “to tell”
bal (511x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ba-al; bal; bal3; bal4; pe-el “to dig,
excavate; to unload (a boat)”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
van, vala, val- “is; to be”
*bōlo “to be”
*wole- “to be, to become”
*le- “to become”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Eskimo-Aleut
Yukagir
Sumerian
-li- “id.”
*-li- “id.”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to turn, to turn into, to
become”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Turkic
Proto-Mongolic
Proto-Tungusic
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
-van/-ven “numeral suffix, e.g. hat-van “sixty”, öt-ven “fifty”
*mana “many; big”
*bany-, *bony*mandu-, *mantu*mani
*mone, *mune “a known quantity, many”
*unuq- “to be many”
imin (31x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. imin
“seven”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
var “wart”
*avδaR “wart”
buru (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. buru8 “a disease”
garābum “leprosy, scab”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
vásár “market, fair; bargain”, vásárolni “to buy”
*tukviR- “to buy” [?]
ba (839x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ba “to divide into shares, share,
halve; to allot” + sa (991x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. sa10 “to pay for, buy; to be
paid for, sell”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik-Sirenikski
Sumerian
védni “to defend”
*wäntз- “to notice, to see”
*iγžuR- “to defend verbally”
bad (147x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bad;
ba; be2 “to open, to undo”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
vég “end”
*wuje “area, side; end”, *wiŋe “end”
*isu(k) “end”
ugu (1025x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ugu2; ugu; ugu3;
ugux(|U.SAG|); ugux(|A.U.KA|); ugux([email protected]@g) “on, over,
above; against; more than; top”
Hungarian
vegyíteni “to mix”, vegyülni “to get into sth.; to get mixed up
with sth.”
*akut- “to mix”
Proto-Eskimo
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Rhaetic
phelna, belna “mix (imperative pl. fem.)” (Brunner and Tóth 1987, p.
97)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vejsze, vész “a kind of fence or net as fish-trap; fish-pond”
*wajćз “weir”, *waja- “to sink, to submerge”
*kuvδaR “net”
gisig (15x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. gi-sig; gi-sig7 “a reed fence”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
vékony “thin, slim, loin”
*wakkз “thin”
*caat- “to be thin” [?]
*can∂γ(∂)t- “id.” [?]
ug, wr. ug2 “tiny, very small”
Hungarian
vélni “to think, to believe, to mean”, vélekedik “to be of the
opinion”
*w8l8- “to feel (?), to taste (?); to see (?)”
*ukv∂R- “to believe”
bala (3308x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bal; bil2 “to rotate, turn over, to
cross; to turn; to revolt; to change, to transgress (the terms of an
agreement); conversion (math.)”; cf. šag bala, wr. šag4 bala “to
ponder”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
velő “marrow”
*wiδ’з “marrow, bone”
*pat∂R “marrow”
bala (2579x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III,
Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. bar; ba-ra; bala; bur
“outside, (other) side; behind; outer form, outer; fleece; outsider,
strange; back, shoulder; liver; because of; to set aside; to cut open, slit,
split”, or buluh, wr. buluh; šembuluh; ba-lu-hum “an aromatic tree or
its resin”.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
vén “old”
*w8nз
in∂q- “to be finished; adult”
ina- “to finish”
un (27x: Old Babylonian) wr. un3 “to arise; sky; (to be) high”. Cf. Latin
altus “high” and German alt “old”, that are both related (yet indirectly,
to the IE root *al- f.ex. in Latin alere “to nourish”).
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
venni, vesz- “to take; to buy”
*weγ8qani- “to accompany part of the way”
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ALFRÉD TÓTH : HUNGARIAN AND ESKIMO-ALEUT — with Paleo-Siberian Cognates
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
*aa-t- “to take”
aγa-t- “id.”
gaĝ (538x: Ur III) wr. gaĝx(IL2); ga-aĝ3 “to carry”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
verni “to hit; to beat (heart)”
*pul∂nt∂- “to hit”
ur (53x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ur3 “to beat”
Hungarian
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
verni “to twine, to twist (of cord, rope)”
*pul∂nt∂- “to hit”
ur (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. ur4 “to be convulsed”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vér “blood”
*wire
*aδuγ “blood”
urin (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. urin; u3-ri2-in “blood”
Hungarian
Proto-Finn-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
vésni “to chisel, to cut”
*wäńgćз(-) “to cut; knife”
*k∂p∂- “to cut”
peš, wr. peš6 “to slice”
paşādu
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vészni “to get lost”, veszteni “to lose”
*wočз- “to be lost”, *wäsз- “to disappear, to get lost”
*tammaR- “to lose; to be lost”
uš (3556x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old
Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. uš2 “to die; to be dead; to kill; death”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
Akkadian
vessző “rod, twig, verge”
*waćз “narrow, thin bent branch”
*q∂ciqciun “twig, branch”
ĝeš (5552x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝeš; mu; u5 “tree; wood”
işu < *wişu (cf. s.v. vese)
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Eskimo-Aleut
Chukotko-Kamch.
Chukotko-Kamch.
Sumerian
vetni “to cast, to fling, to throw; to drill, to sow”
*wettä- “to throw”
awit∂- “to move aside (itr.)
av∂γ-/av∂t- “to separate”
aw∂t(a) “skin scraper”
aeww-aet- “to go away”
gid (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 “to
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transfer”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vezetni “to lead, to guide”
*wetä*tatyuR- “to lead by the hand” [?]
gid (13x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian) wr. gid2 “to
drag, tow (a boat upstream); to pass along, transfer”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Volgaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Uralo-Siberian
Proto-Inuit
Eskimo-Aleut
Sumerian
vézna “thin, slight”
*wäćkз “narrow, thin”
*wäńćз, *wäćз “narrow, thin”
*wen(i)- “to stretch skin out to dry”
*inniq- “to stretch skin for drying”
ini- “to hang out”, ni-s “drying”
sig (343x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old
Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. sig “(to be) weak; (to be) low; (to be)
thin; (to be) narrow”, gig (313x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old
Babylonian) wr. gig “to be) sick”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vigyázni “to pay attention, to beware, to look out”
*wića- “to notice, to see”
*taŋ∂R- “to see”
igi sig (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. igi sig10 “to see”
Hungarian
világ “light; world”, villám “lightening”, villanni “to flash, to
sparkle, to twinkle”, villogni “to sparkle, to twinkle”,
*walkз(-) “light, white; to light”, *wal’з- “to shine”
*tanqiR, *tanqiγ “light; moon”
bil (50x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bil2; bil3; bil “to burn”
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Eskimo-Aleut
Proto-Inuit
Aleut
Sumerian
vinni, visz- “to carry, to bring, to take”
*wiγeqani- “to accompany part of the way”
*aa-t- “to take”
aγa-t- “id.”
gaĝ (538x: Ur III) wr. gaĝx(IL2); ga-aĝ3 “to carry”. Same etymology as
venni (s.v.).
Hungarian
virág “flower”, virítani “to bloom”, virradni “to dawn”,
virrasztani “to stay awake”
*tanqiR, *tanqiγ “light; moon”
bur (78x: ED IIIa, Old Akkadian, Ur III) wr. bur2; bu7 “light; to glow,
shine”. According to EWU (pp. 1640ss.), the word-families vir- and
vil- (cf. világ) belong together (but not the family virr-). The Sum.
word bur, however, shows that this is not correct, the dark stem vowel
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
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Akkadian
u is even apparent in the ending –ani instead of –eni in virítani as well
as in virradni instead of *virredni.
arāqum “to bloom” < *warāqum, but unlike in the case of Hung. vese
(s.v.), *w- < b-, not < g-.
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vívni “to fight”
*woje- “to be able to”
*pa(C)a- “to fight, to struggle”
u (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. u8; u2 “defeat”
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
víz “water”
*wete
*∂m∂R “fresh water” [?]. Possibly correct, since m often substitutes
homorganic v, w, and R can also substitute R (cf. Sum. –z vs. Akk. –ş[ts] vs. PE –r- vs. PU t).
biz (12x: Old Babylonian) wr. bi-iz; biz “to trickle, drip”
başāşum (< Sum. biz). In this case, we can say from the palatal stem
vowel both in Hung. víz (acc. vizet, not *vizot or *vizat) and Sum. biz
that this word originates directly in Sum. and not in the Sum.
borrowing Akk., Rhaet. başāşum, which shows a velar stem-vowel.
Also PIE *wodor/*wedor/ *uder-, from root *wed- (cf. Hittite watar,
Sanskrit udnah, Greek hydor, Old Bulgarian, Russian voda, Lithuanian
vanduo, Old Prussian. wundan, Gaelic uisge “water”, Latin unda
“wave” originate in Sum. biz and thus also genetically related to Hung.
víz.
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
Akkadian
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
vő, vej- “son-in-law”
*wäŋз “bridegroom, stepson”
*neŋa(C)u(γ) “son-in-law, brother-in-law”
pap (86x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. pap “father; male,
virile; brother”
abu “father”. Hung. vő comes not directly from Sum. pap, but from
the Sum. borrowing in Akk., Rhaet. abu, the meaning of which is,
however, “father” and not “son-in-law”. The reason may be, that a
related word, Sum. abba > Hung. apa “father”, so Sum. abu got its
special meaning of a more distant male relative.
Akkadian
vöcsök “crested grebe (a kind of duck, family of Podicipedidae)”
*wajćз “a kind of duck”
*qaqutluγ “fulmar”
uz (57x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr.
uz; uzmušen “wild duck”
ūsu
Hungarian
Proto-Uralic
völgy “valley”
*waδ’kз “small river; bend or stretch of a river between two curves”
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Turkish
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
vadi “valley”
*qaluqšaq “valley, depression”
id (1086x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian)
wr. id2; id3; id6; id7; id5 “river, watercourse, canal”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
zaj “noise”
*śoje(-) “audible sound; to make noise, to sound”
*soj8(-) “id.”
*ciRuRδuγ- “to make an indistinct noise (like wind)”
šeg (28x: Old Babylonian) wr. še; šeg10; šegx(|KA×KID2|);
šegx(|KA×LI|); šed15; šeg12 “voice, cry, noise”
Hungarian
Proto-Finno-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
zajlik “to drift (of ice)”
*ćaka “drifting ice; thin ice”
*t∂p∂- “to drift ashore”
šeg (11x: ED IIIb, Lagash II, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. šeg9; šeg4
“snow; sleet; cold weather; frost, ice”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
zakatolni “to clamour, to make noise”, zaklatni “to bother”
*ciRuRδuγ- “to make an indistinct noise (like wind)”
šeg (28x: Old Babylonian) wr. še; šeg10; šegx(|KA×KID2|);
šegx(|KA×LI|); šed15; šeg12 “voice, cry, noise” + ad (26x: Old
Babylonian) wr. ad “voice; cry; noise” (double-word)
Hungarian
Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
záp “rotten, putrid (egg)”
*t∂ppak- “to stink”
hab (41x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. hab2; hab “(to be) malodorous, fetid; (to be) redolent”
Hungarian
Proto-Altaic
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
záp “rung; joist, purlin”
*sáp’í “stick, pole”
*sappз “post, stand”
*cukaR “post or other support”
zub (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. zub “bent stick (for throwing), throwingstick”
Hungarian
Proto-Eskimo
Sumerian
zöld “green”
*cuŋaγ-, *cuŋaR- “to be green”
usal (23x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. u2-sal; u8-sal;
SAL.|LAGAB×(GUD+GUD)|.DI?;
|LAGAB×(GUD+GUD)|.DI.UD.SAL? “meadow, pasture”
Hungarian
Proto-Ugric
zug, szug “angle, corner”
*suŋз “corner”
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Proto-Inuit
Sumerian
*t∂R∂tquq “angle, corner”
saĝ (3582x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early
Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. saĝ “head”
Hungarian
zsugorodik “to shrink; to become cramped; to hide; to beg; to be
stingy”
*ćuŋkз-(rз-) “to shrivel”
*q∂luRt∂- “to shrink”
šukurud (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. šukur2-ud “daily ration”
Proto-Ugric
Proto-Yupik
Sumerian
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3. Conclusions
Almost all of the 1317 Sumerian-Akkadian-Rhaetic etymologies of Hungarian also apply to the
Eskimo-Aleut and Paleo-Siberian cognates. Moreover, it was possible to add a few dozens more
Sumerian-Hungarian-Eskimo-Aleut etymologies, totally 1080. This proves without doubt that the
Eskimo-Aleut languages are – speaking in the traditional manner of Finno-Ugrists – members of the
Finno-Ugric, but not of the Uralic languages, since the Paleo-Siberian languages seem to be much
closer to the Samoyed languages than to the Finno-Ugric languages. Eskimo-Aleut is closer to
Hungarian than Yupik and the other related languages. Only a systematic analysis of the possible
Sumerian-Obugrian cognates could decide if the Eskimo-Aleut languages are closer to Hungarian or to
Ostyak and Vogul, but everything points to a closer relationship between Eskimo-Aleut and Hungarian.
In many dozens of cases new etymologies and corrections of the standard Proto-Finno-Ugric and
Proto-Uralic forms were possible, because the Proto-Eskimo-Aleut and Proto-Yupik forms stand in the
time-frame between Sumerian and Hungarian. Because the dissolution of Uralo-Siberian and UraloYukagir coincides in time approximately with the dissolution of the Uralic languages (6000-4000 B.C.,
cf. Fortescue 1998, p. 219 and Décsy 1990, p. 12), Proto-Eskimo-Aleut and Proto-Yupik forms could
be added instead of Proto-Uralic and Proto-Finno-Ugric forms, thus “filling the temportal gap”
between Sumerian and Hungarian. After our result here one really wonders why traditional FinnoUgrists and Uralists did not yet come to the idea to consider Proto-Eskimo-Aleut forms in cases where
f.ex. Hungarian words are considered to be “of unknown origin”: the idea to connect Eskimo and
Hungarian goes back to 1746!
Of very special interest is the fact that we have cases where Rhaetic words show up directly – i.e. not
mediated via Sumerian or Akkadian – in Hungarian and in Eskimo-Aleut. This fact seems to point to a
certain dissolution already amongst the Sumerian peoples.
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4. Selected Bibliography
Angere, Johannes, Die uralo-jukagirische Frage. Stockholm 1956
Bergsland, Knut, The Eskimo-Uralic hypothesis. In: Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 61, 1959,
pp. 1-29
Bonnerjea, René, Is there any relationship between Eskimo-Aleut and Uralo-Altaic? In: Acta Linguistica
Hungarica 21/3-4, 1971, p. 401-407
Bonnerjea, René, Some probable phonological connections between Ural-Altaic and Eskimo-Aleut. I.
In: Orbis 24/2, 1975, p. 251-275
Bonnerjea, René, Some probable phonological connections between Ural-Altaic and Eskimo-Aleut. II.
In: Orbis 28/1, 1979, p. 27-44
Bonnerjea, René, Some probable phonological connections between Ural-Altaic and Eskimo-Aleut. III.
In: Orbis 33/1-2, 1984, p. 256-272
Bouda, Karl, Das Tschuktschische. Leipzig 1941 (= Abhandlungen zur Kunde des Morgenlandes, XXV
I,1)
Bouda, Karl, Tschuktschisch und Finnisch-Ugrisch. [I.] In: Lingua 4, 1954-55, p. 286-317
Bouda, Karl, Tschuktschisch und Uralisch. [II.] In: ZDMG 111, 1961, p. 335-360
Bouda, Karl, Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der tschuktschischen Sprachgruppe III. In: ZDMG 119,
1969, p. 60-85
Bouda, Karl, Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse der tschuktschischen Sprachgruppe IV. In: Orbis 19/1,
1970, p. 130-136
Bouda, Karl, Tschuktschisch und Uralisch.[V.] In: ZDMG 130, 1980, p. 393-396
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. In: Anthropos 52, 1957, p. 65-134
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. II. In: Orbis 17/1, 1968, p. 158-186 (addendum: Orbis 17/2,
1968, p. 536-537)
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. III. In: Orbis 19/1, 1970, p. 124-129
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. IV. In: Orbis 20/1, 1971, p. 143-156
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. V. In: Orbis 22/2, 1973, p. 431-436
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. VI. In: Orbis 23/1, 1974, p. 142-158
Bouda, Karl, Die Sprache der Jenissejer. VII. In: Orbis 27/2, 1978, p. 321-328
Bouda, Karl, Die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse des Giljakischen. In: Anthropos 55/3-4, 1960, p. 355415
Bouda, Karl, Giljakisch und Uralisch. In: Orbis 17/2, 1968, p. 459-466
Bouda, Karl, Giljakisch, Tschuktschisch und Uralisch. In: Orbis 25/2, 1976, p. 240-248
Collinder, Björn, Jukagirisch und Uralisch. Uppsala and Leipzig 1940
Collinder, Björn, Hat das Uralische Verwandte? Uppsala 1965
Décsy, Gyula, The Uralic Protolanguage. Bloomington 1990
Dulson, A., Eine vorgeschichtliche Sprachgemeinschaft in Zentralasien. In: Acta Linguistica Hungarica
19/1-2, 1969, p. 19-37
Fortescue, Michael, The Eskimo-Aleut-Yukagir relationship. In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 21/1,
1988, pp. 21-50
Fortescue, Michael, Language Relations across Bering Strait. London and New York 1998
Fortescue, Michael, Parenté génétique des langues eskaléoutes. In: Tersis, Nicole and Therrien, Michèle
(eds.), Les langues eskaléoutes. Paris 2000, p. 71-90
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Fortescue, Michael/Jacobson, Steven/Kaplan, Lawrence, Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut
Cognates. Fairbanks 1994
Greenberg, Joseph H., Language in the Americas. Stanford 1987
Kleinschmidt, Samuel, Grammatik der grönländischen Sprachen mit theilweisen Einschluss des
Labradordialects. Berlin 1851, 2nd reprint Hildesheim 1991
Kortlandt, Frederik, Indo-Uralic and Altaic. Ms. University of Leiden, 2005
Plank, Frans, Greenlandic in comparison: Marcus Wöldike’s “Meleteme” (1746). In: Historiographica
Linguistica 17/3, 1990, p. 309-338
Rask, Rasmus, Undersögelse om det gamle Nordiske eller Islandske Sprogs Oprindelse. Copenhagen
1818
Sauvageot, Aurélien, Eskimo et Ouralien. In: Journal de la Société des Américanistes 16, 1924, pp. 279316
Swadesh, Morris, Linguistic relations across Bering Strait. In: American Anthropologist 64, 1962, pp.
1262-1291
Tailleur, Olivier Guy, Plaidoyer pour le youkaghire, branche orientale de la famille ouralienne. In:
Lingua 8, 1959, p. 303-423
Tailleur, Olivier Guy, Les uniques données sur l’omok, langue étainte de la famille youkaghire. In: Orbis
8/1, 1959, p. 78-108
Tailleur, Oliver Guy, La place du Ghiliak parmi les langues paléosibériennes. In: Lingua 9, 1961, p. 113147
Thalbitzer, William, Possible early contacts between Eskimo and Old World languages. In: Tax, Sol
(ed.), Indian Tribes of Aboriginal America, Chicago 1952, pp. 50-54
Tóth, Alfréd, Hungarian-Mesopotamian Dictionary. The Hague 2007
Werner, Heinrich, Zur jenisseisch-indianischen Urverwandtschaft. Wiesbaden 2004
Wøldike, Marcus, Betaenkning om det Grönlandske Sprogs Oprindelse og Uliighed med andre Sprog.
In: Københavns Selskabs Skrift 1746, pp. 129-156 (= Wøldike 1746a)
Wøldike, Marcus, Meletema, de lingvae Groenlandicae origine, ejusque a caeteris linguis differentia. In:
Scriptorum á Societate Hafniensi Bonis Artibus promovendis dedita Danice editorum (...) pars
secunda. Hafniae 1746 (= Wøldike 1746b)
Worth, Dean Stoddard, Paleosiberian etymologies. I. In: IJAL 25, 1959, p. 32-40
Worth, Dean Stoddard, Paleosiberian etymologies. II. In: IJAL 25, 1959, p. 105-113
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
ALFRÉD TÓTH was born in 1965 in St. Gallen (Switzerland), his native tongue
is Hungarian. Received two PhD's (1989 Mathematics, University of Zurich;
1992 Philosophy, University of Stuttgart) and an MA (General and
Comparative Linguistics, Finno-Ugristics and Romanistics, University of
Zurich 1991). Mr. Tóth is since 2001 Professor of Mathematics (Algebraic
Topology) in Tucson, Arizona. He is member of many mathematical, semiotic,
cybernetic and linguistic societies and scientific board member of eight
international journals. Lives in Tucson and Szombathely where his family
comes from.
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