Base Line Survey And Documentation of Traditional medical knowledge

Reviving and Protecting Indigenous Traditional Knowledge
(TK) of Tribes in Southern Rajastan
Base Line Survey
And Documentation of Traditional medical knowledge
and Traditional food and nutritional practices
Report Prepared By –
Rashtriya Guni Mission (RGM)
Udaipur-Rajasthan
1
Summary
A village level survey study was conducted to cover 200 households of vardara, kotra and udawar
villages. For collecting primary and secondary data from different sources the following tools and
techniques were used –
1.
2.
3.
4.
Interview Schedule for respondents.
Observation by Investigators
Informal discussion with other family members and neighbours.
Desk review of secondary information
Interview Schedule was designed and extensively discussed by the research team in view the basic
objectives of the study and the major variables and parameters. The items of interview schedule
were pre-coded requiring respondents only to check one of them. Teams of investigators did the
work of data collection. They were given necessary training before they were sent in the field for
collecting data. The coordinator and research officer duly supervised the work of investigators.
The work of data processing was then taken up and on the basis of filled in interview schedules
the master charts were prepared. The data analysis plan was designed in such a way that all
possible errors during data processing would be excluded.
The issues covered were the following Different tribes of the area and their cultural system / lifestyles.
 Socio-economic conditions of the tribes.
 Biodiversity of the area.
 Documentation of traditional medical knowledge
 Documentation of traditional food and nutritional practices
Major findings of the survey are –

98% of the population is Below Poverty Line (BPL), 88% population has less than 3
bigha of land holding, 62% of the population has not received any formal education

Goat is the most preferred (68%) livestock followed by buffalo (48%) but the major
source of livelihood is agriculture closely followed by wage labour

Average monthly income of majority of population falls between 1000 rupees per month
to 3000 rupees per month, while average monthly expenditure is approx. 5000 rupees. Of
which the major expenditure is on marriages, food and rituals.

Preparation of home remedies is largely done by male members of the family. Only about
10% females know how to prepare home remedies. As a general trend the villagers do not
sell their medicines. It was found that only four people gave medicines to people outside
their family. On an average each of those four treated about 20 – 21 patients per month.
2

Most common forest produce are the following – custard apple, Jamun, mango, dolma,
ratanjot, mahua, baheda, Amla, wood, honey, puwad, ritha, khakhara, semal, baans,
temaru, karanj, amaltas, bilb, salar, jadi-butiyan (all local names)
Identification of Bio-resources – the bio-resources such as plants for medicine, food, etc. have
been be identified that are being extinct due to over exploitation. It is important information to
prioritize requirements for their survival. These identified bio-resources have been registered in
Village biodiversity Registers (VDR) with local democratic institutions – Gram Sabha (village
council) that will provide them benefit sharing and ownership on bio resources since being
commercially used by private/ public sector.
3
Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
The tribal population is an integral part of India’s social fabric and has the second Largest concentration
after that of the African continent. It is more than the total Population of France and Britain and four
times that of Australia. The population of tribal communities scheduled in the Constitution of India and
known as Scheduled Tribes (STs) was 8.43 crore (1 crore = 10 million) as per 2001 census and accounts
for 8.2% of the total population. 4.26 crores are men and 4.17 crores are women, accounting for 8.01%
and 8.40% respectively. They are scattered over all the states/UTs, except Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and
the UTs of Pondicherry and Chandigarh.
Tribal’s have traditionally lived in about 15% of the country’s geographical areas, mainly forests, hills
and undulating inaccessible terrain in plateau areas, rich in natural resources. They have lived as isolated
entities for centuries, largely untouched by the society around them. This seclusion has been responsible
for the slower growth, dissimilar pattern of their socio-economic and cultural development and inability
to negotiate and cope with the consequences of their involuntary integration into mainstream society and
economy. Tribals continue to be socio-economically backward.
1.2 About the present study
The present study has been carried out to understand the lifestyles of different tribes of the project area,
their dietary habits, medicinal system, livelihood patterns of tribe’s vis-à-vis to their socio-cultural system.
In addition the information pertaining to the ways of procuring minor forest products and how do they
manage during difficult days and at special occasions were sought while giving special focus on the
biodiversity of the area. The outcome of such studies helps to understand the existent health related
problems and associated factors responsible for the same so that future planning can be done keeping the
lacunas in mind.
1.3 Objective of the survey

To identify socio-cultural systems of tribal and scientifically document Indigenous technical
knowledge (ITK)
1.4 Material and Methods
The present data has been collected from the Kumbhalgarh Block of Rajsamand district. Three villages
namely Varadhara, Kotra and Udawar were selected purposively on basis of the distance from Primary
Health Center (PHC).
Initially, the census of the selected villages was conducted to obtain information on age, sex, literacy,
occupation, land-holding, and family size. After this, 100 households/ families from each village were
selected in such a way that it may represent the entire village. These families were interviewed in-depth to
understand their traditional medicinal practices and associated habits
4
Data for the study was gathered in April 2012. Apart from this, their livelihood pattern was also inquired.
Though there was a structured schedule with a set of questions yet clarifications were made whenever
required. In addition, the key people of each village such as guni, (local healer), Sarpanch and teacher etc.
were interviewed to obtain supportive information.
Focus Group discussion
Further, in the selected villages, focus group discussions and interviews with key informants conducted to
identify the THPs if any in their village or neighboring villages within the block. The analysis of data was
undertaken through computer to draw comparison and inferences, chapertization and analysis.
1.5 Important limitation
1. The most important limitation of this study lies in the difficulties of communication which were
inevitable.
2. The communication between the researcher and the villagers went through many filters.
5
CHAPTER 2
Review of Literature
The term tribe is derived from the Latin word 'tribes' meaning the 'poor or the masses'. In English
language the word 'tribe' appeared in the sixteenth century and denoted a community of persons claiming
descent from a common ancestor, this chapter attempts to give an insight into the tribal studies in India.
2.1 Health Care among Tribal’s of Rajasthan
The strategy a person chooses for the treatment of his or her illness or that of a relative depends on
personal experiences and preferences. The tribal response to health problems reveal a multiple and
simultaneous usage of home remedies and multiple therapy depending on the cultural logic based on
medicine of body fluids and supernatural dimensions. The various practitioners whose services are
sought are spiritist (Bhopa), traditional herbalist (GUNI) and public health practitioners. In Rajasthan the
indigenous healers (separatists and herbalists), though very popular lack official status as Amchi –
practitioners of Tibetan medicine in Ladakh were settled upon (Bhasin,1999) The traditional medical
system of tribal’s is based on personalistic tradition of supernatural healers (Bhopa) and herbalists
(GUNI) and their ministrations. These traditional healer diviners operate within a religious paradigm,
with no printed or written material to conform or support the tradition .It is assumed that these are
sanctioned by their religion but with no proof. This system works on the individual healer’s methods,
reputation and performance. The indigenous medicine system has continued in society’s social cultural
complexes through deeply rooted processes. It is a set of concepts of health and sickness that reflect
certain values, traditions and beliefs based on people’s way of life. It is a “constant process of conformity
to contemporary psychological needs within are created cultural identity”(Wijsen and Tanner,2001). LeviStrauss (1967) description of the Shaman and his healing techniques shed light on the relationship
between process and consequences of healing. The “Shaman provides a language (p.198) and like psychoanalyst, allows the conscious and unconscious to merge.” This he achieves through a shared symbolic
system and curing of one sick person improves the mental health of the group.
2.2 Tribal Studies in India
The Indian tribal society is a unique society with diversity of nature and people. In our country, known
for the extreme poverty of the masses, the tribals constitute the core of the poor. Poverty, poor health
and sanitation, illiteracy and other social problems among the tribals are exerting a dragging effect on the
Indian economy. The Five Year Plans formulated the implementation of a series of investment-backed
schemes and projects for the betterment of the conditions of the tribals living in the rural and urban
areas. Many of the tribes with their forest-dwelling culture do not have the motivation or the skill
of settled cultivation. As a result, their land has been alienated to their better endowed tribal
neighbours or non-tribals. There have been many tribal studies in India based on tribal economy, land
alienation, socio-economic development, tribal culture etc. It is highly imperative to have a look at
these tribal studies by various Anthropologists, Research scholars, etc.
6
A new trend in ethno methodology which came during the British period was a theory propounded by
Vemer Elwin (1943)' who suggested that tribals should be kept isolated in their hills and forests. Elwin's
theory is known in social anthropology as 'public park theory'. He suggested that ordinarily the nontribal people should not be allowed to enter into tribal pockets without permission of the state
government. This system would guarantee the isolation of the tribals. G.S. Ghurye ( 1 9 4 3 ) ~
contested the theory of public park. He argued that the tribals were nothing more than backward caste
Hindus. They should be treated at par with the Hindus.
Following Ghurye's argument, D.N. Majumdar ( 1 9 4 4 ) ~ took a slightly different position. His
suggestion was that the cultural identity of the tribals as far as possible should be retained. He feared that
if the isolation was broken the tribals would lose their ethnic identity. To maintain it, he hypothesized
that there should be 'selected integration' of the tribals. While spelling out, he argued that not all the
elements of civilization should be allowed to enter the tribal area. Only those which have relevance with
tribal life should be permitted into such area. Such a policy would keep the tribals away from the vices of
urban life.
Verma (1959- 1960)' has discussed the socio-cultural organizations of the Sanria paharias, Mal- paharias
and Knmarbhag. He has examined various phases of the tribal life, pregnancy and birth, puberty, widow
remarriage, place of women in the society, religion, village council and institutions.
N.N. Vyas ( 1 9 6 7 ) ~ presents the historical, social and economic life of the Baniyas ofRajasthan,
Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Gujarat. Vyas thus points out the differences in customs and practices of
the Baniyas of different States. This study has a good comparative background, still it has a
limitation like unsuitability of the methodology.
Nirmal Kumar Bose (1 977),12 gives some insight into the tribe's social life. "Tribes differ from others in
their social system. They have retained their own marriage regulation. Almost all marry within their
restricted local group, and are sometimes guided by their own elders or political chief in internal and
external affairs. In other words, they form socially distinct communities who 26 have been designated as
tribes and listed in the Schedule for special treatment, so that within a relatively short time they can come
within the mainstream of political and economic life if India".
L.C. Mohanthy (1989),~' has remind us of the urgent necessity of evaluating how far tribals have
improved their economic-conditions and how far they have been integrated into the larger Indian society.
He believes that giving tribals full freedom to manifest their genius will help their integration.
S.L. Doshi ( 1 9 9 0 ) ~ who has conducted researches on the Bhils of south Rajasthan, argues that in
ancient India the tribals did not constitute the core of society. They were always marginalized. Though
7
there are no accounts of their collective identity, it is stated that they practiced a pastoral life
characterized by animism. They were, by and large, a classless stateless society.
Buddudeb Chaudhaudi's (ed.) (1 992)" ' Tribal Transformation in India', in five volumes, is a
collaborative effort of Indian scholars to capture the changing tribal scenario and a whole diversity of
issues related to tribal economy, agronamy, politics, ethnicity, ecology, education, technology transfer,
social political movements, religious faiths and rituals in an indigenized, yet more articulate framework,
with both diagnostic and remedial models. With the latest conceptslresearch tools in anthropology and
related disciplines, the authors make
a fresh look at micro and macro level dynamics of the tribal situation in India.
S.R. Bakshi and Kiran Bala (2000 )'O presents the sociol-economic status of several scheduled tribes
inhabiting in various regions of our sub-continent. Their life-style, customs and traditions are quite
different from the population in our rural and urban areas. In fact 'they live in their own world'. Their
social backwardness has been assessed at various levels and schemes have been launched for the
education of their children, to provide them health facilities and jobs for their daily needs.
Though there are studies on various tribes and their socio - economic development, yet several aspects
like the traditional system of medicine are still undocumented and their overall development on the basis
of human development indices has not been analysed so far. So the researcher hopes that the present
study will fill the gap in the literature.
8
Chapter 3
Findings of the Survey
3.1 Area profile
The present project is located in Khumbalgarh block of Rajsamand district. Kumbhalgarh block is about
85 km from Udaipur located at 251.1 meters altitude. The study covered Varadhara, Kotra and Udawar
villages from the Khumbalgarh block of Rajsamand district. The selected area is declared as schedule area
under the fifth and sixth schedule of the Indian constitution which provides special safe guards to protect
community intellectual property rights over natural resources.
Climate - The area of moderate and healthy climate without significant seasonal variations. January is the
coldest month while May-June is hottest months. The maximum and minimum temperature recorded has
50 and 490 , the area exhibit semi arid and sub humid climate with short duration of monsoon.
Soils type – The soil on hills are shallow. Well drained gravelly soil (35-60% gravels). The depth of soil is
8-10 cum. These are severely eroded and suitable for grass land and agro forestry. However the soils of
pediments are moderately deep to deep well drained dark brown, sandy clay loams to clay loam soils on
gently slope with slight risk of erosion. Soils along the course of rivers / streams are deep to very deep,
well drained, sandy loam to loam, slightly affected with solidity. Organic and carbon contents are low.
The soils on pediment could be cultivated for rain fed Kharif crops while these can be put under cropping
during Rabi, with assured irrigation facilities.
Rainfall - The average annual rainfall is 670mm. (maximum 950 mm. minimum 350 mm) of the area
which is distributed mostly in the month of June-July and August. But during the last 4-5 years, the
rainfall has been much less than the average. Present condition of the area as severe in terms of drought
which is affected mainly agriculture and animal husbandry.
Land use and Agriculture - Rainfed farming is in practice. The agriculture production depends on
timely and sufficient occurrence of rainfall. The Major crops of the area are Maize and Jawar in Kharif
season and Rabi seasons Wheat and Mustard. Generally most of the farmer able to take only one crop in a
year during Kharif season as agriculture, which is dependent on the rain. The farmers are using local
varieties of seeds during sowing. The Vegetable crops like brinjal, Chilli, etc. also grown but it all depend
on availability of water sources.
Water Resources - The main sources of households’ water in the region are wells and hand pumps but
majority of them are in a dysfunctional state. Government water supply is completely absent, Ground
water level going down due to over digging of rock phosphate mines. Surface water resources of the area
are represented by the streams and Small River, which dried since last 4-5 year due to severe drought.
9
3.2 Demographic profile of the area
VILLAGE HOU TOTAL TOT
NAME
SE
POPULA AL
HOL
TION
MAL
DS
E
TOTA
L
FEMA
LE
POPU
LATI
ON
ST
MAL
E ST
FEMALE TOTAL
ST
POPUL
ATION
0-6
Vardara
Kotra
202
96
917
483
448
244
469
239
442
483
216
244
226
239
196
75
Udawar
142
679
354
325
592
309
283
176
The average size of the family is 6.4. The difference in family size of three villages has not been found to
be significant. Twenty percent of the families have 7-8 members and nearly 10% of the families between
11-12 members in all three villages. This information indicates the number of mouths to feed. Houses of
both the villages are kaccha hut type consist of generally one room, kitchen and verandah.
Education level
Female literacy rate is almost zero while the 5% male tribals of the villages have received highest
education up to secondary class. 32% of men and women have received highest education upto primary
level, while 62% of men and women have received no formal education. Out of this 62%, the majority of
illiterates were women.
Source of livelihood
More than 90% of the tribal populations of the three villages are primarily involved in agriculture. Only
about 5 % of the population are engaged in occupation other than agriculture, cultivator or as agriculture
labor. They are completely dependent upon the rain water for irrigation.
10
Agriculture on land
owned by household
Agriculture on land
belonging to others
94
50
Herders
Own livestock
0
1
Wage labour
Business/Trade
Employed/Salaried
91
1
2
Other,
Missing response
1
1
Due to poor irrigation means, they take only one crop in a year on which they survive for the entire year.
The chief crops which they grow in their fields are ‘Maize’, ‘Urd’, ‘Tuar’ and ‘Moong’. Besides, the
seasonal vegetables are grown in the kitchen garden. Both male and female members of the families work
in agriculture field from sunrise to sunset. The wages are also earned by them through various other
means.
The size of land possessed by them has been ascertained. It was found that average land per household
of village is around 2 to 3 bighas. Nearly cent per cent tribals of the three villages possess land below 5
bighas. It may be mentioned that the land size owned per household and in turn the crop yield is not
significantly different which can reflect any variation among population of three villages.
11
As regards agriculture is concerned, the tribal’s have very small land holdings.

The average size of their land has been estimated to approximately 2-3 bighas.

Total irrigated land held by the Gametis is approximately 18%

The non irrigated, stony and undulated land is approx. 82%
There are no industrial units in the neighboring areas which could have supported livelihoods of people
to some extent. Agriculture and daily labor are the major source of livelihood. Women equally share the
economy of a household.
In the absence of sources of livelihood, this tribal group is again forced to resort to migration. The
general trend is that the whole family migrates for several months. Thus during the migration period
almost whole of the village is empty.
12
Livestock
The cows, bullocks, popular birds and goats are reared to enhance their income.
Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the total animal population, but the proportion of
animals like cows, bulls has fallen, these are those animals which are not given stall feeding. But the
proportion of animals like buffaloes has increased, in this region buffaloes are generally provided stall
feed. Moreover, the proportion of small animals which can be taken for feed to long distances like the
goat has risen. At present 68% of the total population owns goats.
13
Household Assets
The past few years have seen the weakest sections of the society make gains in their material wellbeing,
acquiring assets such as cell phones, televisions and two-wheelers, though almost whole of the population
of scheduled tribes (ST) continue to live by the light of the humble kerosene lamp, much more than the
national number of 31 per cent.
Takes from the above
Economically the tribal people in the villages are very poor. The area has a number of socio-economic
problems:
I.
II.
III.
Money lending along with alcoholism
The marketing of minor forest produce is done through middle men and agents so that the
tribal do not get any benefit.
There is no processing industry for the minor forest produce.
After obtaining the above preliminary information, the detailed information from both male and female
members of the families was sought pertaining to the income-expenditure pattern, food consumption
pattern, associated habits, beliefs and taboos vis-a vis to their socio-cultural pattern.
14
Average annual income
The majority (72%) of the study population was found to be earning an average annual household
income between 12000 – 36000 INR. This suggest that the average monthly income of the 72%
households was between approximately 20 to 60$ per month. As per the World Bank - India Data
Profile, 2003 - 29% of the population lives below the poverty line; 70% of these people reside in rural
areas 86% of the population lives under $2 per day; 44% lives under $1 per day .
The graph here displays this sad face of the poor tribal of kumbhalgarh, the present average annual
income is even lower than national tribal average of Rs 40,753 in 2003.
The major sources of income are
100
80
60
40
20
Wage labour ,
74
Agriculture , 68
Forest produce
, 83
0
15
Annual Expenditure pattern
The above chart suggests that the major potyion of their expenditure was on food (41%) followed by
ritual (25%). Another important item on which their heavy expenditure (17%) was involved on was
marriage and other such expenditures. They were found to be spending no amount on entertainment and
only 2% on children’s education.
However a breakup of the total expenditure in Rupees shows an even worse picture. It has been earlier
mentioned that the average annual household income of 72% people was between 12000 to 36000 Rs.
whereas the table below suggest that the average annual expenditure of a general household far exceeded
the average annual income. The table suggests that in general a household was spending about 82988 Rs.
Per year. This clearly indicates that the households are deeply immersed in the burden of debt in order to
meet out their expenditures
Item
Rs.
Food
33033
Cloth
4617
Medicine
6457
Children’s education
1625
16
Alcohol etc.
3378
Rituals
19578
Marriage, child birth, etc.
14300
Major forest produce collected
Natural Resources Status in the Project Villages area (Kumbhalgarh)
This aspect of the study was carried out through interviews and meetings with small group of villagers in
the sanctuary. This group included respondents who were Guni, agriculturalist, livestock rearers and old
people. The status of resource availability, its use and reason for depletion, the plant species preferred for
fodder, fuel, NTFP and the historical means of resource management the area. The main objective of this
exercise was to know the past and present status of all species of utility value to the local people, the
reasons if any for the loss or low availability and the means of reducing the threats.
Overall scenario showed use of tree species as fuel wood and small timber, but major concern was on
Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr., Acacia catechu L. f. Wild., Dendrocalamus strictus
(Roxb.) Nees, and Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Bth. that were highly abundant in this PA, but increase in
population has put excessive pressure on these species, which has resulted in drastic reduction in their
population.
PAST AND PRESENT AVAILABILITY OF FOREST RESOURCE
Based on the village survey it was evident that most of the species as per the peoples’ response were
available in abundance or moderate level earlier but the present scenario shows drastic reduction in their
numbers, and has reached to the moderate and low levels. Reason behind this decline could be attributed
to rapid human population growth, which had led to heavy economic growth and finally resulted in
increased pressure in the form of over exploitation of the natural resources.
One of the major threats, stated for decrease was forest fire, which is mostly due to human induced and
rarely natural, but sometimes also due to traditional or cultural practice. Most of the villagers were well
aware of the bad effects of fire on the ecosystem and previously had joined hands to prevent this hazard
but presently showed less concern over this issue, which has resulted more efforts to be made by forest
department to put off the fire.
Overall three villages were surveyed for indigenous knowledge data collection. Again this information
was gathered to assess and know the general view and assumption of the villagers about their
surroundings and natural resources, which would be helpful in preparing a suitable conservation plan for
this sanctuary.
17
1. Fuel Wood Availability
In total 13 species of trees were used by two villages present inside the sanctuary, the availability of which
was high to moderately abundant 25 year back. The present status of Anogeissus latifolia and Albizia
odoratissima showed very low abundance; therefore villagers have shifted to Wrightia tinctoria, Dendrocalamus
strictus and Boswellia serrata that were moderately abundant 25 years back and presently used as fuel wood
in these villages.
Availability of Species used as Fuel Wood – Indigenous Knowledge of Project Villages
(Kumbhalgarh)
S.No Species
No .of Respondents
25yrs Back
Present
Abundant Moderate Low Abundant Moderate
Low
1
2
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
4
Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Bth.
Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex
DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
5
6
7
Anogeissus pendula Edgew.
Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Cocls.
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.)
Nees
Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.)
Hrrrill
1
1
1
0
2
2
0
0
0
1
2
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
10
Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.)
Sinclair
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
1
0
0
1
0
0
11
12
Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC.
Tamarindus indica L.
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
13
Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br.
2
0
0
2
0
0
8
9
J.
Fodder Resources Availability
Villagers preferred agriculture residues as well as grass collected from the forest as fodder resource for
their livestock and the availability of these fodder species was abundant to moderately abundant 25 years
back. The villages said, presently agriculture residues, grass from the forest as well as cultivated fodder
has decreased. Reason behind the reduction could be overgrazing and frequent fire which has impeded
the growth of other species that has led to less availability of these resources.
18
Status of fodder resource availability in project area villages in Kumbhalgarh
S.No Resource Use
No .of Respondents
25yrs Back
Present
Abundant Moderate Low Abundant Moderate Low
2
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
2
1
1
1
1
2
Agri Residue
Cultivated Fodder
3
4
Leaves Forest
Grass-Forest
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
5
Grazing Intensity
0
1
0
0
0
1
Availability of Minor Forest Produces - Indigenous Knowledge of Project Villages Kumbhalgarh
S.No Species
1
Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd
Local Name
Katha, Kath, Khair
Habit
Tree
Uses
Fuel wood, Small
timber
Small timber
Fuel wood, Small
timber
Fruits, -Medicinal
plants
2
3
Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd
Desi Bawalia
Kumatiyo,Kumbat
Tree
Tree
4
Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr
Bel
Tree
5
6
Albizia odoratissima (L. f.)
Annona squamosa L
Benth. Kali Charas
Sitaphal, Sarifa Small
Tree
Small
Tree
Small timber
Fruits
7
Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex
DC.) Wall. exGuill. & Perr.
Dhao
Tree
Fuel wood, Small
timber
8
9
10
Anogeissus pendula Edgew
Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Cocls.
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub
Dhok, Dhao
Salar
Khankhera
Tree
Tree
Tree
11
Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew
Ker
Small
Tree
Fuel wood
Fuel wood
Medicinal plants, Fuel
Wood
Small Tree
12
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.)
Nees Bans Grass
Tree
13
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb
Timru
Tree
14
15
Grewia flavescens A. Juss
Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.)
Kali siali
Jhingan, Godla
Shrub
Tree
Fuel wood, Small
timber
Fruits, -Medicinal
plants
Medicinal plants
Fuel wood
19
Merrill
16
Kari, Kirua
Tree
17
Miliusa tomentosa (Roxb.) J.
Sinclair
Phyllanthus emblica L
Amala
Tree
18
19
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC
Karanj
Vilayati
20
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels
Jamun
Tree
Small
Tree
Tree
21
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)
Roxb
Bahera, Deshi
Badam
Tree
Medicinal plants
22
Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br.
Karu, Kerni
Tree
Fuel wood
Fuel wood, Small
timber
Fruits, -Medicinal
plants
Seed
Fuel wood, Small
timber
Fruits, -Medicinal
plants
Food Consumption Pattern and Associated Habits
Efforts were made to observe the food consumption pattern of the survey population, their various ways
of obtaining food including the associated habits, beliefs and notions. Besides, information on special and
selective foods taken by them during pregnancy, lactation, illness including festivals and ceremonies were
sought. Also the information regarding change in food intake during different seasons and lean days were
obtained.
The local key peoples such as teachers, leaders, sarpanch and doctors were also interviewed to seek
supportive information. The diet of the tribal’s primarily consists of cereals and pulses. Seasonal
vegetables and fruits are also consumed if grown/available in the field/forest. Milk & milk products and
Sugar, are observed to be almost absent from their daily diet. However the consumption of ghee/oil was
also observed to be poor.
Food distribution among family members
The graph below suggests that the children are given priority and they get to eat first in the majority of
households, on a positive note there is no significant gender discrimination with regards to the
distribution of food.
20
Common foods used by the people
The diets of Gamati ,bhils of both the villages primarily consist of cereals and pulses. However, rich
tribal eat wheat and rice comparatively more. Intake of vegetables compared to pulses was low. Hardly
any respondent of these villages told that they consumed milk despite they domesticate buffaloes and
cows. The consumption of sugar is almost absent from their routine diet. Although all the tribals are
non-vegetarian and extremely fond of consuming fleshes of animals and birds, yet its consumption is
limited to only ceremonial and festival days. The tribals of the present study told that they are not able to
have square meals a day from available forest produce and crops as they took only one crop per year
because of poor irrigation means.
The capacity of bhils is very limited to purchase of any edible items or otherwise. In order to purchase
petty things like oil, sugar and salt, tribals had to sell: (1) a portion of the cereal grains or pulses (2) jungle
woods (3) Desi Ghee prepared at home and honey gathered from the forest. This indicated the extent of
purchasing power and economic conditions. In this connection, not even a single respondent had
admitted that they could afford to buy the basic essentials such as cereals or pulses or vegetables even
when they had nothing to eat. During crisis, they depend upon forest products to survive.
Wheat, rice and non-vegetarian dish are considered to be socially prestigious. The tribal prefer to
consume these at each festival and ceremony along with the indigenous liquor, ‘Mahua’. The liquor is
such an integral part of tribe’s life that every rite and ritual from womb to tomb begins and ends with it.
21
Wheat porridge with ‘Gur’, ‘Coconut’ and ‘Desi Ghee’ is believed to be nutritious and is given to newly
delivered women for initial few days.
It is apparent from the findings that the quality and quantity of food consumed is largely depend upon
the availability and deficient in all essential elements like protein, fat, sugar and vitamins.
Factors that determine food availability and consumption in the households
Seasonal availability and food cost were found to be the most important factors to determine
consumption pattern in the households.
1. Cooking Practices: Food is cooked traditionally on Chulla in earthen vessels. It was done with a
belief that food does not get spoiled in these vessels. Food is generally cooked twice in a day. It was
commonly observed in both the villages that water used for drinking or cooking is generally kept
uncovered. The concept of hot and cold foods is deep-rooted among them. Cold foods are strictly
avoided in winter and vice versa are also true.
2. Food Consumption Pattern:
a) Eating Practices: Normally, food is eaten twice daily, on around 11-12 a.m. and Another in the evening
before it gets dark and in total privacy. During the day time, family members ate whenever they feel
22
hungry. At evening when all the family members are together, children irrespective of sex, get priority
followed by men. It was interesting to note that couple never shared food in the same plate. As told, it is
not always that full share is left for the house lady. Of course, it was more or less related to the economic
condition of the family.
b) Alcoholic Practices: Drinking of indigenous liquor, ‘Mahua’, was a popular practice among the
tribals. Men were found to be habitual drinker and consumed almost daily in a good measure, while the
women consume occasionally and during festivals and ceremonial days. The liquor is locally prepared by
them on an improvised distillery. It is worth mentioning that drinking ‘Mahua’ among them is not mere
a habit. It has high ritual sanctity to the extent that their every rite and rituals starts from womb to tomb
by offering liquor and ends with offering liquor to gods, goddesses and consuming the same too in good
measure.
c) Food on different occasion: Apart from the influence of season whatever little may be in their
routine diet; the choice of food was largely determined by their cultural practice and existed beliefs.
Certain foods were socially prestigious while others were treated as neglected food. Almost every
respondent regarded wheat; rice and no vegetarian diet are the best food and energy giving and
nutritionally had high values.
d) During pregnancy & lactation: No special foods are being consumed during pregnancy. However,
few foods such as fishes, chilies, full liquor, papaya are tabooed socially as these are considered to be hot
and may abort the fetus. Strongly odoured foods (‘Amla’, ‘Dhania’) are also prohibited as it caused
nausea. Soon after delivery, women are preferably given wheat porridge at least for initial seven days.
‘Gur’, ‘Desi Ghee’ and ‘Coconut’ are added to make it more energetic though the fact cannot be denied
that its provision is largely related to the economic condition of the family.
List of local Traditional food and nutritional Practices
Name of
Products
1
BATTISA
Nutritional /
Medicinal
Properties
Given as a tonic to
Lactating
women for uterus
prolapse,
, Induce Lactation; to
treat Leucorrhoea,
Joint Pain, Anaemia
Used PLant with its parts
Used other raw Products
Withania somnifera (Root) Cu
Jaggery + Ghee+ Wheat flour
Aspapragus racemosus (Root) Cu
Chlorophytum borivilianum (Root) Cu
Asteracantha longifolia (Seeds) Ma
Trigonella foenum-graecum (Seeds) Cu
Butea monosperma (Gum) La
Anogeissus latifolia (Gum) La
Areca catechu(Fruit) Ma
23
Zingiber officinalis (Dried Rhizome)
La
Trachyspermum ammi (Seeds) La
3
Rab, Rabri
Grue prepared from Maize Grains(Zea mays) bulgur Curd or Butter milk+ Salt
coarsely ground grain La
and salted Butter
milk, A very popular
staple food/ dish
eaten by local
community
4
Mogar Laddu
Urad Grains (Vigna mungo)La
Jaggery+ Ghee+ Wheat flour
Used during winter Angeissus latifolia (Gum) La
by both men &
Prunus amygdalus (Seed Kernel))
women as a tonic or Ma
for Debility
Anacardium occidentale (Kernel) Ma
Access to adequate safe drinking water (within 1.5 kms distance)
Well were found to be the main source of water, however, due to continuous failure of monsoons since
past two years, the ground water level has fallen down drastically.
24
Person responsible for fetching water when not on the premises
Diseases associated with drinking contaminated water
With the depletion of resources of water supply, there has also been deterioration in the quality of water
supply. Lower the water level, less is the availability of safe drinking water and higher is the possibility of
falling sick.
It was found that a large percent of people reported the problem of diarrhea (69) and cholera (49) being
common in their region. The graph below gives a clear picture of the diseases which the respondents
associate with drinking contaminated water.
25
The seasonal diseases occurring in the villages is malaria, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, pneumonia,
jaundice, eye disease, skin disease, intestinal parasites, ear problem, joint pains, kidney stones, poisonous
bites and fractures. The chronic diseases are TB, cancer, asthma, piles, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. The
public health facility is not available in the village.
Manner in which the family protects itself from the common diseases
Local remedies known for common health problems?
It was found that there was knowledge of local remedies for common health problems such as Anemia,
Burns, Child Delivery, Cold, Cough, Cuts and wounds, Dental Problem, Diarrhea, Eye Problem, Ear
26
Problem, Fevers, Food Poisoning, Fracture and Bone Setting, Head ache, Indigestion, Jaundice, Joint
Pain, Kidney Stone, Menstrual Disorders, poisonous bites, Skin conditions, Stomach Ache, White
discharge, Worm infestation, piles and Asthma/ARI. It was shared by the respondents that more men as
compared to women were involved in preparation of the local remedies. The table below gives the
number of people (age wise) who are involved in preparation of local remedies. However, only 5 people
were found to be providing these medicines outside the family. And out of these 5 people only 4
maintained a record of cases treated.
The family member who prepares the local remedies?
Item
Male of Age
Who in your 15-30 = 3
family knows to 31-45 = 5
prepare
local 46-60 = 4
Female of Age
15-30 = 1
remedies?
60 and above = 2
31-45 = 2
46-60 =3
60 and above = 11
Information about people who prepared the local remedies
No. of people who prepared local remedies
31
No. of people who sold/provided medicines to people outside 5
their family
No. of people who maintained a record / documentation of 4
cases treated
No. of people who acquired this knowledge from elders 30
within the family
No. of people who acquired this knowledge from gurus 3
(teachers) outside the family
No. of people who have participated in any capacity building 4
trainings
Local Traditional medicine Formulations
S.No.
diseases
Ingredients
1.
Swet PradarRaktha
Pradar
Ardiya
Limbu
&
Khata 50m gms. Of juice of both the ingredients
in the morning & evening this will cure
the disease.
2.
Eye diseases
Khakra root extract
Essence through distillation & pour 2
drops in eyes. It with check the water
Kand
use
27
flow from eyes & will boost eye sight.
3.
Tooth Ache
Mirchia Kand
Keep a small picec of Mirchia Kand
under teeth
4.
Fever
Nami leaves
5 gm Powder of Nami leaves should be
taken with luke warm water in case of
fever
5.
Loose
Motion
Ajmod 1 gm
Prepare powder & use with curd one
spoon in the morning & evening.
Moch Ras 1 gm
Adrak 1 gm
Dhay Ke Phool 1 gm
6.
Kanth Mala
Kalihari Ki Root
Apply this Root by making a paste in
Cow-Urine
7.
Stomach-ache Badi Harad 1 gm
Grind all ingredients & prepare pills. Use
one pill each in the morning & evening
with water.
Amaltaas 1 g
Sochar Salt ½ gm
List of Medicinal plants found in the project area which are being used by guni
and local community for primary health care is as follows
S. No.
Botanical Name
Local Name
Disease in which used
1.
Pterocarpus marsupium
Vijaisar
Manorrhagia, Diabetes (Bark)
2.
Alistonia scholaris
Saptaparni
High blood pressure, fever (Leaves)
3.
Artocarpus heters
Kathal
Diarrhoea (Root), Laxative (fruit)
4.
Butea monosperma
Khakhara
Leucorrhoea (Flowers)
5.
Stereospermum spp.
Padhal
Tonic (Root)
6.
Mangifera indica
Aam
Dysentery (Bark)
7
Mimusops etengi
Molshree
Dysentry (fruits)
28
8.
Acacia catechu
Kher
Manorrhagia (Bark)
9.
Ficus religiosa
Peepal
Gonorrhoea (Bark)
10.
Dalbergia sisso
Shishum
Irregular menstruation (Leaves)
11.
Acacia leucophloea
Safed Kher
Menorrhagia (Bark)
12.
Ficus racemosus
Vat vraksha
Rheumatism (Milky Juice)
Durva
Irregular menstruation (Leaves)
Dabgas
Dysentry, menorrhagia (Culms)
13.
14.
Cynodon dactylon
Desmostachya bipinnata
15.
Acacia leucophloea
Safed Kher
Menorrhagia (Bark)
16.
Ficus arnottiana
Paras peepal
Skin diseases (Leaves, bark)
17.
Calotropis procera
Safed aak
Asthma (Root), Cough (Flowers)
18.
Acacia catechu
Kher
Manorrhagia (Bark)
19.
Achyranthes aspera
Apamarg
Cough, Asthma
20
Ficus bengatensiss
Vat vraksha
Gunorrhoea (Root fibres)
21.
Butea monosperma
Khakara
Leucorrhoea (Flowers)
22.
Abrus precatorius var.nigra
23.
Abrus precatorius var.alba
24.
Celastrus paniculata
25.
Tylophora asthmatica
26.
Argyreia speciosa
27.
Clitoria ternata
28.
Mucuna preuriens
29.
Caesalpinia bonduc
30.
Jatropa curcas
Rakta Gunja
Swet gunja
Malkangni
Dama bel
Tamra bel
Aparajita
Konch
Katkaranj
Ratanjot
Mouth sores (Leaves)
Mouth sores (Leaves)
Rheumatism (Seeds)
Asthma (Leaves)
External tumar (Leaves)
Constipation (Seeds)
Impotency (Seeds)
Fever (Seeds, Leaves)
Constipation (Seeds), Wound healing
(Latex)
29
31.
Acacia sinnuta
32.
Euphorbia nerifolia
33.
Aloe barbadensis
34.
Aegle marmelos
35.
Nyctantnes arbotristis
36.
Majorina hortensis
37.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Shikakai
Snuhi
Gwarpatha
Bilb
Harshringar
Murwa
Gudhal
Hair loss (Pods)
Piles (Latex)
Constipation, irreg. Menstruation
Diarrhoea, Leucorrhoea (Fruit pulp)
Psitica (Bark) fever (Leaves)
Colic, Liver tonic (Leaves)
Irreg, menstruation (Flower)
Conclusion
Unfortunately, the Tribal’s in Kumbhalgarh are struggling to make both ends meet. Displaced from their
natural forest habitats, their economic, social and psychological poverty is steadily increasing. At one end
of spectrum, are those very few people who are completely dependent on the forests which are depleting
day by day, yet are closely linked to every aspect of their lives. At the other end of the spectrum, are those
tribal are displaced completely from the forest, whose modern lifestyle mirrors many of the problems of
our age. As opportunities in mainstream society are limited, these people suffer from all the illness of the
very poor. In addition, they suffer from social discrimination. Through interaction with other groups in
society, they may follow a more clinical/ biomedical model of health and disease and accept other
systems of medicine.
Majority of the tribal people lay somewhere in between these two poles and are struggling to make both
ends meet. Displaced from their natural forest habitats, their economic, social and psychological poverty
is steadily increasing.
30
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