Lesson 10 - BGRS - Engaging Students

```Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10
Multiplication
Museums
In 1907 three brothers from a farm in central
Alberta found a way to make history in
Brothers creating the first flying machine so
they decided to make their own. John
Underwood was the first man in Canada to
be lifted into the air by an aircraft.
The Alberta Aviation Museum has an
exhibit that details the contributions of the
Underwood brothers to the history of aviation
in Alberta. These early pioneers and others can
be studied there along with many aircraft.
The 5th grade class at Mountain Spring Elementary School is going on a
field trip to the Alberta Aviation Museum. They have 58 students that will
go on the trip. The admission for each student is \$5.
To find the amount they will pay for the students to enter the museum
you need to multiply 58 students by 5 dollars.
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Reflection
How do you multiply a two-digit number by a
one-digit number?
Objectives for this Lesson
In this lesson you will explore the following concepts:
• Multiply 2-digit by 2-digit numbers
• Solve 2-digit multiplication problems
Go online to complete the Concept Capsule: Understanding
Distributive Property Using Base 10 Blocks.
Multiplying 3-Digit Numbers by 1-Digit Numbers
You should remember that multiplying three digits by a number from 1
through 9 may be done using many methods. Here is a quick review of a
couple of those methods that may help you as we move on to more
challenging problems.
Distributive Property
The distributive property makes multiplying large numbers a bit easier
for you. It involves breaking down your two or three digit number into
expanded notation based on place value. This helps you to keep the value
of each place as it should be. The concept is the same for both examples.
There are two different ways to organize your work.
1-106
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Example 1
Multiply 234 x 8
Write 234 in expanded notation:
200 + 30 + 4
Multiply each term by 8:
(200 x 8) + (30 x 8) + (4 x 8)
1 600 + 240 + 32
1 872
Example 2
Multiply 315 x 6
Line up the ones digits to multiply:
315
6
30
60
+ 1 800
1 890
x
6x5
6 x 10
6 x 300
315 x 6 = 1 890
Notice that the second example uses the same concept as the first. The
difference is how it is organized.
Multiplication by Carrying
Another way to multiply is by using an old method in which you carry
over place values. You simply line up the place values of the numbers and
multiply going down.
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Example 3
Multiply 24 x 3
Remember, line up the ones and use basic facts.
First:
Multiply 3 x 4. Since the answer is 12 you will need to carry the 1 to above the tens digit.
1
24
x3
2
Next:
Multiply 3 times the 2 in the tens
digit. You will get 6 but you must
ADD the 1 that you carried.
1
24
x3
72
24 x 3 = 72
Multiply. Use estimation to check.
a. 24 x 5
b. 87 x 4
c. 124 x 6
Solutions
a. 120
b. 348
c. 744
Multiplying 2-Digits by 2-Digits
This goes way beyond multiplying by one digit. The distributive method
using place value is a very important part of any multiplication problem.
1-108
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Let’s Explore
Exploration 1: Using Array Models
Materials: Unit 1, Lesson 10, Exploration 1 page from your Workbook, Pencil
The problem 18 x 12 can be modeled in this manner:
18 = 10 + 8
10
8
10 x 10
8 x 10
10
10 x 2
8x2
2
12 = 10 + 2
This models:
18 x 12 = (10 x 10) + (8 x 10) + (10 x 2) + (8 x 2)
Multiply the problem in each box:
10
8
100
80
10
20
16
2
Add the numbers in each box to get the product:
100 + 80 + 20 + 16 = 216
18 x 12 = 216
For 1 – 3: Write the distributive property for the multiplication model.
1. ___________ + ___________ + ___________ + ___________
20 x 10
6 x 10
20 x 3
6x3
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
2. ___________ + ___________ + ___________ + ___________
30 x 20
5 x 20
30 x 4
5x4
3. ___________ + ___________ + ___________ + ___________
80 x 40
7 x 40
80 x 3
7x3
For 4 – 5: Model each product and find the answer.
4. 54 x 48 5. 74 x 32
6. Write your own multiplication problem of two digit numbers. Model the
Using the Distributive Property
The distributive property can be used to multiply two digit numbers. Here
is an example.
Example 4
Multiply 54 x 27 and check by estimation.
Another way of organizing:
1. M
ultiply the ones and write your
2. M
ultiply the ones from the bottom
number to the tens of the top and
7 x 50
20 x 50
54
x 27
28
350
80
1 000
1 458
3. M
ultiply the tens from the bottom
number to the ones of the top and write your answer down.
1-110
7x4
20 x 4
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Check: Estimate the solution using compatible numbers: 50 x 30 = 1 500.
Decide if your answer is reasonable by comparing it to the estimate.
54 x 27 = 1 458
You can also use the carrying method to multiply two digit numbers.
Example 5
Multiply 25 x 14
25
x 14
Line up the place values to begin:
Multiply the ones place of each number. In this case 4 x 5:
Carry the 2 from
5 x 4 = 20
2
25
x 14
0
The 0 from 5 x 4 = 20
goes here
ultiply the ones of the second number by the tens of the first
M
number. In this case 4 x 2:
2
After 4 x 2 = 8
the 2 you carried
25
x 14
100
Cross out the 2 once you have added it.
Multiply the tens of the second number by the ones of the first:
2
1 x 5 goes in front
of place holder
25
x 14
100
50
0 is a place holder
The place holder holds the ones place because here you are actually
multiplying 10 x 5 since the value of the 1 in 14 is 10.
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Multiply 1 times 2 – put in front of the 50:
2
25
x 14
100
250
2
25
Add 100 + 250: x 14
100
+ 250
350
This method all depends on keeping place values of each number in the
same column. You could turn a piece of notebook paper sideways and use
the columns rather than the lines to work your problem:
hundreds
tens
ones
2
25
x 14
100
250
350
Example 6
Multiply 86 x 42. Estimate to check your solution.
1-112
21
86
x 42
172
3 440
3 612
Line it up and multiply:
heck: If you estimate, the solution is 90 x 40 = 3 600 using compatible
C
numbers. The answer is reasonable since it is so close to the estimate.
86 x 42 = 3 612
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Another way to look at this method:
2 x 86 = 172 and 40 x 86 = 3 440.
These are the two numbers you get when you use the carrying method.
You are really using distributive property: 86 x (40 + 2). So no matter
what method you use it all goes back to that concept.
Practice these methods to determine which one works for you. The main
thing is to be comfortable with the method you are using and to eliminate
careless errors.
Multiply. Estimate to check the solution.
a. 35 x 12
b. 49 x 11
c. 67 x 12
Solution
a. 420
b. 539
c. 804
Lattice Multiplication
Another method for multiplying is called lattice multiplication. If you
remember pictures better than words, you will like this method. Before
you begin you need to practice writing answers to simple problems in a
different form.
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Write 2 x 9 = 18 in lattice form:
2
1
9
8
Notice that the 2 and the 9 are outside the box.
The 1 for the tens place is in the top part of the
divided box. The 8 for the ones is in the bottom.
3 x 7 = 214 x 5 = 201 x 7 = 7
3
4
2
1
2
1
7
0
5
0
7
7
Notice the 0 in the tens for 1 x 7. That will be important.
Now, how does this apply to 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication?
Here is an example:
Example 7
Multiply 42 x 15
1. Set up your lattice with the 42 along the top and 15 down the right side:
2. Multiply each part as shown:
4
2
0
4
4
1
5
1-114
2
0
4
0
4
2
1
5
4
2
0
0
4
2
0
2
1
5
2
0
0
4
2
2
1
0
0
1
5
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Notice that the products are being placed as we did with our smaller ones
earlier. The tens digits are on top of the diagonal and the ones digits are
on the bottom.
3. Now take the final lattice and add the diagonals in this order:
Diagonal 1
4
Diagonal 2
2
0
4
0
4
2
1
2
2
2
0+4+2=6
0
3
0
5
0
4
2 1
1
0
Diagonal 4
0
4
2
1
2+1+0=3
2
0
1
0
Diagonal 3
4
0
4
0
0
0
1
5
0
2
5
0
0
2
0
4
0
1
1
2
0
6
2
3
0 5
0
4.Now simply gather the digits from top left side to bottom right side of
4
2
0
0
1
0
4
2
1
2
5
6
0
0
3
Math 5
42 x 15 = 630
Leave off the 0 that is in
the first position.
0
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Example 8
Estimate using compensation first:
50 x 50 = 2 500
Using lattice multiplication:
4
2
4
2
3
0
1
5
2
2
9
7
1
5
3
1
Based on our estimate of 2 500, our answer 2 491 is reasonable.
47 x 53 = 2 491
What if the sum of a diagonal is larger than 9? Simply carry the tens digit
to the next diagonal to the left.
Example 9
Multiply 84 x 62. Estimate your solutions.
An estimate is 80 x 60 = 4 800
5
1 + 2 + 8 + 1 = 12
2
4 + 0 + 6 = 10
1-116
4
1
2
8
1
4
8
1
4
0
6
0
8
6
2
8
Notice that the 1s were carried to the next diagonal.
84 x 62 = 5 208
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Let’s Practice
• In your Workbook go to Unit 1, Lesson 10 and complete 1 to 25.
Problem Solving
Once you know how to multiply two digit numbers you are ready to solve
problems involving multiplication. Here are some clue words you can look
for in problems involving multiplication:
in all
per
product
of times
each
every
Example 10
Write a number sentence for the following problem. Solve.
Alyssa and Zach are planting trees for an environmental service project.
They planted 12 rows of trees with 18 trees in each row. How many trees
did they plant in all?
What is the question?
How many trees did they plant?
What do you know?
They planted 12 rows with 18 in each.
Write a number sentence:
12 x 18
Solve
1
18
x 12
36
+ 180
216
Check: Estimate by compatible numbers 20 x 10 = 200 so 216 is reasonable.
State the solution: Alyssa and Zach planted 216 trees.
Math 5
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Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Example 11
Write a number sentence for the following problem. Solve.
The new middle school has 84 classrooms. There are 24 brand new desks
per classroom. How many students in total can be seated in the new
classrooms at one time?
What is the question? How many seats are in the classrooms?
What do you know? 24 seats per room for 84 classrooms.
Write a number sentence: 84 x 24
Solve
84
24
16
320
80
+ 1 600
2 016
x
1-118
4x4
4 x 80
20 x 4
20 x 80
Check: Estimate by compatible numbers 80 x 20 = 1 600
State the solution: 2 016 students can be seated in the new
classrooms at one time.
Math 5
Unit 1
Lesson 10: Multiplication
Let’s Practice
• In your Workbook go to Unit 1, Lesson 10 and complete 26 to 31.
Go online to watch the Notepad Tutor:
Multiplication with Decimals (1-Digit Whole Number Multiplier).
Math 5
1-119
Math 5
Unit 1
1-120
Lesson 10: Multiplication
```