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CDU HARVARD STYLE GUIDE
CDU Harvard
Referencing Style Guide
(Updated August 2013)
Charles Darwin University
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CDU HARVARD STYLE GUIDE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 1 ................................................................................................................................................................. 4
general guidelines .............................................................................................................................................. 4
Secondary citation.............................................................................................................................................. 5
Section 2 Books ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
eBook ................................................................................................................................................................. 5
a book with one author ....................................................................................................................................... 5
a book by two or three authors ........................................................................................................................... 6
a book by four or more authors .......................................................................................................................... 6
a book or work by an association or institution ................................................................................................. 7
an edited book .................................................................................................................................................... 7
a chapter in an edited book ................................................................................................................................ 7
Section 3 Conference papers .................................................................................................................................. 8
individual published paper ................................................................................................................................. 8
unpublished paper .............................................................................................................................................. 8
Section 4 Dictionary ............................................................................................................................................... 9
Section 5 Encyclopaedia ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Section 6 Government publications ........................................................................................................................ 9
produced by a government agency..................................................................................................................... 9
produced by a government agency, with personal author/s acknowledged ..................................................... 10
report known by the name of the chairman or person responsible for the inquiry ........................................... 10
report known by its title rather than by its authors ........................................................................................... 10
Section 7 Images or Artworks .............................................................................................................................. 11
image from a book ........................................................................................................................................... 11
image from a website ....................................................................................................................................... 11
artwork you have viewed personally ............................................................................................................... 12
Section 8 Journal articles ...................................................................................................................................... 12
article from a database ..................................................................................................................................... 12
article from a website ....................................................................................................................................... 12
article from a print journal ............................................................................................................................... 13
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Section 9 resources from academic health databases............................................................................................ 13
Section 10 lecture notes/unit readings .................................................................................................................. 14
article from ereserve ........................................................................................................................................ 14
powerpoint slides from learnline module ......................................................................................................... 14
Section 11 Legislation and cases .......................................................................................................................... 14
Acts of parliament ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Bills .................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Cases ................................................................................................................................................................ 14
delegated legislation ........................................................................................................................................ 15
Section 12 Multimedia.......................................................................................................................................... 15
Podcasts ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
youtube/streaming video .................................................................................................................................. 15
Television programs ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Video Recording OR DVD .............................................................................................................................. 16
Section 13 Newspaper articles .............................................................................................................................. 16
from a database ................................................................................................................................................ 16
from a website .................................................................................................................................................. 17
print version ..................................................................................................................................................... 17
no author .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Section 14 Personal Communication (including lecture material, emails) ........................................................... 18
Section 15 standards ............................................................................................................................................. 18
Section 16 Statistics from the ABS....................................................................................................................... 18
Section 17 Theses ................................................................................................................................................. 19
print version ..................................................................................................................................................... 19
online version ................................................................................................................................................... 19
Section 18 Websites.............................................................................................................................................. 19
site as a whole .................................................................................................................................................. 19
individual website pages or documents ........................................................................................................... 20
individual webpage-no author .......................................................................................................................... 20
Section 19 Common Abbreviation ....................................................................................................................... 20
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Section 1
GENERAL GUIDELINES
The Harvard Style is an author-date style. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the
publication, sometimes with added information such as page numbers. There is no definitive guide to Harvard
referencing so ensure you are consistently using the examples provided in this guide.

Your references should appear at the end of your essay/report with entries listed alphabetically
by author (or by title if there is no author).

Before you write your list of references/bibliography check with your lecturer/tutor for the
bibliographic style they prefer.

An ampersand (&) is used to connect authors’ names within brackets, but not when they
appear as part of a sentence.

When using a direct quote from the text, or paraphrasing a specific section of the text, you
must include page numbers (where available) in your in text citation

When citing in text more than one publication at a time it is recommended that the authors’
names are ordered alphabetically inside the brackets. Use a semicolon (;) to separate the works
cited inside the brackets.

For four or more authors, et al. (meaning “and others”) may be used in place of additional
authors’ names in the text of your essay, but all the names must be written in the reference
citation list.

When two or more references by the same author in the same year are used, letters should be
used in the in text citation and reference list to indicate which publication is being referred to,
e.g. (Smith 2010a; Smith 2010b).

If a journal article is located using Summon, the database that holds the journal article should be
referenced rather than Summon (Summon is a search tool, not a database).
If you are using EndNote software to manage your references you will be advised throughout the text
of the recommended EndNote ref type. Also ensure you have downloaded and selected the CDUHarvard style from the EndNote LibGuide http://libguides.cdu.edu.au/endnote
Here are some basic examples of CDU Harvard author-date style. More detailed examples are included
throughout this guide, but where no exact example is provided then these general principles should be
followed.
Book:
author date
book title
publisher
place of publication
Gimenez, J 2007, Writing for nursing and midwifery students, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke UK.
Journal article:
authors
date
journal article title
journal title
Robinson, N & Lorenc, A 2011, 'Traditional and complementary approaches to child health', Nursing Standard,
vol. 25, no. 38, pp. 39-47, viewed 13 July 2011, via CINAHL.
volume
issue pages
Charles Darwin University
date viewed
database
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Web page:
editors
date
web page title
edition
publisher
Scollo, MM & Winstanley, MH (eds.) 2008, Tobacco in Australia: facts and issues, 3rd edn, Cancer Council
Victoria, Melbourne, viewed 13 July 2011, <http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au>.
place of publication
date viewed
web page URL
Examples are also provided in this guide for in text citations. You will sometimes have to use your own
discretion to correctly include referencing information while also writing clearly.
SECONDARY CITATION
If you wish to cite from a work quoted in another source, you need to give the details of the source that you
found the reference in.
e.g. Chu, according to Burgmann (1998, p. 17), found ....
or
“correct referencing is critical to academic success” (Chu, as cited in Burgmann 1998, p. 17)
The reference list would then only refer to Burgmann's publication:
Burgmann, P 1998, 'Referencing: a critical issue facing students today', Journal of Academic Writing, vol.
3, no. 27, pp. 18-9, viewed 22 July 2009, via Business Source Premier.
Section 2 BOOKS
EBOOK
IN TEXT CITATION:
Van Der Maarel (2012) suggests ...
or
According to Smith (2007, p. 98), “a soft liver suggests extrahepatic obstruction, a firm liver, cirrhosis, and a
very hard or nodular liver, cancer”.
REFERENCE LIST:
Smith, DS 2007, Field guide to bedside diagnosis, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, viewed 28 July 2010, via EBL
eBooks.
Van Der Maarel, E 2012, Vegetation Ecology, e-book, viewed 25 February 2013,
<http://cdu.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1120628>.
Note: Use URL instead of eBook collection name as required.
EndNote Ref Type; use electronic book
A BOOK WITH ONE AUTH OR
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IN TEXT CITATION:
Mikolaj (2005) examines the phenomena of stress and critical incident stress in the emergency services
professions.
Environmental and personality stressors are identified as contributing to stress levels in emergency services
professionals (Mikolaj 2005).
Mikolaj (2005, p. 47) states that; “Simply being exposed to a traumatic event is not enough to trigger PTSD”.
According to Mikolaj (2005, p. 47) it takes more than just witnessing an event to develop PTSD.
Note: when using a direct quote from the text, or paraphrasing a specific section of the text, you must
include page numbers in your citation as shown above.
REFERENCE LIST:
Mikolaj, AA 2005, Stress management for the emergency care provider, 3rd edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River NJ.
EndNote Ref Type; use Book
A BOOK BY TWO OR THREE AUTHORS
IN TEXT CITATION:
White and Perrone (1997) describe the ways in which society responds to crime in the Australian context.
There are many ways in which crime is dealt with in society including formal and informal methods (White &
Perrone 1997).
Note: An ampersand (&) is used to connect authors’ names within brackets, but not when they appear as
part of a sentence.
REFERENCE LIST:
White, R & Perrone, S 1997, Crime and social control: an introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
EndNote Ref Type; use Book
A BOOK BY FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS
IN TEXT CITATION:
The authors make the distinction between backward and advanced economies or between traditional and
modern ones (Gillis et al. 1987).
Note: et al. (and others) may be used in place of additional authors’ names in the text of your essay, but
all the names must be written in the reference citation list.
REFERENCE LIST:
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Gillis, M, Perkins, D, Roemer, M & Snodgrass, D 1987, Economics of development, 2nd edn, WW Norton &
Company, New York.
EndNote Ref Type; use Book
A BOOK OR WORK BY AN ASSOCIATION OR INSTI TUTION
IN TEXT CITATION:
Chapter 5 discusses the nature of a workable global emissions trading system (Department of the Prime
Minister and Cabinet 2007).
REFERENCE LIST:
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2007, Report of the task group on emissions trading, D.P.M.C.,
Canberra.
EndNote Ref Type; use Report
AN EDITED BOOK
An edited book is a collection of individual sections (chapters) that have been written by several different
authors. The editor’s role in this type of book is to collect the chapters together to fit a theme or topic.
IN TEXT CITATION:
The volume edited by Swingland (2003) includes chapters examining the concept of capturing carbon and
conserving biodiversity.
REFERENCE LIST:
Swingland, IR (ed.) 2003, Capturing carbon and conserving biodiversity: the market approach, Earthscan
Publications, London.
Markandya, A & Halsnaes, K (eds.) 2002, Climate change and sustainable development: prospects for
developing countries, Earthscan Publications, London.
EndNote Ref Type; use Edited Book
A CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
IN TEXT CITATION:
Hannah (2002) examines the significance of education and training in the lives of refugees.
"When a country is moving from war to peace, demobilization and reintegration issues should be addressed at
the earliest stages of the peace negotiation process" (Colletta, Kostna & Wiederhofer 2004, p. 171).
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REFERENCE LIST:
Hannah, J 2002, ‘Education, training and adult refugees in the UK and Australia’, in J Field and M Leicester
(eds.), Lifelong learning; education across the lifespan, Routledge Falmer, London.
Colletta, J, Kostna, M & Wiederhofer, I 2004, 'Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration; Lessons and
liabilities in reconstruction', in R Rotberg (ed.), When states fail: causes and consequences, Princeton
University Press, New Jersey.
Note: the initials of the editors can precede their surname, as this is not crucial to the order of the item in
the reference list.
EndNote Ref Type; use Book Section
Section 3 CONFERENCE PAPERS
Note: For published collections of conference papers use the edited book example.
INDIVIDUAL PUBLISHED PAPER
IN TEXT CITATION:
Coates and Hill (1996) address the cost of natural disasters in terms of lives lost from the early 1800s onwards.
REFERENCE LIST:
Coates, L & Hill, P 1996, ‘An overview of fatalities from some natural hazards in Australia’, NDR6 Conference on
natural disaster reduction, Gold Coast, 29 September to 2 October, viewed 22 July 2008, via Informit .
Note: Use URL instead of database name as required.
EndNote Ref Type; use Conference Paper
UNPUBLISHED PAPER
IN TEXT CITATION:
“Developing countries are relying increasingly on leapfrog communication technologies to narrow the gap
between themselves and developed countries” (Banerjee 2007, p. 1).
Note: when using a direct quote from the text you must enclose it with quotation marks “...”. When direct
quoting or paraphrasing a specific section of the text, you must include page numbers in your citation as
shown above.
REFERENCE LIST:
Banerjee, A 2007, ‘Fixed mobile substitution and lessons for broadband’, paper presented to the ACCC 2007
Regulatory Conference, Queensland, 26 to 27 July.
EndNote Ref Type; use Conference Paper
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Section 4 DICTIONARY
IN TEXT CITATION:
The Macquarie dictionary and thesaurus (1997) defines the term subjudice “as before a judge or court of law;
under judicial consideration”.
or
According to the Oxford dictionary of Islam ‘hijab’ refers to…….
REFERENCE LIST:
‘subjudice’ 1997, Macquarie dictionary and thesaurus, viewed 22 February 2013,
<http://www.macquariedictionary.com.au.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/138.80.128.99@929FF891875534//p/thes/logged_in.html>.
‘hijab’ 2003, Oxford dictionary of Islam, Oxford Reference Online, viewed 15 January 2012.
Section 5 ENCYCLOPAEDIA
IN TEXT CITATION:
Rotgers (2005) discusses RP (Relapse Prevention) strategies in recovering addicts.
or
A number of species of wallabies can be found in the Northern Territory (Encyclopedia of Australian wildlife
1997)
REFERENCE LIST:
Rotgers, F 2005, ‘Relapse prevention’, in A. Freeman (ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive behaviour therapy,
Springer, New York, pp. 327-331.
or
Encyclopedia of Australian wildlife 1997, viewed 20 February 2013,
<http://www.britannica.com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/bps/dictionary?query=wallaby>.
EndNote Ref Type; Book Section
Section 6 GOVERNMENT PUBLICATI ONS
PRODUCED BY A GOVERNMENT AGENCY
IN TEXT CITATION:
“39% of agencies have reported facing at least one challenge in regards to the employment of people with a
disability” (APSC 2006, p. 107).
Note: If you choose to use an abbreviation or acronym of the agency name, you will need a see reference in
your reference list.
Note: when using a direct quote from the text you must enclose it with quotation marks “..”. When direct
quoting or paraphrasing a specific section of the text, you must include page numbers in your citation as
shown above.
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REFERENCE LIST:
APSC – see Australian Public Service Commission
Australian Public Service Commission 2006, State of the service report 2005-06, A.P.S.C., Canberra, viewed 14
July 2010, <http://www.apsc.gov.au/stateoftheservice/0506/report.pdf>.
EndNote Ref Type; use Report
PRODUCED BY A GOVERN MENT AGENCY, WITH PE RSONAL AUTHOR/S ACKNOWLEDGED
IN TEXT CITATION:
This report highlights the public perception towards smoking in the workplace during the years 1985-95 (DHFS
1998).
Note: Your citation refers only to the agency as author. If you choose to use an acronym of the agency name,
you will need a see reference in your reference list.
REFERENCE LIST:
DHFS – see Department of Health and Family Services
Department of Health and Family Services 1998, Public opinion towards drug policies in Australia 1985-95,
prepared by T Makkai & I McAllister, D.H.F.S., Canberra, viewed 14 July 2012,
<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/320B90B7D0B6DB58CA256F1900044D3B/$
File/opinions.pdf>.
Note: The name of the Commonwealth department responsible for health and family services may have
changed since 1998, but the citation details should be those on the title page of the source document.
REPORT KNOWN BY THE NAME OF THE CHAIRMAN OR PERSON RESPONSIBL E FOR THE INQUIRY
IN TEXT CITATION:
Not all major recommendations of the Burdekin report (1989) have been implemented by Commonwealth and
State governments.
Note: Include a see reference in your reference list, in addition to the main entry.
REFERENCE LIST:
Burdekin report – see Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1989).
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 1989, Our homeless children: report of the national inquiry
into homeless children, (Brian Burdekin, chairman), AGPS, Canberra.
REPORT KNOWN BY ITS TITLE RATHER THAN BY ITS AUTHORS
IN TEXT CITATION:
The Little children are sacred (2007) report made several important points……
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REFERENCE LIST:
Chief Minister's Department, Rex Wild QC & Patricia Anderson 2007, Report of the Northern Territory board of
inquiry in to the protection of Aboriginal children from sexual abuse 2007, "Little children are sacred", Northern
Territory Government, Darwin.
Little children are sacred report – see Chief Minister's Department, Rex Wild QC & Patricia Anderson (2007).
EndNote Ref Type; use Report
Section 7 IMAGES OR ARTWORKS
IMAGE FROM A BOOK
IN TEXT CITATION:
The relationship of language to country is clearly represented in the photograph Kalkatungu Country,
Queensland (Robb, n.d.)
or
Donatello’s bronze rendering of David can be viewed on the website of the Bargello Museum (2009).
REFERENCE LIST:
Robb, J. (n.d.). Kalkatungu Country, Queensland, photograph in D Nathan (Ed.). (1996). Australia’s indigenous
languages, Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia, Wayville.
EndNote Ref Type; use Brochure
or
Bargello Museum, David, Florence, Italy, viewed 16 January 2009,
<http://www.firenzemusei.it/00_english/img/bargello/davdona.jpg>
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Source/Web Page
IMAGE FROM A WEBSITE
IN TEXT CITATION:
The image of the rash (Scarlet fever rash picture, n.d.)…..
or
The image depicts the latest design used by Pepsi (Pepsi, 2009).
REFERENCE LIST:
Scarlet fever rash picture, digital image, (n.d.), viewed 12 January 2013,
<http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dermatlas/scarletfever.html>.
or
Pepsi can designs, 2010, digital image, viewed 19 June 2012,
<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm#sthash.XhY2GPc9.dpuf>.
Note: The original source of the image should be referenced rather than the search tool (e.g. Google
Images) used to find the image.
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Source/Web Page
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ARTWORK YOU HAVE VIEWED PERSONALLY
Note: If you have viewed the original artwork, for consistency, you may choose to model your reference on
these examples.
IN TEXT CITATION:
A comparison of Sacred Grasses (Petyarre 1989) and David (Donatello 1430) shows that …
REFERENCE LIST:
Donato di Niccolô di Betto Bardi (Donatello), 1430, David, sculpture, Bargello Museum, Florence, Italy.
Petyarre, AB 1989, Sacred Grasses, painting, Australian National Gallery.
EndNote Ref Type; use Artwork
Section 8 JOURNAL ARTICLES
Journal articles can be found on the web, in subscription access databases and within a printed and bound
issue of a journal. References to articles found via the web and databases include extra details to make
locating them easier.
ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE
Note: If a journal article is located using Summon, the database that holds the journal article should be
referenced rather than Summon (Summon is a search tool, not a database).
IN TEXT CITATION:
The author argues that liberal institutions (freedom of speech or religious worship) will naturally be supported
by liberals, and then poses the question; what arguments can be addressed to non-liberals? (Barry 1990).
or
Fulk et al. (1987) describe the current policies related to media use in organizations.
REFERENCE LIST:
Barry, B 1990, ‘How not to defend liberal institutions’, British Journal of Political Science, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 114, viewed 30 October 2007, via JSTOR.
or
Fulk, J, Steinfeld, C, Schmitz, J & Power, J 1987, ‘A social information processing model of media use in
organizations’, Communication Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 529-552, viewed 30 December 2007, via Sage
Journals Online.
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Article
ARTICLE FROM A WEBSI TE
IN TEXT CITATION:
The author outlines the difference between the MICE sector in tourism, in that business communication, not
leisure is the underlying motivation (Johnson 1999, p. 11).
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or
A discussion on the parallel levels of development in both the evolving information horizon and the human
being provides background material (Kari 2006).
REFERENCE LIST:
Johnson, L 1999, ‘MICE, size of the meeting sector’, Journal of the Bureau of Tourism Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.
9-18, viewed 30 October 2007,
<http://www.tra.australia.com/content/documents/FREE%20TRR/TRR%20Vol%201%20no%201.pdf>.
or
Kari, J 2006, ‘Evolutionary information seeking: A case study of personal development and Internet searching’,
First Monday, vol. 11, no. 1, viewed 15 November 2007,
<http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_1/kari/index.htm>.
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Article
ARTICLE FROM A PRINT JOURNAL
For example, bound journals located on Library shelves
IN TEXT CITATION:
Sansom (2006, p.85) establishes that Herbert’s authorial practice makes him the very semblance of an
anthropologist. He likewise is a looter of the Dreamings.
Note: When using a direct quote from the text, or paraphrasing a specific section of the text, you must
include page numbers in your citation.
REFERENCE LIST:
Sansom, B 2006, ‘Looter of the dreamings: Xavier Herbert and the taking of Kaijek’s newsong story’, Oceania,
vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 83-104.
Note: Capitalise only the first word of the article title and subtitle.
EndNote Ref Type; use Journal Article
Section 9 RESOURCES FROM ACADEMIC HEALTH DATABASES
Such as systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library, evidence summaries from the Joanna Briggs Institute,
or patient education sheets from the Nursing Reference Center.
IN TEXT CITATION:
The patient’s bedding and clothing should be decontaminated for 72 hours (Joanna Briggs Institute 2009).
REFERENCE LIST:
Joanna Briggs Institute 2009, ‘Scabies management’, Evidence Based Recommended Practice, viewed 30
October 2010, via Joanna Briggs Institute.
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Section 10 LECTURE NOTES/UNIT R EADINGS
ARTICLE FROM ERESERVE
IN TEXT CITATION:
Bryce (1998) discusses bereavement, loss and mourning….
REFERENCE LIST:
Pitt, Bryce 1998, Coping with loss: loss in late life. British Medical Journal, 316(7142), pp. 1452-1454, viewed 16
January 2012, <http://ereadings.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:22104>.
POWERPOINT SLIDES FROM LEARNLINE MODULE
IN TEXT CITATION:
Bed-sharing in relation to breastfeeding is considered to be a controversial topic amongst some parents
(Johnson 2012)
REFERENCE LIST:
Johnson, A 2012, Week three: Breastfeeding, PowerPoint slides, retrieved from HEA441, Charles Darwin
University Blackboard Online, <http://ereadings.cdu.edu.au/view/cdu:21240>.
Section 11 LEGISLATION AND CASE S
Note: AGLC is the approved style for those studying Law subjects. Do not use CDU Harvard.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
IN TEXT CITATION:
(National Health and Medical Research Council Act 1992 (Cth) s 3)
REFERENCE LIST:
National Health and Medical Research Council Act 1992 (Cth)
BILLS
IN TEXT CITATION:
(Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority Bill 2012 (NT) cl 3)
REFERENCE LIST:
Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority Bill 2012 (NT)
CASES
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IN TEXT CITATION:
Include the name of the case and reference details
(Mabo and others v Queensland (no.2) (1992) 175 CLR 1)
REFERENCE LIST:
(Mabo and others v Queensland (no.2) (1992) 175 CLR 1)
DELEGATED LEGISLATION
IN TEXT CITATION:
(Health and Community Services Complaints Regulations 1998 (NT) reg 6)
REFERENCE LIST:
Health and Community Services Complaints Regulations 1998 (NT)
Note: Even if viewed electronically, legislation is generally referenced as if in print (unless only available
electronically).
Legislation and legal authorities:
Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of the work (preferably
in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation').
The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to
suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.
Legal authorities (cases) are only included in a list of references if they are important to the understanding of
the work under the subheading 'Legal authorities'.
Legislation viewed in an annotated legislation textbook is cited in Legislation format, not Book format, unless
referring to the editorial commentary/analysis, rather than the legislative provision.
Section 12 MULTIMEDIA
PODCASTS
IN TEXT CITATION:
The great train show (2008) provides fascinating details of some great train journeys.
REFERENCE LIST:
ABC Local Radio 2008, The great train show, episode 1, podcast, ABC Local Radio Victoria, 4 April 2008,
<http://www.abc.net.au/backyard/greattrainshow/podcast.xml>.
EndNote Ref Type: use Film or Broadcast
YOUTUBE/STREAMING VIDEO
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IN TEXT CITATION:
The group set up a YouTube Channel (Monty Python’s Channel 2008) which contains a selection…..
or
Fukuyama (2006) demonstrates the use of various pieces of equipment for interval training.
REFERENCE LIST:
Monty Python’s Channel 2008, YouTube, viewed 29 September 2010,
<http://www.youtube.com/user/MontyPython>.
or
Fukuyama, M 2006), Done in 30 minutes, streaming video, viewed 6 April 2011,
<http://spex.alexanderstreet.com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/View/1826235/>.
TELEVISION PROGRAMS
IN TEXT CITATION:
The ABC Four corners interview with Lance Armstrong……..(ABC Television, 2013).
REFERENCE LIST:
Lance and the truth: Four corners 2013, television program, ABC, 4 February, viewed 20 February 2013,
<http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2013/02/04/3680186.htm>.
Note: A performer or presenter is only given principal credit if they are the focus of the recording.
EndNote Ref Type: use Film or Broadcast. Please include episode AND series title in the TITLE field to
ensure title of episode and series is included in your reference.
VIDEO RECORDING OR D VD
IN TEXT CITATION:
The filming in The secret life of plants (1995) has set a new benchmark in quality for nature shows.
REFERENCE LIST:
The secret life of plants 1995, video recording, BBC, UK.
EndNote Ref Type: use Film or Broadcast. Please include episode AND series title in the TITLE field to
ensure title of episode and series is included in your reference.
Section 13 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
FROM A DATABASE
IN TEXT CITATION:
“Start next week” is an innovative new service for booking and buying training courses online, reports Josh
Robertson (2007).
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REFERENCE LIST:
Robertson, J 2007, ‘Online boost for training options’, The Courier Mail, 22 October, viewed 14 December 2007
via Newsbank.
Note: A wire service agency, such as AAP or Reuters, for the purposes of referencing should be treated as an
author.
EndNote Ref Type; use Newspaper Article
FROM A WEBSITE
IN TEXT CITATION:
….four cars had their windows smashed (Adlam 2010) ….
or
..some may question police powers to stop and search (AAP 2011)
REFERENCE LIST:
Adlam, N 2010, 'Crime rampage in blacked out city ', NT News, 29 July, viewed 29 July 2010,
<http://www.ntnews.com.au/article/2010/07/29/167891_ntnews.html>.
or
AAP, 2011, “Bikie accused of having Bond-like gun’, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 March, viewed 4 March 2011,
<http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/bikie-accused-of-having-bondlike-gun-20110304-1bha1.html>.
Note: A wire service agency, such as AAP or Reuters, for the purposes of referencing should be treated as an
author.
EndNote Ref Type; use Newspaper Article
PRINT VERSION
IN TEXT CITATION:
Delaney and Vara (2007, p. 40) report on the introduction of Google’s “My Stuff” and its implications for home
computer needs into the future.
REFERENCE LIST:
Delaney, K & Vara, V 2007, ‘Google to peddle free parking for your computer files’, The Australian, November
28, p. 40.
Note: A wire service agency, such as AAP or Reuters, for the purposes of referencing should be treated as an
author.
EndNote Ref Type; use Newspaper Article
NO AUTHOR
IN TEXT CITATION:
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The Royal Life Saving Society – Australia will be working with a number of remote communities (‘Govt splashes
cash on remote NT pools’ 2011, p. 33).
REFERENCE LIST:
‘Govt splashes cash on remote NT pools’, 2011, The Koori Mail, 9 February, p. 33.
Note: A wire service agency, such as AAP or Reuters, for the purposes of referencing should be treated as an
author.
EndNote Ref Type; use Newspaper Article
Section 14 PERSONAL COMMUNICATION (INCLUDING LECTURE M ATERIAL, EMAILS)
IN TEXT CITATION:
Personal communications include conversations, interviews, lecture material, personal files, telephone
conversations, letters and e-mail messages. These materials are unpublished and are not included in reference
lists or bibliographies. They are not given formal parenthetical references (…) in the text of an essay or
assignment, instead references to this form of material are usually described in the text.
In a telephone conversation with the author on October 12, 2005, Dr J. W. Mueller stated that ...
or
Professor Visser gave his reasons for closing the laboratory in an e-mail message to the author on January 16,
2004. The reasons given were...
REFERENCE LIST:
Do not provide details in reference list.
Section 15 STANDARDS
IN TEXT CITATION:
Standards associated with children’s clothing……(Standards Australia 2007)
REFERENCE LIST:
Standards Australia 2007, Size coding scheme for infants’ and childrens’ clothing-underwear and outwear (AS
1182-1997), SAI Global Limited, viewed 5 October 2010,
<http://www.saiglobal.com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/online/autologin.asp>.
Section 16 STATISTICS FROM THE ABS
IN TEXT CITATION:
The ABS reported in Migration Australia 2005-06, that people born in the United Kingdom accounted for 23%
of all overseas-born persons in Australia's population, followed by New Zealand (10%) and Italy, China and
VietNam (4% each).
Note: If you use the acronym ABS, include a see reference in your reference list.
Charles Darwin University
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REFERENCE LIST
ABS – see Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Migration Australia 2005-06, ABS, Canberra, viewed 15 February 2008,
<http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/E0A79B147EA8E0B5CA2572AC001813E8/$File/34
120_2006-06.pdf>.
Section 17 THESES
PRINT VERSION
IN TEXT CITATION:
Rorrison (2006) examines the central role of the practicum in secondary preservice teacher training.
REFERENCE LIST:
Rorrison, D 2006, Jumping through spinning hoops; chance or a carefully constructed learning journey? A
critical view of learning in the secondary practicum, PhD thesis, Charles Darwin University, Darwin.
EndNote Ref Type; use Thesis
ONLINE VERSION
IN TEXT CITATION:
Campbell (2004) discusses diet as a predictor of obesity in children.
REFERENCE LIST:
Campbell, K 2004, Family food environments as determinants of children's eating: implications for obesity
prevention, PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, viewed 21 February 2008,
<http://tux.lib.deakin.edu.au/adt-VDU/public/adt-VDU20061207.120915/>.
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Thesis
Section 18 WEBSITES
SITE AS A WHOLE
IN TEXT CITATION:
According to the Housing the Territory website (Northern Territory Government 2011) submissions close….
REFERENCE LIST:
Northern Territory Government 2011, Housing the Territory, Department of Housing, Local Government and
Regional Services, viewed 1 December 2011, <http://www.dhlgrs.nt.gov.au>.
Note: the author can be a person or an organisation.
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EndNote Ref Type; Web Page
INDIVIDUAL WEBSITE PAGES OR DOCUMENTS
IN TEXT CITATION:
Finn (2011) discuss the Australian Conservation Foundation vision for a sustainable economic future for
Kakadu.
Note: If you use the acronym ACF in your text, your reference list should provide a see reference.
REFERENCE LIST:
ACF – see Australian Conservation Foundation
Finn, C 2011, Kakadu National Park, Australian Conservation Foundation, Canberra, viewed 30 June 2011,
<http://www.acfonline.org.au/default.asp?section_id=76>.
EndNote Ref Type; use Electronic Source/Web Page
INDIVIDUAL WEBPAGE -NO AUTHOR
IN TEXT CITATION:
(Behaviour modification 2010).
Note: Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
REFERENCE LIST:
Behaviour modification 2010, Mental Disorders Council, viewed 12 October 2011, <http://www.educationalpsychologist.org.uk/behaviour.html>.
Note: When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry.
Section 19 COMMON ABBREVIATION
app.
art.
chap.
div.
ed. or eds.
edn
et al.
n.d.
no. or nos.
n.p.
Charles Darwin University
appendix
article
chapter
division
edited by, editor or editors
edition
and others (Latin et al)
no date
number or numbers
no place
Page 20
p. or pp.
par.
pt.
rev.
sec.
ser.
suppl.
s.v.
trans.
vol.
page or pages
paragraph
part
revised
section
series
supplement
under the word (Latin sub verso)
translator or translators
volume
20/08/2013
`