Larkin R. 1987. Species management plan for Acinonyx jubatus.

Larkin R. 1987. Species management plan for Acinonyx jubatus.
Keywords: 6AU/6NZ/Acinonyx jubatus/captive breeding/cheetah/husbandry/management plan/rearing
Abstract: Species management plan for Acinonyx jubatus of the association of zoo directors of Australia
and New Zealand. First part concerns the biology of the cheetah in the wild: general characteristics,
distribution and habitat, diet, reproductive biology, behavior, growth and development. Second part
concerns the husbandry of captive cheetahs: housing, diets, management of breeding groups, diseases
and medicine. Another part is about the history of captive population in different zoos. Several appendix
show maps of distribution, age in captivity, plans of cheetah breeding areas, feed additives, a cheetah cub
rearing protocol.
SPECIES
MANAGEMENT
PLANFOR
AC/MNI4Lz,AAIZA
(tlons),Dtp.wltd.f,1gt.&Hus.
Comptted
by: Rebecca
LarklnB.v.sc.
Fon Richard
Jakob-Hof
f, 8.Sc.(Hons),8.V.fl.S.
specles
co-o.dlnator
March
1987.
L Secure
unfelatedyoung
temalB- prefenably
three,at leasttwo
- source
southAfrlca
- anlmals
ln whlpsnade
lnbred
and
related
to sorne
of ourstock
-stocksin NorthAmerlca
decllnlng
2.Decide
whether
tnbreedlng
ts to betakenlntoaccount
EITHERall cheetahs
soinbred
already
thatfuftheflnbreedlng
wlll make
nodtfference
_
0R mlnlmlze
furtherinbreedlng
- thesecond
wlll bemoredllflcultto carryoutandmaybe
at tlreerpense
poprllatlon
of anAusra ancapllve
cheetah
3.Assess
breedlng
matagement
attlelbouane
andWelltngton
Zoos.
4 Cafryoutfeftllltyandbreedtnq
soundness
examlna
onsonall male
animals.
ljsethlslnlomatlon
to helodeclde
whtchones
arebestlof
bfeedtng.
5.Become
members
of theNorth
American
Cheelah
Studbook- soon
to belnlemattonal
- Whlpsnade
anddeWlldtalready
members
programme
foathelrSpecies
S!rvival
seeAppendlx
F
6.Strongly
advocate
anyzooscontemplattng
acqulflng
cheelan
to follow
practlses
thebreedlng
rnanagement
plan
recommended
ln thjs
and
bulldsuitable
enclosures.
populations
Emphasls
ot a captive
should
be0nbreedlng,
even
at theexpense
of dlsplay,
!n l optlmum
numbers
iui3oDuclaN
context
lLl Taxanomlc
order :Camlvofa
Famlly:Felldae
6enus iA:hltllx
Specles:lli2atjE
-onlyllvlngmemDer
-tossllrecord
giantcheetah
shows
t\jltldlnqtEEEuropean
Aintermedlus
lnto
Smaller,ranged
Chlna
1.2statusclasslllcatlons
- vulnemble
t.u.c.N.
1.2.\.
V.P.C. - 2
-l
c.t.T.E.s
A,Z,D. - Category
3
- assess
current
breedlng
management
lechnlques
- promote
Austmlasian
cheetah
thedevelopment
of a self-sustaining
ooDulatlon
- cooperatlon
h0ldlng
zooscurrently
belween
thethreeAusralaslan
ol
lnstltutlons
lo facilltatethelmporlation
cheetah
andoversees
anlmals
theuseof breedjng
newstockandmaxlmlse
l.450e.lesCoordlnator
Rlchard
Jakobfoff,8.5c.{Hons),
B.V.l15
Curator
andVeterlfarlan,
plalns
westm
2oo,
P.0Box831,Dubbo,
N.S.W.
2830.
I 0106Y
2 I General
Chzracterlstlcs
Cheetahs
areadapted
to shoflboots
of verylast sprlnthg.
Thelflegsare
longandslender
andthebodyllqhtTheheadls rounded
wlthashofl
muzzle,
tuund
earssetwldelyapaftanddlstlnctlvetearmarks
(thooght
runnlng
fromthemedlal
canthus
of each
eyeto themouth
to
profile
prey).
break
!Dthelrcntal
of thefacewhenwatchlng Theeyes
pupils.
arelarge, deep
setzndbrown
cololred
wllh round
These
are
zll adaptatlons
fora dllmallllestyle,
Theavemge
bodylength
1s1.25
mafdmassbeLween
40-60kg.Thetall,
Used
asa counter
balance
whenturnlng
at speed,
is aboutlm longand
tlpped
whltelhe pattern
of rlngs1ssaldto beantndtvtdual
characterlstlc.
Height
at lheshoulder
ls arolnd80cm,the
hlndquarters
belnglower.
Thepelage
ts coarse,
blackspotsoveflylng
abutf whltebackqrcud,
Theunder-parts,
chestandthaoat
are
whlteCubs
arebornwlththedistlnctlvetearmarks"
andsDols,
blt
growa ll!lly, greymantle
s00n
wnlchrnasks
thespotpattern,
Thls
rendefs
thecubalmostlnvlslble
durlng
thepeflod
wtren
themother
leaves
herlltter to huntAtteraboltthreernonths,
whenlhecubs
begin
to followher,1tslowtytattsout,teavln!ashortmane,The
llne
spottlng
0nthelacecanbeUsed
asana1dto lndlvldual
ldentlficatlOn.
There
arellvedlgltsonthetrontlegsandfourontheback.
Theclawsare
reractlleat blrthbutqutckly
losethlsabtllty,becoming
btunt,hard
anddoq-1lke,
another
zdaptatlon
to cufsofial
locomoflon.
22 Dlstribullon
andHabltat
lhefeareclrrentlythouqht
to beabout10,000
cheetah
left ln Afftca
(PJackson,
paftsol the
1986)Fomeflyran91n9
lromsouthem
contlnent,
eastlhrolqhKenya
anduplntothefllddletast,laanznd
populations
Indla,
thefeafenowonlya lewjsolated
Thelargest
is
1,000ln Namlbla.
Recent
accumte
tntoma onts haad
to obtahas
polltlcal
many
of thecountrles
lnvolved
areexperlencing
famlne,
loheaval
andwarcheetah
arenowpfobably
extlnctln thenorthern
areas
andlewsurvlve
ln theeastandwestexceot
ln oarks
or
reser!es.(see
Appendlx
A mapcurrenlrange).
alsolnl"ab't
e5 ("eetah
Io oep alnssDec
oelle,/eo
Althouon
oeneral'v
woodlands
andd0
IneyDrefer
ooen
arddese't'.lnces
w;oo;d
areas
0ntne
varlesdependlng
denslty
notrelvonsufacewater.Populatlon
estlmated
tnat
lt hasbeen
ol food,eg.htheserengetl
ablnda;ce
whllstln NalroDl
kllometerc,
therels oneanlmal
ier 100-l30square
pafk1tls oneper002square
kllometers'
Natlonal
theslzeof theirpreyIs resrlctedt0
donothuntln packs
Ascheetahs
gazelle,
lmpala'
lnclldeTiomsons
!p to 60kg.These
anlmzls
ol large
andtheyoung
grolndlwjngblrds,smallmammals
reedbuck,
depenos
taken
specles
of each
Thenumbeas
specles
bovldand?ebra
and'lf female,
type,weather
vegetailon
avallabillty,
ontheIocality,
aremostoften
or stragglers
Smallgroups
theraarccubs.
whether
whdn
about
durallon
a sialkof varlable
uslallyfollowing
attacked,
thechosen
sprlntsupto I 10kphtowards
l00mawav,thecheetah
m lf theklll
lor 300-400
quarry.
canonlybemalntalned
Thlsspeed
mustglveup,exhalsted
bythlstlmethecheetah
made
hasn;t been
-pllex
-elaasps
bLllt
debt
a1dt1eo'yoen
t.]iscrase
Thelleerno
DIev
ortt arlmalIfs sby
th.death
.lorstnouoht
tohasten
upor llmpedonthe
haselthertrlpped
aflerthecheetah
a;ohvxlation
lts Jaws
between
theracheaventrally
backof its vlctlmandgrlpped
astheotner
foleln grasplng
anlmportant
Theshamdew-claws
Olay
hear!andllverareeateffjrst, lhe
Themeatol theventmlsufface,
are
outandleft.Thesklnandlargebones
behgdragged
intestlnes
killsarestolenbyother
Is mre,butmany
alsodlscarded.Scavenglng
t0
s€efns
Thecheetah
andvultures.
lncludlng
camlvores
lackals
jnthepredator
hlerafcnt
occoDv
a lowposltlon
i
0r
breeder
is aseasonal
cheetah
thefemale
i snolceftainwhether
and
ls malnlyJune-July
season
breedlng
Dolyoestals.The
Deen
cubshave
although
hernlshere'
ln lhesouthern
De;ember-January
ln
are ract
lhalcheetahs
of theyear'Thlssuggests
bornin all montha
1s
peflods
whenqame
longanoestrous
wlthperhaps
oolvoestrous,
(upto l3 filonths)
Thecycleitselftakes
;c;rceordlflnalactation
l5
onlylastlnga lewdaysovulatlon
oestrus
aboulthreeweaks,
thelossof a lltter
Followlng
le.requiresvaglnalstlmulallon
lnduced
later'
twoto thfeeweeks
backlntooestrus
wlll come
females
welght
lnclude
perlod
of pfegnancy
ls 90-95days.
Slgns
Thegestatlon
glands
and
ol themammary
qaln,abdomlnalenlargemen!,
development
none
or lhesemayDe
flowever
lnfeased
foodconsumptlon,
less1n
lour,usually
Lltlerslzels about
ma|ked.
oartlcularlv
ol
bydetectlon
fnayalsobemade
dlagnosls
capllvltypregnancy
progesterone.
six pairc0l
plasma
There
areusually
lncreased
alenotunknown
addltlonalones
mammae,
although
productive
many
life 1ncapllvlry'
to haveaverylong
Neither
sexseem
fromthewlld From
shoftlyafterthelrcaplure
onlybreedlng
females
(seeAppendlx
8)
declines.
lertlljtyrapldly
flveyears
onwards
2.5Eehaviour
their
thatmnge
ovefa largeareafollowing
aresoljtaryanimals
cheetah
the
aretoolarge,
prey.
asthebofders
Thlsterritoryls noidefended
belween
andsexoverlappin9
locallon
ongeographlcal
sizedependlng
jndlvldual
by
areavolded
butrneetlngs
commonly
occllas,
mnges
sucnas
vlsualspols
Hlehly
wllhscentmarks.
moverirents
advertlslng
loaulnatj0n
lalienlogsandree trunkszaechosen
temltemo0nds,
by
usedandlully lnvestlgated
These
arehaDllually
anddefaecatlon.
fes!ltsin
onarrjvalln theviclnltyThisusually
anycheelah
otherThe
evenlf thetwocatscanseeeach
avoldance
behavloor,
orgroup
lhatindlviduals
ensuing
to lastonly24hours,
scent
appears
mngewlthina slatlc,largerone'
movlng
lmrnedlate
a constanlly
have
bLlttheareaIs large
drlving
of lntruders,
ls notwasted
Thus
energy
s!lflclent9ame.
to supporl
eno!gh
jndependent
slblln!s,
ol lecently
withcubsandsmallQroups
Females
varleswltn
of soclabllty
bli thedeqree
males
areseen,
eoeclaily
a domlnance
develop
of malesln captlvlty
locallty.ofoups
llvlngandhunting
repo s of adullrnales
aresome
hlemrchy.There
though
aremalnly
defenslve,
Intra-spec1f1c
lnteractlons
together,
male
mayflghtoveranoesruslemaleonlythealpha
rlvalmales
bythesmellol herlrlne,although
mates
wlthher.Thevafeattmcted
maft.Themale,llkethedomesllc
to soeclflcally
shedoesnotseem
ofurlneto showhis
smallarnolnts
tomcat,sDravs
srafge
re argooe-rorm5
dro\6e0.
wtef se^ually
oresence,especlally
0l earth
0psmallmounds
andscrapes
wlplng,readlngmotlons
areunknown
olthese
Thelunctlons
whllstdelaecatlng,
0rthe
actlvitles
andma|klng
female,
scentlng
anoestrous
when
lollowlnc
of heatHeusesthfee
lntenslty
wlthgreater
maledecrease
andfull fouch
postures:slanding,
frontcrouch
Investlgatory
attention
to atract thelemales
areloodandlhoughl
Vocllsatlons
"stutter
l-l kHz,whlchls blfdllke
call , ffequency
a
They
lnclude
andlpcctrogr.phlcrlly rc:.cnblc. o llon cub. mcow . Apart i.om during
sexlalexcitement
it is alsomade
at tlmesot general
stlmulatlon,
eq.
overa klll, andbetween
mother
andcub.
othersounds
made
bycheetah
arethe"eeow',
a hlghpitched
threaten
call
made
wlthbarred
teeth,anda'ylp'0r"chlrt"a slngleloudnoteused
t0contact
anlndlvldual
overa longdlstance,
Growling
ls produced
wltha lowered
head
andefectmane,
andmaybefollowed
bya lunqe
wlththefrcntfeetanda loudsplt.Wlren
threalened
byothefspecles,
purrwhencontented,eg.
moanlng
sounds
mayalsobeutteredCheetahs
groomlng
when
orafterfeedlng
Behavlour
of females
durlnC
oestrus
is repoatedly
slnlllafto domestlc
qleenst
lncreased
actlvlty,roillng,tall threshlng,
vaglnal
dlscharge
andlnnappetance.Howevef
these
slgnsrnaynolbemarked
andlhe
mostfellablelestIs herreceptlvlty
to themaleshewlll normally
aepel
anyapproachlng
maleaggresslvely
f,latlng
hasonlymaelybeen
wltnessed,
lasllnga fewseconds
andoccurlnq
anumber
ol tlmes
perrod.
dL-,nq
theoestroJs
Cheetahs
arcfirostactlvein themomtn9
andevenlng,
spendin!
thehottest
partof thedaylylngln theshade.
Theyrarelycloselhelreyeslo.
morethana lewmlnutes,
constanlly
looklng
around,
Theyareoften
po1nt,
seen
sittlngona ralsedvantage
scannlng
themlddle
to lar
dlstance.
Thelrslghlls acule,
equivalent
to a human
wlthastrong
Pairol blnocularc.
26 orowth
andDevelooment
Cheetah
cubsdevelop
rapidly,
thelreyesareopen
at tendays,
Duteven
before
lhls theywlll spltat anyintruders.
Blrthwelght1sDetween
g
250and100 Bythreeweeks
ot agetheycanwatkandarefollowing
themothea
at slxweeks,
At onemonth
theywelghbetween
700and
g,reachlng
850
25 kgat lhreemonths.
Thelemale
moves
ihemotten
greyfur makes
tofewdensltes,under
a bush
or ln thlckglassThela
themverydlfllc!lt to seeThecantne
teetheruptat about
two- thfee
weeks,
bejnq
unlsual
astheyzaetrlcuspld,
ThefUl setol milkteeth
aaepaesent
byslxweeks
oldandacereplaced
at elghtto nlnemonths
Weanln!
begins
whentheclbsareliveto sixweeks
old,thefemale
brlnglng
backpleces
ol herklll tor themto tearat,Suckling
ends
at
tmeemonths
butthecubsremaln
wlththelrmothef
lo leamhowto
hunt.
Theybecome
lully lndependent
at l2 months,
thebreak
betng
sudden.
Jlveniles
of oneyea.haveabody
welghtof 20- 22kg.They
stlll have
remnants
of themane
at inlsage,whlch1sgradrJally
lostas
pubertywhen2l-24months
theyanature.
Young
females
reach
old,
flale3areat thelrDeak
fertilltvfrom2-4vearc.
HU5BANDRY
Cheetahs
should
behoused
1nlargeenclosures
wlthnatural
subsrate
away
fmmotherbigcats.Eetng
1owln thepredatory
hterarchy,
the
presence
ol llonsandthellkecauses
fearandsressreac ons
Fences
should
behlghandlnwardly
overhung
asFUlygrown
cheetah
pressured
caneasllyclear2min asin!leJ0mp.
Young
of
antmals
are
themostllkelyto try.Theyadapt
to all weathers,
requlre
a soufce
of
shade
andshelter
frcmthemln,
Bfeedlng
anlmals
should
notbehoused
ln palrsfor breedtnq
asthefemale
becomes
habltuated
to themale.She
maynever
come
lntooestros
or 1f
shed0e5,
fertllltyls low.Thesexes
should
bekeptseperated
- by
enolgh
space
sothatthereis nostgh!,sound
of olfaclory
communlCatlon
between
them.
A minlmum
arcaof flveacres
(2.5hectares)
hasbeen
for each
auoted
oalrol anlmals.
it ls
lmportant
thatthesitlngbeconsldered
ascheetah
need
to beabieto
seelntothemlddle
andfar dlstances.
Thepfesence
of oreyspecies
withinthlsfleldofvlewslm!lates
thesltuatton
tnthewitdand
lncreases
thellkellhood
of successlul
breedlng.
Although
cheetahs
canextractsufflclent
motsture
frornthetffood,watef
places
should
bepfovlded
astheydodflnka lot 1nhotweathef,
to
ma suchasmolnds
or fallenlogs,whlcharealsoused
asvantage
p01nts,
heitstlmulale
nomalactivity.Nightdensandteedlng
areas
should
beeasllyCleanable,
andVermln
Oroof.
Cheetahs
wlll noteat
mea!contaminated
wlthants,
Theydonotusebeddlng
mateflal
fnuch,
eveo
wfenllttercarebornclbblng
tac ltiesshould
allowInspecuon
of thecubswithoutdlst!$ingthemothef.
There
have
been
many
reported
cases
ol littercbelng
abandoned
of eaten
byskessed
Install2tl0n
0l crushes
andwetghlng
tac i esgreay jmproves
the
posslble
standard
of husbanry
seeAppendtx
Clof ptans
of cheetah
encloslres,
denandcrushdeslgn,
Lltlleqoanlltatlve
wofkhasbeen
DLDItShed
onthenutrttional
requlrements
0t cheetah.
lt is genemlly
assumed
to bestmllarto the
domestlc
cat,butthereis thelnknown
effectol boltsof hlahievel
activlty(see3.4.LlverDlsease),
flanyroos r \orth Alre-ica'eeda balanced
co--er.ial fFIr.edletsu.l'as
/L-oreemnor \ebras.aBrand'(5ee
AoDeno
! [ for nlrrnent
analyses)
ouantitlesvarydependlng
onlhecondltlon
ol theanlmai,
per
butafeafound
2kg day.Leanmeat0l manyvarletlesarealsofed,
belngbalanced
lor CalclumrPhosphorus
lo ensure
a ratiool I 2rl to
2:l flulti- vltamlnandmlneralsuDplements
arealsoaddedSoft
loodsshould
beslpplemented
wltn bones
orcarcasses
to promote
(
ofalhealth see3,4,FocalPalaline
Eroslon).
Whole
carcasses
suchas
chlcKens
0r aabblts
wlll helpb2lance
znydetlciences
andareals0
thought
t0 stlmulalethelertlllty ol fernales.
l'lllk loamulae
for handralslngclbshavenolbeenwidelypubllshed.The
Natlonal
200of SouthAlrlca(deWildt) usespasteurised
wholecows
m l l k -1 0 0g - w l t h 2 0g o l e g g y o l k . A bl 0o 0u gt l s g l v e n paenf l m a l
untlllhecubsarel0 daysold Thenfilinced
meatanddogpelletes
mixedintoa porridge
areoffered3 4 timesa dayweanlng
onto
wholechickens
or meatoncea dayoccursove.thenextninemonths.
In NodhAmerica
a commerclallv
milk rcolacer
for domestlc
orodlced
'K|1R'
'Esbllac
klttefs
or
areused.
Exoerlence
tromtlree zoosshows
"Esbilac
that
lormulatjon
closerto themalernal
thanKfiR,ls
, thouqh
(See
protern
stjll toolow in total solldsand
Appendlx
E) A suggested
tomulawould
be
onepaatstaalned
chlcken
babyfood- l00q
- twopartsEsbilac
- 2009
- 5* honey
- 15g
Thisdllferslrommaternal
mllkDy8* sollds,116la!, 2,i proteinand
(SeeAooendtx
59?
carbohvdfate
E).
Theabove
mlxturemayneedto bedtlltedto bepalatable
to theclbs The
Destdlluentl5 themothersseraHowever,
asthls ls fttely avallaDle,
stefilewaterasa dlluent
would
malntain
thenutflent
balance
Conslstency
of mjlk lomolacanbejncreased
asslckingandnlrsing
muscles
developlnltlallymllkshou)d
beoftercdeverytwohours,
(Forcub
qradually
lnc.easlng
wllh lntaketo everythree- fou.hours.
feafingpfotocol,
seeAppendlx
€)
gfoond
Weaninq
canbeachieved
byaddlng
blended
meatto theformula.
groond
Finely
solldloodshould
beolrered9eoarately,
aslheamount
gmdually
ol mjlkls
decreased
bydllutlon
ln water.Thjscanbegin
oncethecubszrea montholdandshouldbecompleted
bythree
(see2.6
months.flost
zoosalsoaddvltamlnandmlnemlsuoolements
Growth
andDeveloDment
for arowthrates).
Asmeatloned
above,
maleandtemale
cheetah
m0stbeho0sed
seDaratelv
lt
oprrrum
oreedlng
Dotefal ts to oereatsed.
BtrtfsdooccJrto oairs.
butunrellably
Durtng
thebreedlng
season
temales
should
betested
dallyroroestrus
byallowlng
access
to malesandassessino
receo|v
ty (5ee
Aooerdl.
Dr.rFep.eserce
o,more
tfal on;male
mav
snmLatecyclng,oJtor'yore51outd
put
De r wrrr thefemaie
tor
mating.
slb-domlnant
indlvtdLlals
cantnterfefe
andorevent
theactol
c0putat10n.
Astheydonotdelend
a terfttory,it does
no!rrratter
1fthemalels taken
t0 thefemale
orvice-versa
However
theyneed
to become
accustomed
toeach
otherandtt ls bestto restalctthemaleuntitthetnltiat
of aglresston
ls overAsfightszrefare,even
oerlod
overtood,and
us02ily
consists
of nomorethanthfeatsor lunglng,
thepajrcanbe
lelt together
tt 1stholghtthalmating
ottentakesptace
at ntght I
thetema
e s successf
Jttymated,
sfe w, rotco-ebac\tniooetJLs
thfeeweeks
latef.Shesholldbeleft wlththemaleun t shefo
onger
shows
heat,or foaat tezstthfeeweeksSheshould
be
rcgularly
checked
wlthlhemaleunifl1tls apparent
pfegnancy
has
occurfeo
oncethlshasbeen
establlshed,
thefemale
should
beremoved
ftuil any
males
glven
and
quartefs
sectuded
in whlchto cub.Asll is normal
Dehzvlour
tof a mother
to move
thetitter many
trmesln thewlld,she
should
be!lvenanumbef
of alternauve
sheltersltes.
cubscrnbelelt
wllhthelfmother
un l ayearotdandmaybehoused
wjthslbllngs
up
t0 twoyearsFemates
mlstthenbeseparated,
butmales
0sually
do
10l510\'aggresslon'0
(oqelTr
eaclotle-50ca^oeloLsed
.oltrne
-ate
|lanyZoos
o eedrnq
cf.eetat
y era-,ret1ese-eroieve^y
poorseminal
oelore
thebegjnoing
ot each
season.
quatityis
y verycomrnon
appaaent
(see3.4Dlseases
ln thlsspecles
and
Hedlche).
Thlsallows
theseleconof themostfer le anlmals
as
slres.Thebreedin!
ltfe is shorl,usually
onlyupto flveyea.sold,
qlalltyandproduction
Semlnal
fapidlythendrops
otf.Thusit ls
lmportant
thatthebestlodlvtduals
afechosen
andqlvenmaximum
lse
be'oef
.ont|bLtron
tl.elIot1egerepoolls lost
.rse-mtr
SJccess'ui
a'trficra
onhasyet'o beache
vedt1cheetan,
but
pregnancy
oestrus
mantpulatlon
1swelldocwented.
dtagnosTs
using
raparoscopy
prcgestefone
0rp asma
ls notfeaslble
rcutinely
asyet,
blt many
Amerlcan
etabllshments
usetheformerto check
onteatlltv
'e-a
p'oolem<
.atclanges
r
es P1Vs
a^obelav
ou.arestt|
therelore
themostuserulslgns.
thepar cularsignsshownvary
depending
ontheindividuat,
asdoes
behavjouf
dortnc
oestrus.
Thuslt is
verylmportant
to have
staflthalarelamlllarwitheachanlmal
and
whohavethetimeandsklltsto observe
themona daltybasls,
Thts
lmplles
a flrmcommltment
tosupply
thenecessary
staffreaources
lof lhoseInstltutlon
wlshlng
to keepthlsspecles.
PafasitesTapeworm- faenlakrabDet,Ihydatigen4
- tTesaces
totdesspp.,
Old)/Idltnn
ca1ltutnrarely
- notusually
pathology
assoclated
with
Roudworm ldesctrls leonlna\ery connon
- faxocara
cati Anq4ostarlaspp
- also: unclnaala
stenocephal4
lrlchuvs spp
- rcrelypathologtcal
except
1fcubs
parents
should
befeg!larlychecked
- tf eatment-oral
anthelmln
c eg.pymntetpamoate
5 mg/kg
- plperazlne
toxlc,Thtabendazote
may
betoxtc
Heaftwomsrafe(DEC
dose
ratelowertncats)
Babesia.antslfom cks,noltnAustralla
- ln theU5A,hasca0sed
death
ln cubs
lollowlng
ltverfaiture
- reatfl1entDlaprim
4mg/kg
Sulphonamides
andfoltcacld
- preventl0nprevent
aemove
lrori moth€r,
access
t0 rodents!
ellmlnate
feralcats,
Eafflltes ? 5p0.
- tfeatment
thiabendazole,
Neomycln,
Fleaslnsectlclde
wash
Nutfllional
Rjckels/0s!eodystropha
flbrosa-oncecorJrmon
Incapuvtty
- cheetahs
moresusceptlble
thanothercats
- cuDS
ouflng
weanlng
- balance
preventl0n
caipra o in dtet
- feedwholecarcasses
- seenln cubs
Copper
Deflclency
- slgnsaaelossof co-ordlnatlon
especlally
hlndlegs
andanaemla
- htghmoftalltymte
- prevenuonsupplement
wlthcu504,lmg
peranlmalper
dayto lacta ngfemales
andcubs
- commercial
SoltFood
tellnedtetsasusedin NothAmefica
- prodlceFocal
palattne
Eroslon'
ln adults,
leadtng
to mat0ccluslon
LlverDisease
mostcommon
cause
of death
in capttve
adults
- pathologlcal
changes
tncludeJoxlc
dystrophy,llpldosls,fatty
jaLlndtce
Inll1imtl0n,clrfhos1s,
degeneratlon
andobstructive
(alsoseveral
reported
cases
ol pancreatitis)
-aetlology
? bacteria,
- toxoptasma,
leptosplrosls,
_ toxln
sedentary
ltiestyle,otver
adapted
to bo0tsof
highmetabolism
duingandfollowing
chas€)
- alsocommon,
Kidney
Disease
oftenwithhepatic
dlsease
lncludeslalluae
Path0iogy
- nepnrosts/
nepnrlUs
- ura€mra
- oxalate
crystals
panle!copenia
inlec!louscheetah
cubsverys!sceptlble,hjghmortallty
- ? lackol resistance
assoclated
withlow
genetlc
val.lablllly
- Feline
- a number
tntecttous
Peritonitis
ol lsolated
cases
Feline
Le!kaemla
- Rhlnorachettls
Fellne
lntecllo!s
Anaemla
- Rabies
Vacclnatlondonotusemodllled
livevirusonpregnant
cats
- glvecologtaum
depflved
kittens
kllledvifus-2,48,12,16
wks
- glveklttensfaomknown
lmmune
firothers
kllledvif0s8,l2,l6wks
canusellvevlausalterlnltlaldose,
andyearlyboosterc
l1
- l2 cases
Neoplastlc
reported
In8 zoos
_ mostiyol abdorninalorgans
polsonlngtlvemales
dledof Ethylene
olycottoxlclty
- othefreported
deaths,
agents
unknown
FertllltyproDlemswelldocumented
ln themale
- chamcterlsed
bylowsperm
outpLlt,
fapidlydecrcaslng
wlthageandprimary
sperm
delects
- aetl0togy
? assoclated
withlowgene|cdlverstty
LowGenetic
Diversltyrecent
reports
by08rtenandothersshowpoor
geneucvartabfllty
Inallcheetah
solartested
- explanallonpopulaonverylnbrcd
(equjvatent
to 20generaonsof tnbrcedlng
ln
iaboratory
mlce)
- posslbty
caused
bydfamatic
cfashIn
nlmoers
anunknown
tlmeln thepast
- assoclated
wlthr-malelnter Ity,
- suscepb lty to dlseases,
veryhlghcubrnortaliy,
- congenital
deformles-uncommon,
- curled
ta1ls,
- gf05s
deformltles
Mortallty
ln wlld-adults lnjuy durjng
chase
- stala ondueto droughtsi
senfllty
- a00tescents
- Staraaon,
predaon
- cubs abandoned,
- predatlon,
_ dlsease,
- oadweather
- 50frupto threemonths
otd
- )50X
Cubflortallty
1nCaptlvlty
- htan ctde,espectally
If maleleft wtth
lemale
- poormotheflng
- 0lsease
- onemale
Curfently
remaieS
Zoo
loanlromRoyalflelbourne
maleonbreedlng
Affica
Sanctuary,Solth
1980,deWildtcheetah
HaleHYmai - bo.nJune
- slre
- dam
- history
unknown
unKnown
unRnown
- atrlled\lP7- 4.12.82
- hlstoryat WPZ:sutrered
permanent
hlndlegweakness
jn'ldent
polsonlng
suspected
lollowlng
(Feb.
1985),
- notshown
actlvliy,
anybrcedlng
- decislon
for
notto beused
made
(conditlon
may
a5cryptorchld
bmeding
beheredltary),
masal
Female
s]|e
dam
u.K.
27477, Whlpsnade,
Jack
Eve
- captlve
bred,
- arrlved
WPZ_6.4.78 "zulu"
(Dled
- housed
wlthmaleslbllng
verylflendly
lnlll 10.283,
Feb.85)
butnoslgnsof brcedhg,
gevere
ln Feb05polsonlng
condlllon
deafness,
wlthPemanenl
lncident
tendslo obesltY,
Female
flarah
bomJune
l979,de
Wlldtcheetah
sanctuary,south
Africa,
historYr
captlve
bred,
-afi\edwPz- 412.82
- condltlon
polsontng
criticaldu ngFeb.85
lncldent,recovered
pemanent
wlthmlnlmal
delects
- mated
sucessfully
at leasttwlcewlth
Gus(q.v.F0.0.2
oct 86,dted
at l4d
foltowlng
hallstorm
- I 0.0.Jan87suRivedI ld,
dledlromlnanltlon,
agalactla
?
- fourmales
(oneonbreedlng
currently
loanto wpz)
- onefemale
(6us)-born46.8t,deWtldtCheetah
flaleAugustus
Sanctuary,
- AZDNo. f1OO58l
- slrc
f.137
- dam
tlalkop
- hlstoryi - handJatsed
- lltter? Ll
- r0ll slbllngto octavla
_ earpunched
No5 positlon
- arrlved
WPZ6.12.85,
- bredsuccesstully
twlcewlthfiafahqv.
flale8r!tus
bom
- AzDNO. f100
t83
_ slre
- dam
- hlstorl: - earpunched
N0.I Dosltlon
- bom
flaleCaeser
AZD
NO. fl00t8l
- stfe
- oam
- lllslory:
HaleClaudlus
- eaapunched
No,3posltlon
- AZDNo. 1100281
- slre
- dam
- hlstoryi - earPunched
No,2posltlon
_AZDNo.
- sire
- dam
46.83
fl00483
Yt37
flalkop
- captlve
bred,hand
ralsed,?lltter
l.
- full stbltng
to Augustus
- earpunched
No,4posltlon
- notyetbfed,housed
separateiy
young
Cuffently
lnvestjgafhg
thelmportatlon
ol a second female
lrom
(posslbly
U5.A
WlldllfeSafarl).
Currentlyonemale
- onefemale
(Chaka) born24484,
llaleAVon
slte
dam
fllsty
- handrarsed
(Juba)
_ bomNov,I
984 Whlpsnade,
- srrc
- dam
suzle
- nano
mtseo
- clrbs
nave
been
boan
atwl blt
- remale
ls separated
when
about
to
cub
- declded
rearnextlltter.
to hand
oranaPz*
-0
cufen! populail0n
plannlng
1988-1949 - 2.2probably
fromEurope,
advanced
of 0.75
na.moaled
exhlDltandI 5 ha.breedlng
unlt
1 9 9 0 - 2 0 0 0 - l 0 - l2 anlmals
ln twoto threegroups
- w l llrecelve
anysLrplus
stock
yedlle
-0
populatlon
cumeni
grcup
ls conslderlng
establlshlng
ln theluture
a breedlng
sometime
t5
REVIEWOF
CAPTVEPOPULATION
ln Ausralasla
therehave
been
many
cheetah
heldln zoosandwlldantmal
parKs
overtheyears.
However,
none
have
evefbredsuccesslully
or
young.
feafed
lhe twomalnsources
ot anlmals
have
been
surplus
slockbredbyWhlpsnade,
andSouth
Afrlca( usually
deWltdt).8oth
relbolrneandwelllngton
zooshave
years
erhlbtted
cheetah
for many
Thelargepopolatlons
thatexlsted
eg,ln Wamagamba
Llonpafkhave
(l1ver
dledoutfromdlsease
andtnfecttor.ts
dlseases),
andhave
not
reolaced
themselves.
0nly6.4anlmals
nowexlst,andonlyln WpZ,
Dubbo
afeall thecrlteria
considered
essentlal
fof successlul
breedlng
met.However,
a5canbe
seentherels anoveralllackol females.
\{pZtemales
areold,flz'sls
young,
butfelated
to theonlyknown
breedlng
male.
0l theremalning
males
one(fiymah)
is notto bebred,one(NZ)ts keptasa
palrandlheotherthreehave
notknown
to have
bred,
BIBLIOORAPHY
( 1969)lhe Spotted
ADAISoN,J
Sphinxftafcour!,
BraceandWould,
New
(]974)Int.zyrbk
BENZoN,T.A.
andSfltTH,R.F.
l4rt74-t79.
( r975)hlz_Ydk I5 I54-157.
BERTSCHRINGER,HJ,,]'lELIZER,D
GA,VANDIJK,A.COUBROUGH,R.I.,sOLEY,J.T
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andCoLLETT,F.A.
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5,1.,SKELDON,
P.C
RL.ANd
JONES,II
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Reoroductlon
h Caoitve
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CttyZoo.
(1970)LdJJt!( 10:86-89.
EAToN,R.L.
( I 973)WlldllreSatarl,oregon.
(1974) TheCheetah:Etotogy,
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andEehavtou
ol an
qelTorc,
frdarge-eo
Soec
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ENCKE,W
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(1974)
(ed.),
FoSTER,JW ln'TheWorlds
Cats.Volume
Three.
Eaton
Chlcago
pp.l0l-110.
Zoological
Soclety,
"Zoo
(ed.)(1986)
FoWLER,H.
andwlld Animattledicine."
salnderc,
Newyork
( I 965) Intz.yrDK.
oRANDAS,R.
andENCKE,W
6:275-276.
(
HERoAx,R. I 972)ZlqNlaz 45(I 0): 4- I 2
HoWARD,J.G
andWtLDT,D
E.( I 984)At7-V-pfoLpp.
, BUsH,fl.,5rffONS,L.G
168-t70.
(1986)Chalrrnan,
JACKSoN,P.
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6roup,1.U.C.N.
Specles
Survlval
c0mmlsslon.
Perconal
comm!nlcation.
( 1984)
JoHNSON,I
155-158
A.VJ 61(5)r
(1985)
LASLEY,B.L.
ZooNooT
Apfltrl6- 17
proc Ftoflda,
LASLEY,E.L
andW|N0,A983)AA.2V
pp l4-15.
(1974)
|ANToN,VJ.A
lntZ.Yrbk
l4 126-129.
( rs75)ldl_YIlK 1s rs7-]60.
( 1975)
ln Breedlng
Endangered
Spectes
ln Capttvtty.
press,
(ed
f.1artln,R.D.
pp.Jl7-t44
), Academtc London,
'Nofih
(
ARK[R,L.
1985)
Amertcan
Cheetah
Studbook.
tlfeSafaft,
, Wttd
0regon,
(I985) Cheeiah
Stldbook
ouestlonnatre
Results, t{tldlife
Salarl,0fegon.
( I972)1n'TheWorld
(ed).Feltne
HEEKER,W'
s cats.Votlme
Two.Eaton,R.L
park
Research
6roup,
Woodland Zoo,Seattle,pp 172-184.
(
fitLTZ€R,0.0.A.
1979)
U!!o r r-3,r6.
portralts
(
|1oSS,C
I973)
]ntheWlld.pp.262-284
Hamlsh-Hamtlton,
( 1975)LU.C.N.
|1YERS,N.
nonogmph
No.4.
I'IEFRILL'C"
GOLOTIAN,D'O''
11ARKER,L.,
HART,F.,
FOELKE,M,
O'BRIEN,9..J.,
BRANO,D,J.,
DIJK,A.,
EBEOEs,H.,
IIELTZER,D
HOWARD,J.G,,
, VAN
( l98l)
G.BU5H,f1.
andWILDT,D.E.
5lf1f10Ns,L
stfloNsoNJ.fl,
AAZ.V.Proc
Florlda.
ITELTZER'D',
WINKLER,C'A',
11ARKER,L,,
NEViI'1AN,A',
ROELKf,,I1.
O.BR
IEN,5.J,.
(1984)
sclence
8UsH,f1.
andwlLDT,DE.
EVER|1ANN,J.F.,
coLLYJ,
227V2a-t434.
(I 983)
|IERR
LL,CandBUSH,fl
WLLDT,0.E,
0OLD|1AN,D.6.,
OBRlEN,s.J.,
Scterce
221t457-42
VANDIJK,A,
EBEDES,H,
BRAND,DJ.,
WILDT,D.E,
SII1ON5ON,J.I,1.,
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( l98l) A-A2J-lIsspp.754-77.
srrmoN5,L.6.
andBU5H,M.
f,rELTzER,0,
ANd
PLATZ,C
WlLDT,D.E.,
PROWTEN,A.
, IICDONALD,S.
OTT,J.,
SCNAFFER,N,
( I 98I ) AAJ-Vlt$- pp.I 38-| 40.
SEAGER,5.
pHtLLtps,L0
( 198l)AAZ.V$$.pp.6267.
( 1978)
pLArz,c.,
andsEAGER,s.
w LDT,D.€,
!-Bglf!!,trll. 521279-282
pfess
(I972)TheSercngeilLlon
ol Chlcago
Unlvers1ty
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{ 1975)AAZv Proc
5EAoER,5.WJ.
(1971)
SKELDoN,P.C.hLZJ&!,I3:ls l- 152.
( I981)Theflammals
AlrlcanSub-Reglon
of theSouthern
SmITHERS,R.HN.
solthAtrlca.
unlverclty
ol Pretoria,
(
IENNANT.f1.B.
andCRAG,s.J.I 977)lolz-Ylll I 7: I 67-I 69
T H o H A S , W( 1D9. 6 5 l)n l Z Y r b k . 5l :l 5 - 1 1 6 .
(1972)ln TheWofldsCatsVolume
Two."
andLANDRETH,H.F.
THOYPSON,R.A.
park
(ed).FellneReseafch
Woodland 2oo,Seatlle,pp
Cro0p,
Eaton,R.L.
162-l7 |
( 1974) blLWk 14 174-179
T0N6J.R.
VALLAT,C
fl97r) lolJ-YrbLlll24 125.
( 1975)
vEsELovsKY,z
ZrDrc4l![J F.Jera45:28-44
( t97l) Ch!9tztrErg3dhg,
voLF,J.
1980) AAiV.PT!C
WJ.AidBUsH,M.(
PLATZ,C.,
SEAGER,S
WILDT,D.E.,
pp.44-47.
ibld ( 1980)Blql'Beuo!,242l 7-222.
( 1975)"Cheetah
theSun Hamlsh-Hamlllon
Under
WROOEmA"\
r.!rJ
Itu..r
,-r"-..
l
i
T
Distlibution
of Cheetah in Aflic!.
(Flon Snlthers,
1963),
tf
A96 of
captlve
breediDg
cheetat!.
: 19S5).
lI r
I
t
.t,
t- tuEEy
or r<!v.
bE d.B
4
!
!
1
l
r,.. 3- as. !'q
r
4
t
6
t
c' ch-d.! bI"gH',*'*
a
9
(tloh
l.la!ke!.
I
ri3.r-tffrdka'jd,
fE41!
I
t
5
a r ! t I
turl
r
Plan6 of cheet.h Breeding Area6- Nlildlife
( Flon L Malke!,1985 )
safdll.
(dimensionsin reet)
rlo
t
/
;.*
.Jtr
Darve- Th,r,.,
ReseR,)E RREI
3
Et
I
I
I
I
I'
;
lo
I
I
--\\
-
.
\./
-
l
,r-}e.,_
I
-l--.-.-
l-5
A&,{q
6-reb/,t
A-llale holdtng cdpE
yalds
a-Exelcise
C- Qharinttne Yalds
D-ratk*ay for bleedtng
camps fo!
E- Bleeding
canps
F-Maternity
G-tolding camps for
fenales
r9'7a. 6=tr..
0
e
t'\
qt
%";s
eo,6
ada
:';,9
" a'l
,"
i
t
9
E
6€
F,
San Dlego Cheetah 6!eedi!9 A!ea,
(Catheiine Johostone, pe!.oDa1 coMunic.tion,l936).
Z
d.,
"q
t5
e
I
G
F
0
|1
q
g 6
d
4
FE
1
Fsg
e
,
t
.l3n
of chcPr.h
llt
-
rotPerlrctF'
/lt
*a
1,.l,ost8.r at | . fen..
lnte.rdl lence
plpe turnel
r€Dce
a
, fi.
cheetah Btlthtng
Huts, fitldltfe
Satari.(floh
!.Marker!
!985)
Z*a:
Raised,
haldsale
6' ---
clothl
removable bedover
ol
---- ,---+
ay letainl.g
boald
flAt'i or
Z'l
FrtR, 'fY
I{ISTERN PIAINS
N
t
d"fa
ZOO.
fo',
'A
OL
-lo!}t-tf.{.
-lo
-----*ra.l,F
(nft,.?
---.(*nlli..r.&d
,r r..!.,. +$*+N.rr.&si^
n4t*s
d .lar.i9nd.
.-
a
r!
\..t.
(ri!rda.)
|r.[ ,i( .1i.' /k
f---'l
I
^lr!+..
Er_:i:r1
I (._+
l:::.:::,:,i
--<-:1.ff.'///,
rlsrh.'d {.r--
\1
ba(.r)
i-
-_ - -l
g*r a*
6iyb1
-lltg-
dffjLk
k'?a
f* ;r-h
'
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)
16'{'.4
tl/"
+e!i&
,(
o1
u.".(
'F9
APPENDIX C.9.
Cheetab clush
et aI.
"tA
li7
fii
'i:.
H
1t?
,,
k
iY;
W
)i1l
-i
t4.
used at De Wildt.
1933).
(Flom Beltschlingei
Deslqn of clu6hes
used rt
vrPz
*-r.5
;-
E B
g
g
g
E
w
-+ ::-_-:-_
/'--.==:--
il
i
]
.1::[email protected]
r-.- \
\
,-+---'-=--r*$:hx
- - '\i
,{
<--l ^
!.BY I
1 4 L- \
i
\
E-\
qo8 I
t*...
'-r
j'
\.t -*._
ra*
,.r/
,,r/ \ ns
,/
\ *' S
ul\\F
f
f
i
N
'
"
j
;
y\x \r q
I
[ ( r rn
cpi
t
nrF"I
i
t-,\%o'""
wt""l
T
c
\
li - o b$ N
i{
INNU
$' | f, rf fi *n{tts \ + *l q
$
u
t
ba l-r
\
H
.t.
!
I E 4
W:+
Flod 1-!v* * thtfrh. Bv4,;4'P4,-,. .
Y
lo. ,nYalJtte
+
rbf
1',rxffia
'{
4
roc*:r<of-;
^.-w
$(4 -,1w ?fum*t
n';:f- jAn" 6taS
*f*
'3_
[email protected], 7-";/,a^btJu,.+-
ff-at
l"
I
ffiJ -{s-s^",1")
1"..,r"ii!h,
I FronBrand,
e€rFpper-fETqyolq.t
t r..r*",/az
n '-r'
Tbtt-/
C A F N : 9 O R E! I T A I - i I I ! N I X
/
/..7/'
6?4a'
/zt
e
i+-.-
MATERNAL MILK
s
P R OP O S A L
o
I
t
o
50
50
40
40
q
30
=
o
q
20
N I J TF It E N TS
soLlDs
z
o
I
rron the 1935 stodboo* resultE,
L.talker
{1935t
o
50
50
40
a
30
30
20
20
o
TOTAL
soLtDs
NUTRIENTS
=
o
Floh the stuatbook lesults,
L.l.{atker
(9165).
I
o
Fron th€ studbook lesu1ts,
I t.d tb. dt.t'
cubf€r.le3ldedaft.!
-85-
t
L.Ma!ke! (9195).
zooroqrc,l c.rit.n. of s_ rari.a
12
sumaly of che€tah studbook oue.tioD.iie
(r935)!. itarke!, vrtldttfe safali,
olegon
cHEn a cu! rl^nnc PRorocol
ly Lyn'e.o.r..u
sr. K..P.r, 'Jlld Altor
P.fr
-t.
r..p***e
ln rn.uba!6r should be .pproxtut.ly
2, Pl.c. Lo!.I on ln.nbaLor bpttot
1. nuo-m b'hy bottrGs elth
2, sE.ll cro6s-.!t
l.
30",
D!€eol.
IOt slucos. v:t.r
glven rr!61 3! f.edinss.
e u c c e a rv a s B o r d c i ' s x l R G l t . e n b i l k
N o r . i R r c h H e e r t h K x Rs e r m d
r€ol..,r).
"1!h ctrb, eash n.nds rn b€tadh..
-. P.r.' k riy s**t
2. u.ar coveralls used only
a) :veras. !e&p.rarure rs 99-100'
is ro' Pl.cc clb ln hcrbator unrtl
b) lf teip.ratr.€
rry
rlrst
f€ed14 if cub se.G eeak.
can sLso
srab
iz€d.
.) rverage !.1sht taken froE folr .ub8 E6 I lb
.t vc! P!€.cub.3r
l. clv. E dlc.rlon (mdbrorlc)
ole do*
a) wa h3!. s1!.! r i[ blcr]rln.'q.'
A- 1r.,t navet ullh 3l todln..
*G.
T.-.;fiat;1rcc.
r1rs. 3! leedrn83.
f.edlns6: l0l 3luco..
lrt.tr.e
l0l gllcos€ lro 6d
4th fa.dtns:
6tr't3ht (xR'
5th f€.dlns:
rl€ off.r.d
aholnr !o b. d.t.rurn.d by w...
(d€!.ndrq on e.th!).
Er.!pr.r
.lrDorr.n!:
'...
."ir'liii.o
llt
dl.t
.hrnr't
ed 'u!t"
or Dr..crrb'd bt I v'!"lsrtc
%t 'oll"i'd
tro!.: Thr. [email protected]
v..1.'
thr..
to
r.r..d
.!d th;;.cb..r.h.
r..Lr.utton for conrl6!.tton 'f rt'raa''
3-lO cc p€t fe.dlns
'b dtb'
'Dd td!cr!t'!'
tr'i'
[email protected] @' .t..t.h
thr4 lt'vr
t.t..d
to *st!t
rl.
$lR (Kltt.! vltk R.rl.c.r)
l. rlt focr ot ow cub! e.r off.E.l 8-10.c !.r
hou$ 'rolna .h. clo.t .l$ frr.t M dar.,
f...llng ev.ry tqo
f€.dhg ear itropp.d. Not!:
If cuh cr. holit eore
you ca! drop dno.h.r t€.dina t! 6 t.r ilay3 buc
c.r. N..6.
!.kea $ cuh...c!
ro s€. dt.!rh..
t! fe€d aDounrs
.oo qrlckly.
turtrr. incr.as.s d.p.nd on app.rrre.
Exadple or feedlns/!€nrns
s.b€dure:
lfre!
m€ e..L,
ll-t5 days:
16-29dats:
ll-ao days:
4l-t5 days.
65-52 d.ys.
63-70 drys:
7l-71 drys:
t,;a
l0
9
3
7
6
4
2
reedrngs
fe€dings
r.edings
fe€d14E (s!op rncreasrns Drll
feedlqg
fe€drnes
reedlnss
aDounts)
atour thre. days of ase srarr addrng vrrabin. ro borrr€ srD.
a) ee use humn baby vrr:alns call€d Poly-vt-Sol .n{t elv. abour
.15 Dl. c€ h.ve arso us.d Plex-sol c ly vet-a-rl:.
-D. !e.!:!.s
t. I.troduce 3o11ds.t four,eeks.
a) ,. fed canned
5ra4ed 'trh r r3p ehree lrE€s
3 cub elrt e.. ltthour s1o"1n3 do6
on Ellk lnlake
b) .ub s"lch€d .o ra' f€1lne (Nebraska Branit) at aboui sev€n
and rav sere fed ola.d f.r one reeL then rar
rarsed . [email protected] rtaer uho dld nor rrke lhe
lona !1o. co sul.ch h.i o'er.
r
d.n't knd 1f
ol sp€cl€s or tndlvlduat.
could
ti, bur should pu1l our
or carrtlaee so youne cub srtl ..nsuoe lt nore
.anned .nd r.r froh che ...!r
chen lean !o !ar.
'E. !c34!,9
cub w€.n€d off nursr4 to rapptu
a) EllL w.3 poured ov..
b) stop lnc.e'stng olIk aio$!r;
?. !€ared otf olrk at l0-lr ve€L5.
a) see ex.tpl. of re.dlrE/r€ant.s
b) at se.orne, cub !$ consublns
l.
froo bosl 6r abolr fiwe ve€k3.
f€.d zupre€E ev€ry f€.dlng
scnedrre (8.3.)
l!-2 cup. or rar zupieen per dat
I 1 1 . }lIscELL$EoUscAir
cuhs should b€ stiiuroted cv.ry f e . d r n B r o r t r . s . f e ! d . y s .
every orher t..d1nB th€reaft€r.
-89-
Th€n
p1... cub o' tel
.dd u.. a t. pad. or flna.r'
6) !o !rrdl!t.,
wt..r, Ig r.ctu
drtp.'t ts elr
a.ntlv; do bo! rub d r"r
hrv.
cuD wrll 6rr.10 $il usullv
-il
tacoc rrs vrry .;srlt.
'..
1oo....d
cub.
.drh.t
[email protected] rlin dr
A [email protected]
a .t6ol,
(P.n.los) ro ..cr!l
ar.. 'rhY '!ch
rb) e. sppltad [email protected]!!
c.
srrDuI.rto!.
c) dt3conttllc 3tlEol6tron vh.n cub beglN to hzv. 5too1 on hr.
oh (a6out 5 eeeks)
d) cub besr8 to f!€qoenily urtlate
*,)
rf ;"b [email protected] cobsrlp.ted ee added kro Evrtt
abotrt .13_.la cc sar stven everv leedrns
furo:on. solurrod
.35 br. solutlon:
ar dtarthea u.t
r'
tr,t ds el]d! ft addedand
s-.r{
r-'
. dlk oDLv dr.r
ho|lne
a
solld
&or€
lorEr
graau.11v
ro
rh€y
chabge
lncreas€d
uelrhi .nd TelD.ratur.
l. e.kht 1r r.k.tr dalry ln rx Erlor to flEt
2. Tebperaiure '3E t'ketr
r1. cub
ls.
2nd
3rd
2. After
l.
-1.
feedlna.
s53 Eiven rhre. doses of Panleuk v.cclne:
dos.: 5 weats
3 '€eks
d6€.
d6e: 12 '.eks
,t*-fN
a !r!9
Furo:one
bui eas res.rlct.d
""ek".f
lst v:c.in€,
cub vas alloted
Lo a
io be uslk€d on a 1€ash around
Eyee b€st! ro open 5r sbour I u.ek-ord
Tath
.bou. l-2 o€eks.
hesln
l. ualkln3 unsteadnYbY one ueek.
rT:-c'b b.ss r. tos€ halr at abour [email protected] eeet6. Incub'ror ?osslbl'
caus€? cub qt 6vad lroa rnclbtor and glven heatha Pad cov€ted
rlth ! t6v.1 for {,nrh.
2. R€@v. ll..tin!
t.d
g.t.tna
E!h!t..lou..
'b€n
-90-
cub Etar!.
ro ch€s o! Lhln3l
'nd
6!'rE'
o_
g5geg
s'=5${$f
F:$
fE
._
I
g
ri
;
d
3 a &
l'l3
d
a - { t s d t s le B A A l
to
t?
l].,
IR
t<
lx
z
9tsAeagaa
;tt
$ ' ; s 5 635
-t
g.;:g6rE
g3- 31
I
5
z
g : r i i g r {d 6 d
i
qi!
rFgF
id I
r
al
i3
3i
rgll
gF
c3P
e ! Ebc"EBbiil'E
see€.-d
s = ' $ as * c B e de €c g
eB
! t q! 4e$l€sgi
lqqE Fg
E
i$sEgFF
d da i g a3
3
s
I
EgF;#i
$'E
$
i
a
q
'
.!a=
n q'
q
t
z
f rofrJ.dl-;;;
*
l 9<>zi ioIii
*
g{ 6t<
lIl5
E -
i\,
6 :z a
HEEgggga*s**t,) ?
E
6l
d t
ol
2 l
A:E
e x9
z \o lI
Fl
+petFrrir++l+
9 oi E
21
f,B
9.*
3lE*aileaxsnes
z zI
pprrp;c.- ozai 6l: so
BeF
FF?F
0
a<*
:
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E : 6d
n
d*
;
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6
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::
8e:g6gggg33g
_ at z
sdt 6
2
SSP IROCRATIi4E
FORCHEETAHS
Species Co-ordihator: Lau!ie tlarke!
Ove! 200 people attended the ssP lloBraone fo! cheetahsr iDdicaring
the significant iDtelesr
status in the Uild
C u r l e n L. " r r n " r e s p u r L h e ! i t d p o p u l d L i o nd r l e s s r h a n 2 O , O O O
s r ! o r E ' r o r di s i n S o d t h ! . , " s rA f r i c a ! i r h a
p o o r l r l r o n o f ) c o 6 . 0 0 0 , H J n ' : n Bp r e s " J . e a n d p o a c n ! n go v " r u c h .o f i t s r . n g e i s \ a v i n s a n g r [ e b . f r e c r o r t i l e , : ] d ' p o p u l a E i o n ,
, h . c l i s l e g a r d e dr 4 b e i r " ! e d d y d e c t i n c .
Considerable
s u p D o s e d l y" g a l E a l , i n Ao f c h " e r a n s \ i n s i n S o r r n U e a ! A r r i a 6
v r l c n 1 r ( u ! . e r ! l y i r p x c e s so l 7 0 0 p e r y " a r . P e ( e n r s . r v e y s
in thjs pd-r of rhe Lorld fave -on,: ned \ar untess r?ai.ac h a n A e sd - e i n s L i g a r e d q u i c k l y , r \ e . h e e r a h p o p r . a r i o n u i r n i n
s o i r h l J p s rA f r i c a c o L l d b e e k r n c L .r r ) e s . r h a n t 0 v e a ! s .
status iq Captivirv
c u r - e n t e s ri n " L p " p u L r h c c a D r i v e p o p u l a r i o n a L a b o L . 5 o o , o r
u\i.h nea-ly 100oi t\e€e ar! at rire oe i.rirr sr.ediia cF.;re a
P r p t o r i a , R e .e n ' s r r v e y s " h o u e d! h s r . 0 A r e r i . a r Z o o s . u ! r e n E t y
I'old chpet"h, g!ving " iord- pop-laLioni. No!rhAierjL"n of 1.:s
th"n 200, L\:-\ "re dFrired fron an o!igi)al s ocl, oL )90 inportpd
i n t o t h e U S Ab e t w e e n 1 8 7 1 a n d r 9 ? 4 .
ln r\p lasL _:v^ yea!", on r 27 cfeerals \ave bce. bo,n in ,he
U S, and1z of rh"se "Fre born ir !fe 1985, i0 of Ll i(h d!d noL
survive. Currently rhere are 5,5 Dloven bleeders !n rne United
S L " r e s , L l i l d l ' e S a l a r i , L J i l s r o nb r e g a n , a r e r h e n o s L s u c . e s s t J l
A r e r i c a r z o o . u r r " n l l y b r e e d i n c. l e e L . h " , b u r e v e n r ' . e y h " v e
c x p e r ! e n c e oa h l E h j n l a n r n o r t i - r r y r a r c ,
S S PP r o E r a m e
a ( t h e p r " s e r ' r i n e , r h - r " ! - r o s i n A l e S S Pp r o B . a r - " , a s r I F d
f o , r h F i h p e t a . s ," l o u e \ F . ( h o f t i e v o - k i s . " n t r p d a l o u d
l J i l d l r f e s r f a r i , h . r , r o - : ( r r r e rL D l a n "- r p ! . o o ! . o r ! \ e
i m p o r r " r i o n o r ) 0 p r u s u j t a c a u a h Li h F e l r \ . f r o r S o u r hl , t e s ra . r r c a
in an -Llerpr co p.crblish e noie exren"ive .\eera\ breeoine
Plo8ram€ in the ilnlted Srares rhich {i11 also include several
Caplive born cheetahs are availble frob Eulope (whipsnade,U.K.)
a n d S o u r hA f r i . s { r h e D e t t i ! r B r e e d l n sC e n r r e , p r e L 6 r i a ) , b u E i L
is 8en€!8lly consideled that lf rhe cieerah ls to sulviv! a6 a
c a p t i v e s p e . i e s . l h e n e E ! e a r e r i n p u c o l { j l d c a u a lL a n j m r l s 1 s ! h e
T h e l e . r e a u i E e d r a r a L t c p r o b l e n s u i t h L h e c h e € E a ha s a s P e c i e s
,"a recent studies in souih African and Easc Afrtca seeo to
steo flom a evolutlonalv boctleneck thich
ii"rii'-ii"i-in.i"
has caused sevetal inbreedlng.
s k u ] l m e a s u r e m e n t s" n d b l o o d a n d c l s s u e s d p l e s t d k e n r l o o
various sub sDecies alro"E undniTously con'irtr that rne chee'ans
are .n fact. Anly ore 'in8le qPecies Lhloughout Lhei!- enti!e.rar8'
and rhar evoluLiona!, "Pe!kirg' Ehevnrv uell be
as a sDe.ies. even uithau! nans inEelvention
The leasons behind !!€ir poo! Pelfoloence as a bteede! in h e r o q
i" ;Lrributed L; nani ractors' one or "hich is
;;;,;;ii;
v i a b i r ! ! i o r , p e r n . a n d ! \ e v e t , l o H ! e s l s r a n c e t o d ! s e a s e sa n o
n n db ! e e d : n so t t h e c h e e L d h s
i l - i r r i c ' a t r e p r o o u i t r oa
h " s s o l d ! D ( o v e nL o b e u n ' u c c e s s f u l a n d 5 c i l l t-rn! cete ! a h s
lire to'
i,u.,i-t^"i.'i"piija""t v" oioloer. uild cauaht
i;i;;;i;is.
m u c hL o n e e rr h ; n c a o E i v eb o r n . n - n a l 5 a n d a E d ! n , L h i ' i 6 a t t ' i b r ! " d
Eo the iableedins coelii. ient.
E r e e d r n ed g e f o r n a l " I e e L a h si s b e t r e e n 2 y e a r s a n d 1 0 Y e a r s a n d
l o r i e h ; 1 e - c h e e L a h s , b p L U e e nI v e a ! s a n d 9
`