CHAPTER NINE A SCARAB FROM AREA A Baruch Brandl INTRODUCTION The subject of this discussion is a scarab found during the 1981 season in LI022 (phase 9) in Area AO at Tel Dor (Fig. 9 .I). In this study we present all the technical details, including drawings and photographs, but we will not deal with the typology of the scarab itself (i.e., the back and sides), since existing typologies are not sufficiently detailed. An attempt has been made to list most of the excavated parallels as a basis for future studies. TECHNICAL DATA Reg. No.: 10144. IAA No.: 94-1775. Material: steatite, traces of green glaze all over. Dimensions: L 16.5 mm., W 13 mm., H 8 mm. Method of manufacture: carving, drilling, incising, and glazing. Workmanship: good. Technical details: perforated, drilled from both sides. Preservation: broken - the left side of the base and the clypeus are missing. DISCUSSION Description Inside a vertical oval frame on the base is a group of seven Egyptian signs. Althpugh only a few of these signs are real hieroglyphs, they may form an inscription. The upper three signs should be 'read' as one symbol a solar barque. This symbol was used on scarabs as early as the Second Intermediate Period (Giveon 1988: 82-83, Pl. 7:93) and in the New Kingdom (Starkey and Lankester Harding 1932: Pl. 57:338 ~ Rowe 1936: 186, Pl. 20:779; Rowe 1936: 199, Pl. 21:845). Previously such barques were generally attributed to the sun-godR' (Grenfell1910: 124, Pl. 2:90; Grenfell1915: 86, Pl. 2:47; Flinders Petrie 1925: 20, para. 37, Pl. 12:645-52), who was believed to travel on two barques- in daytime on the m'ndt and at night on the msktt (Kitchen 1973: 619). Curre~tly, the preferred candidate is the sun-god Imn-R' (Hall 1913: 141, Nos. 1440-43; Hornung and Staehelin 1976: 253-54, No. 314; 334, No. 724; 335-36, Nos. 731-33; Matouk 1977: 30, 373, Nos. lie, !If). Those who favor the idea of cryptogram writing not only identify the barque as belonging to Imn-R'. but even 'read' these three signs as 'Barque of R',' Im(w) n R', which leads naturally to the name Imn-R' (Drioton 1960: 89-90; Hornung and Staehelin 1976: 174, 334, No. 726; Schlick-Nolte and von Droste zu Hulshoff 1990: 113-15, Kat.-Nr. 70). The fourth sign, ripple of water, could be identified as the hieroglyph n (Gardiner 1973: 490, Sign-list N 35), but alternatively could be a snake, since its left edge seems to end horizontally. In the latter case it should be understood as a determinative (Gardiner 1973: 476, Sign-list I 14 or 15). It seems to me that this sign is indeed the hieroglyph n (cf. Matthiae Scandone 1975: 30, Pl. 5:B7), and as such could serve as the phonetic complement of the name Imn. 0 ---==1CM 473 The fifth sign could be identified as a horizontal branch of palm (Matouk 1977: I 01, 384, No. 549), or alternatively another form of the hieroglyph n (Rowe 1936: 89, Pl. 9:354; 147, Pl. 16:613; Matouk 1977: 217-18, 411-12, Nos. 2388-93). Such a sign also appears on other scarabs that are connected with the name of Imn (Flinders Petrie 1906: 15, Pl. 11:220 =Flinders Petrie 1925: Pl. 19:1556; Loud 1948: Pl. 149:1; Giveon 1988: 60, No. 62). The sixth sign, a horizontal feather, could be identified as the air-god Sw, the word m3't, 'truth' (Gardiner 1973: 474, Sign-list H 6), or the name of the truth-goddess. The seventh sign, a wickerwork basket, is the word nb, whose meaning is 'all' or 'lord' (Gardiner 1973: 525, Signlist V 30). A possible reading could thus be lmn-R" nb m3'.-t, 'Amun-Ra, lord of truth.' Typology The scarab is attributed to the group of scarabs with phrases that are 'mottoes' or 'good wishes' (Newberry 1906: 78, Pis. 39-40). Date The scarab may be dated to the 26th (Saite) Egyptian Dynasty on the basis of two factors, its typology and its writing system. 'Phrase' scarabs are very common during the 26th Dynasty. Writing in a perpendicular direction is com monon scarabs of the 26th Dynasty (Grenfell1910: 129, PI 3: 118; Barrois 1927: 263, Fig. 3:B; Carriere and Barroi: 1927: 138, Fig. 6:2; Culican 1972: 118, Fig. A, center o upper row; Hornung and Staehelin 197 6: 230-31, Nos. 20 I 204). CONCLUSIONS The scarab under discussion was found in a phase generali) attributed by the excavators to the period postdating the Assyrian conquest, more specifically between 720 and 650/630 BCE. Since the scarab is dated to the 26th (Saite) Egyptian Dynasty, which ruled between 664 and 525 BCE, there is a strong possibility that it was found in its primary archaeological context, thereby contributing to the dating of the end of the phase. However, since the material of phase 9 is not in situ, the scarab could belong to the next phase as well. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Prof. E. Stern and Mrs. A. Gilboa for their invitation to publish this find, and to Mr. T. Schneider for editing the manuscript. The photographs were taken by Mr. I. Sztulmann, and the drawings were made by Miss S. Halbreich under my guidance. ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Barrois 1927 Carriere and Barrois 1927 A. Barrois, Chronique II: Fouilles a Neirab, septembre-novembre 1926, Revue Biblique 36: 257-65. B. Carriere and A. Barrois, Fouilles de !'Ecole Archeologique Francaise de Jerusalem effectuees a Neirab du 24 septembre au 5 novembre 1926, Syria 8: 125-42. Culican 1972 W. Culican, Phoenician Remains from Drioton 1960 Gibraltar, Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 2: 110-45. E. Drioton, La valeur cryptographique du Hall 1913 Hornung and Staehelin 1976 Kitchen 1973 Loud 1948 Matouk 1977 signe representant la barque solaire avec le disque, Revue d'Egyptologie 12: 89-90. Flinders Petrie 1906 W.M. Flinders Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Matthiae Scandone 1975 Cities, London. Flinders Petrie !925 W.M. Flinders Petrie, Buttons and Design Scarabs, London. Gardiner 1973 A. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed. Giveon 1988 Grenfell !910 Grenfell 1915 474 revised), London. R. Giveon, Scarabs from Recent Excavations in Israel (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 83), Freiburg Schweiz. A. Grenfell, The Rarer Scarabs, etc., of the New Kingdom, Recueil de Travaux Relatift a Ia Philo/ogie eta l'Archeologie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes 32: 113-36. A. Grenfell, The Ka on Scarabs, Recuei/ de Travaux Relatifs a Ia Philoiogie et a l'Archeologie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes 37: 77-93. Newberry I 906 H.R. Hall, Catalogue of Egyptian Scarabs, etc.. in the British Museum Vol. I. Royal Scarabs, London. E. Hornung and E. Staehelin, Skarabaen und andere Siegelamulette aus Basler Sammlungen (Agyptische Denkmaler in der Schweiz I), Mainz. K.A. Kitchen, Barke, Lexikon der A.gyptologie 1: 619-25, Wiesbaden. G. Loud, Megiddo II: Seasons of 1935-39, Chicago. F.S. Matouk, Corpus du scarabee egyptien. II: analyse thtmatique, Beirut. G. Matthiae Scandone, Scarabei e scaraboidi egioziani ed egittizzanti del Museo Naziona!e di Cagliari, Roma. P.E. Newberry, Scarabs: An Introduction to the Study ofEgyptian Seals and Signet Rings, London. Rowe 1936 Schlick-Nolte and von Droste zu Hulshoff 1990 Starkey and Lankester Harding 1932 A. Rowe, A Catalogue of Egyptian Scarabs, Scaraboids, Seals and Amulets in the Palestine Archaeological Museum, Cairo. B. Schlick-Nolte and V. von Droste zu Hulshoff, Skarabaen, Amu/ette und Schmuck (Liebieghaus-Museum Alter Plastik, Frankfurt am Main, Agyptische Bildwerke, Band 1), Melsungen. J.L. Starkey and Lankester Harding, Beth-Pelet Cemetery, in: E. Macdonald, J.L. Starkey, and Lankester Harding, Beth-Pe/et II, London.
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