Document 11172

LMSC/F071319A
FINAL
REPORT -
SPACE
VOL.
STATION
II
STUDY RESULTS
ACCOMMODATIONS
FOR
LIFE
PHASE
FOR
SCIENCES
A CONCEPTUAL
MISSIONS
RESEARCH
DESIGN
SAAX0307,
& PROCRAI_qATICS
SAAX0302,
SAAX0307
TO
FORT
HE
AND
GEORGE
AEROMAUTIC$
C.
CHANGE
_
SPACE
M._RF_I'ATJ. SPACE
FLIGHT
ALABAMA
MISSILES
C0_RANY,
BIOASTROIAUTICS
SUNNYVALE,
FROM
ORDERS 5 AND
ADMINISTRATION
CENTER
35812
& SPACE
ASTRONAUTICS
TRANSITION
1986
UNDER CONTRACT NAS8-35472
NATIONAL
THE
STUDIES
SAAX0302
MARCH 31,
PREPARED
FACILITIES
DMSION
CA
94088
INC.
7
LHSC/F071319A
FOREWORD
This
report
tract
has
been
NAS8-35472.
Change
Orders
constitutes
Prior
It
5 and
the
reports
7 for
the
i.
under
provides
the
completion
in
Task
prepared
the
series
under
Parameter
Task
2.
3.
Final
Change
Package
July
Order
3 Special
LMSC/D962181
report
Volume
II
pages
Study
Center
called
Results.
5.
Package
Package
include:
-
-
1983
Design
_ LMSC/D914369
Review.
Flight
1983
Data
Conceptual
Space
NAS8-35472
Data
- October
Preliminary
Data
o
contract
Tradeoff/Analysis
-
Requirement
- August
LMSC/D914366
Task
Report
Analysis
LMSC/DgI4350
Marshall
supplemental
Final
of Data
NASA
Requirements
- January
1984
1985
Report
- LSRF
- August
1985
Bioisolation
Study
-
confor
by
This
I,ZCSC/O71319A
TABLE
OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD
List
List
of
of
Acronyms
Illustrations
Tables
And
Abbreviations
I
INTRODUCTION
i-I
i.i
BACKGROUND
i-I
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
Previous
1.2
STUDY
1.3
ASSUMPTIONS
1-4-
2
SUMMARY
2-I
2.1
REQUIREMENTS
2-i
2.2
CONCEPTUAL
2.3
PROGRAMMATICS
3
SUBTASK
3. I REQUIREMENTS
3-i
3.1
SCIENCE
REQUIREMENTS
3-i
3.1.1
Life
3.1.2
Updated
Experiment
3.2
MISSION
REQUIREMENTS
3.2.1
3.2.2
Reconfiguration
Scenarios
Rodent
Emphasis
Mission
with BMVP
(Bone, Muscle,
Vestibular,
Plant)
Small Primate
Mission
MF (Muscle,
Fluids)
Large Primate
Mission
CFVP (Cardiovascular,
Fluids,
Vestibular,
Plants)
Rat Mission
MFRP (Metabolism,
Fluids,
Reproduction,
Plants)
3-12
3.3
ENGINEERING
3-18
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
LSRF Functional
Requirements
Tradeoff
Analysis
& Update
Engineering
Requirements
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
Contract
Work
NASA Relationships
Relationship
to Space
OBJECTIVES
Science
AND
Station
Program
APPROACH
DEFFINITIONS
AND
I-I
1-2
1-2
i"3
DESIGNS
2-5
2-10
Experiment
Data
Characteristics
3-3
Sheets
3-6
3-11
REQUIREMENTS
ii
3-13
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-27
LHSC/071319A
3-31
3.4
OPERATIONS
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
Premission
Sequence
On-Orbit
Sequence
Post-Mission
Support
Ground-Based
Facility
4
SUBTASK
4.1
LAYOUT
4.1.1
4.1.2
Horizontal
Layouts
Vertical
Layouts
4.2
SAAX0302
4.2.1
4.2.2
Horizontal
Layouts
Vertical
Layouts
4-10
4-14
4.3
INTERNAL
LAYOUT
VS HORIZONTAL
4-18
REQUIREMENTS
3.2
Support
CONCEPTUAL
OPTIONS
FULL
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
DEFF]ITI_TION_-ND
- SAAX0307
(HALF
DESIGNS
4-i
4-2
MODULE)
4-2
4-8
LABORATORY
OPTIONS
4-10
OPTIONS-VERTICAL
4.4
SUBSYSTEMS
4.4.1
4.4.2
Electrical
4.5
CONCEPT
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
Internal
Layouts
for Mission
SAAX0307
Internal
Layouts
for Mission
SAAX0302
Transitioning
From Mission
SAAX 0307
to SAAX0302
4-26
4-27
5
SUBT_LSK
5-i
5.1
WORK
5.1.1
WBS
5.2
TECHNOLOGY
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
Variable
Gravity
Research
Centrifuge
Metabolic
Measurement
System
Cage Washer
5-7
5-10
5-15
5.3
COST
5-2O
5.3.1
5.3.2
DDT&E
Secondary
4-19
Power
and
Standard
Interfaces
Structure-Equipment
Mounting
EFFECTIVENESS
3.3
4-26
PROGRANNATICS
BREAKDOWN
STRUCTURE
AND
DICTIONARY
DEVELOPMENT
REQUIREMENTS
ESTIMATES
Costs
Operations
4-28
5-i
5-I
Dictionary
Annual
Options
4-19
4-19
Cost
Estimate
iii
5-7
5-22
5-32
LI_CI071319A
5.4
PRELIMINARY
SCHEDULES
AND
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
Science
Management
Implementation
Engineering
LSRF Operations
Project
Summary
Program
Schedules
iv
PLANS
5-35
5-35
5-36
5-38
5-40
5-45
LP_C/FO71319A
LIST
Study
Flow
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS
Diagram
2-i
2-2
Full Lab
Equipment
3-I
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
Bone Loss Experiment
Data Sheet
Cardlopulmonary
Function
Data Sheet
Fluid Balance
Data Sheet
Plant Growth
Data Sheet
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
Folding
Bloisolation
Partition
Flow-Through
Mlcroisolator
Cage
Dual Mlcroisolator
Cage Concept
Animal
ECLSS - Option
1
Distributed
Temperature
and Humidity
Centralized
Holding
Facility
Temperature
Centallzed
Animal
ECLSS
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-9
3-10
3-11
4-I
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
Concept
With Large Centrifuge
(Option
#8)
Identification
by Rack Location
for Option
Engineering
& Operational
and Interfaces
Relationships,
Control
& Humidity
#8
Control
2-6
2-7
3-23
3-24
3-25
Interactions,
3-31
Option
#I, Half Lab, Horizontal,
Small Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#i
Option
#2 Half Lab Horizontal
Layout
in Modified
Racetrack
Pattern
With Large Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#2
Option
#3.
Half Lab Vertical
Layout
With Small Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#3
Option
#4.
Half Lab Vertical
Wlth Large Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#4
Option
#5.
Full Lab Horizontal
Layout
With Small Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#5
Option
#6.
Full Lab Modified
Racetrack
Horizontal
Layout
With Large Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#6
Option
#7.
Full Lab Vertical
Arrangement
With Small
Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#7
Option
7A.
Full Lab With Second
Centrifuge
or Minilab
Options
Equipment
for Option
#7A
Option
#8
Full Lab With Large Centrifuge
Equipment
for Option
#8
Typical
Electrical
Interfaces
- Half Lab
Rack Standard
Interface
Candidates
4-5
4-6
Secondary
Structure
Secondary
Structure
Rack Approaches
for
4-31
4-32
4-33
in Module
and Wall Access
Considerations
Transition
and Reconfiguration
V
4-7
4-8
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-20
4-21
4-22
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-28
4-29
LHSC/F071SIgA
Page
5-i
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
Work
Work
Breakdown
Breakdown
Structure
Structure
Level
5
Dual Rotor Centrifuge
Showing
Two-Arm
Service
MMS Waste Separator
and Collector
MMS Urlne-Feces
Collector
Prototype
Closed Metabolic
Measurement
System
Concept
Open Metabolic
Measurement
System
Concept
Steam Cleaner
Conceptual
Design
Steam Cleaner
Schematic
Conceptual
Schematic
Design
of Heat
Funding
Profiles
Space Station
LSRF
Space Station
LSRF
Space Station
LSRF
Space Station
LSRF
of Heat
Cleaner
Cleaner
IOC Summary
Schedule
Phase B Schedule
Phase C Schedule
Phase D Schedule
vi
Rotor
5-2
5-3
5-10
5-12
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-16
5-17
5-19
5-19
5-31
5-46
5-47
5-48
5-49
LHSC/F071319A
LIST
OF 7ABI_$
Page
TABLE
LAYOUT
3-i
LIST
4-i
4-2
LAYOUT
4-3
RESEARCH
EQUIPMENT
FOR NONHUMAN
LIFE SCIENCES:
HALF-MODULE
DECISION
ANALYSIS
FOR HORIZONTAL
VS. VERTICAL
ARRANGEMENTS
EVALUATION
OF LAYOUT
OPTIONS
(HALF LAB)
EVALUATION
OF LAYOUT
OPTIONS
(FULL LAB)
4-4
4-5
4-6
5-i
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
OPTIONS
2-5
2-i
OF
CONSIDERED
STRAWMAN
OPTIONS
3-2
EXPERIMENTS
4-i
CONSIDERED
RESEARCH
EQUIPMENT
HALF-MODULE
FOR
NONHUMAN
LIFE
SCIENCES:
FIRST
4-3
SAAX0307
AND SAAX0302
DDT&E AND OPERATIONS
DDT&E COST ESTIMATE
FOR SAAX0307
COST ESTIMATE
FOR SAAX0302
FUNDING
PROFILES
FOR SAAX0307
AND SAAX0302
PROGRAM
OPERATING
COSTS SAAX0302
AND SAX0307
vii
SECOND
4-4
INTERNAL
4-26
4-34
4-35
COST
FOR
($M)
A
5-22
5-23
5-27
7 YEAR
5-32
5-33
I21SC/F071319A
ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS
AC
ADU
AN
AO
ARC
BMVP
Ca
CELSS
CER
CFVP
CO2
CV
DDT&E
ECLSS
EDO
EKG
EMC
EMI
EUE
EVA
FC
FOC
FY
Alternating
Current
Advanced
Development
Unit
Applications
Notice
Announcement
of Opportunity
Ames Research
Center
Bone, Muscle,
Vestibular,
Plant
Calcium
g
GPWS
GSFC
HRF
IOC
IVA
JSC
Earth Gravity
General
Purpose
Work Station
Goddard
Space Flight
Center
Human Research
Facility
Initial
Orbital
Configuration
Intra-Vehicular
Activity
Johnson
Space Center
Kilogram
Kennedy
Space Center
Kilowatt
kg
KSC
kw
LMSC
LSLE
LSRF
m
MF
MFRP
MIL-STD
MMS
MPC
raps
MSFC
NASA
ORU
PD
PI
Controlled
Ecological
Life Support
Cost Estimating
Relationship
Cardiovascular,
Fluids,
Vestibular,
Carbon
Dioxide
Cardiovascular
System
Plants
Design,
Development,
Test, & Evaluation
Environmental
Control
and Life Support
System
Engineering
Development
Unit
Electrocardiograph
Electromagnetic
Capability
Electromagnetic
Interference
Experiment
Unique
Equipment
Extra-Vehlcular
Activity
Factor
of Complexity
Follow-on
(also Final)
Orbital
Configuration
Fiscal Year
(also
Lockheed
Missiles
& Space Company,
Life Sciences
Laboratory
Equipment
Life Sciences
Research
Facilities
Meter
Muscle,
Fluids
Metabolism,
Fluids,
Reproduction,
Military
Standard
Metabolic
Measurement
System
Mission
Production
Center
Meter Per Second
Capability)
Inc.
Plants
George
C. Marshall
Space Flight
Center
National
Aeronautics
& Space Administration
Oxygen
Operations
Orbital
Replacement
Unit
Preliminary
Design
Principle
Investigator
viii
Iav_C/F071319A
ACRONYMS&
_BREWT.A_0_
POCC
RAHF
RFI
RFP
RTOP
SAAX0302
Payload
Operations
Control
Center
Research
Animal
Holding
Facility
Radio Frequency
Interference
Request
For Proposal
Research/Technology
Operations
Plan
Science
Mission
of a Full Laboratory
Nonhuman
Life Sciences
SAAX0307
Science
Nonhuman
SASP
SLM
SPF
SS
SSPE
SSSC
SSST
STS
UV
VGRC
WBS
Yr
SK
Science
Applications
Space Platform
Science
Laboratory
Module
Specific
Pathogen
Free
Space Station
Space Station
Program
Element
Space Station
Support
Center
Space Station
Systems
Trainer
Space Transportation
System
Ultra-Violet
Variable
Gravity
Research
Centrifuge
Work Breakdown
Structure
Year
Thousand
of Dollars
Millions
of Dollars
SM
Module
for
Mission
of a Half Laboratory
Module
for
Life Sciences
and Half for Human Life Sciences
ix
LMSC/F071319A
SECTION
1
INTRODUCTION
This
study
presents
designs
and
Research
Facility
an
to
(FOC),
SAAX0307
the
respectively.
a
Concepts
i.I
the
study
LSRF,
a
FOC
Station
growth
or
required
LSRFs
is organized
from
conceptual
Life
Sciences
programmatics
encompass
Follow-on
Orbital
to
the
modify
correspond
Mission
results
(LMSC's)
Nonhuman
and
process
report
project
Station
designs
and
Space
final
and
3.3
IOC
Company's
to
IOC
missions
Requirements
Database,
with
this
introduction,
subtasks
3.1
Requirements,
Programmatics.
BACKGROUND
i.i.i
LMSC
and
Space
(IOC)
The
of
summary,
a
transitional
LSRF.
The
technical
3.2
the
SAAX0302
& Space
Conceptual
Capability
and
FOC
and
for
(LSRF).
Orbital
Capability
Missiles
programmatics
Initial
LSRF
Lockheed
Previous
began
studies
NAS8-35472
1983.
Contract
from
Initial
concept
of
the
work
Orientation
2.
Task
4.
.
Research
Marshall
focused
on
data
work
Briefing
1 Parameter
Space
base
produced
- June
Analysis
Facilities
building
the
8,
Data
Flight
Center
plus
following
under
a
contract
(MSFC)
limited
in May
overall
reports:
1983
Package
- LMSC/D914350
- August
1983
Midterm
Task
31,
.
Sciences
C.
This
le
.
Life
George
description.
3,
Work
Review
- August
2 Tradeoff
16,
Analysis
1983
Data
Package
- LMSC/D914366
- October
1983
Task
3 Preliminary
LMSC
/D914369
Final
Subsequently,
- January
Executive
the
contract
analysis
dealing
with
resulted
in the
report:
Conceptual
Review
was
isolation
Design
Requirements
Data
Package
-
1984
- May
1984
extended
between
i-1
to
crew
conduct
and
an
nonhuman
in-depth
specimens.
tradeoff
This
L_[SC/F071319A
7.
LSRF
Finally
the
Bioisolatlon
contract
Design
Requirements"
work.
It also
o
9.
1.1.2
The
was
Midterm
Study
Final
Review
technical
direction
of
Boeing
Company
the
provided
by
headquaters
ARC
Life
also
focused
first
describing
The
Center
with
SAAX
would
grow
the
0307.
into
Relationship
original
Station
and
work
an
a
"Preliminary
is
the
Conceptual
culmination
time
ARC
assessment
of
that
work
NASA
has
ARC's
been
on
manager
strawman
on
has
been
direction
of
NASA
is Roger
Arno.
Douglas
which
equipment
list
these
the
conduct-
behalf
sciences
based
Douglas
were
McDonnell
life
under
Program
(ARC)
by
MSFC
studies
program
of
by
period.
Center
efforts
of
guided
Parallel
same
The
of
and
54
repre-
experiments
conducting
on
as a
studies
of
automation.
studies
has
related
been
and
in
Management
LSRF
under
Later,
its
Station
this
Science
under
as
Company.
Space
would
mission
sciences,
of
a Human
a
subcontractor
The
HRF
Station
separate
SAAX
NASA's
Research
would
life
as
the
to
share
sciences
nonhuman
0302.
Program
contract
and
work
initial
missions
module
to Space
under
the
life
studies
this
Services
these
own
to nonhuman
managing
participated
unmanned
was
Hilchey.
McDonnell
(JSC)
LMSC
above
related
LMSC
above
Engineering
facilities
1.1.3
1985
Research
protocols
and
the
(HRF).
mission,
24,
Division.
recently,
to
Space
Lockheed
1985
the
Ames
technology
centrifuges
In addition
LSRF
a
D.
during
directly
science
More
Facility
report
3,
background
NASA
expeirments.
reference.
Johnson
- May
John
Sciences
on
the
research
This
- July
the
Dr.
the
managed
sentative
develop
1985
Relationships
in
was
package.
Review
described
by
to
- August
included:
work
ed
- LMSC/D962181
amended
data
Study
NASA
Study
considered
Applications
I-2
Space
both
a
Platform
manned
(SASP)
Space
as
LMSC/F071319A
the
potential
carriers
its
intention
to develop
focused
Under
sharply
Phase
assigned
a
0302
Phase
B
from
that
were
SLM
Likewise,
The
study
overall
mend
LSRF
results
of
studies,
a
for
established
and
to
second
here
was
the
entire
ing
lab.
divisions,
followed
by
cost
overall
No
effort
a
to
estimates
space
an
station
the
station.
is
announced
the
studies
Headquarters
outfitting
Missions
SAAX
conducting
one
of
the
Data
or
tradeoff
under
this
LSRF
study
for
GSFC
work.
the
direction
of
the
flow
diagram
shown
of
0307
RCA.
to
their
eg,
of
to
GSFC
and
GSFC
results
MSFC.
Code
technology
schedule
MSFC
for
schedule.
i-3
from
The
recom-
and
engi-
a
brief
the
design
to
earlier
requirements
scenarios
be
were
reconfigured
design.
the
common
or
Space
and
LSRF
module
between
ARC,
on
or
requirements
selected
The
approach
the
into
a
basis
of
function-
roles
the
All
of
on
the
Station,
requirements.
estimates
to
included
mission
conceptual
or
science
understanding
distinguish
E
the
I-I.
module.
station
and
and
mission
ability
structure
a space
options
trades
sample
an
the
breakdown
made
four
achieve
with
key
and
LSRF
Fig.
objective
selected
for
in
against
this
engineering
to
design
evaluation
of
Sciences,
and
to manage
conceptual
a complete
was
definition
the
concepts
was
(GSFC)
LMSC
addition,
converting
Life
and
NASA
to
approach
In
the
centers,
eg.,
on
the
a work
of
Station
studies,
account
on
associated
job
NASA
into
update
of
objective
to develop
different
into
layout
data
module.
focus
The
transition
programmatics
Space
NASA
Design
the
influenced
based
an
test
continued,
APPROACH
reference.
to
for
following
to
science,
and
structure
A
AND
choice
manned
subcontract
have
requirements.
review
this
taken
conducted
best
neering
been
was
project
Center
(SLM)
to
OBJECTIVES
objective
the
Preliminary
Flight
under
have
was
the
orbit
assigned
work
STUDY
and
Module
studies
As
carrier.
Space
Laboratory
SAAX
1.2
this
Goddard
LSRF.
a permanently
B Definition
the
Science
on
for
of
different
the
NASA
Code
S.
This
was
of
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I24SC/F071319A
SECTION2
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Summary
in Sections
2.1
of
the
three
projects
subtasks
reported
5.
section
Space
meet
the
program
plan.
to meet
these
addresses
Statlon
Life
objectives
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the
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as well
science,
mission,
interest
to
is
the
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needed
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orbital
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plant
animals)
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experiments
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great
of
how
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more
analyses.
function.
the
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two
thought
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also
the
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strength,
earliest
are
result.
require
is
of
to understanding
address
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studying
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and
extensive
in
which
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because
crewmembers
including
the
lunar
priority
importance
changes
human
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Life
experiments
CELSS
physiological
and
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nonhuman
the
of
Facilities
biology.
how
process
The
on
biologists,
sensed,
NASA
biomedical
extended
of
basic
series
animals.
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highest
problems
Research
accommodates
gravitional
biomedical
the
development
for
with
Sciences
research
future
studies
gravity
with
needed
as
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objectives.
coordinated
support
and
highlights
considerations.
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4, and
requirements
tions
be
3,
the
REQUIREMENTS
The
to
presents
stringent
Some
be
most
in
of
Station.
the
important
muscle
Studies
in
in
mass,
those
LI4SC/F071319A
Most life sciences experiments will need to be repeated many times. Repetition of an experiment unchangedwould be for the purpose of confirming the
results.
In most cases an experiment would be modified when repeated, to
extend the information obtained the previous time. Someexperiments may be
repeated one or more times during a 90-day mission.
Other studies will
require holding specimens on the station for multiples of 90 days; examples
are long-term radiation effects, and multi-generation studies on mammals.
A prioritized
list of strawman experiments is provided in Section 3, Table
3-I.
Data sheets have been developed for all of the 54 experiments in the
list;
these were updated from earlier work and four are shown in this report
(Figures 3-I thru 3-4).
The experiment data are used in defining core
equipment (basic items generic to life sciences research) to be accommodated
in the LSRF.
Mission.
There
inclination,
near-term).
the
use
of
are
no
viewing
Life
live
angles,
missions
specimens,
however.
and
transfer
plant
of
that
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or
and
of
the
the
on
sis,
and
ground
and
for
analysis.
extremely
labile,
bioisolatlon
facilities
control
for
without
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and
which
carrying
danger
include
testing,
IOC
or
related
to
to prevent
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surrounding
is more
accurate
out
of
use
of
transfer,
research
contamination
chemicals,
dissection,
of
mass
analy-
specimens.
freezers
to maintain
preserving
biological
Because
(at
requirements
with
these
animals
of
servicing
or
include:
bench(es)
examination,
preservation
Refrigerators
especially
lab.
altitude
module.
work
and
orbital
EVA
special
facilities,
between
flow
or
determinations,
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laboratory
plants
specimens
have
or
temperature/humidity
laminar
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particular
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do
holding
microbes
laboratory,
for
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than
requirements
many
cryogenic
of
the
unstable
specimens
constituents
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chemicals,
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for
of
and
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study
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to
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study
unscreened
identified
a
crew,
reduces
the
its
contract
briefly
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while
primates
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the
study,
strict
very
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change
report
SPF
order
issues
#5.
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(LMSC/D962181,
animals
specifically)
of
perhaps
were
results
August
85)
in
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of
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life
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the
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advances
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fully
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technology
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and
at
address
costs
the
IOC.
lab
which
groundrules
1987 million
module
in
is protoflight
functional
by
Sec.
design,
for
LSRF
The
portion
SAAX0302
becomes
used
to
IOC
operagenerate
following:
approach
for WBS
The
in
and
animal-plant
constant
are
(DDT&E)
Laboratory
the
in
presented
a racetrack
configuration
program
elements
applying
dollars
and
factors
non-flight
arrived
at
hardware
by
engineering
judge-
ment
o
Weights
work,
for
life
adjusted
science
in
some
flight
cases
hardware
to
are
reflect
based
on earlier
current
to
items
are
LSRF
reflect
current
thinking
Cost
Estimating
Relationships
basis
of weight,
ments
within
each
equipment
to
be
lower
lower
a complexity
each
CER
item.
or
or higher
(CERs)
The
higher
than
can
in
be
for
factor,
made
normal
by
and
state
assigning
factor
complexity
equipment
is
should
unity.
2-9
of
be
development.
a complexity
unity.
computed
An
assigned
Cost
factor
equipment
a
on
adjust(FC)
item
complexity
the
for
deemed
factor
LHSC/FO71319A
Equipment costs
also
item.
For
flight
qualified
Each
example,
Funding
The
status
assumed
with
a
DDT&E
Annual
in
detailed
dedicated
animal-plant
with
tion,
the
plan
appears
and
implementation
and
ated
LSRF
are
with
phased
provide
program
and
full
commenced
in
of Phase
C/D.
SAAX0302
were
a
1986
1993).
The
and
the
exists
as
year
that
profiles
costs.
reflected
its
constructed
through
7.5
of
development
that
upon
FY
or
number
initiation
based
first
launch.
program.
the
are
It was
program
based
to
ends
upon
the
5.2.1.
for
pre-launch,
LSRF
on-orbit,
portion
vivarium
lab
program
Station
of
the
are
encompasses
phasing,
to
assembly,
post-return
combined
(SAAX0302)
plan
and
lab
(SAAX0307)
presented
a
phased
accomplish
the
verification,
operational
in Sec.
approach,
requirements
integration
and
the
5.3.2.
consisdefiniand
all
support.
in
Sec.
5.4
engineering
resupply
with
start
SAAX0307
(March
a
status
developed
for
assigned
the
development
been
charged
generated
development,
The
be
at
from
to
already
was
exist
1993
LSRF
Space
of mission
changeout
FY
has
Missions
are
the
The
design,
aspects
LSRF
costs
involving
tent
it will
relative
not
therefore,
in Sec.
activities
Plan.
that
should
start
mid
operations
Program
item
2.3)
program
launch
adjusted
requirements
(Fig.
that
costs
as
for
funding
profiles
an
item,
profiles
evaluate
be
hardware
equipment
development
can
and
addresses:
LSRF
and
training;
developmental
phases;
the
a generalized
overall
overview
SS
of
operation
a
and
project
and
LSRF
schedule.
an
science
2-10
mission
summary
project
These
end-to-end
management,
planning,
of
activities
project
sections,
LSRF
development
system.
equipment
associ-
schedules
taken
that
together,
LMSCIF071319A
SECTION
Subtask
This
section
Research
develops
Facilities.
scientific
needs
experiments.
Jand
3.1
SCIENCE
The
official
is
report
the
list
The
on
NASA
issued
those
individual
1985
developed,
of
life
the
science
including
would
four
correspond
to
needs
an
station.
include
functional
analyses
in
system.
section
the
and
areas
Engineering
concludes
premission,
with
of
require-
discussion
on-orbit,
were
in
plan
in
the
the
questions,
both
and
"SLM
Lockheed
reassessed
to
in
of
post-mission,
Quick
Midterm
the
the
animal
reproduced
Look
to
a
and
plant
as
Table
here
Data
Report
according
and
discuss
"Red
Table
priorities
(Life
The
the
study
later
In
would
experiments
as
of
which
experiments
LMSC
1985.
suggested
disciplines.
tized
overview
Base",
of
April
1985,
perception
practicality
of
ORI
of
the
the
experi-
Station.
Headquarters
June
the
scientific
that
or
Sciences
priorities
priorities
group
The
an
Sciences
support
confirmed
I0,
Space
realized
the
control
including
Life
from
April
important
ments
of
was
experiment
most
are
These
described.
with
Life
REQUIREMENTS
list
of
to
Station
characteristics
compatibility
requirements
provided
This
flights
environmental
facility
set
scenarios
sciences
is
ground-based
3-i.
the
Space
requirements
follow.
the
documentation
areas
stage
of
mission
life
operations
and
is
logistics
key
bioisolation
LSRF
the
discussion
requirements
of
ments
a
the
90-day-interval
update
for
mission-reconfiguration
Engineering
in
and
REQUIREMENTS
requirements
First,
Then
hypothesized
the
the
3.1
3
are
produce
Sciences
Space
scientists
directed
Book"
3-I
a
highly
Station
organized
for
objectives.
containing
3-I
although
and
a
in
objectives
those
same,
it
that
is
another
list.
experiments
outlined
8/29/85,
the
subjective,
different
Division)
toward
of
remained
human,
scientific
several
each
The
workshop
life
area
and
results
plant,
sciences
and
priori-
have
animal
been
ORIGINAU
OF POOR
TABLE 3-1
PROPOSED
PRIORITY(')
REFERENCE
PRIORITY C_
MDAC
NO. _)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(W)
(w)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(W)
(W)
(A)
(W)
(W)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(W)
(A)
(W)
(A)
(W)
(W)
(W)
(A)
(A)
(A)
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
L24
L25
B18
819
820
821
822
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
828
(A)
(W)
(W)
(W)
(w)
(A)
(W)
(W)
(A)
(k)
(W)
(W)
(A)
VP
VP
BL
BL
CV
BD
RD
RD
RD
RD
RD
RD
RD
2g
3
2
3
3
3
5
6
1
2c
7
8
2b
30
31
3
4
11
36
38
39
32
35
40
41
34
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
53
53
54
829
B30
B31
832
E33(L26)
834(L27)
835(L28)
836
837
B6
(A) l_D
(X)
RD
(W) MB
(W) MB
(A) PC
(w) PC
(W) PC
(A) RE
(A) RB
(W) ML
4
2a
2
3
5
10
i1
I
2
2
37
33
17
18
48
53
54
42
43
8
2 Reference
3 MDAC No:
4LMSC
mo.:
"
LMSC
NO. _)
B1
E2
B3
B4
S5
B7
L1
L2
El6
817
L5
Bg(L7)
B9(L8)
BI0(L9)
811(L10)
BI2(LII)
B13(L12)
B14(L13)
B15(L14)
LI5
L3
L4
L6
LI6
L17
L18
LI9
L20
L21
L22
.
L23
priority:
QUALI'I_j
LIST OF STRAWF_AN EXPERIMENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
I Proposed
L_C/FO71319A
PKGE
BLla
ML la
MB la
MB 4
EL 4
FE la
BL lb
HI. lb
VP 1
VP 2a
VP 2b
PC i
PC 3
PC 8
PC 9
PC 2
PC 6
PC 7
PC 4
FE Ib
CV i
CV 2
VP 2c
FE 2
MB lb
MB 5
MB 6
MB 7
VP 2d
VP 2e
VP 2f
LMSC recommended
1
6
15
19
5
12
2
7
23
24
25
44
46
51
52
45
49
50
47
13
9
I0
26
14
16
20
21
22
27
28
29
starting
TITLE
Calcium/Bone
Mineral
balance
on rats
Nitrogen
balance
and
change
in rat
muscle
structure
Metabolic
balance
changes
in rats
Respiratory
quotient
(O2/CO 2) changes
in rats
Calcium/Mineral
balance
in rats
using
nonradioactive
tracers
Fluid/electrolyte
changes
in rats
Calcium/Mineral
balance
on squirrel
monkeys
Nitrogen
balance
and change
in squirrel
monkey
muscle
structure
Vestibular
organ
structural
change
in rats
Vestibular
system
operation
changes
in rats
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in squirrel
monkeys
Plant
development
following
sprouting
Plant
growth
in Og
Multiple
generation
plant
growth
Gas balance
on plants
Gravitational
strength
and orientation
effects
on plant
development
Weightlessness
effects
on microscopic
plants
Geotropism
threshold
experiments
Prototype
CELSS plant
unit
Fluid/electrolyte
changes
in squirrel
monkeys
Cardiovascular
function
changes
in restrained
Rhe._
Cardiovascular
system
changes
in restrained
Rhesus
monkeys
monkeys
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in Rhesus
monkeys
Fluid
shifts
in restrained
Rhesus
monkeys
Metabolic
balance
in squirrel
monkeys
Respiratory
quotient
(O2/C02)
in squirrel
monkeys
Energy
expenditure/CO
2 production
in squirrel
monkeys
Time-dependent
glucose
metabolism
changes
in squirrel
Vestibular
system
operation
changes
in cats
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in pigeons
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in frogs
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in goldfish
Vestibular
system
function
changes
in squirrel
monkeys
Bone development
in early
stages
of rat
fetuses
Bone development
Development
of
Multigeneration
in early
pregnancy
over
multiple
rat
CV reflexes,
sensors
changes
in rat
reprod,
behavior
Rat development
Rat
post
natal
development
at 19 days
Multiple
generation
mouse
development
Mouse
development
Rat
development
cycle
following
birth
in
Determine
gravity
threshold
for
development
Early
development
in chickens
Chicken
development
and hatching
Early
development
in frogs
Changes
in mouse
metabolism
Recovery
in mouse
metabolism
to lg
Prototype
algae
CELSS unit
Plant
lignificaCion
Plant
growth
race
changes
due to
light/dark
Passive
radiation
dosage
in mice
Passive
radiation
dosage
in mice
Nitrogen
balance
and
rat
muscle
structure
point
for
use
of
experiments
in
trade
rat
and
plant
growth
RE- radiation
bone
loss
RD- animal
development
cardiovascular
VP- vestibular
system
fluid/electrolyte
MB- metabolic
balance
muscle
loss
experiment
numerical
listing
specified
in Appendix
Sciences
_esearch
Facility
System
analysis
Study
3-2
1
-
Parameter
generations
develop.
Og
changes
in
rats
cycle
changes
studies
Analysis
tracers
with
based
blending
of
reference
priorities
priority:
Prioritised
list
of experiments
specified
in Rilchey
memorandum
dated
October
B-Boeing;
L-Lockheed
(A) Ames Research
Center
report
"Life
Sciences
Research
and the
Science
and Applications
(W) "Experiments
Derived
from
the
1982
Life
Science
Workshops"
by Reinrich
(ARC)
PC=
BLCVFEML=
lockheed
Life
monkeys
Data
on
a
12,
1983
Space
Package
Platform"
-
LHSC/FO71319A
studies.
the
The
selection
responsibility
of
of
experiments
NASA
and
to
its
be
done
advisory
on
Space
committees
Station
and
is
will
be
still
pend-
studies
have
ing.
3.1.1
In
Life
terms
of
several
The
Science
science
physiological
bone
which
changes
muscle
sampling
of
the
distinguish
and
changes.
specimens
specimens
in
them
vestibular
animals,
in
occur
rapidly
be
areas.
rates
and
relative
to
therefore,
time-course
would
other
different
systems,
the
they
studies
exhibit
these
during
sciences
from
changes
of
intervals
large
life
microgravity
Studies
at
are
definition
found
Cardiovascular
and
Characteristics
requirement
characteristics
durations.
If
Experiment
of
examined
require
the
changes.
and
tested
at
I
intervals.
If
provide
dissected,
return
storage
Each
some
space
observations
in
and
should
different
does
be
case
be
of
experiment.
The
NASA
list
of
species
for
a mission
and
skills
a
provided
facilities
equipment
one
variety
in
will
depend
and
other
on
should
studies.
The
tissues
many
the
time
factors.
3-3
analysis,
one
numbers
of
and
skills
water,
be
mission.
for
required,
and
Many
sample,
available,
will
require
depending
Obviously
required,
specimens
desirable
a blood
etc.,
species.
on
be
inter-
specimens.
tissues
utility
crew
of
(to
at
food,
all
number
on
available,
among
analyses
for
specimens
will
for
and
fixation,
sufficient
it
group
of
calls
cases
many
of
sacrificed
separate
animal
freezing,
required,
available
a
most
be
requirements
specimens,
experiments
be
ments,
refrigerators.
require
for
can
holding
or
on
in
the
groups
would
In
ground
sacrificed
used
species
of
made
small
results)
preserved.
not
procedures
the
rodents,
to
freezers
can
the
tissues
specimens
in
are
significant
and
experiment
e.g.
subjects
statistically
vals,
to
the
not
on
all
Selection
types
several
and
and
of
size
expericrew
time
_C/f071319A
The Science Requirements discussed above are used to define the Life
Sciences Research Facility.
It is important to emphasize that this is a
permanent space laboraroty which will operate much like life
sciences
laboratories on the ground. There will be continuing research programs in
many different disciplines over periods of years. Facilities
are required
to accommodatestandard laboratory procedures (modified for Og operation),
and to provide maintenance of live animals and plants for at least 90 days.
Selection of the laboratory equipment is driven by the experiments to be
done. Because specific experiments have not yet been selected for IOC or
later commencement
by NASA, it is necessary to design the facilities
based
on requirements for "typical"
or "generic" experiments.
Representative
experiments have been provided by studies at AmesResearch Center, Johnson
SpaceCenter, and a number of workshops of life scientists (see 3.1).
The studies with highest priority are those which relate to understanding the
biomedical problems of weightlessness.
Those studies are also of great
interest to basic biologists,
because they address the questions of how
gravity is sensed, how the sensor output is translated into tissue responses,
and the series of physiological changes that result.
Understanding the
process and designing countermeasures will require two approaches: collecting data from crewmembersand studying the mechanismsof the changes in
animals. The importance of animal studies is that they allow more stringent
procedures, including extensive use of tissue analyses.
Some of the
biomedical changes in weightlessness which are thought to be most important
include the decrease in bone mass and strength, decrease in muscle mass,
cardiovascular changes, and altered vestibular function.
Studies in those
areas, therefore, will be amongthe earliest on the Space Station.
Plant studies are included in the planning because of fundamental interest in
the mechanismsof their gravity sensors and responses, and because it is
appreciated that plants will be an essential renewable food source for
extended missions (e.g., lunar base or interplanetary mission).
The latter
experiments are directed toward eventually achieving a Controlled Ecological
Life Support System (CELSS)in which food plants can be grwon efficiently
by
recycling.
3-4
LHSC/F071319A
Operation
of
the
LSRF
at
IOC
and
beyond
can
be
described
in
a
series
of
steps:
Selection
i.
with
of
assistance
ments
by
90-day
.
of
for
peer
to
a series
groups
not
yet
equipment,
mission
Space
Station
equipment
(max.
10%),
ground
in Logistics
In
the
LSRF,
equipment
conduct
samples.
Life
tion
scientists
to
with
modify
and
and
module
in ground
if
experi-
require
Module
Return
live
of
for
a
A.
replaced
specimens,
and
tissue
data
and
B.
experiments,
astronauts
procedures
NASA,
select
consumables
specimens.
planned
scientist
missions.
will
in Logistics
remaining
the
90-day
scientists,
specimens,
of
to
of
of
detailed.
Change-out
samples
,
of
a procedure
Transport
.
experiment_
will
POCC,
collect
be
in
active
to describe
required.
Data
and
and
communicaconsult,
video
will
and
be
down-linked.
Steps
2,
carry
out
each
3,
and
new
cycle.
4
will
be
repeated
experiments
For
more
and
every
replace
details
on
90
days,
specimens
Ground
and
with
and
the
some
Resupply
opportunity
equipment
Operations
to
with
see
sec.
5.4
Most
life
sciences
experiments
an experiment
unchanged
In most
an
cases
information
one
or
holding
long-term
more
would
experiment
obtained
the
times
during
specimens
radiation
on
the
will
be
would
previous
a
for
and
repeated
the purpose
be
modified
time.
90-day
station
effects,
be
for
Some
mission.
multiples
multi-generation
3-5
many
times.
Repetition
of confirming
when
repeated,
experiments
Other
of
may
studies
90
studies
days;
the
results.
to extend
be
of
the
repeated
will
require
examples
on mammals.
are
IJCSC/F071319&
3.1.2
Updated
Many
of
Space
the
current
Station
experiments
the
under
current
found
in
the
task
is made
These
the
are
in
NASA
"Red
guidelines.
in
basic
package,
some
items
of
of
3-1
Book"
the
updated
on
through
The
to
and
recent
information
The
catalogue
LMSC/D913250,
generic
sheets
to
laboratory
design
of
Animal
Holding
Facility
in
LSRF
data
Centrifuge
Cage
Transfer
General
Cage
equipment
facility
sheets
list"
identified
by LMSC
Washer
Measurement
Purpose
Work
Specimen
Mass
Measuring
Specimen
restraint
Mass
Spectrometer
Surgical
Workbench
Data
Station
Hand
Washer
Lab
Station
Spectro
Device
Plant
Centrifuge
Cryogenic
Freezer
Freezer
Physiological
(-70°C)
Oven
Blood
Mill
Kit
Dissecting
Food
Water
Chamber
Monitoring
Guillotine
Refrigerator-Cooler
HPLC
Kit
Storage
Nutrient
Storage
Gas
pH meter
Voice
Log
3-6
Storage
Storage
Containers
Recorder
System
Photometer
Growth
Books
is
of equipment.
Tools
Metabolic
these
1983.
a "core
Surgical
are
decisions
follows:
Research
LSRF
experiments
minimal
August
present
IOC
contained
for
complete
a
to
candidate
The
requirements
data
conform
four
3-4.
results
GSFC.
science
1 Data
been
information
Figs.
from
the
NASA
have
Updated
originating
Reference
as
upon
constitutes
Sheets
experiments
presented
based
SLM
figures
Data
planning.
is
prioritized
for
Experiment
(02,
C02)
System
I2_C/FO71319A
EXPERIMENT
OBJECTIVE:
DRIGINAL
PAGE
DJ_ POOR
QUALITY
IS
Experiment No. BLIA
TITLE:
BONE LOSS IN RATS
Determine Effects of Microgravity on Calcium/Mineral Balance in Rats;
Radiology, Histology, Biomechanics, Osteoblast Differentiation, Tooth
Eruption Rate, Joints, Calcium Metabolism.
SPECIES:
Rat, Mature Males
SIZE:
SUGGESTED
NUMBER:
STATION G LEVEL
FRACT G (Centrifuge)
I G (Centrifuge)
45 (50%)
FREQUENCY
POTENTIAL
90
TASK
Vivarium:
Urine/Feces Sample
RAHF/VGRF Maintenance
400-600 g
DURATION:
90 Days
45 150%) -
2 days/week
Every 7 days
FOR AUTOMATION
X
X
Support Lab:
Weigh Specimens
Blood SamplesPreserve
Sacrifice/Dissect/Preserve
X-Ray
Bone thin sections
EQUIPMENT
D
Every 7 days
Every 7 days
6 each at 2, I0,
20, 30, 50, 85 days
Every 14 days
At sacrifice
& U-V Microscopy
- VIVARIUM
DATA
RAHF/Rodent Environment, Food & Water Consumption,
VGRF/Rodent Environment, Food & Water Consumption,
Solid & Liquid Waste Storage
Hand Wash Facility
Cage Cleaning Facility
EQUIPMENT
Activity
Activity
DL
DL
DATA
_ SUPPORT LAB
Surgical Workbench
Mass Measurement Device
Sacrifice Kit
Blood Collection Kit
Chemical Storage (opt)
Dry Storage (opt)
Freeze Dryer (opt)
Thin Section Saw
(Small)
Laboratory Centrifuge
Wet Trash Storage
-
X-Ray & Developer
X-Ray Digitizer
Freezer
Quick Freeze Unit
Hand Wash Facility
Binoc. Microscope
FREEZE DRY
SAMPLE STORAGE & RETURN
NO.ITYPE SAMPLES
Bone
Feces
Urine
Blood
Carcasses
REFRIG.
FREEZE "
FIX
X (opt)
X (Opt)
X (opt)
SPECIMEN RETURN/SACRIFICE
20% (18) returned live
BO% (72) returned sacrificed
SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
REQUIREMENTS
(IF ANY)
None
Figure
3-1
Bone
Loss
3-7
Experiment
Data
Sheet
LHSC/F071319A
EXPERIMENT
OBJECTIVE:
TITLE:
CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION IN 0 G IN RESTRAINED SMALL PRIMATES
Study the cardiopulmonary changes that result from exposure to zero G
and to study the return to normal
following return to one G
SPECIES:
Mature Squirrel Monkeys
SIZE:
SUGGESTED
NUMBER:
STATION G LEVEL
FRACT G
I G
16
TASK
1 kg
FREQUENCY
Vivarium:
Urine/Feces Samples
RAHF/VGRF Maintenance
8 (50%)
POTENTIAL
FOR AUTOMATION
X
X
Every 7 days
Every 7 days
1 at beginning
Every 7 days (w/blood samples) for first 6 weeks;
every 2 weeks thereafter
Same as above
Same as above
& air flow
- EQUIPMENT
Core List
Experiment Specifics:
Sensors (implanted)
SPSMF (Microprocess)
CRT
Digital Display
Strip Chart Recorder
Echo, Imaging, Display & Recording
Pulmonary Function Analyser
Blood Gas Analyser
AneChesia Unit
Surgical
Urine
Feces
Blood
Carcasses
SPECIMEN
System
Prep. Kit
SAMPLE STORAGE & RETURN
FREEZE DRY
REFRIG.
X
(if die)
X (opt)
FREEZE
FIX
X
X
X
X
RETURN
100% returned alive
SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
REQUIREMENTS
(IF ANY)
None
Figure
3-2
90 days
8 (50%)
Every 5 days
Every 7 days
Support Lab:
Blooa Samples/Preserve
Weigh Specimens
Surgical Procedures
Echo & EKG
Expiratory gas analysis
Arterial blood gas
DURATION:
Cardiopulmonary
3-8
Function
Data
Sheet
LMSC/F071319A
ORIGINAL
OF.
EXPERIMENT
TITLE:
OBJECTIVE:
Study
FLUID BALANCE
POOR
I_
QUALITY
IN RATS IN OG
changes in fluid balance and shifts in rats exposed to 0 G
SPECIES:
Mature male rats
SUGGESTED
NUMBER:
(I G recommended
PACE
SIZE:
400-600 g
DURATION:
72
STATION G LEVEL
FRACT G
to be on the ground) 1G
36 (50%)
TASK
FREQUENCY
Vivarium:
I day prior to
fluid measurement
Every 7 days
Urine/Feces Measurements
(Volume)
RAHF/VGRF Maintenance
Support Lab:
Fluid measurements
Weigh
90 days
36 (50%)
POTENTIAL
FOR AUTOMATION
X
X
6 each at 2,7,14,30,60,85
Every 7 days
days
EQUIPMENT
Core List
Experiment Specifics:
Infusion pump
Surgical tools
Injection kit
Inulin, D20, Evans Blue Dye
Protein precipitation chemicals
SAMPLE STORAGE & RETURN
FREEZE DRY
REFRIG.
Urine (Nai)
Feces
Blood
SPECIMEN
FREEZE
X
X
X
X
FIX
X (opt)
RETURN
100% alive or sent to other experiment
SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
REQUIREMENTS
(e.g., bone loss in rats)
(IF ANY)
I G at ground^due to rapidity of fluid shifts and therefore
subject from centrifuge and take measurements
Figure
3-3
Fluid
3-9
Balance
Data
inability
Sheet
to remove
Ll_C/FO71319A
ORIGINAL
_)E
EXPERIMENT
TITLE:
OBJECTIVE:
SPECIES:
PLANT GROWTH
POOR
PAGE
IS
QUALIT_
IN 0 G
Study the effects of O G on plant structure,
growth, and function
Plant seeds of various types
TASK
DURATION:
FREQUENCY
Vivarium:
Vivarium calibration
Replenish Vivarium
Prepare cu.vette
Sow seeds
Germinate seeds (plants)
POTENTIAL
Every 6 days
Every 6 days
i
1
I
Support Lab:
Dry specimens
Analyze specimens
Store specimens
X
X
Bunch each at
5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90 days
EQUIPMENT
Core List
- Experiment
Specifics:
_;_Meter
._:_¢-M,II
HPLC
Nutrient Storage
Ion Chromatograph
Oven
SAMPLE STORAGE
& RETURN
Plant material
SPECIMEN
OVEN DRY
FREEZE DRY
Gas Storage
REFRIG.
FREEZE
X
100% sacrificed
SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL
Monitored
REQUIREMENTS
and contro]led
FIX
X
RETURN
(IF ANY)
in humidity,
Figure
3-4
T ° , light, airflow
Plant
3-10
Growth
Data
Sheet
90 aays
FOR AUTOMATION
LHSC/F071319A
3.2 MISSIONREQUIREMENTS
The basic requirements of Life Sciences missions include:
o
o
o
o
o
Pressurized volume
Normal earth atmosphere
Standard utilities
A gravity level of 10-Sg
A data managementsystem
There are no requirements for particular orbital altitude or inclination,
viewing angles, attached payloads, or EVAservicing (at IOC or near-term).
Life Sciences missions do have special requirements related
live specimens, however. These include:
to the use of
o
Animal and plant holding facilities,
with bioisolation to prevent
transfer of microbes between these facilities
and the surrounding
SLMin either direction, and temperature/humidity control which
is more accurate than that of the SLM.
o
Closed or laminar flow work bench(es) for carrying out research
procedures on plants and animals without danger of contamination
of the specimens or SLM. Procedures include use of chemicals;
mass determinations, examination, testing, transfer, dissection,
analysis, and preservation of specimens.
Refrigerators and freezers to maintain unstable chemicals, and
especially for preserving biological
specimens for return and
ground analysis.
Because many of the constituents of interest
are extremely labile, cryogenic temperatures are necessary for
somesamples.
Laboratory equipment for testing, injecting, handling, and
dissecting specimens; for blood and urine collection and analysis;
and for
specialized
studies
in
electrophysiology,
3-ii
LHSC/F071319A
cardiology,
vestibular
Commonality
both
will
human
and
be
for
controls
centrifuge
will
more
Ig,
IOC
studies
or
Station
for
allow
to apply
and
sharing
be
other
of
the
can be
divided
groups
specimens
specimens
capable
study
Ig to
These
similar
areas.
equipment
for
of
of
animals
will
serve
maintained
providing
g-thresholds
at
as
which
Ig
0g.
fractional
at
and
The
g,
and
physiologycal
prevented.
resources
0307),
to
days.
also
to
occur
Space
(SAAX
non-human
90
("normal")
changes
Total
to
radiology,
research.
centrifuge
up
than
stressed,
animal
A large-diameter
plants
activity,
which
will
be
approximately
available
equally
for
life
between
sciences
human
and
areas:
Power
: 20 - 25 kW for
3
: 20 - 30 m
for
Volume
Crew
time
the
life
: 800 hours/year.
per
day.
SLM
sciences
One
life
Remaining
scientist
5 crewmembers
working
available
half-time
I/2
day/week.
Space
Station
years
after
Research
growth
IOC.
is
At
Facility
that
(SAAX
vivarium/laboratory
include
then
evolve
3.2.1
90-day
equipment
Several
logical
The
extensive
to a pallet
each
0303),
CELSS
system
add
first
and
0302).
mission
reconfiguration
guidelines
the
to
a
SLM
the
new
The
will
SLM
latter
experimental
(SAAX
second
0306)
laboratory
be
is
in
converted
to
be
module
system
module
to
an
a Human
animal/plant
(SAAX
(SAAX
two
0302)
0304),
which
will
will
1995.
Scenarios
items,
groupings
time
(SAAX
Reconfiguration
Because
some
a more
scheduled
all
will
begin
missions
with
may
scenarios
be
have
the
supply
considered
of new
as
specimens
reconfigurations.
been
prepared,
as
mission
scenarios
are
examples
of expeirments.
used
for
reconfiguration
3-12
and
as
follows:
of
LHSC/F071319A
o
Limit
the
o
Maximize
o
Group
number
the
use
of
species
of
each
experiments
with
specimen
similar
in
for
terms
of
data
specialized
collected
equipment
or
procedures
o
The
Include
rationale
plant
for
quirements.
these
Examples
A
for
scenario
first
development
3.2.2
This
Rodent
cal
was
changes
in
problems.
half
in
are
animals
the
procedures
discarded,
but
most
Spacelab
3,
of
where
at
one
of
be
and
The
group
in
Science
the
equipment
level
Muscle,
the
is
of
Re-
following
provided
detail
under
remaining
be
done
of
flown
loss,
rats
physiologi-
and
one
vestibular
on
on
the
centrifuge
and
tissues
of
the
tissues
of
appropriate
after
Plant)
out
intervals
an
important
muscle
Treatment
in
Vestibular,
most
half
at
changes.
will
3-I
given
the
carried
sacrificed
preserved
which
(Bone,
loss,
0g,
below.
are
of
can
the
Sec.
and
of
three
bone
are
are
procedures
BMVP
study
studies
in
scenarios.
with
maintained
time-course
experiments,
is
Mission
three
addressed
representative
three
to
mission
scenarios
of
weightlessness:
of
the
scribed
not
which
numbers
follow
remaining
designed
These
of
Small
the
mission
is
each
is
breakdown
and
Emphasis
scenario
four
detailed
for
in
guidelines
of
subsections.
the
experiments
return
was
group
used
ig.
removed
to
is
the
animals
for
many
ground.
in
rats,
at
tissues
way
to
of
An
deare
other
example
approximately
30
experiments.
Plants
studies
important
Experiments:
to
are
both
included
basic
to
gain
studies
and
information
on
growth
habit
CELSS.
BLIA
Bone
loss
in
rats
BL4
Bone
loss
in
rats
MLIA
Muscle
VPI
Structural
40
Loss
in
using
rats
changes
PC
i
Plant
growth
PC
3
Plant
growth/CELSS
Ca
in
labyrinth
application
3-13
of
rats
and
yield,
LF_C/F071319A
SpecimenRequirements:
Animal specimens: 90 mature male white rats, 400-600 grams each (45
at station gravity) (45 at l-g on centrifuge).
Maintained in standard
rodent holding facility.
Sacrifice schedule: 6 from each group (0-g
and i-g), at 2, I0, 20, 30, 50, and 85 days. Remaining 9 animals from
each group returned to ground at 90 days to follow readaptation to
l-g.
Plant Specimens:
Approximately 25 seeds each of Arabidopsis, carrot, pine, and bean in
a plant growth unit.
Approximately 20 seeds each of radish and
lettuce in a second plant growth unit.
Procedures:
Animals.
All
x-rayed
live
approximately
data
downlinked.
days
to
each
rat
after
in
for
seven
enzymatic
removed
graph
Equipment
Total
portion,
for
sacrifice,
and
bones
and
and
histology.
preserved.
All
the
live
and
strength
for
for
weighed,
test;
jaw
calcium
strength
tissues
will
be
pre-
osteoblast
deposits.
organs
for
analysis
and
for
test,
Vestibular
seven
collected
isotope
out,
and
every
feces
calcium
animals
digitized,
approximately
urine
other
All
developed,
stable
kidneys
analysis,
days.
dissected
mechanical
preserved
at
at
rate.
and
Wet
solution
eruption
weighed,
additional
x-rays
measured
joints
and
Plants.
days;
seven
teeth
histology
dissected,
14
every
Incisor
day
At
differentiation;
weighed
every
determine
return.
served
many
animals
Muscles
chemical
of
the
available
and
head
for
studies.
an
aliquot
five
intervals.
day
of
each
intervals.
Return
all
type
of
seed
Maintain
plants
Requirements:
3-14
live
with
nutrient
growth
to
ground
conditions.
for
study.
Photo-
LHSC/F071319A
Rodent
Holding
Facility
Rodent
Holding
Facility
Cage
Mass
Collection
Small
Animal
Digitizer
Microscope
Waste
Storage
units
Photo
camera
Small
be
than
at
Ig,
the
the
also
experiments,
using
for
also
complete
0g,
Accurate
collection
and
half
measurements
of
Animals
may
carbon
be
of
will
at
to
be
ig on
will
measure
and
in
half
of
such
metabolic
crew.
balance
These
(intake
gases.
vs.
They
glucose.
closed
the
the
respiratory
is neces-
metabolic
animals
will
cages,
be
with
maintained
centrifuge.
intake,
water
production,
ground
the
data
changes,
The
be
There
the
It
other
for
would
but
lower.
required
0g
gravity.
matrix.
metabolite,
housed
the
than
protein
intake
a key
One
food
dioxide
returned
bone
at
overcome
interpret
elecrtrolytes,
wastes.
other
consumption,
the
of
to
animal
spaceflight,
rather
order
monkeys,
metabolism
of
in
an
to
during
caloric
fluids,
of
required
higher
loss
the
animals
is
is
value
squirrel
the
experimental
rate
and
nitrogen,
study
work
Fluids)
rate
measurements
true
influence
(Metabolism,
metabolic
no
metabolic
deterioration
will
MF
the
limited
determine
output)
that
because
only
muscle
Mission
assumed
been
to
downlinked
Primate
sary
at
X-Ray
camera,
that
The
X-Ray
solutions
suggest
will
Developer
Video
have
rate
X-Ray
growth
Nutrient
lower
Kit
Tensiometer
Plant
as
Vials
Blood
would
Chemicals
Device
Kit
Dissecting
Centrifuge
Freezer
Measurement
Muscle
Centrifuge
Lab
Workbench
Sacrifice
It
l-g
Washer
Surgical
3.2.3
on
alive,
3-15
and
or
intake,
animal
temperature
they
may
be
mass,
oxygen
are
required.
retained
on
the
LHSC/F071319A
Station
to
90-day
be
used
in
a
different
set
of
experiments
on
the
following
mission.
Experiments:
3.2.4
Large
MLIB
Nitrogen
FEIB
Fluid
MBIB
Metabolic
MB5
Respiratory
MB7
Glucose
tolerance
Mission
CFVP
Primate
balance
and
and
muscle
electrolyte
balance
gas
loss
balance
in
the
in
in
small
small
primates
primates
primate
exchange
in
small
and
metabolites
(Cardiovascular
small
primates
in
Fluids,
small
primates
Vestibular,
and
Plants)
One
of
the
toward
rapid
the
tion
of
head.
the
sensors
to
external
a
in
organisms
biochemical
Experiments:
will
are
be
long
echocardiograph,
be
implanted
limited
to
centrifuge.
All
be
in
uses
be
the
animals
the
growth
duramuscle
damaged
during
instrumented
implanted
as
with
well
analysis,
instruments
Half
fluids
the
result
respiratory
days.
of
for
function,
with
30
may
will
cardiac
shift
heart
mission
animals
of
a
to
muscle
This
The
the
enough
cardiac
reentry.
animals
specified
will
food
source.
0g
EKG,
on
is
will
and
must
the
be
animals
be
as
re-
will
returned
be
live
days.
potential
light
liquids
30
the
of
is
the
orbit
load
parameters
will
on
study
is
a
ig
after
plant
which
mission
at
mission
problem.
several
by
reaching
increased
that
the
Because
the
ground
the
stress
study
measure
maintained
with
to
sampling.
strained,
The
the
on
an
concern
measurements
blood
to
places
is
during
monkeys
observed
If
there
or
Rhesus
This
mission.
degradation,
flight,
changes
source.
The
the
measure
yield
desired
thoroughly
It
and
will
the
data.
A
examined
be
of
grown
experience
in
with
30-day
culture
for
abnormalities
chlorella,
submerged
managing
period
is
in
an
culture,
gases
Cardiovascular
FE2
Fluid
and
function
electrolyte
Monkeys
3-16
in
balance
restrained
in
the
structure
and
Rhesus
restrained
and
ample,
constituents.
CVI
alga
monkeys
Rhesus
LHSC/FO71319A
3.2.5
Rat
Equal
At
PC5
Study
of
intervals,
waste,
Mass
will
be
ficed.
whether
Plants
ent
nutrient
Experiments:
specimens
be
Reproduction,
at
from
0g and
each
maintained
and
weekly.
At
in
and
the
food
be
and
water
will
tissues
at
sacrificed
cages,
muscles
Other
Plants)
centrifuge
will
metabolic
measure
etc.
on
group
sacrifice,
histology,
Pregnant
mice
examined,
will
abnormalities
nutrients.
monkeys
to
Ig.
and
collect
consumption.
be
will
removed
for
be
available
Station.
Newborn
studies.
Tissues
will
Fluids,
exchange,
mass,
Rhesus
Chlorella
will
gas
in restrained
be maintained
six
determined
Reproduction:
be
function
(Metabolism,
animals
testing,
will
of
will
or
measure
additional
pups
rats
The
all
MFRP
five
dissected.
for
Vestibular
Mission
numbers
strength
VP2C
be
grown
Plant
will
tested
for
be
fixed
are
produced
in
will
for
be
Plants
Nitrogen
FEIA
Fluid
MBIA
Metabolic
MB4
Respiratory
The
cages
RD2C
for
Embryonic
which
monitored
be
balance
and
above
lack
on
of
after
permit
and
gas
exchange
experiments
durin_
after
Plant
sacri-
determine
pregnancy.
of
using
liquid
differ-
return.
loss
in rats
in rats
rat
in
require
the
rat
the
use
of metabolic
rats
development
in
terrestrially
mice
PC4A
to
photographed,
balance
in the
samples
recirculation
and muscle
balance
and
return,
gravity
analyzed
electrolyte
the
patterns,
histology
by
will
MLIA
maintained
behavioral
containers
growth
solutions.
be
growth
and
nutrient
3-17
recycling
impregnated
LMSC/F071319A
3.3
ENGINEERING
3.3.1
The
LSRF
major
REQUIREMENTS
Functional
Requirements
functional
o
Bioisolation
o
Flexible
o
Exchangeable
o
Sufficient
o
Laminar
o
Sufficient
o
Multi-g
requirements
of
The
for
rack
the
LSRF
are:
rodents
holding
from
rodents,
and
holding
for
basic
volume
crew
small
primates
and
plants
cages
rack-mounted
equipment
complement
workbench
frozen
storage
centrifuge
capacity
capable
of
supporting
rodent,
primate,
and
human
subjects
Analysis
trades
and
metabolic
flow
Tradeoff
main
primates
facilities
experimental
3.3.2
for
&
Update
investigated
in
this
study
were:
Bioisolation
-
Isolation
-
Specimen
Animal
These
and
the
reported
-
Subsystems
account
not
isolated
most
of
dominant
in
in
vs
rack
vs
module)
ECLSS
Architecture
of
(cage
type
-
are
outcome
level
the
Equipment
o
Vivarium
o
Centrifuge
vs.
issues.
Sharing
location
vs.
closed
in
The
the
cabin
results
for
LSRF
(section
each
example,
issues
4)
air)
of
design.
Important
design
distributed)
vs.
Biolsolation,
documents.
conceptual
o
(open
others.
issue
earlier
(centralized
trade
becomes
effect
a
key
the
driver
Other
tradeoffs
have
been
which
have
taken
into
include
the
been
following:
& Commonality
(in
lab
vs.
logistics
3-18
module
vs.
special
module)
LHSC/F071319A
-
Location
-
Architecture
o
Waste
storage
o
Logistics
(animal
3.3.2.1
Bioisolation.
was
main
the
results
of
August
The
an
85)
and
study
are
animal
in
its
mental
work
of
were
investigated.
is
classed
ing.
The
next
screened
a
most
risk
as
to
addition,
of
be
the
and
of
animals
concluded
animals
crew,
reduces
gnotobiotic
strict
that
the
a
most
list
of
is
in
enable
technique
primates
are
of
very
obtain.
3-19
the
Free
and
is
is
to
too
aseptic
technique
and
be
and
called
subjects
a
operate
few
more
raised
prefered
present
expensive
has
and
specimens.
the
on-board
born
are
poor
must
axemic
and
with
gut
-
pathogenic
they
are
are
screen-
(SPF)
innoculated
as
they
earth-based
and
they
flora
different
specific
the
experi-
microbial
condition,
animals
strict
in
gnotobiotic,
flora
specifically)
productivity
no
certain
this
defined
three
clean
Pathogen
to
very
or
each
and
common
little
are
SPF
addition,
configu-
housing
maintenance
the
and
isolating
or
microbially
usually
aseptic
the
The
(LMSC/D962181,
reference
how
intestinal
termed
(primates
while
in
kept
using
#5.
bioisolation:
Station
In
animals
bacteria
are
report
all
Specific
of
normal
work
same
is
If
issues
order
approach);
undergoes
of
environment.
Space
bench.
free
class
of
performing
type,
and
bioisolation
change
separate
Spacelab
and
animals
to
a
levels
differing
first
cleanest
the
the
-
study,
initial
flow
general,
species
with
gnotobiotes
to
The
These
unscreened
laminar
the
here.
(the
cage
animals
research
normally.
study
rack
lacking
non-pathogenic
The
a
sterile
however
(the
isolator
class
The
in
handled
each
in
different
module
carefully
organisms.
for
three
importance,
extension
briefly
laboratory
labs,
contract
summarized
inside
types
its
published
or
own
of
were
isolating
axenic;
a
study
vivarium
ration);
bred
of
investigated
entire
been
Because
focus
this
re-supply)
much
life
approach;
of
a
health
required
scientist.
virtually
impossible
of
In
LHSC/F071SI9A
As
for
the
level
module
section
via
a
into
a
Not
only
dies
each
way)
on
wash
a
Barriers
rated
of
into
an
is
shown
in
to
There
an
and
the
bottom
two
power;
limited
velocity
belly
0.I
toward
the
waste
filter
must
be
a
or
capable
the
through
air
give
draft).
tray.
protected
being
into
work
in
velocity
inside
isolation.
be
incorpo-
either
the
as
part
way
when
partition.
micro
g
and
The
tray
from
the
normal
first
is
are
housed
top
of
a
the
guard"
design.
requires
the
during
airflow
3-20
of
waste
filters
animal
it.
job
microisolator
discovered
"splash
showers).
of
the
the
tray.
microbial
the
the
out
is
depend-
and
considered.
and
minutes
on
folding
Airflow
flow-through
was
a
well.
demands
i.e.,
both
were
feeder,
the
this
a
of
as
10-30
should
folded
chang-
biolock,
mediocre
fashion:
example
its
the
and
isolated
shower
from
gowns
measure,
Therefore,
Given
by
up
of
The
requires
a
for
use
the
increased
rather
appraoches
the
As
to
surgical
filters.
waste
mps.
of
will
animal,
the
places
of
an
m 3
and
back
that
taking
(I-4
a
exit
(anywhere
transparent
that
with
0.15
the
doing
a
basic
move
insufficient
from
on
-
well
in
microbial
problems
away
urinating
bottom
airflow
is
as
cage
consequently
to
of
illustrates
The
to
as
time
shower)
way
Two
3-6.
appreciable
fan
3-5
crew
the
cage
activity.
and
procedure
that
than
routlve
enter
possibly
(laundering
design
difficult.
top
are
a
only
isolator
Fig.
between
has
system
Figure
Designing
it
module
and
concluded
measure
of
to
involved
gown
architecture
use.
gravity
not
recommended
the
an
volume
expensive
existing
in
cage
very
are
the
not
or
a
crewman
valuable
considerable
study
disruptive
a
-
the
effective
less
requires
waste
recovery
short,
much
laboratory
this
whether
water
is
more
biolock
special
isolation,
much
and
special
but
of
both
barriers
ing
In
is
partitions,
of
ing
placement
isolation
module
use
proper
cage
animal
velocity
to
considerable
is
likely
Spacelab
preferred
Getting
3,
to
this
orientation
was
the
prevent
seldom
upper
the
be
air
(i.e.,
pointed
microbial
animal
from
L_SC/F071319A
ORIGINAE
OF
POOR
P_GE
IS
QUALITy.
//
Y
/
®
II
_,
Jl
%
MASTI
TRAY
FILTER
Figure
3-6
Flow-through
3-21
Microisolator
Cage
LHSC/F071319A
In order to minimize these problems, the dual cage concept (Fig. 3-7) was
developed. The inner cage contains the animal, feeder, and waste tray and
is designed to be washable in a cage washer. The cages are designed to
fold or nest in the cage washer. The outer cage provides the isolation;
air is circulated by a small internal fan. Only the amount of air necessary to remove the metabolic load from the animal goes through the
microbial filters
and roughly equals 20-25% of the total cage airflow
(about 0.0014 m3/sec for the rodent cage). Thus fan power is reduced
considerably.
Lower fan power and greater operational versatility
concept are sufficient
to recommendit for further
baseline approach.
Inner Cage
.. Outer microisolator
Iwa,h.b,ei
HEPA
,liter
/ Cage
J_:l 17\
(/'_]_
iinletl'--
ll
///
Reclrculation
Fins
Figure
3.3.2.2
Animal
temperatureproduction
ECLSS
and
cages,
-
and
in
and
which
"m'_ Filter (outlet}
•
Lower (Rectrc)
Microisolator
Cage
animal
system
control,
studied.
- humidity
crew
The
CO 2 removal)
were
approach
temperature
Dual
ECLSS.
humidity
options
Spacelab
3-7
of the dual cage
development as the
ECLSS
air
air
functions
experimental
first
for
the
and
life
for
experimental
option
utilizes
circulation
are
Concept
circulation,
functions
The
Plenum
is
controlled
animals
3-22
utilize
LSRF
the
cabin
support
(02
subjects.
Three
a variation
controlled
at
provides
rack(s)
air
at
of
the
holding
for
the
the
cage,
the
life
LMSC/F071319A
support
functions.
Hamilton
Standard
A
schematic
under
of
a separate
this
effort,
option,
is presented
CENTRAL
POTAQL[
for
in Fig.
LMSC
by
3-8.
AN l;4At.
CONOEHSA TI[
CArd[
generated
VAT(M
P_OCESS
XNG
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COHQ(NSAT[
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/_
TYPICAL
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Distributed
second
control
decreased
due
to
option
The
option
system
for
economy
I, cabin
third
providing
air
option
both
air
3-8
Animal
all
the
a
holing
scale.
is used
studied,
and
common
versatility
of
ECLSS
Temperature
utilizes
outfitting
an
Ir IL Tlr.m
a-
Figure
The
(Ct.S
<
9Sl
i
V_A.I[
for
revitalization
central
savinzs
option
life
shown
Humidity
facility
for
This
- Option
in
and
is
1
Control
temperature
racks.
in
and
This
hardware
shown
in
option
weight
Fig.
humidity
3-9.
trades
and
cost
As
with
support.
Fig.
3-10,
temperatue
3-23
uses
and
a
centralized
humidity
ECLSS
control.
ORIGr_AU
PAGE
<7'F POOR
QUALITy
rS
LHSC/F071319A
ORIGINAL
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PAGE
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Ig
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AH 114All. ECLS
t
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Figure
3-9
Centralized
Holding
Humidity
Facility
Control
3-24
Temperature
and
LHSC/F071319A
CAGE
RACK
/
TYPICAl.
CAGE/
lll'H
C|RULATION
ANIMAL
(CLS
N
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Figure
3-i0
Centralized
3-25
Animal
ECLSS
LHSCIF071319A
Because
HEPA
of
the
filtered,
three
either
with
its
The
research
control)
Requirements
an
item
sections
of
at
studies
are
the
Space
the
increased
the
has
ease
Of
for
option
the
excess
Option
two
i
integration
ECLSS
if the
the
the
capacity,
3.
candidate
load.
of
is
option
a viable
preference
also
is
analogous
subsystems
primary
3,
cabin
remaining
(distributed
with
with
A convenient
provides
power
not
the
gravity
their
other
aspects
Work
associated
content
of
this
here.
the
updates,
C-2,
the
Packages,
reviews
raised
facility
general
LSLE.
in
an
in
the
C-3,
and
Mission
and
1 and
the
2.
course
The
C-4
Requiredecisions
Analysis
of
for
the
this
tested
the
checklist
at
The
and
the
LSRF
etc.)
SLM
of
design
that
with
equipment
disposal
also
are
of
has
a
set
items
various
identifiable
in
support
of
the
requirements
is
the
MIL-STD-490
paragraphs
of
the
MIL-STD-490
users.
Although
the
is
engineering
approach
outfitted
subsystems
lab
mission.
and
enclosure
purpose
distribution,
of
and
sources:
update
questions
Specification.
a thoroughly
relevant
and
and
sources.
complement
apply,
form
reported
many
the
particular
framework
System
do
the
spacelab
(ECLSS,
are
Requirements
and
a
of
a specification
The
from
RFP
products
of
work.
and
come
important
the
equipment
A
analyzed
independent
to
consist
project
a multi-mission
each
to
Station
Station
essentially
users,
been
experiments
LSRF
all
only
on
Requirements
Space
suggested
of
ECLSS
is
future
have
Database,
model
over
the
between
candidates
preferred
is
extensively
isolation
strongly
based
the
the
rather
Requirements
for
Engineering
Type
in
among
If
slight
documentation
documentation
made
difference
is
ECLSS
2 is
a
air
cabin
handle
is
Engineering
ments
each.
animal
centrifuge.
3.3.3
The
to
there
temp/humidity
little
dedicated
unable
the
discriminator
with
I or
cages,
is
real
duplicate
options,
The
there
option
is
ICDs,
isolator
associated
then
system
of
and
options.
penalties
of
use
some
has
two
which
requirement,
3-26
advantages:
ensures
and
(2)
(I)
complete
the
outline
the
outline
consideration
is familiar
LMSCIF071319A
within
of
the
the
industry
more
material.
those
the
Scope.
and
equipment
System
of
general
purpose
Interface
SLM,
the
customers.
ICDs.
The
equipment
interfaces
Operational
included:
facilities
These
will
be
LSRF
system
and
level
(flight,
in
text
are
be
throughout
the
life
of
cycle
are
being
precision,
plant
has
STS,
in
external
among
ground),
System
and
in
availability
3-27
following
are
and
verification
and
and
and
disposal.
performance
needs
the
functions
areas
such
by
the
resources,
functions
the
Station
lower-level
The
growth,
objectives,
and
within
appropriate
assembly/deployment,
a
interfac-
and
equipment,
the
research.
Space
3.1.7)
Program.
and
support
top-level
(Para.
support
at
facilities,
Concepts
and
segment
ground
items).
quantified
common
facility
animal
design
experiment,
a
functions
and
system
a
individual
scientific
an
system
defined
3.2.1)
in
ground
interfaces
and
design,
resides
as
appropriate
internal
(Para.
from
system
the
launch-return,
identified
equipment
Station,
production,
are
resources,
The
organization,
design,
They
following
system.
LSRF
LSRF
the
Characteristics
these.
following
performance,
serves
3.1.5)
has
attributes
support
the
the
Some
documentation.
for
Organizational
procedures,
for
people.
in
associated
LSRF
and
will
of
and
laboratory
defined
These
LSRF
the
The
Space
also
groupings.
operation
Performance
(Para.
the
in
LSRF
includes
users
sciences
the
the
software,
of
of
(at
briefly
establishes
The
3.1.4)
community
rest
experienced
parentheses
for
and
(Para.
life
by
described
3.1.1)
facilities,
Definition
with
test,
a
in
requirements
the
Functions
are
specification
(Para.
and
disposal
es
The
to
easily
format.
test
assigned
followed
numbers
Description.
module
STS
paragraph
MIL-STD-490
development,
be
paragraphs
(Para.l.l)
General
can
pertinent
The
of
and
the
of
each
necessary
as
PI
to
environment,
Space
Station
LHSC/FO71319A
Physical
they
Characteristics
contain,
for
weight,
(See
sect.
I.i
and
Space
which
space,
airlocks,
by
with
or
requirements
each
degraded
modes
as
criteria
will
be
partitions,
equipment
and
and
defined
and
by
Analysis
the
Data
Package
and
are
items
allocations
windows
personnel
consist
specific
case.
measures
of
to
of
Models
studies
ports,
being
of
system
be
applied
defined
and
of
(Pare.
at
3.2.6)
in
autonomy,
and
are
will
specify
will
allocate
the
method
and
specify
each
level
of
equipment
level
with
options
trades
effectiveness
also
conjunction
range
phase
of
various
reliability.
phase
lowest
(PD)
fault-tolerance,
to
PD
in
and
productivity,
a means
the
a
items
The
to
Design
redundancy,
determined
general
crew
3.2.4)
outfitting
result
tions,
to
be
System
areas
maintainabil-
of
design,
from
covered.
The
Customer
Servicing,
and
utilized
as
appropriate
effectiveness
such
as
automation
and
developed,
models
customer
they
robotics.
will
will
accommodaAs
be
such
included
in
specification.
Environmental
Conditions
natural
and
of
life
its
radiation,
Station,
Space
man-made
(Para.
etc.
cycle.
The
reference.
compatibility
STS,
Standards
with
impinging
main
are
and
or
This
consideration
segment
applicable
specimens,
included
(Para.
3.3.1)
as
a
3-28
and
covers
LSRF
the
other
in
are
to
the
during
space
portions
Para.
Standards
whole
specifically
cleaning
the
is
from
explicitly
Parts
ground
section
on
contamination
EMI/RFI/EMC
Processes,
Station,
3.2.7)
environments
micrometeo_ites,
Materials,
by
are
parameter
individual
be
Effectiveness
the
the
groupings
the
Preliminary
will
and
LSRF
in
The
to
(Para.
features
overall
3.2.3)
Included
Maintainability
System
from
for
equipment
outfitted,
Floors
means
requirements
work-around
be
is
etc.
background).
(Para.
computation.
in
lab
The
Station.
reliability
will
3.2.2)
the
access,
retention
Reliability
ity
Para
included
the
sterilizability,
all
LSRF
stages
environment:
of
3.3.2.
that
external
the
below.
apply
for
would
Space
to
the
the
LSRF
include
handling
and
LF_SC/F071319A
compatibility
and
of
similar
reagents,
to the
Commonality,
tation
will
Radiation
requirements
internal
of
be
LSRF
Standadization,
these
required
to the
include
limits
on
controlling
on
environment
the
Logistics
unsafe
cleaning
agents,
Station
Program
both
will
external
and
and
or
external
3.3.5)
to
the
Implemen-
LSRF
system
LSRF.
These
extent.
safety
equipment
(Para
criteria
practices,
apply
and
to
acceptable
means
of
hazards.
The
JSC
LSRF,
man-systems
interface,
so as
division
and
to enhance
on
the
the
is
developing
general
productivity
sensory
and
well-be-
crew.
(Para.
3.5)
concept
Assurance
system
to
its
Test
and
The
and
requirements
and
requirements
performance
(Pare
responsibility
the
practical
man-machine
the
define
for
Space
EMI/RFI/EMC,
internal
systems
3.3.7)
the
within
operational
Quality
Manned
(Pare.
requirements
The
Interchangeability
both
maximum
or mitigating
Systems
3.3.2)
inadvertant
and
attributes,
3.3.6)
of
and
system.
(Para.
ing
(Para.
governing
Safety
Man
solvents,
issues.
Electromagnetic
define
pharmaceuticals,
Verification
4.1,
the
will
be
logistics
requirements
4.2)
means
on
The
NASA
whereby
verified.
Plan.
3-29
as
flow
defined
Quality
the
This
from
general
above.
program
conformance
section
the
documents
of
forms
the
the
LSRF
basis
LESC/F071319A
3.4
OPERATIONS
LSRF
mission
encing
scenarios
lab
sequence
REQUIREMENTS
operations
ground-based
to
sequence
at
sequence
for
anytime.
Seven
functional
by
NASA
and
principally
Principal
Investigator
facility
LSRF
and
prior
orbiter
The
primary
are
outfitting
scientific
and
operational
an
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and
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use;
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launch,
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mission
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equipment
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processing
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into
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definition
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comprise
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primary
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the
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the
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all
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support
handle
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facility
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outfitting
current
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launch
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LHSC/F071319A
SECTION
SUBTASK
Eight
module
equipment
that
are
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of a
or
a
shown
length
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3.75m
vertical
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were
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full
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based
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layout
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for
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and
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power
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4-5
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and
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because
limited
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LMSC/F071319A
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LHSC/F071319A
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LHSC/F071319A
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EFFECTIVENESS
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TABLE
LAYOUT
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layouts
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Volume
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SAAX0307
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shown
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EVALUATION
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0307
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layout
because
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For
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for
human
SAAX
for
Mission
laboratory
utilizing
the
the vertical
centrifuge
(Mission
SAAX
3.75m
centrifuge,
arrangement
integration
0307)
provides
and
because
for
Mission
subjects.
0302
comparing
SAAX
4-6.
4-34
0302
layout
options
layouts.
Results
of
the
LHSC/F071319A
TABLE
LAYOUT
OPTION
4-6
EVALUATION
HORIZ
(6)
HORIZ
(6)
4
4.0
VERT
(7A)
3
2.75
VERT
(7)
I-MOST
2.75
VERT
(8)
5
it
despite
the
4.5.3
0302)
the
as
low
The
volume
in
From
research
3
NO
4
4-LEAST
NO
5
I-MOST
YES
i
this
and
centrifuge
in
layout
volume
for
large
centrifuge
operational
module
inefficient
laboratory
#8
is
dual-rotor
favored
centrifuge
SAAX
laboratory
minimize
(SAAX
it
is
then
to
the
changeout
as
recommended
animal-plant
module
0307)
equipment
constraint,
dedicated
0302
lab
would
be
that
leaving
the
the
dedicated
0303).
is
module
would
Neither
the human
should
the
option
To Missoin
combined
newly-launched
new
the
plant
experiments.
0307
the
centrifuge
the
new
0-g
(SAAX0302)
(SAAX
animal
vertical
SAAX
from
dedicated
the
recommendation
If
facility.
cumbersome
The
the
for
become
specimen
to the
for
this
to
facility
a
the
module
+ 2.75
Mission
lab
grow
in orbit.
facility,
3
available
place.
for
contains
placed
YES
greatest
Given
lab
research
0307
0307
the
possible.
reason
2
that
transitioning
combined
human
(SINGLE)
options
plant-animal
centrifuge
2
RANKING
(DUAL)
suggests
provides
Operationally,
much
YES
(M)
(DUAL)
4.0
Transitioning
dedicated
I-MOST
3.75
layout
SAAX
because
6
CENTRIFUGE
VOL. AVAIL.
2.75
6-LEAST
of
(Mission
NO
DIAMETER
2
LAB)
4-LEAST
CENTRIFUGE
(5)
(FULL
OPTION
OVERALL
RANKING
RANKING
HORIZ
OPTIONS
ADAPTABLE
TO HUMAN
VOL. AVAIL.
0-G EXPTS.
(#)
Evaluation
OF LAYOUT
and
is
have
or
as
follows.
that
left
at
to become
to be
in what
given
its
size
facility
a dedicated
will
is desirable.
and
utilizes
4-35
that
transition
dismantled
option
research
Assume
and
become
Moving
the
the
that
new
animal
moved
configuration.
space
a
Mission
from
SAAX
module
and
the
is
plant
SAAX
dedicated
human
centrifuge
seems
Leaving
should
be
the
LMSC/F071319A
dedicated
the
This
to human
centrifuge
from
transitioning
timelines
for
research
equipment
animal
process
animal-plant
holding
is
and
requires
facilities
inefficient
and
experiments.
4-36
specimen
located
potentially
in
transitioning
another
impacts
to
module.
operational
LHSC/FO71319A
SECTION
SUBTASK
5.1
The
WORK
Work
5-2.
BREAKDOWN
WBS
December
Station
RFP.
through
7.0
enhanced
WBS
5
level
5
element
5.1.1
corresponds
Figure
5-1
shows
items
operational
shown
Consists
hardpoints
and
Includes
the
primary
Thermal
heat
All
items
and
by
Figs.
5-1.
and
the
presented
in
the
Work
WBS
presented
in
4.
elements
WBS
Package
IOC.
associated
5-2.
in
through
from
LSRF
detailed
elements
I
Items
01
for
the
that
8.0
hardware
Definition
liquid
pipes,
electrical
1.0
must
through
required
each
Space
WBS
be
21.0
for
level
IOC.
4
and
support
the
temperature
life
monitoring
and
water
equipment
and
and
module
control,
supply,
module
in
mechanisms,
systems,
cold
common
all
other
tanks
module
groupings.
(pressurized
hardware.
cooling
plates,
and
and
and
power
ventilation
and
management
and
internal
cabin
systems,
subsystem
5-I
of
additional
pressure
systems,
radia-
sensors
and
engineering.
storage,
distribution,
engineering.
Consists
any
Includes
subsystem
subsystem
Includes
control,
cleaning
gas
Support.
and
equipment.
including
control,
ECLSS
waste
between
equipment
thermoelectric
equipment
Life
humidity
and
of
cooling
and
science
and
interfaces
bridges
engineering.
power
Control
common
that
thermionics,
Environmental
the
structure
structure,
thermal
regulation
to
all
subsystem
conditioning,
al,
end
of
WBS
levels
Fig.
secondary
All
insulation,
potable
in
structural
and
Control.
controls,
of
and
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tions
to
activities
is
DICTIONARY
Structure.
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an
LSRF
follows.
_S
tors,
module
are
the
version
WBS
common
operational
for
updated
and
achieve
LSRF
an
PROGRAMMATICS
DICTIONARY
(WBS)
report
address
to
AND
Structure
represents
1984
address
STRUCTURE
Breakdown
This
3.3
5
and
air
trash
any
required
ECLSS
items
modificarequired
contamination
atmospheric
control,
composition
distribution,
collection
engineering.
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and
subsystem
Crew
engineering.
Accommodations.
Consists
purpose
lighting,
factors
engineering.
Command
& Data
Handling
memory,
peripheral
SSIS.
Includes
faces,
command
Contamination
effluent
System
and
tool
thermal
I Assembly
checkout
planning,
Assurance.
quality
assurance,
Test
laboratory
handling,
and
and
and
external
equipment
equipment
and
shields
control
used
test,
alignment
simulation
of
entry,
inter-
including
covers.
for
used
qualification,
for mechanical,
and mass
properties
equipment.
integration
design
and
engineering.
and
equipment
hardware,
all
efforts
maintainability
Consists
calibration,
communications
Includes
Consists
display,
subsystem
items
interface
and human
and
assembly
maintenance
hard-
and liaison,
fabrication.
of
Includes
and
and
vacuum/thermal
kits,
special
with the instrumentation
contamination
apparatus,
of
medical
kits,
of data processing,
storage,
activities.
Consists
equipment.
of
andsupporting
design,
emergency
tool
instrumentation,
data
cleaning
Operations.
EMI, EMC, alignment,
controls,
& Checkout.
consoles
Product
System
and
testing
restraints,
data bus, and interfaces
Consists
equipment,
Integration
Consists
window
and other
measurement
Subsystem.
Consists
Hardware.
electrical,
ware,
data
Control.
Test
subsystem,
displays
and
personnel
hygiene
equipment,
control,
acceptance
RF,
personal
of
of
to
support
safety,
reliability,
activities.
the
conduct
electrical,
thermal
of
vibration
vacuum
all
systems
testing
and acceleration,
and acoustic
tests
of
thermal,
and simulation
modeling.
Flight
Software.
inflght
application.
communication,
Consists
of
Includes
applications
the
generation
software
interface,
and
testing
for data handling
fault
5-4
isolation,
of
all
software
and processing,
and
BITE.
for
command,
LMSC/F071319A
Ground
Logistics
handle
and
inflight
Support
transport
Equipment.
all material
En_ineerin_
& Integration.
SE&I activities.
Includes
mission
interface
analysis,
engineering
Program
Management.
design
to
during
inflight,
to checkout,
postflight
and
of
development
requirements,
effort
required
to
all
planning,
conduct
configuration
specifications,
control,
engineering
data,
and
project
management
conduct
and support
science
equipment.
Operations.
required
to conduct
all program
and coordination,
subcontractor/vendor
liaison,
management
coordination
management
planning
data,
reviews,
cost.
Purpose
Facilities
life
Consists
functions
of the
Includes
training,
operations
hardware
of effort
controls,
General
servicing,
Consists
Consists
Includes
and scheduling,
the
specimens
required
analyses.
activities.
Station
and
of equipment
operations.
Systems
and
Consists
and
science
Equipment.
laboratory
logistics,
ground
Consists
experiments.
of all operations
science
mockups,
and
Includes
and procedures
except
for
airborne
operations
of
module
(preflight,
equipment,
to
and other
with the general
experimental
inflight
required
specific
associated
specific
support
equipment
prototcols.
maintenance
and postflight),
and
flight
recovery.
Equipment.
laboratory.
Consists
Includes
warning,
fire
detection
Customer
Accommodation
of
safe
and
secondary
haven,
secondary
suppression
Hardware.
science
experiment
requirements
thermal
interfaces
for experiment
equipment
controls,
equipment,
Consists
of
equipment.
5-5
and
equipment
in the laboratory.
equipment.
required
Does
lighting,
work
to
Includes
not
to be housed
within
caution
and
stations.
support
generalized
electrical,
include
experiment
data and
unique
LMSC/FO71319A
Ground
Software.
for ground
Consists
operations.
Includes
and checkout,
data handling
applications
interfaces,
Spares.
batteries,
Consists
filters,
of the generation
and processing,
and
of initial
and
software
real-time
for system
telemetry
on-orbit
and production
light
and testing
bulbs.
5-6
spares
of all
test,
software
inflight
and commandj
required
verification
communications_
interface.
for hardware
items.
Includes
LMSC/F071319A
5.2
TECHNOLOGY
Technology
fully
DEVELOPMENT
development
operational
following
activities
LSRF
section
(VGRC),
technology
development
O
Station
detailed
and
and Volume
III Equipment
Ames
September
Research
Space
"Experiments
Derived
widest
for
range
and impact
below
the
address
specific
areas
o
advances
required
Variable
The overall
research
issues
imbalance
accommodation
report
from
impacts,
(MRS),
study
presented
Facility
Gravity
The
Research
and a Cage Washer.
after
in the
an
II Experiment
These
evaluation
following
Technology
of
sources:
Assessment
Technology
Catalog--Prepared
"Life
the
Sciences
1982
Life
technology
and
Requirements
by McDonnell
Research
Science
areas
and operational
on overall
within
to
each
fully
Research
goal of the VGRC program
impacting
a Variable
elements.
a
Douglas,
1983
these
Gravity
centrifuge
Station
of
and
the
Science
and
LSRF
design.
Workshops"
included:
applicability
activities,
Detailed
to
enhancement
discussions
the
of human
presented
following:
o
5.2.1
Volume
in the development
Space
of
for
Research
Information
experimental
productivity,
other
System
lists
part
Platform"
selecting
of LSRF
with
selected
Plan:
Center
Applications
Criteria
were
Sciences
Development
integral
discussions
equipment
Technology
H0743,
an
Measurement
areas
Life
play
is compatible
Metabolic
protocols
Space
MDC
o
that
provides
Centrifuge
experimental
REQUIREMENTS
technology
develop
centrifuge
cancellation
difficulties
the
Centrifuge
of
are:
centrifuge
due to the centrifuge
5-7
study
(VGRC)
a preliminary
into the LSRF
design
additional
technology
is to develop
to be incorporated
the
requiring
at Space
design
Station
lOC.
of
vibration
elimination
momentum,
blocking
for a gravity
and
access
Design
elimination
and
of
to other modules.
LMSC/F071319A
Subsystem
power
technology
and signal
specimen
Power
life
and
transfer
support,
Signal
roll
around
displacement
have been
frictional
may
problems
have
Rotary
fatigue
transformers
technique
depth
low drag
have
issues
habitat
include
interfacing
narrowed
or rotary
torque
and
power
Roll rings
size, weight,
friction
they may be inapplicable
because
decreases
of the centrifuge
potential
transformers.
and offer
However,
the stator
their
life.
may require
will
transfer
In addition,
excessive
slip
rings.
transfer,
then
Capacitive
couplers
centrifuge.
yield
Previous
the
of specimen
drinking
being
Bearing
weekly
investigated
and
Hub
data
flexing
the
of the
water
during
for
Design.
or
same
slip rings
both
that
although
in contact
are
the
appear
with
magnetically.
bearings.
centrifuge.
capacitive
used
for
couplers,
centrifuge
would
be
to be viable
the
In-
power
and
power
desireable.
for use
transfer
on the
analyses
method.
fluid
transfer
concurred
with
be carried
specimen
habitat
The
for
technique
concurrent
will
thermal
rings
AC power
to magnetic
slip rings,
the
transfer
hold the brushes
to transfer
method
slip
applications,
displacements.
it is analogous
using
investigation
means
roll rings,
analyses
concluded
Further
be changed
transfer
which
radial
preferred
rings
and optical
best
feasible.
the
roll
transfer
studies
since
include
If
data
Data
a no-contact
determine
in similar
The springs
to centrifuge
attractive
candidates
in the past
torque.
due
provide
seems
analysis
optical
will
trades
slip rings,
used extensively
they have a higher
Data
specimen
these
rings.
Slip rings
This
design,
Preliminary
they have
to address
servicing.
over slip rings.
of travel
of radial
experiment
to roll rings,
advantages
long path
amount
and
because
be developed
hub and bearing
Transfer
techniques
and capacity
that must
transfer,
are advantageous
the
areas
control
major
using
this finding.
on the centrifuge
cleaning.
on
the
bearing
5-8
rotary
joints
A seven
was
day
not
supply
and the reservoirs
Air to air heat exchangers
will
are
centrifuge.
types
considered
include
roll
LMSC/F071319A
bearings, oil
centrifuge
bearings,
with
vibration,
Air bearings
were
that
air
Magnetic
The
bearings
advantages
of
o
Feasibility
o
Virtually
center
required
acceptable
bearings
contact
bearings,
a 1.5 m diameter
unacceptable
felt
air
this
magnetic
bearings
unlimited
only
life
rotor
would
feasible
to
in a wide
variety
of
o
Less
than
and
bearings
o
Electronics
o
provide
allowing
control
position
of
Bearings
eliminate
in totally
Station
Specimen
options
Habitat
to
be
centrifuge
purpose
and
signal
while
access
structure
for both
should
illustrates
be
and
a concept
accuracy.
manufacturers
to
construct.
centrifuge
bearings.
and
and
no
mechanical
environments
of the active
characteristics
an automatic
reduction
of support
bearings
as well
balancing
system
in the disturbance
environmental
human
to access
and
as
the
resulting
to the
habitats.
support
Space
of a two-armservice
5-9
support
on board
with
the lab
habitats
of
Trades
and
generic,
multi-
determining
trades
should
the
power
consider
options.
in the current
attached
investigations
a second
life support
feasibility
life
included
specimen
Additional
servicing
specimens
Preliminary
using
needed.
research
the
the
and animal
are
centrifuge
between
determine
plant
control
that can be efficiently
interfaces
Experiment
feasible
using
and
will
methods
of the crew
it is operating.
ranges
and control
damping
for interfacing
The
Servicing.
the capacity
and
Specimen
the degree
transfer
for
created
environment
Interfacing.
applications
Experiment
operation
determined.
interfaces
robotics
vibrations
Requirements
rotor
potential
m
rotor
silent
to determine
the needed
reliability
temperature
monitoring
stiffness
microgravity
the centrifuge.
need
the
oil
continuous
of
3.75
and oil bearings
imposssible
approach
the
stator
Operational
ball
be
increased
o
torque
however,
For
are:
due
and
roll
and did not have
areas;
diameter
the
bearings.
pass-through,
in the these
of
magnetic
high torque,
remained
between
and
context
to the main
found
rotor
as
rotor
that
that
a service
could
is defined
centrifuge
automated
rotor.
as
rotor
specimen
Figure
5-3
be spun up to match
the
LMSC/F071319A
Figure
speed
of
or
would
research,
oxygen
of precisely
environment.
collection
metabolic
carbon
system
the MMS
measuring
carbon
objective
capable
food
ambient
water
temperature
system
food
be
studies,
to be removed.
rotor
support
and
which
the habitat
human
a metabolic
and
intake,
production
met
The
would
spin
for cleaning
short-term
gravity
research.
measurement
urine
developing:
presence
and
humidity.
5-10
an
oxygen
environmental
excretion,
specimens
a
distribution
instrument
feces
feces
or absence
of monitoring
water
and
in laboratory
by
in the
capable
consumption,
and
also
and water
dioxide
can
service
Rotor
(MMS)
of operating
production,
and
could
Service
the habitats
the
is to provide
food
Two-Arm
could then capture
rotor
System
with
to
deceleration
measurement
dioxide
device
This
and
and
This
gas
monitoring
regulate
or a robotic
of developing
showing
transferred
Measurement
consumption
Centrifuge
and be aligned
manipulation.
Metabolic
capable
rotor
acceleration
The purpose
Rotor
be robotically
A crew member
specimen
5.2.2
Dual
the principal
habitats
down.
5-3
in a 0g
and
urine
of gravity,
consumption
systems
control
capable
system
a
and
of
to
LMSC/F071319A
Urine
and
Feces
Separator.
in zero-gravity
and
carry
by
experiments
them
collected
away
together
differential
difference
RAHF
by
Feces
Facility
from
the animal
filtration,
or
feces
are
separated
The
absorbs
to
urine
mesh.
system
into
phosphoric
the
Collector.
of the Air Force)
This
This
separate
CERMAFeces
system
This
device
automatically.
Conveyer
Belt
Collector.
is sized
passes
such
that
through
feces
the
wire
are not separated
prevented
evaporation.
feces
carried
by
an
section.
Urine
connected
to collection
collector
Fig.
system
clings
feces
collectors
Therefore,
hit a rotating
the
and
of air
urine
are
on
a
physical
collection
devices
property
have
been
air
and
Holding
glass
wool
feces
and does
to
design
the waste
to this material
collection
design
or urine
a new
stream
vials.
by CERMA(French
concept
screen
from
satisfy
disk and are projected
is shown
urine
Animal
layered
not
the
medical
except
the absorbing
revolving
incoming
branch
as
a conveyor
air
stream
and
mesh.
Either
and feces
designed
are captured
and feces
to
Feces
impregnated
collects
A wire-mesh
None of the above urine
carried
in a stream
for the Research
acid
to the RAHF
is changed
products
urine
two.
is similar
Feces
designed
only
material
are
from
from each other mechanically
based
following
feces
and urine
device.
are separated
and urine.
Collector.
attempt
urine
feces
separating
LMSC:
screen
urine
both
for
to a collection
separation,
between
belt
principles
are to capture
without
between
investigated
The basic
The
vials.
schematically
repel
A
5-11
is needed
into a vessel
against
system.
the
of
5-4 with
angular
the
waste
that
Urine
Both
an angular
into a collection
off
requirements.
as follows.
collection
diagram
in Fig.
5-5.
is not collected
radially
and flows
feces
the Space Station
waste
rotating
groove
which
section
and
separator
a lab prototype
and
shown
is
are
and
in
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URINE COLLECTING
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I
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Figure
5-4
5-5
MMS
_-- ROTATING
'_=" _
L_RdS Waste
SEPARATOR/
COLLECTOR
Separator
Urine-Feces
5-12
-
and
Collector
Collector
Prototype
._
LMSC/F071319A
This device has been tested in the laboratory.
like
material
design
aid
are
in
on
the
The
ramps
Doubling
the
Respiratory
shown
in
dioxide
Although
into
Measurement
and
and
internal
do
Furthermore,
is
not
at
the
gas
no
have
urine
solids
units
should
pressure
is
for
oxygen
the
that
experiments
collection
be
too
open
open
shallow.
a
carbon
does
I
from
varying
ambient.
atmospheric
CONTROL
P-TOT
,,_'
CO
ANALYZER
CAGE
,
,
OXYGEN
D
:
Z_
I
ANALYZER
I
P-TOT
CO
CONTROLLER
I
FLOW DETECTOR I
!
_
I_
]rOX_GEN
CONTROLLER
CO
SCRUB2BER
7
CPU
CPU
FLOW
DETECTOR
Figure
VALVE
5-6
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
AIR PUMP
Closed
Metabolic
Measurement
5-13
System
not.
metabolic
s it ion.
DISPLAY
are
reliability.
most
differ
require
systems
MMS
its
regulated,
conditions
grooves
supplies,
increasing
be
to
hydrophobic
feces
and
whereas
reduced,
a
to
this
problem.
closed
requires
cannot
atmospheric
shown
this
to
collection
the
feces-
collector
that
liquid
solve
regulation
MMS
metabolic
shown
were
Concepts
MMS
rotating
entering
collector
closed
open
from
of
advancements
the
Additional
composition
require
IOC
experiments
some
the
The
internal
MMS
through
preferred.
separation
some
exit
Subsystem.
5-7.
of
However,
should
Also,
collector
complexity
experiments
compo
of
5-6
flow
to prevent
leading
scrubber,
Therefore,
up
number
Figs.
air
disk
back
Gas
accomplished.
waste.
rotating
as
was
Cage
porting
suggested
vial.
water
required.
trans
surface
are
from
An excellent
Concept
LMSC/F071319A
VALVE
DISPLAY
CONTROL
CO2 ANALYZER
CONTROLLER
02 ANALYZER
CPU
AIR FLOW 2.66 L/min_ib,
INPUT
AIR
FILTER
AIR
PUMP
Open
Metabolic
In the open MHS, the ammonia
whereas
regulation
MMS
An
or open
MHS.
additional
specimen
least
must
Temperature
remain
90 minutes
is limited
measurement
times
the
In conclusion,
being
the
of
closed.
An
fabricated
for
more
science
these tradeoffs
alarm
remain
is required.
for
of
at LMSC.
5-14
the closed
open
length
to
be
residence
and
MMS.
of time
MMS
per day
a
for at
time
time delta
protocols.
sampled
is
Shorter
thereby
day.
that the open MMS would
model
the
in the closed
This
designs
per
for either
to
Humidity
In the open MMS residence
measurements.
specimens
is not detrimental
is the minimum
measurement.
conducted
indicate
experimental
testing
must
experimental
allow
which
necessary
impact
specimen
a meaningful
considering
amount
A
Concept
and extraction
is not
scientific
for meaningful
would
an ammonia
injection
regulation
has
System
a steady-state
concept,
vapor
in the MMS.
to 30 minutes
when
than
that
to obtain
significant
increasing
both water
factor
Measurement
level reaches
in the closed
requires
OUTPUT
AIR
FILTER
FLOW
DETECTOR
5.7
the animal,
CAGE
the open
be more advantageous
MMS has been
designed
and
is
LMSC/F071319A
5.2.3
The
Cage
Washer
overall
periodic
objective
housekeeping
conducted
in
approaches,
design
of
1985
and
on
steam
the
washer
is
sterilization
four
cleaning
cage
candidate
and
to reduce
of
crewtime
specimen
systems
cages.
produced
incineration,
capable
associated
two
Trade
studies
competitive
of achieving
the
with
design
following
parameters:
o
Volume
o
Power:
o
Cycle
30"
:
2 kW
x
40"
x
84"
peak
criteria:
96 rodent
rodent
and 8 squirrel
or 2 squirrel
week.
Daily
solar power
All
monkey
monkey
use must
cleaned
cages/cycle
be limited
availability
processing
cages
for 12 cycles
to 14 hours
for a maximum
of reusables
per week;
will
12
per
due to peak
of two cycles/day.
be performed
the day of
use
Steam
with
Cleaning.
high
cleaning
power
Longer
Steam
power
and
efficiency
cage
limit.
This
heating
accommodate
nature
of
systems
must
be
safeguards
steam
into
meeting
and will
be taken
5-15
heat
an energy
in duration.
environment.
combines
cleaning
systems
of 30 minutes
must
5-9)
a quick-rise
integrated
at 260°F
and
attractive
the only
by using
times
of lab equipment
a repetitive
were
5-8
a very
of only one hour
Holding
Material
(see Figs.
to create
is achieved
times
of sterilization.
allocations.
liner
cycle times
sterilization
cleaning
Steam
the tentative
pipe
The system
found
steam
plan
2 kW
generator.
that will
is a proven
method
to be adequate
as a reference
into account
usage
process.
management
have been
serve
low water
in cycle
for
time
due to the corrosive
LMSC/F071319A
40 in.
• HIGH-PRESSURI
NOZZLES WITH
CENTRIFUGAL
SPIN ACTION
84 in.
COMMON MODULE
WATER-STORAGE
TANK
PROCESSING
EQUIPMENT
Figure
5-8
Stream
Cleaner
D-16
Conceptual
Design
LHSC/FO71319A
MICROWAVE
[
I
BLEEDER
VALVE
HOLDING
r"
i
TANK
I
I
I
WATER
STORAGE
®
I
I
BLOWER
t
I
I
PHASE CHANGE
THERMAL CAPACITOR
AT ,, 125"F TO 70*F
m
TUB
T - 280"F
STEAM
GENERATOR
FILTER
PHASE CHANGE
THERMAL CAPACITOR
AT ,, 100"F TO 70"F
VALVE
PHASE
;EPARATOR
WATER-PROCESSING
PROCESSINGWATER
STORAGE
SYSTEM
Figure
5-9
St.eam
Cleaner
5-17
Schematic
D
E
S
S
I
C
A
N
T
LMSC/F071319A
Heat
Cleaning.
Incineration
and weight
efficient
system.
burning
the the waste,
lithium
hydroxide
of harmful
processing
system.
porcelain
enamels
for
environment.
factor
usage
in
design
would
include
high
water
in
processing.
The
or
cage
Replaceable
cage
The
lack
temperatures
However,
steam
to lower
lack
inherent
than
sterilization
the
to
water
of various
Material
hot
corrosion
is
a
is its high
incinerator
temperature,
that
is
discarded
replace
introduces
available.
high
the
the
need
of
its
would
thermal
primarily
The
key
power
Such optimization
technology
order
for
800°F-1200°F
sterilization.
in
the ECLSS
800oF.
in
in
A
properties
operating
was
oxygen
and volume.
power-optimized
cleaning.
system
inherent
needs
a
the oven
cleaning
of
of
volume
to a complete
of incineration
recovery/reduction
resupply
of
important
drawback
mass
relative
greater
very
than
spray/wash
and
significant
The
be
The main
heat
small
most
little
to supplement
on the self-cleaning
at
attractive
be
the
comparatively
to a negligible
temperatures
would
oxidizers
other
usage
to
represents
be needed
would
temperatures.
it more
catalytic
and
this
5-11)
it use
the waste
sterilization
such
Options.
results
heater
make
using
Discarded
cleaning
does
is based
heated
and
bed would
but
attractiveness.
attaining
capacitors,
its
when
Instant
in its
absorbent
The process
5-10
only
reduces
oxides,
heat
Figs.
Not
it also
(LiOH)
processing
safeguards
(see
due
Water
water
for
to
usage
lost
in
an electric
germicides.
liner
cage
interiors,
option
was
liners
and
discarded
also
principally
are not practical
automation
difficulties.
5-18
because
because
long-term
of bioisolation,
cost.
intricate
LI_C/F071319A
> HIGH-PRESSURE
SPRAY
NOZZLES WITH
CENTRIFUGAL
SPIN
ACTION
ELECTROLYSIS
EQUIPMENT
TRACEELEMENT
SCRUBBER
MODULE 02
STORAGE
TANK
COOLING
EQUIPMENT
CAGE STORAGE
Figure
5-10
Conceptual
Design
of Heat
Cleaner
CONDENSER!
CATALYTIC
OXIDIZER
D2STORAGE
COMPRESSOR
PRIMARY
CHAMBER
T - 800°F
TO 1200"F
TRACE.
CONTAMINANT
SYSTEM
CHEMICALS
ECS
THERMAJ
I
UOH
SORBENT
BED
t
COMPRESSOR
I
1
E
V
A
P
0
C
O
N
D
E
R
N
S
E
T
O
R
I
Figure
5-11
=1=
Schematic
5-19
of Heat
Cleaner
I
I
ELECTROLYSIS
SABATIER
]
EQUIPMENT
REACTOR
J
LMSC/FO71319A
5.3
COST
The
cost
ESTIMATES
estimates
evaluation
The
(DDT&E)
SAAX0307
at IOC.
which
becomes
The
SAAX0302
Costs
o
Estimates
are
o
Phase
start
o
Development
o
Costs
o
The
normal
complexity
Equipment
For
for
hardware
exist
are
be
also
must
not
assigned
equipment
a complexity
been
a number
C/D.
date
arrived
vivarium
lab
used
to
full
is
current
factor
non-flight
at by
engineering
2 Breadboard
3 Prototype
5-20
for each
to be
or
on the basis
within
or
than
status
of
as flight
Each
definitions
and
in
unity.
the
item.
qualified
equipment
status
item.
higher
higher
its development
status
thinking
equipment
lower
or exists
costs.
LSRFwork,
adjustments
to development
that reflects
I Concept
Cost
lower
judgement
current
are computed
(FC)
hardware
on earlier
to reflect
deemed
development
follows:
I/1/93
and
items
developed
Development
configuration
are based
factor
has already
for
Module
program
item
that
charged
Laboratory
dollars
of development.
relative
of Phase
IOC
for equipment
be adjusted
be assigned
start
to reflect
can
be
and
LSRF.
and groundrules
a racetrack
hardware
a complexity
An
test
(SAAX0302)
animal-plant
elements
and state
by assigning
of a Science
million
in
and
factors
(CERs)
factor,
should
module
flight
cases
and FOC
Assumptions
1987
functional
science
is unity.
FY
7/i/87
applying
development,
following:
foot
is
IOC.
is protoflight
relationships
an item
at the
as
life
factor
should
therefore,
by
in some
be made
costs
example,
date
WBS
a complexity
CER can
a 45
(SAAX0307)
or one-half
after
year
approach
generated
estimating
each
for
design,
is for a dedicated
the
constant
for
Weights
of weight,
in
C/D
adjusted
Cost
include
o
are
are
estimate
address
for 10C
portion
two years
estimates
section
costs
the LSRF
operational
cost
in this
and operations
represents
(SLM)
generate
presented
item,
as it will
number
codes
LMSC/P071319A
The
estimating
define
from
categories
and
i.
mechanisms
CERs
6
Plight
tested
7
Issue/Rethink
for
five
categories
each
piece
model
few
(CD)
typical
RCA
Pure
parts.
PRICE
2.
LMSC
CD=
3.
complicated
flight.
Category
1 but
Example:
More
LMSC
CD=
Category
complicated
life
Still
than
costs
were
cost
(CU)
Stowage
impractical
categories
are
hardware
2.
Proposal
lockers.
to
derived
data.
The
described
with
More
Category
Similar
no
CER
below.
complicated
Equations
were
slightly
more
system
Complicated
are
common
were
in groundcalibrated
estimate:
Hardware:
equipment
gas
system
that
.0056xW.854xFC
type
supply.
has been
Hardware
developed
Equations
were
for
more
space
calibrated
cost:
CU=
3.
cost
Hardware
Equations
Electromechanical
support
support
functions
Refrigerator/Freezer.
.087xW.735xFC
4.
is
available
Hardware.
performing
Complicated
Life
RAHF
unit
it
values:
CUr
Category
Example:
and
Electromechanical
Refrigerator/Freezer
than
against
Example:
.035xW.760xFC
Category
These
mechanical
book
because
CUffi .0035xW.837xFC
Simple
than
CERs
hardware.
calibrated
development
moving
of
of
Structures.
applications.
against
qualified
.037xW.734xFC
complicated
against
Flight
estimating
Simple
using
Category
based
5
for
and/or
CD=
prototype
uses
equations
an RCAPRICE
derived
Plight
model
CER
Category
4
.009xW.850xFC
Electromechanical
Development
5-21
history
Hardware.
is limited
Hardware
and applications
more
are
LMSC/F071319A
more unique than those of Category 3.
Equations
were
CD-
calibrated
5.
Whatever mechanical
Examples:
Equipment.
CD=
Signal
estimate
for
will
supplanted
that
is almost
is less
than
lab equipment
by
less
are provided
double
that
for
(e.g. centrifuge
expensive
vivarium
SAAX0307
equipment
Details
DDT&E
of
are provided
the
and
annual
in the following
TABLE
5-I
SAAX0307
operating
equipment)
during
transition
that
to
to be double those for
costs
COSTS
DDT&E
for SAAX0307
and
AND
($M)
OPTION
DDT&E
SAAX0307
233.6
31.5
SAAX0302
309.5
63.0
ANNUAL
OPS
COSTS
In the strict
sense of the word,
a protoflight
module
incur no Recurring
Production
at this time.
non-recurring
SAAX0307
subsections.
AND SAAX0302
OPERATIONS
identified
using
The DDT&E cost
because
and analytical
SAAX0307.
should
derived
in Table 5-1.
costs for SAAX0302 are estimated
DDT&E
were
CU= .0166xW.880xFC
Annual operating
5.3.1
electronics.
and simple functions.
Equations
SAAX0302.
SAAX0302
pure
book values.
SAAX0302
expensive
.0095xW.870xFC
Conditioners.
for SAAX0307 and SAAX0302
contains
Facility.
cost:
Hardware
.3 26xW. 730xF C
Cost estimates
Animal Holding
parts it contains provide only elementary
Transponder,
RCA PRICE
be
CU=
Electronic
Research
LMSC RAHF
.098xW.745xFC
Category
typical
against
Example:
However,
costs were calculated
program
in a single
costs, or at least none
for the purpose
for production
5-22
resulting
of this estimate,
that
can be
recurring
of each protoflight
lab
and
hardware
LMSC/F071319A
item.
Recurring
model
and
DDT&E
costs
outfitters
and
are
at
at
SAAX0307
point
for
to
cost
19X
(Table
of view
runs
necessary
module
non-recurring
estimated
for
utility
those
and
and
LSRF
and
5-2)
81Z
therefore
the
of
and
equipment
convert
calculations
the
total
SAAX0302
assume
module
based
DDT&E
(Table
that
interfaces.
common
are
the
Items
to
are
RCA
estimated
in
from
provides
these
operational
tables
life
LEVEL
5-2
DDT&E
COST
ESTIMATE
WBS ELEMENT TITLE
FOR
TOTAL
COST(MS)
NON-flECURR
COST(MS)
flECURR
233.59
189.21
44.38
3.16
a.56
0.60
1.02
0.24
0.54
0.13
12.18
a.86
5
Science Laborator 9 Module
6
I. Structure
T
1.1
Primer9
7
1.2
Seconders
a.85
7
1.3
Mechanisms
0.00
T
1.4
Tanks (Pressurized
7
1.5
Subsystem Engineering
6
2. Thermal Control
T
a.1
Radiators
7
a.a
Insulation
T
a.3
Liquid
7
a.4
Gas Cooling
7
a.5
Sensors & Controls
(1)
7
2.6
Heat Pipes
(1)
7
2.7
Thermionics
(1)
7
a.8
Cold Plate
(1)
7
2.9
Subsgstem Engineering
6
3. Power
0.67
7
3.1
Power Storage
0.47
T
3.a
Oistributiun
7
3.3
Subs]stem Engineering
6
4.
7
4.1
T
4.2
Temperature
7
4.3
Pressure
7
4.4
Ventilation
T
4.5
Potable
7
4.6
Waste Manageuent
Sobsgstem
0.38
7
4.7
Trash Collection
& Disposal
3.90
7
4.8
Equipment
[ Module Cleaning
2.94
7
q.?
Subsystem
Engineering
(a)
| Unpressurized)
0.31
(1}
1.26
(1)
(1)
Cooling
Sgstem
(1)
System
(1)
11)
Conditioning,
Environmental
Control
Contamination
Support
0.20
15.04
(Internal)
0.63
9
_ Atmospheric
& Cabin Air
Water
8 Cent
(1)
& Life
Control
| Hulidit
flegulatinn
(1)
Composition,Men
Oistributiun
& Cent
3.42
0.84
Suppl 9
a.93
(1)
5-23
are
sciences
SAAX0307
COST(MS)
an
ECLSS
IOC.
TABLE
PRICE
respectively.
module
listed
a fully
the
costs,
5-3)
common
upon
LMSC/F071319A
TABLE
LEVEL
5-2
DDT&E
COST
ESTIMATE
FOR
SAAX0307
COST(MS)
TOTAL
WBS ELEMENTTITLE
--
5. Crew Accommodations
5.1 Restraints(Crew
mounted,e.g.,3rdarm)
5.2 Tool Kits
5.3 Special Purpose Lighting
5.4 Personal Hygiene Subsystem
5.5 Emergency Medical Kits
5.6 HumanEngineering
6. Command
& Data Handling Subsgstel
6.1 Displays & Controls
6.2 Instrumentation
1165
0.23
6.3 Communications Interfaces
6.4 Command t Data Handling
6.5 Data Storage
0.53
14.18
7.1 Effluent
(1)
1.03
0.11
Control
0.73
0.19
1.82
(1)
7.2 Window Cleaning Apparatus
7.3 Shields _ Covers
8. Sgstem Test Hardware
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Mechanical Test Equipment
flF Test Equipment
Electrical Test Equipment
Alignment Equipment
COST(MS)
COST(MS)
NOM-RECUflR RECUflfl
1.34
0.31
20.60
4.83
0.16
0.15
0.35
0.31
0.45
25.43
9.69
0.53
0.50
6.6 Subsgstem Engineering
7. Contamination Control (External)
(Cont'd)
o.83
o.2o
1.47
0.35
3.37
0.79
1.84
0.43
17.47
4.10
(1)
(1)
(1)
8.5 Thermal Test Equipment
8.6 VacuumThermal Equipment
8.7 Mass Properties Measurement Equipment
8.8 Equipment Interface Simulation
9. Integration,
Assembly _ Checkout
9.1 Integration t Assembly Hardware
9.2 Checkout Console _ Supporting Hardware
9.3 Design Maintenance & Liaison
9.4 Tool Planning, Oesign i Fabrication
10. Product Assurance
10.i Safety
10.2 Reliability
10.3 Qualit9 Assurance
(1)
(1)
(1}
(1}
4.16
(1)
(1)
If)
(1)
2.27
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
21.57
(1
(1
(1
10.4 Maintainabilitg
11. System Test Operations
11.1 Electrical
11.2 Vibration
& Acceleration
11.3 Thermal
11.4 EMI
11.5 EMC
(1
(1
(1
I1)
(1)
11.6 Alignment
11.7 Calibration
11.8 ThermalVacuum
11.9 Acoustic
(1)
(1)
11.10 Simulation Modeling
5-24
OF
POOR
QUALIA'I'_j
LMSC/F071319A
TABLE
LEVEL
5-2
DDT&E
COST
ESTIMATE
FOR
WBSELEMENT
TITLE
SAAX0307
COST(MS)
TOTAL
2.54
(1)
6
12. Flight
Software
7
7
7
12.1 Data Handling i Processing
12.2 Command
12.3 Communication
7
7
12.4 Applications Interface
12.5 Fault Isolation & BITE
6
7
7
13. Ground Logistics Support Equipoent
13.1 Preflight
13.2 InflightlIncludes
ground control opslPOC eqt)
13.3 Postflight
6
7
14. 5]stems Engineering & Integration
14.1 Hardware Developoent Planning
7
7
7
14.2 Configuration
Control
14.3 Mission Analysis
14.4 Interface Requirements (5ubsgstes & Software)
7
7
7
14.5 Specifications
14.6 Engineering Data
14.7 Engineering Analgses(Therul , dgnaoics, etc.)
6
7
7
7
15. Progras Managesent
15.1 Project Managesent; Coordination
15.2 Planning 8 Scheduling
15.3 Controls
7
15.4 5ubcontrzctorlPendor Liaison
7
7
15.5 Manageieot Data
15.6 fleviews
7
15.70esigo
6
7
8
8
O
B
B
8
8
B
8
16. General Purpose Facilities
| Equipuent
16.1 Module Specific Equipment
16.1.1 General Purpose Work Station
16.1.2 Laborator 9 Centrifuge
16.1.3 Refrigerator/Freezer(-2O
deg)
16.1.4 Freezer (-70 deg)
16.1.5 flesearch Computer
16.1.6 Cleanup facilities
16.1.7 Small mass measurement device
16.1.8 Dissection kit
16.1.9 Dosioeter
8
16.1.10 Video recorder/camera
8
8
8
B
16.1.11Ph]siological
amplifier
16.1.12 Strip chart recorder
16.1.13 Gas analgzerlMass spectrooeter
16.1.14 5pectrophotometer
8
B
B
8
16.1.15 Oscilloscope
16.1.16 pHIIon analgzer
16.1.17Microscope
16.1.1B Dissection microscope
(1)
(1)
(1}
(1)
9.57
(1)
(Coot'd)
COST(MS)
COST(MS)
NOH-RECUflfl RECURfl
2.06
0.4B
7.75
1.82
22.57
5.30
12.21
2.86
57.87
13.57
(1)
(1)
27.87
(1
(1
(I
(1
(1
(!
(1
15.07
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
to Cost
(1)
71.44
30.86
4.37
0.19
0.90
0.74
0.88
0.69
0.39
0.59
0.75
3.62
2.24
3.32
4.90
4.09
2.00
0.54
0.42
0.23
5-25
ORIGINAL
DE
POOR
TABLE
LEUEL
PAGE
IS.
LMSC/F071319A
QUALIT_
5-2
DDT&E
COST
ESTIMATE
_85 ELEMENT TITLE
Life
16.2
8
16.2.1
Rodent
Standard
Equipment
B
16.2.2
Rodent
Artificial
8
16.2.3
Egg Incubator
8
16.2.6
Small
8
16.2.7
CELSS Holding
B
16.2.8 Incubator-CO2
Plant
Aniaal
SAAX0307
COSTIH$)
7
16.2.9
Sciences
FOR
Holding
Facility
Gravity
Holding
Holding
(Cont'd)
CDST(H$)
COST(MS)
TOTAL
NON-RECURR
_EC_RR
40.58
32.87
7.71
7.66
Holding
Facility
Facility
19.68
0.47
Facility
4.10
& Test Facilit9
3.77
0.90
Physiological
Monitoring
Sustem
4.00
6
17. Operatinns
8.30
7
17.1 Training
1.75
7
17.2
0.53
7
17.3 Airborne Support Equipt (ASE]
7
17.4
Maintenance
7
17.5
MocWups
7
17.6
Ground Operations
(Pre-,
7
17.7
Flight
(Including
7
17.8 Recoverg (End-of-Life Disposal)
Logistics
6.72
1.58
4.27
1.00
4.51
1.06
6.18
1.45
1.84
0.43
4.79
_ Servicing
0.40
0.23
Operations
In-,
& Post-flight)
scheduling)
0.27
0.13
TBD
18. Station Equipment
5.27
7
18.1 Safe Haven Equipment
0.12
7
18.2 Secondar9 Controls
5.15
7
18.3 Lighting
7
18.4 Caution
7
18.5 Fire Detection
7
18.6
Equipment
(2}
_ Warning
(2)
_ Suppression
(2)
Work Stations
0.00
6
19. Customer Accommodation Hardware
5.57
7
19.1
2.27
7
19.2 Pointing
7
19.3 Optical
7
19.4 Scientific Airlock
7
19.5 Rapid Specimen Return
1.19
6
20. Ground Software
7.63
7
20.I
Sgstem Test
7
20,2
Inflight Verification
7
20.3 Data Handling & Processing
(I}
7
20.4
Telemetr9 & Command
(1}
7
20.5
Communications
(1)
7
20.6
Applications Interfaces
(1}
7
20.7 On-orbit Interface (Real time}
6
21. Spares
7
21.1 Batteries
(I)
7
21.2 Filters
(I)
7
21.3
(I)
Experiment
Equipment
IIF
(Elect,data,thermal]
Sgstem
1.22
0.22
Window
0.67
(1)
_ Checkout
(I)
(i)
2.27
Light Bulbs
_I) lnc!uoed elsewhere
(2) Part of Common MoDule
5-26
LMSC/FO7
TABLE
LEVEL
5-3
COST
ESTIMATE
FOR
SAAX0302
COST(MS)
WB5 ELEMENT TITLE
TOTAL
309.50
Science Laboratory Module
6.32
I. Structure
COST(MS)
COST(MS}
NON-RECURR
RECURR
58.81
250.70
5.12
1.20
2.04
O.J8
1.09
0.2S
(2)
1.1 Primary
1.2
1319A
5.70
Secondary
O.O0
1.3 Mechanisss
1.4
Tanks (Pressurized
1.5
Subsystem Engineering
0.62
& Unpressurized)
(11
2.52
2. Thermal Control
2.1 Radiators
(1
2.2 Insulation
2.3
Liquid
Cooling
2.4
Gas Cooling
{1
System
Sgstee
(1
2.5 Sensors _ Controls
(1
2.6 Heat Pipes
(1
a.7 Thermionics
(I
2.8 Cold Plate
2.9 Subsystem Engineering
3.
3.1
1.34
Power
0.94
Power Storage
3.2 Distribution Conditioning, Regulation _ Cont
3.3
(1}
Subsystem Engineering
17.67
4. Environmental Control G Life Support
_ Atmospheric
Cumposition,Mon
&Cont
3.42
4.4 Ventilation & Cabin Air Distribution
0.84
4.5
5.56
Potable Water Supply
T
4.6 Waste Management Subsystem
0.38
7
4.7 Trash Collection _ Disposal
3.90
7
4.3 Equipment & Module Cleaning
2.94
T
4.9 Subsystem Engineering
(1)
5. Crew Accommodations
3.30
7
5.1 Restraints(Crew
0.46
7
5.2
T
5.3 Special Purpose Lighting
0.30
7
5.4 Personal H_giene Subsgstem
0.70
7
5.5
Emergenc 9 Medical Kits
0.62
7
5.6
Human Engineering
6
6. Command & Data Handling Subsystem
7
6.10isplags
7
6.2
Instrumentation
!.06
7
6.3
Communications Interfaces
!.00
T
6.4 Command _ Data Handling
6
_.26
(1)
4.2 Temperature _ Humidity
Pressure
14.31
0.63
4.1 Contamination Control (Internal)
4.3
0.40
mounted, e.g.,3rd
arm)
2.67
0._3
24.04
5.64
0.32
Tool Kits
0.90
29.68
!2.91
& Controls
0.53
ORIGINAL
PAGE
5-27
O_
L_K)R
QUALI_.
IS
ORIGINAL
OE
TABLE
LEVEL
POOR
COST
5-3
IS
PAGE
LMSC/F07131gA
QUALrI_
ESTIMATE
FOR
SAAX0302
(Cont'd)
COST(MS)
WBS ELEMENT TITLE
TOTAL
Data Storage
6.6
5ubsgstem Engineering
Contamination
7.1
(External)
1.32
0.73
7.3
0.37
& Covers
2.44
System Test H_rdware
B.1 Mechanical
Equipment
8.3
Electrical
8.4
Alignment
8.5
Thermal Test Equipment
(1)
B.7 Mass Properties Measurement Equipment
(1)
Simulation
(1}
& Checkout
5.30
9.1 Integration & Assembly Hardware
(1)
9.2
Checkout
(1)
9.3
Design
9,4
Tool
tO.
Product
Interface
Integration, Assembl9
Console & Supporting
Hardware
Design
& Fabrication
Assurance
10.2
Reliability
(1)
10.3
Qualit9
10.4
Maintainabilit
4.38
2.41
0.56
10,39
2.44
(1)
9
23.05
Sgstem Test Operations
Electrical
11.2
Vibration
11.3
Thermal
(1)
11.4
EMI
(1}
11.5
EMC
(1)
11.6
Alignment
(1)
11.7
Calibration
(1}
(1)
& Acceleration
(l)
11.8 Thermal Vacuum
(I)
11.9
(1)
Acoustic
Simulation
(1)
Modeling
2.97
Software
12.1
Data Handling
12.2
Command
12.3
Communication
12.4
Applications
12.5
Fault
13.
18.67
(1)
Assurance
11.1
Flight
0.58
(1)
3.05
(1)
12.
2.47
(1)
_ Liaison
10.1Safetg
11.10
1.01
(1)
0.6 Vacuum Thermal Equipment
11.
4.29
(1}
Equipment
Planning,
0.46
(1)
Test Equipment
Maintenance
1.98
ll)
RF Test
9.
0.25
(1)
Test Equipment
8.2
8.8 Equipment
1.07
0.22
7.2 Window Cleaning Apparatus
8.
RECURR
(I)
Control
Effluent Control
Shields
COST(MS)
14.1B
6.5
7.
COST(MS)
NON-RECURR
(1)
& Processing
(1}
(1)
(1)
Interface
(1)
Isolation _ BITE
Ground Logistics
Support
Equipment
5-28
12.83
LMSC/F071319A
TABLE
LEVEL
5-3
C0ST
ESTIMATE
FOR
SAAX0302
(Coot'd)
COST(MS)
WBS ELEMENT TITLE
TOTAL
13.1
Preflight
7
13.2
Inflight(Includes
13.3
6
14.
ground
control
ops/POC eq$)
(I)
Engineering
& Integration
36.89
7
14.1
Hardware Development Planning
(1)
7
14.2
Configuration Control
111
7
14.3
Mission Analysis
11)
7
14.4
Interface
7
14.5 Specifications
7
14.6
Engineering
Data
7
14.7
Engineering
Anzlgses(Thermal,
6
15. Program Management
7
15.1
Project
7
7
15.2
15.3
Planning _ Scheduling
Controls
7
15.4
Subcontractor/Vendor
7
15.5 Management Data
(11
7
15.6
Reviews
(1)
7
15.7
Design to
6
Requirements
(Subsgstem & Software)
dgnamics,
etc.)
16.18
3.79
79,.57
18.67
53.29
12.50
(1)
(1)
19.97
(1}
(1)
11)
(1)
Liaison
(1)
Cost
Specific
& Equipment
98.24
32.45
7
16.1
8
16.1.1
General
Equipment
8
16.1.8
Laborator 9 Centrifuge
8
16.1.3
RefrigeratorlFreezer(-SO
8
16.1.4
Freezer
8
16.1.5 Research
B
16.1.6 Cleanup facilities
8
16.1.7
Small
8
16.1.8
Oissection
8
16.1.9
Dosimeter
O
16.1.10
Uiden
8
16.1.11
Phgsiological
amplifier
2.24
8
16.1.18 Strip chart recorder
3.32
8
16.1.13
Gas analgzerlMass spectrometer
4.90
8
16.1.14
Spectrophotometer
4.09
8
16.1.15
Oscilloscope
2.00
8
16.1.16 pHIIon analgzer
0.54
8
16.1.17
Microscope
0.42
8
16.1.18
Dissection
7
16.2
8
16.2.1
Rodent Standard
D
16.2.2
Rodent Artificial Gravit9 Holding Facility
8
!6.2.3
Egg Incubator
Purpose
4.37
Work Station
0.19
1.52
dog)
degJ
1.71
Computer
0.88
(-70
0.69
mass measurement
device
0.39
kit
0.59
0.75
3.62
recorder/camera
Sciences
7.01
11)
16. General Purpose Facilities
Life
29.88
11)
Management & Coordination
Module
RECURR
(I}
Postflight
Systems
COST(MSI
(I)
7
7
COST(MS)
NON-RECURR
microscope
0.23
Equipment
65.79
Holding
Holding
FacilitV
9.19
19.68
0.47
Facilit9
5-29
ORIG_AI,
OF
POOR
PAGE
QUALITY
IS
LMSC/FO71319A
TABLE
LZVEL
5-3
COST
ESTIIdATE
FOR
SAAX0302
(Cont'd)
COST(MS)
WBS ELEMENT TITLE
TOTAL
16.2.4 Rndent Breeding Holding Facility
8
16.2.5 Large Primate Holding Facility
6.87
8
16.2.6 Small Plant Holding Facility
6.87
8
16.2.7 CELSS Holding & Test Facility
3.77
8
16.2.0 Incubator-C02
0.90
8
16.2.9
B
16.2.10
7
16.2.11 Primate Handling
6
Physiological
Rodent
Monitoring
Metabolic
System
10.00
17.1 Training
17.2
Logistics
7
17.3
Airborne
7
17.4
Maintenance
7
17.5
Mockups
7
17.6 Ground Operations
(Pro-,
?
17.7
Flight
(Including
7
17.8
Recovery
Support
Equipt
8.43
1.98
8.30
1.95
7.21
1.69
2.47
0.58
6.42
(ASE)
0,40
& Servicing
0.30
Operations
lEnd-of-Life
In-,
& Post-flight)
scheduling)
0.27
0.13
TBO
Disposal)
10.41
Equipment
0.12
18.1
Safe
7
18.2
5ecnndar9
7
18.3
Lighting
7
18.4 Caution _ Warning
7
10.5
Fire
7
18.6
Work Stations
6
19. Customer
7
19.1
Experiment
7
19.2
Pointing
59stem
2.44
7
19.3 Optical Window
0.22
7
19.4 Scientific Airlock
0.67
7
19.5 Rapid Specimen Return
2.38
20.
8.90
Haven Equipment
Controls
10.29
Equipment
(2)
Detection
(2)
(2)
& Suppression
0.00
10.25
Accommodation Hardware
Equipment IIF
(Elect,data,thermal)
Ground Software
4.54
(1)
7
20.1Sgstem
7
20.2
Inflight
7
20.3
Data Handling
7
20.4
Teleeetr9 & Command
(1)
7
20.5
Communications
(1)
7
20.6
Applications
7
20.7 On-orbit
21.
1.90
0.53
7
6
B.IO
1.95
7
Station
4.00
0.54
Kit
17. Operations
18.
RECURR
4.76
Facility
7
6
COST(MS)
8.74
8
Animal
COSTIMS)
NON-RECURR
Test
(1)
Verification & Checkout
(1)
& Processing
(1)
[email protected]
(1)
Interface (Real timed
3.05
Spares
7
21_I Batteries
(1)
7
21.2
Filters
(1}
7
21.3
Light
(1)
Bulbs
(2) Part o_ Co,mon Module
{I) Included elsewhere
5-30
LNSC/071319A
Fundin_
were
Profiles.
constructed
through
based
first
upon
different
launch.
5.3.1
Funding
7
to
years,
The
using
evaluate
launch.
year
The
so
the
profiles
It
based
assumptions
LSRF
Missions
SAAX0307
requirements
(Fig.
is
profiles
are
same
for
funding
programs.
profiles
the
profiles
5-12
and
recognized
shown
as
upon
the
DDT&E
in
5-4)
307
dollars
Section
program
Table
that
are
defined
from
costs
and
vs.
initiation
are
and
SAAX0302
generated
302
years
detailed
in
start
in
prior
to
Section
5.3.
BO
70-
60-
.--%
307"7"
__
\\
\\
//
//
//
//
//
//
\
././
U9
n,
.J
O
3o
V
2O
I0
k
\\
//
\\
\\
//
//
\\
//
\\
\ \
\\
//
//
//
I
k\H
b,\l
V/INN
I//TN
F"/I':\ 4
V /I\
I
YR-1
TR-2
[7=-/]
YR--_
"I_R-4
YR-_
Funding
Profiles
SA,_,O_07
Figure
\I
5-12
5-31
YN-6
"_
I
"I'T_-7
LHSC/071319A
TABLE
5-4
FUNDING
PROFILES
FOR
SAAX0307
AND
cost
YEAR
5.3.2
Annual
Annual
al
the
activities
6.8
2
24.1
31.9
3
45.8
60.7
4
57.2
75.8
5
53.3
70.6
6
35.5
47.0
7
12.9
17.0
Cost
costs
The
operating
costs
Costs
are
are
Estimates
as
in
YEAR
PROGRAM
Estimate
for
pre-launch,
the
LSRF
groundrules
7
SAAX0302
5.1
animal-plant
section.
A
I
involving
dedicated
FOR
(MS)
SAAX0307
Operations
operations
SAAX0302
portion
vivarium
and
on-orbit,
of
the
and
combined
Iab(SAAX0302)
assumptions
post-return
are
made
in
lab
operation-
(SAAX0307)
presented
developing
and
in
the
this
annual
follows:
constant
year
are
for
the
45
STS
transportation
FY
foot
1987
dollars
module
in
the
racetrack
configura-
tion
Costs
for
$5.27K/kg/flight
payload
The
capability
Space
resupply
Station
flights
based
of
on
17,270
resupply
per
assume
a
shuttle
a pro-rated
cost
of
roundtrip
cost
of
$91M
kg
period
year
5-32
is
90
days
requiring
four
and
a
LMSC/F071319A
The
factors
and
engineering
Annual
operations
broken
down
The
annual
owing
to
SAAX0302
for
nineWBS
operations
its
SAAX0307
for
SAAX0302
are
are
SAAX0307
of
equipment.
given
5-5
agreed
for
amount
TABLE
and
elements
costs
reduced
estimate
used
estimating
are
upon
are
by
the
asumed
The
shown
in Table
LSRF
to be
5-5.
project
b,lE_;5
:1.7"
C]pe r'ii_.'_,
:i.
c:)ns
O
1 7:1.
17
50Z
of
methodology
those
and
1 7
li!_lemen'i',
OPERATING
COSTS
SAAX0302
AND
"f':i.i',le
A:i.r'bor'ne
for
rationale
for
the
SAAX0307
6?2
(_.liiM)
S A A X 0 ,'3
0 T
_3:I..'5
<.pc)
D. ,'.3
:I.
"37' :I.._.I
Suppor'%
are
SAAX0302
!i_AAX()_3();?.
I...¢:_
_l:i.
_i% :i.
cs
,3
Costs
below.
T"r'_.:i,
n :i.
,_!_I
F_
on
participants.
COST'
I..._'nv e 1
based
judgement
costs
into
rationale
0
E!k:lu:i.l:)men%
_?.'T
:I.
1
:I. 6
:I.8
'5"7'
0
:I..8
'.5 0 9
F:_. :5',5
0
0
:I. 7"
Zl
i'qi_.:i,
n "_,eni_3.nc_e i_tnd
:I.'7
15
Moc: k u p s
(i_
J"o u n cl [31:)e_
r'i!t_,
:i.
o rls
6
69
",.3"3'.5
F:"1 :i. _l h % 01:),-_ r'i!ti',
8
_38
•4
_1.7
6
1 7
7
:1.'7
8
l:_r-:_c_l:lv_/_ r" _.j
17
9
J::' I"0
(;J I'_1.111
full-time
Assuming
is
current
hardware
backup
.1_....I_:i. F_2:) [):i. !_ 1:)o !_ii_._l. )
to
training
SAAX0302
for
$75K/yr
x
=
=
which
the
over
90
is
equal
to
20Z
total
resupply
and
two
at half
:1.<!.:'
"Tli]_13
:1.. _5 0
operation
persons/flight
totaling
level,
eight
and
is
of
the
is
also
DDT&E
1.80
+
the
a cost
cost
0.51
transportation
per
a one-to-one
Therefore,
There
The
STS
days,
required.
$1.80M/yr.
consumables,
costs
are
$0.51M/yr).
cover
every
crewmembers
24
costs
crew
eight
24 people/year
hardware
specimen
rotated
crew
(0.2x$2.55M
logistics
are
0 _3
T'E:13
_,
training
to
equal
changeout,
The
(lii[ 1'Id.-..o
Mi!Llli_l.(;J(.'..)lrl6..]l'l
crewmembers
instructors
cost
The
:i. (:) n !_i
:I.
:I.
_!).O 0
Two
of
5,e r'v :i.<:
:i.
n _l
total
for
for
=
of
year.
ratio
training
maintaining
LSRF
training
$2.31M/yr.
crew,
equipment
spares.
at
90
kg
each,
totaling
w._u_NA_L
PA
180
5-33
i'OQ/_
]E
QUALITy
18
LMSC/F071319A
kg/flight.
Consumables
equipment
equivalent
kg/flight.
The
totaling
754
$8.61M/yr
are
($1.36M).
per year
cost
is
support
This
equals
($50.94M).
This
Maintaining
mockups
This
$0.11M/yr.
Ground
Assuming
engineering
Preflight
and
$3.16
+
20 people
91.5
+
recovery
are
$0.38
$75k/yr
+
$1.5
operations
people
on a 90 day rotation.
totaling
equaling
0.38M/yr.
Recovery
is still
all previous
consists
98M/yr.
costs.
The
at
at
five
20%
or
of
is
update
assumed
and
of
at
700
549 kg of water
is
equal
Assuming
-/yr)
to
four
The operation
$34.44M.yr.
Therefore,
(95.39M).
937.14
20%
and
resupply
98.61M
cost
at
i0%
of
the
M/yr.
of
DDT&E
recurring
costs
are
DDT&E
areas.
are
GSE
hardware
cost
flight
hardware
cost
equaling
$1.SM/yr.
Scheduling
flight
to be determined.
first
recovery
$75k/year
at
at
5
$75K/yr
The
total
($0.54M).
is rapid
Configuration
estimated
of 2 people
for mockups
and four
at
consists
equaling
cost
The
$3.16M/yr.
at 20 people
recovery.
capsules
at
management
totaling
people
at
equaling
ground
and
$1.5M/yr.
$75K/yr
=
$0.15M/yr.
operation
is
$6.69M/yr.
Therefore,
The total
the
at $0.51M/recovery,
of the flight
total
of
separate
estimated
assurance
at
areas
=
spares
estimated
operations
Flight
at IM/yr
Of
per year
postflight
Quality
k/kg
92.7M
estimated
is estimated
sustaining
has
is
three
cost equals
initial
plus
flight
of 205 kg of food
95.27
resupply
per
Changeout
$5.09M/yr.
four recoveries
$0.38M/yr.
is
equals
total
racks
these
x
module.
$0.27M/yr.
consists
$0.29M/capsule,
of
the
934.44M
servicing
operations
of
equipment
and
equals
50%
hab
consist
cost
the total
at
Maintenance
CDOS
The
the
equipment
= 1634kg/flt
estimated
airborne
to
consumables
kg/flight.
logistics
charged
three
specimen
flights
spares
The
to
(180+700+754
resupply
total
are
crew
and scheduling.
there
are a total
is estimated
operations
Management
of all areas
5-34
The flight
of 8 people
at five people
cost
of
$8.0
is estimated
in operating
costs
per year
per year
+ 0.38
crew has 2
each
at 75K/yr
= 98.38M/yr.
at 5% of the total
equals
962.99M/year.
of
LMSC/F071319A
5.4
PRELIMINARY
The
LSRF
program
Station
purpose
tation
The following
LSRF
with
and
SS
overview
5.4.1
LSRF
an
June
represents
1985
it
eventually
is
(AOs),
Research
Proposed
and
(5)
design,
of
resources
(4)
Space
support.
for developing
necessary
identify
the
development,
mission
plan
responsibilities;
address:
LSRF
The
the LSRF
for LSRF;
summarize
interfaces
(3)
implemen-
necessary
management,
mission
for
summary
development
planning,
of
equipment
activities'associated
project
schedules
that are
taken
together,
provide
sections,
LSRF
and
a project
and LSRF
These
science
operation
training;
phased
a
with
the
generalized
system.
Requirements.
from
as
that
the
New
LSRF
Committee,
should
review,
be
may
the
Life
Science
experiment
"Life
this
of NASA,
Applications
investigations
peer
At
requirements
Technology
appropriate
sponsored
VA.
viewpoint
either
requirements
The initial
the NASA
assumed
Requirements.
from
aspects
establish
sections
at Arlington,
serve
derived
plan
phases;
the current
NASA,
all
with
Management
be derived
10-12,
supporting
and
end-to-end
Experiment
will
definition,
a comprehensive
(2) help
engineering,
resupply
Science
Initial
New
program
schedule.
of
consistent
elements.
LSRF developmental
overall
and
activities;
project
implementation
changeout
New
and
approach,
requirements
integration
development
all
the
Station;
management
conducting
a phased
is to: (I) provide
in Space
of key
PLANS
to accomplish
of the plan
summarize
AND
encompasses
verification,
for inclusion
by
plan
phasing,
assembly,
and
SCHEDULES
this
academia,
or
Operations
(ANs),
undergone
and
upon
recommendation
into
be
for
the
follow-on
5-35
Pending
held
but
review
"Redbook"
requirements
Announcements
or
letters
strategic
LSRF
Meeting"
is unofficial
Meeting
existing
(RTOPs),
have
for the IOC
will
Document.
to
which
incorporated
document
Planning
changes
Plans
Planning
and industry.
Requirements
Notices
scheduled
Sciences
time
Sciences
requirements
of
plans
the
Science
missions
JSC
of
be
Opportunity
of solicitation.
committee
Science
Requirements
or
will
may
bump
review,
Steering
Document.
existing
LMSC/F071319A
experiments
LSRF
dependent
Experiment
requirements
support
document
mission
by
Data
of
will
allocation,
available.
Experiment
Protocol
Principal
will
Mission
Production
tuning,
time-lining,
Base
5.4.2
so
as
Implementation
General
basic
types
CORE,
Life
Science
use,
and
broad
(MPC)
become
ease
CORE
data
trays,
etc.
range
part
in time
and/or
on
data
each
with
far
the best
experiment
protocol.
to
the
Planning
LSRF
fine
Additionally,
LSRF
to
These
verification,
phases.
the
base
sufficiently
delivered
the
rapid
crew time
the relational
training,
of
LSRF
performed
experiment
later
the
demands.
apportionment,
be
LSRF
the
Support
update.
Engineering
of modular
Definition.
and transportable
Laboratory
equipment
i.e.,
review
to be
will
during
an integral
of
operational
and
and
supporting
for a mission,
in planning,
analysis
of
are accomplished
protocols
for use
base,
LSRF
format
planners,
a portion
that
defined
the
in an automated
at a point
selected
a fully
protocol,
station
investigations
developed
Hardware/Instrumentation
three
(EUE).
determinations
and failure
permit
Space
It is suggested
to have
equipment,
data
of SLM LSRF
Once
in
become
from an analysis
priority
will
could
schedules.
contained
payload
experiments
subsequent
(PI)
and
relational
and
priority.
Center
to
a
mission
can be stored
specific
Development
protocol
base
is
The
area
mission
data
which
be required
Station/Shuttle
to determine
data
combinations
Investigator
defined
experiment
Base,
that high
equipment
analyzed
experiment
and experiment
be performed
to be
be determined
line to insure
Space
investigation
Requirements.
this and other
and
Investigators,
experiment
Mission
IOC Mission
support
Principle
Support
IOC
Data
Each
These
The
assessment
fully
Base.
needs
control.
Planning
down
priority
requirements.
addressable
LSRF
Data
upon
is defined
recorders,
LSLE
Equipment
of application,
hardware.
(LSLE),
and
to be semi-permanent,
audio-visual,
equipment
The
body
system
These
mass
5-36
as general
measuring
Experiment
Unique
experiment
consist
of
types
are
Equipment
independent
storage
experiment
device,
will
equipment
refrigerator-freezer,
is defined
i.e.,
LSRF
cabinets
equipment
exercise
in
with
equipment,
a
I_SC/F071319A
urine
collection
defined
system,
as that which
experiments,
i.e.,
olfactometer,
freeze
this
equipment
Preliminar7
result
of
the
LSRF
will
with
the
form
LSRF
the
not
that
time.
stain
use,
later
all
the SLM could
should
could
is
set of
counter,
and
storage
the
be
identified
of
operating
Requirements
Document.
performed
must
the
as approved
as a
equipment
on
any combination
document,
be updated
cell
handling
and
development
Requirements
kit,
The equipment
contain
SLMmodule
equipment
paragraphs.
analysis
experiments
EUE
to a specialized
Engineering/Operations
Thus,
Science
and
Requirements.
a preliminary
that
in use
development,
throughout
etc.
any
single
of CORE,
address
maximum
LSLE,
loads.
Engineering/Operations
new
science
requirements
system.
Development
following
The
The
kits,
or limited
Requirements
Specification
Facilities.
of facilities
to support
the LSRF
system
is based
on the
assumptions:
IOC mission
launched
(b)
Science
blood
microscope
etc.
discussed
it is recognized
Requirements
(a)
be
unique
counter,
dryer,
will
and EUE at any given
enter
gamma
it is recognized
mission,
As
is experiment
EnKineerin_/Operations
parameters
While
spectrophotometer,
as
Exclusive
a
of
integration,
integration
"fully
the
of the LSRF
equipped"
IOC
mission
checkout,
and
will
be performed
at KSC
if the SLM
is
module.
as
defined
flight
in
(a)
packaging
will
command
and
final
be
done
LSRF
at
equipment
the
customer
location.
(c)
LSRF
Mission
Planning,
maintenance/servicing
(d)
Experiment
equipment
stored
at GSFC
housed
and
LSRFdevelopment
or ARC.
maintained
will
and
As
a minimum,
performed
expendables,
CORE
at
be
equipment,
at
GSFC
exclusive
after
control,
or
of
initial
and
equipment
ARC.
CORE
equipment,
certification,
will
be
will
be
KSC.
and implementation
SLM"look-alike"modules.
performed.
training,
The degree
will
require
facilities
of"look-alike"will
it is currently
5-37
envisioned
to accommodate
vary
that
with
KSC will
function
require
several
to be
a full
LMSC/F071319A
flight
SLM
module
to accomplish
lanuch.
ARC.
One,
trainer),
is
high
facility,
LSRF
LSRF
Operations
Payload
Facilities.
and
o
Coordination
o
Center
for
orbit
Additional
of
reside
bed
Space
Station
Unit
function
loaded
at GSFC
or
(i.e.,
Ig
assembly
Development
engineering
(EDU) would
of integration
trainer.
as an engineering
operations
and a Space
A third
test
bed
be
test
unit,
an
supporting
facilities
Station
will
Support
consist
Center
of a
(SSSC).
mission
payload
and
commanding
investigations
checkout,
rendezvous
planning
facility
and
related
and
or
activities
logistics,
NSTS
interface,
and proximity
operations,
and POCC
functions.
is stored
LSLE
or
integration
Initial
one
operations
analysis
and commanding,
facilities:
for
payload
performance
monitoring
at KSC
should
in which
and a second
mission
preparation,
provide
LSRF
facility
expendables.
equipment
for
CORE
equipment
at GSFC
The
two
not required
or ARC which
second
maintenance,
controlled
provides
facility
and QA
supports
requirements.
Operation
Training
maintenance,
handling
(POCC)
cooperative
for
Facilities.
LSRF
Training.
serve
LSRF
center
and
mission"
Center
assembly,
storage
5.4.3
would
normal
payload
on the current
"next
overall
protocol
concept
modules
test
the combined
experiment
performing
operations
coordination
primary
support
the
include:
TheSSSCprovides:
strategic
integrated
serve
At a minimum
Control
functions
Managing
logistics
(ADU),
SLM
the Engineering
and
under
development.
o
Lpgistics
control,
Unit
Operations
POCC
and would
and would
check-out
additional
Station
fidelity
Development
future
Space
SLMunit,
and
and
three
A second
command
Advanced
in the
that
be low fidelity
needs.
of very
suggested
a module
would
training
The
It
integration
will
be
training
on laboratory
experiment
accomplished
can
start-up
protocol,
data
at" GSFC
be conducted
procedures,
or
on the
5-38
equipment
change-out,
collection/recording
and
ARC
fidelity
Space
using
Station
the
high
Systems
on-
logistics
Trainer
EDU.
(SSST)
LMSC/F071319A
where
nominal
support,
contingency
activity
emergency
is
One,
SSSC;
intervention.
ground
the
other,
engineering
and
general
autonomous
operation
assess
In
the
investigation
certain
transfer
In
would
the
place
Data
higher
modes.
and
These
computer
serve
as
scheduled
for
special
data
and
of data,
data
and
desired
at least
calibration
objective
of
operation.
semi-
Parallel
performance,
the experiment
as opposed
to experiment
than
parallel
operation.
received
training
available,
interface,
will
except
Real
the
LSRF
and
be
time
in
be
experiment
left
as may
to conduct
be requested
communication
channels
result.
Space
Station
LSRF
form
and
of
of
storage,
processing
and
within
(e) audio-visual
5-39
experiment
EDU,
and
capable
in the
of
the
The
tools
devices
aspect
in
function
processing
storage
that,
ground
instrument
aids
each
simultaneously
analog/digital
interim
downlink
mode,
Communications.
will
no
and/or
to
data
a minimum.
communication
tools
voice
on
or
instrument
near-parallel
having
training
little
of
the POCC
verify
costly
of ground
evaluating
and
for both
handle
and
demands
Processing
processing
to
operations
staff
and
in either
with
is the recognition
protocol,
crew,
with
highly
of the investigation.
kept
on-orbit
engineering
the
audio-visual
aspects
be
useage
operation
reliability,
of
during
more
mode
mode
the
period
to monitor
independent
parallel
performed
PI
delay
a
considered
and having
navigation
to function
in near-parallel
equipment
adjustments
semi-autonomous
clarify
to
is
and
communications
planned
this approach
will
force
the
and make
which
protocol
the
and
and
semi-autonomous
behind
unknowns
allow
results
reflight,
a
constraints,
operation
will
trajectory
logistics,
the LSRFis
supported
The rationale
initially,
other
maintenance,
Operationally,
fully
and
management,
available.
Operations.
two modes:
systems
planning,
training
On-orbit
and
and
with
the
This
mode
will
access
(b) LSRF
be
to the
the
and
will
of
records
the
Station
be
LSRF
undoubtedly
systems.
with
its
Space
dedicated
permanent
equipment
PI
equipped
both
requirements,
Space
would
communication
supporting
(a)
conduct
data
operational
Station
main
micro-computers
(c) data
recorders
archiving,
(d)
communications
to display/replay
to
time
system
experiment
LMSC/F071319A
protocol
training
films.
The specific configuration
experiment
remotely
records
Ground
of communication
plan.
Principal
controlled
data
(tapes,
Mission
system
dumps,
cassettes,
Support.
SSSC involvement
may
opt
to
conditions
work
will
Operational
participate
from
participation
data
with
will be a function of the
be
crew
permit
Permanent
flight.
for the LSRF will be through
as needed.
the published
The degree of
experiment
plans.
institution/laboratory.
the PI will require
base access
to
on the next resupply
support
their
interfaced
time demands.
and support experiments
remotely
to facilitate
will
be returned
ground
will be in accordance
of remote
station
components
thus offloading
etc.)
the POCC using the EDU to monitor
and processing
a compatible
and direct
PIs
Under
data terminal
communication.
f
Scheduling.
The
Mission
Production
Requirements
as a base and Space
and schedule each investigation
through
its LSRF Engineering
LSLE, and EUE required
investigation
effort
needs
the
Office
activities
relative
between
EO,
to reconfiguration
5.4.4
Project
Conduct
of the LSRF project
priority.
equipment.
POCC,
Where
to initiate
an R&D
In instances
where
payload.
are addressed
those
functions
The MPC will act as
SSSC
to
assure
in a timely
that
all
manner.
Summary
is structured
phase A for preliminary
with phased project
requirements
preliminary
guidelines
definition;
phase
B,
phase
C,
definition,
development,
testing, final design, and flight unit preliminary
D, flight unit manufacture,
design,
and concept
planning
requirements
coordination
IOC).
to perform
and
The MPC,
or not the CORE,
(following
the EO will be tasked
the required
Science
as tools, will plan
whether
from internal resources
the LSRF POCC will be tasked
point
approved
schedules
(EO), will ascertain
test and deliver
focal
using
with established
to launch an LSRF reconfiguration/resupply
coordinating
utilizing
in accordance
is available
can be satisfied,
(MPC),
Station and shuttle
needs cannot be satisfied,
to acquire,
necessary
Center
and development
flight certification
planning,
and operational
with the Space Station office and other pertinent
5-40
planning;
and phase
support.
Close
participants
should
LMSC/F071319A
be
maintained
between
with
the
the
Phase
A
Boeing
LSRF
and
overall
Space
parallel
studies
common
phases
module,
to
assure
and to optimize
interface
compatibility
operational
compatibility
represented
covers
in this report,
a major
portion
and
of
its predecessors,
Phase
A.
and the
Remaining
effort
of
studies
constraints,
current
the
and
the
Space
interfaces
of
the
measurements,
Initiating
planned
and
studies
protocols,
equipment,
develop
an
and
base
to
its
guidelines,
and
to maintain
elements.
Science
Requirements
priorities,
data
and
to determine
to define
their
requirements.
approach
operating
maintain
development,
and
their
a data
initial
to LSRF
of LSRF
experiments,
to define
Program
mission
oriented
efforts
for
Station
pertinent
of the headquarters
discipline
thus
of
knowledge
Analysis
(3)
project
Station.
The work
Continued
(2)
all
the
Study.
consists
(I)
throughout
for
capability
the material
for
the
produced
planning
data
base.
(4)
Definition
and
(5)
From
(6)
In
(3)
of an LSRF
above,
(4),
equipment
and
$233M
for
SAAX0307
(Code
S).
deriving
current
Space
Common
the
be
interface
duty
maintenance
capabilities,
information
exchange
tours,
LSRF
the information
promising
between
by
the
Space
guidelines,
plans
Station
equipment.
that
generic
much
organization
constraints,
schedules
requirements,
as well
philosophies
project
(I), (2),
Station-funded
recognizes
and
will
candidate
Space
This
from
of
the
of NASA
Plan.
communications,
mechanics
as
the most
equipment.
Project
Program
utilizing
split
funded
concepts,
Module
identified
of
user
LSRF
Station
as crewmember
personnel
may
the
documentation,
establish
of
LSRF-funded
of
Concept,
selection
definition
Preparation
(such
and
System
be
of pre-,
data
set
focal
5-41
need
points.
to
as other
interfaces,
be
pertinent
etc.).
among
NASA
the
examined
in-, and postflight
systems,
into motion
and
aspects
support,
Additionally,
and
to
contractor
LMSC/F071319A
Phase
B,
Phase
B activity
LSRF
Requirements
System
Design
B
proper
The
BI,
specific
technology
be
of
will
concepts
attractive
alternative
may
be
providing
for
Phase
Analysis
B2,
and
early
activities
(such
Functional
hardware
necessary
Phase
'bake,
Y
for
flight
will
be
incorporated
at preparing
PlanninK.
complete
Other
product
key
possible
testing
the
Phase
and
may
5-42
need
most
the
technology/established
time
Phase
items.
B
include
materials
and QA
definitions.
to
Critical
standpoints.
planning
and
Reliability,
interface
of
LSRF
selection,
acceptability
preliminary
requirements
of
worthy
be
lead
Safety,
modification.
B3
long
candidate
analyses,
to verify
will
will
industry.
advanced
aspects
elements
protocol
into
of
B,
advanced
for the LSRF
performed
IOC
Phase
and
with
of promising
development
efficient
and transformed
advancements
pursued
for
and
process
During
software
studies
analyses),
of
and medical/scientific
and
the
follows:
state-of-the-art
configuration
hazard
selection
besolidified
and
trade
or buy"
as
of
design,
and
of
System
purpose
in a timely
innovative
identified
elements,
software)
evaluated
promising
Design.
The
_ Requirements.
Current
definition
preliminary
and
will
PlanninK
Preliminary
contractor
equipment
and
modify,
and
(and
B3 1 Development
directed
LSRF
of design
C/D
EnKineerin
explicit
which
summarized
Development
Preliminar
as FMEA
Shuttle/Spacelab
engineering,
be
selected.
and
B are
Development
prepared.
effectively
developed,
The
a more
requirements,
needs.
identification
tradeoffs
and
will
be
the Phase
potential
and
from
requirements
areas
be
funded.
selection,
undergo
and
LSRF
will
and product
fabricated,
and
software
be assessed
subsystem
hardware
Science
and
the
the
Phase
and engineering
for
C will
to proceed
Technological
consideration
producing
Phase
so that
of
DesiKn
requirements,
synthesize
plans,
hardware
identified.
analyses
to
efforts
A science
toward
for
information
Definition
the Phase
directed
Plans
is
major
Preliminary
Performance
development
manner.
into
and
activities
have
Phase
be
Development
preliminary
will
will
Design
and
Phase
Definition,
be
procured,
hardware
or
may
from microgravity,
Modifications
deemed
designs.
efforts
documentation
for
initially
interface
will
be
control,
LMSC/FO71319A
science, design, performance, data base,
operational
of Phase
support.
B will
consist
specifications
project
Additional
documentation,
so
Phase
Preparation
C/D
that
solicitation
cost
and
Phase
selection,
pursue
and
It
data
Phase
Reviews.
Reviews
Science
and Engineering
process
Station
Phase
C,
be
conducted
Requirements,
of the Development
critique
Space
will
by
teams
Program
System
Plans,
of Medical,
will
design,
all
existing
updated
tasks
of
if
points
the Phase
during
preparation
be
of the
so that
the end items
Scientific,
Engineering,
B
to
the Phase
C/D
orderly
B contractor,
extended
the
Project
directed
a comprehensive,
without
and
of the Phase
would
is not
key
product
LSRF
the period
to assure
contractor
the
be required
during
proceed
C/D
analyses,
B contractor
to
the
part
and
Phase
support
C contractor
at
the latter
point,
in depth
to
is important
efforts
and
subsystem
reviewed
the
Statement
C/D)
if the Phase
C productive
for
the Phase
This
of project
preparation
that
selected.
transition
permit
planned
C Work
be
testing
unimpeded.
pertinent
(to Phase
is being
to
tasks
and
this
will
information,
productive
contractor
and
proceed
technical
of the Phase
is also
meaningful,
may
during
system
At
Plan,
preparation
other
C prepared
plans.
Project
efforts
development,
C preliminary
testing
as the
During
preparation
contractor.
C
for Phase
Phase
and
such
investigations,
Office's
and
of early
development,
required,
plans
engineering
delays.
finalization
of
Preliminary
Design,
can benefit
from
Manufacturing
inand
experts.
Development,
Testing,
Final
Design
and
Fli_ht
Unit
Preliminary
Planning.
Phase
C shall
include
the detailed
testing,
design
vehicle
Functional
assure
analyses,
and verifications
procedures,
modified
finalizing
and
development
to
the
its
final
final
LSRF
design
make
that
mission
hardware
and performance
or buy
requirements
decisions,
are needed
and conducting
development,
to satisfy
modifications,
requirements
of protocols,
interfaces.
from
configuration.
configuration
Phase
This
will
5-43
B
will
phase
be
will
comply
evaluated,
require
with
all
tested,
and
coordination
to
standards
and
LMBC/F071319A
specifications
The
use
of
required for Space Station
commercially
encouraged
to
Development
hardware
minimize
are required.
the
the
(from
Station,
System
a
Design
and
from
will
be
the
hardware
in
inflight
repair/replacement.
evaluated
would
by
the
to determine
be coordinated
inhouse
Protoflight
tests
will
tests
will
NASA,
medical/scientific,
hardware
as
LSRF
will
be
if modifications
by NASA
and performed
determined
surprises.
components
or
by
by
cost
and
the testing
configuration.
Configuration,
and
Once
it
may
and
the
be
the
used
standpoint).
and
verified.
hardware.
level
Units
All
prior
LSRF
to
LSRF
attempted
the EDU
verified
(i)
verify
5-44
an
its
the
engineering,
cases
have
and/or
KC-135
of
produced
significant
or
in microgravity
the
These
characteristics
some
in
as
is
a
formal
the
comprehensive
goal
of
range
of
timelines.
manufacture
to
in
critical
feedback
these
from
of
testing,
using
modified
to
and
performance
of
of the LSRF.
Performance
testing
for
is
for
Development
subsystem
unknown,
baselined,
EDU
tested
the development
EDU information
specifications
finalized
of
are
Proven
of the LSRF,
be
quality
development
standpoint.
be
be
and
operational
is acceptable
Engineering
and
throughout
Microgravity
should
hardware
will
C
that
system.
times
to completion
protocols
Phase
operation
may
that
and
component
EDU
experiment.
Prior
As
and
the
many
subsystems
Shuttle/Spacelab
drawings
at
B
verify
reliability,
prepared
and microgravity
unpleasant
experiment
Phase
to
to certify
interfaces
be
be utilized
in microgravity
tests.
system
the
performed
safety,
complete
certify
be
and
will
tested
the
System.
and
will
LSRF
Drawings
into
the
facilitate
or
materials,
integration
During
contractor,
appropriate,
SLM,
assembled
hardware
these
and
be procured
tests
are
spaceflight
(EDU)
off-the-shelf
modifications
engineering
characteristics
LSRF
will
hardware.
effectivity.
Extensive
Space
costs
Required
manufacturer,
project
available,
flight
and
will
be
should
enable
assembly
of
constitute
identical
total
to
system
completion
of
the
LSRF
Flight
the
IOC
flight
Flight
System
the
compatibility
and
LMSC/F071319A
operation,
(4)
(2) resolve
fine
Phase
tune
D:
and
Flight
encompasses
flight
Unit
Initially,
documentation
prepared,
and when
with
pursued
the
to develop
develop
establish
5.4.5
and
and
and
Operational
Support
procurements,
Phase
manufacture,
D
and
activities
for
establishing
of mission
operations
(such
as training,
Production
be
and Operational
finalized,
process
cost
for producing
for
The LSRF
summary
key
Phases
in
project
requirements
logistics
Support
plans
and
a flight
process,
plans,
acceptance
incremental
B,
concert
plan
Space
and
been
Project
Station
Station,
in
have
C,
lOC schedule
Space
integrated
production
LSRF
the
Schedules
schedules
more
lines.
Plans
and
schedules
ready
LSRFis
other
prepare
test
and
plans
operational
activities
implement
and
support
are
training
procedures,
and
needs.
Schedules
Project
changes
trainer,
the
C will
implement
accommodate
Program
the Space
time
fidelity
etc.).
hardware
implement
(I) an overall
LSRF
and
the entire
system
encompass
meet
and
conducting
required
Phase
approved,
establish
unit(s)
Unit Preliminary
in
(5)
as a high
motion.
Concurrent
plans,
for
maintaining,
produced
(3) serve
Certification,
LSRF
modifying,
and
and
required
functions
the Flight
into
protocols,
of
support
anomalies,
Production,
certification
refurbishing,
LSRF
verify
the activities
incremental
set
onboard
and
Schedule
schedules
provide
Station
provide
time
overall
(Phases
phases
LSRF
thereby
Space
are structured
adequate
Fig.
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Station
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D.
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project
planning
of
with
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implementation
in
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Space
Station
5-49
LSRF
Phase
D Schedule
1