CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this chapter the researcher present some points related to this research. Those include (a) background of study, (b) formulation of the research problem, (c) purpose of the study, (d) hypothesis, (e) significance of study, (f) scope and limitation of study, (g) definition of key terms, (h) organization of study. A. Background of the Study Language is a means of communication between members of society. We encode what we want to say using language which is made up of range of components. They are individual letter, combined letter, word, phrases, clauses, and sentences Lindays and Knight(2006: 27). A language is system which is operated in communication using sign,sound and gesture or witten form. It is important to every human to know about language because they always use language to communicate the ideas or feeling by the use of conversation, gesture or written form. They are able to give information to each other, express their feeling of sad and happy using a language.We can’t imagine a society making use no language as a means of communication in the daily life. Language is used for communication to transfer or to explain idea or knowledge to another person. It means that without language human can’t develop their idea and their culture,Setiyadi(1991: 1). 1 2 Language is quintessentially human. We use spoken language every day, face-to-face, as a means of communication and written language allows us, to record and hold on to our history across generations. Language itself is very complex. It has a sound system that allows us to use numerous distinct words, vocabulary of some 50,000 to 100,000 terms for many adults, and a series of constructions for relating these words. It allows us to express innumerable ideas, describe events, tell stories, recite poems, buy, sell, or bargain in markets, administer legal systems, make political speeches, and do the myriad other activities that make up the societies we live in. Language allows us to coordinate what we do with others, relay information, find out answers, and carry out everyday activities – gossiping, making puns, writing memos, reading newspaper, learning histories, enjoying novels, greeting friends, telling stories, selling cars, reading instructions-the list is unending. Language calls for an intricate web of skills we usually take for granted. It is an integral part of everyday life that we rely on to convey wants and needs, thoughts, concerns, and plans. Using language seems as natural as breathing or walking Clark(2003:1).In addition, language is the primary medium of human social interaction, and interaction is the means through which social interaction are constructed and maintained, David Block and Deborah Cameron(2002: 1). However, language also becomes an obstacle to make a communication in this globalization because the language used in each country is different. 3 As a language which is used by more than a half of population in the world, English hold the key as international language. English is a tool of communication among people of the world to get trade, social culture, science, technology goal, and developing interrelationship with foreign country. Learning English means learning its two aspects: skill and component Heatson (1974: 4). Four major skills through language are listening, speaking, reading and writing, while English components are pronounciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Sidney (1991: 1) said that grammar is the central component in language. It mediates between the system of sounds or of written symbols, on the hand, and the system of meaning, on the other. Grammar is defined as the study of what forms or patterns are possible in a language,Bambang Yudi(2011: 173). Martha and Robert (2009: 5) said that there are many different nuances of meanings in connection grammar; Grammar 1: The system of rules in our heads.Grammar 2 : The formal description of the rules.Grammar 3 : The social implications of usage, sometimes called ”linguistic etiquette” Grammar is the system of language. In some cases, grammar lessons have meant learning the ” rules”, in others, practising the form and in others understanding how grammar helps to convey the meaning and intention of the message Edward Woods(1995: 20). Different experts define the term grammar differently. JeremyHarmer (2007: 32) defines the term grammar as the description of the ways in which words are formed and can change their 4 form and can be combined into sentences in order to express different meanings. Whereas Hornby (1992: 161) states that grammar is a description of the structure of the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentence in the language, it also related with the tense being used. Homer and Susan states that the pattern of language is seen in its grammar (word, order, forms, and structure). In addition, some of the most noticeable differences between nonstandard and standard English are in the forms of verbs, including especially the verbs used in each tense, Hans P.Guth(1926: 364). There are many tenses used in English lesson. One of the tenses that has to be learnt by seventh grade students of Junior High School is simple past tense. The students have to be able to understand the essence of those tense itself and create a sentence using simple past tense correcly, appropriately and structurely based on the verbs usage, time signal and formula of the text. Simple past tense is one of the tense expresses past time Thomas, Muriel and Angela(1944: 179), this tense also has a structure, some verbs are regular (-ed), and some of them are irregular (not regular), Raymond Murphy(1997: 65). Thus, the students need ability how to change the verbs into the correct verbs based on the tense being used. After knowing the highly complex of the grammar, the teachers need to move how to select the materials and activities to be used in the grammar class. To be more interesting, the teachers have to create many ways to explain the English material so that it can be understood by the students. 5 Moreover in teaching grammar, the teachers have to create the way that can make the students be able to master the good grammar, especially in the simple past tense. Some consideration of selecting good materials and activities can help the teacher to make decision of what to do in classroom. So, the teacher has to create the English lesson especially for the grammar class is more interesting and creative because grammar is one the difficult and complicated components in the language. In teaching grammar every effort should be made to present it dramatically and clearly, and to repeat the explanation several times if necessary. Careless use of grammatical terms is a fundamental cause of misunderstanding, prolonged confusion, and discouragementon the part of the student. Moreover, the more dramatic the initial presentation of a grammatical fact, the more likely it is to impress itself on the student’s mind, particularly a young pupil’s mind, Edmond(1954: 158,159). Based on the statement above, the teacher select one of the best techniques used to encourage grammar development, it is a Team Assisted Individualization technique. The writer choose Team Assisted Individualization technique to develop the student’s ability in grammar, especially in the simple past tense. Through this technique, the teacher gave the opportunity to the students to cooperatively work or act together or jointly, and strive to produce an effect. In this technique, the students cooperate in the some small groupsthat consist of sthe students with the 6 different ability,thus they helps one to others in the learning process, Miftahul(2011: 32). Commonly, in the coopertive learning group such Team Assisted Individualization technique, each group consist of some students with the high academic ability, some of them with the common ability, Anita Lie(2002:40). Then, it also support the learners in their psychologically, togetherness and cognitively difficult activity. In other words, the writer conducted Team Assisted Individualization as a technique in developing the students’ ability in the simple past tense in the level of Junior High School, it is MTs PSM Jeli. The writer choose MTs PSM Jeli as the place to conduct research because there are many homogeneous students ability in it. Started from the students with the low ability up to the students with the high ability. The writer wants to increase the simple past tense in this level because simple past tense is quite complex and there is also the material of simple past tense taught in the next level that is in the Senior High School. Thus, by learning the simple past tense in this level, the students will not find the difficulties in the simple past tense in the next level. From the description above, the writer tries to make this study entitle: “The Effectiveness of Using Team Assisted Individualization Technique Toward The Student’s Achievement in Simple Past Tense at The VII Grade ofMts PSM Jeli at The Academic Year 2012-2013”. 7 B. Formulation of The Research Problem Based on the background of the study, the problem of this study is formulated as follows: 1. How is the student’s achievement in simple past tense taught without using Team Assisted Individualization technique? 2. How is the student’s achievement in simple past tense taught using Team Assisted Individualizationtechnique? 3. Is there any significant differences achievement of simple past tense between control and experimental class? C. The Purposes of The Study Based on the research problem, the study is intended to: 1. To find out the student’s achievement in grammar without using Team Assisted Individualization technique in the form of simple past tense. 2. To find out the student’s achievement in grammar using Team Assisted Individualization technique in the form of simple past tense. 3. To find out whether there is a significant difference score on achievement of the students in simple past tense between control and experimental class. D. Hypothesis There are two hypothesis in this study namely, alternative and null hypothesis. The hypothesis are, as follows: 8 Ha: There is a significant effect of treatment using Team Assisted Individualization technique in the grammar achievement of the first grade students. Ho: There is no significant effect of treatment using Team Assisted Individualization technique in the grammar achievement of the first grade students. E. The Significant of The Study By conducting this study, the writer hopes that the result of this research will be usefull for the reader, especially: 1. Teacher This study gives a reference to development of teaching learning process in grammar, especially in simple past tense. Then, knowing the student’s ability in grammar will give the chance the teacher to choose the better technique of teaching grammar. 2. Students Giving a contribution to the students how to improve their ability in the grammarusing Team Assisted Individualization technique in the form of simple past tense. Hopefully, this study helps students in getting the target language, improving their grammar ability and motivating them to get the best result. 9 3. School The finding is hopefully usefull for the school board as informative data in making use Team Assisted Individualization technique in schools in the teaching and learning process of grammar. 4. Headmaster The result of this study will add new experience in teaching and learning English. Then, the headmaster can improve the system of education and add this technique as good reference for their English teacher. 5. Future Researcher Giving a profitable description to any further researcher which want to study the same case, so this study becomes a helpful information and useful reference for the next study. F. Scope and Limitation of The Study The scope of this study, the writer only focuses on the effects of treatment using Team Assisted Individualization technique in teaching grammar especially in the form of simple past tense. It is an activity that the students do the exercises in their own group helped by the others. This study is conducted only for the seventh grade, they are A and B claas that consist of 54 students of MTs PSM Jeli in Academic Year 2012/2013. Thus, the result of this study only generalized or applied to the target population, especially to the seventh grade of MTs PSM Jeli Karangrejo, Tulungagung. 10 G. Definition of Key Terms There are some terms in this study that should be clarified, as follows: 1. Effectiveness In this research the effectiveness is significant increase of students’score after being taught by usingTeam Assisted Individuallization technique. 2. Grammar Grammar isthe system of language. People sometimes describe grammar as the “rule” of a language. Actually the word grammar has several meanings and descriptions attempted by linguistics. Different experts define the term grammar differently. Jeremy Harmer (2007: 32) defines the term grammar as the description of the ways in which words are formed and can change their form and can be combined into sentences in order to express different meanings. Whereas Hornby (1992: 161) states that grammar is a description of the structure of the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentence in the language. 3. Simple Past Tense When we want to indicate that something happened at a specific time in the past, we use simple past tense, Martin Hewings(1999: 6). The simple past, also known as the preterit, allows you to refer to actions that occured in the past without reference to the presents, Marcel Danesi(2006: 139). 11 4. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is group learning activity organized in such a way that learning is based on socially structured change of information between learners in group in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. 5. Team Assisted IndividualizationTechnique Team Assisted Individualization is a cooperative learning technique. Children are split into teams of four or five with a mix of ability. After a teacher has taught a lesson, team mates help each other complete exercises. Students are then tested individually. Teams earn recognition by way of weekly awards for their overall performance. The exploration, investigation, and group problem solving give the chance for the students cooperatively facing the problem that is not easy solved, Slomo Sharan(1999: 361). H. Research Paper Organization The organization of the research paper is given in order to make the readers understand the main point of this thesis. It will be delivered into: Chapter I is introduction which deals with the background of the study, formulating of the problem, the purposes of the study, the significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of key terms, and research paper organization. Chapter II is theroterical background or review of literature. It consist of underlying theories that include the definition of grammar and processs 12 that consist of grammar, the teacher’s role in teaching grammar, simple past tense, definition of Team Assisted Individualiztion technique, teaching the simple past tense using Team Asssisted Individualization technique. Chapter III is the research method. It covers : research design, population, variable, source of data, technique of collecting data, instrument, technique of data analysis, hypothesis testing. Chapter IV deals with the result and discussion of the study that is loaded of result that contain of data presentation, data analysis and hypothesis testing, and discussion. Chapter V present the conclusion of the study and suggestion for further study.
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