Document 11103

Volume .1 Number 4
" Upda_e on a vicious d,sease .
i •
Catalog Produced by NRA
The educational materials produced by the National
Restaurant Association (NRA) are listed and described in a new
catalog, available fromthe NRA.
Books and training materials in managemen L personnel
training, food service equipment and maintenance, and other
categories are listed in the catalog.
To order the cata!og, write: National Restaurant Association,
One IBM Plaza, Suite 2600, Chicago, IL 60611. The NRA
address after July 1 will be:311 First Street NW, Washington,
DC 20001.
Home for'the 1981 Conference.anywhere in Ontario preferredrequire location as soon as possible.
.-opp0rtunity t0 meet public Health Inspectors from throughout
.refiew old acquaintances
-a learning experience
-a chance to contribute to.your fellow inspectors.
Send inquir!es, to the Branch Sec. Treasurer ot_ contact any
Branch Committee Member. ,'
"" Where is the new home for 1981?
Oetolmr 19 - 23, 1980
Scarborough? Etobicoke?, Halton Regional?, Durham Regional?
The American Public HealthAssociation
will be holding its Niagara? North York?, Perth District?, Huron?, Chatham?, your
annual meeting in DetrOit, Michigan. Further fnformati0n.m'ay
Health Agency?
be obtained by writing The American Public Health Association,
1015 Fifteenth.Street, N.W. Washington, D.C.;20005, U.S.A.
" " •
THE NEW EXECUTIVEwas announ_ed at the annual meeting
October 20 - 21, 1980
A seminar on occupational exposure to noise and vibration,
organized jointly by the Division ofPhysics, National Research
Council and 'the "Non-Ionizing Radiation Section. of National
Health and Welfare will be held in Montreal._The fee for the
conference will be $60.00 ($80.00 after August 15, 1980). For
further information write to D. Benwell, Non-lonizing Radiation
Section, Radiation Protection Bureau, Health and Welfare
Canada, Environmental Health Centre, Room 233, Tunney's
Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K!A 012.
of the Ontario Food Protection Association. The persons who will
serve in leadet_ship positions for the coming year are: Ralph
Abell, President; Gaff Holland, Past President; Brenda Cfiesly,
Secretary-Treasurer; and Directors; John Sterns, David CollinsThompson, Sue Lymburner, Gary.Huber, Pat Dodsworth, and
Reinhart Purfurst.
WHY. ? ? ? are you NOT a- member of THE CANADIAN
BRANCH? - If you or any of your colleagues'are not members
please tell us why. Send the editor a note or write to the Ontario
Branch President, Brian Hatton,'1975 Caribou St., Sudbury. The
BACHELOR OF APPLIED ARTS [ENVIRONMENTAL application for membership may befound in the publication you
are holding in your hands.
Classes have
started this Fall 1980 at Ryerson P01ytechnical
Institute. For more information on course offerings and
advanced standing, please contact: THE PUBLIC HEALTH
v_\ x_
APPLICATIONS for the position 'of Public Health Inspectol" for
its Branch office located at Barry's Bay. The incumbent will be
responsible for a generalized program in a scenic,resort setting.
This position offers excellent working and fringe benefits. Salary
$16,607.00 to $20,142.00.
"_ "
• Inquiries may be dlrecteff tot
Watt', Director,
Division, :
Renfrew Country.
_ ...,1"_
P.O. Box 940 ,J
i :
If you have any functions, articles, comments or criticisms you
wish tothem
in the SIM,
alumni RYERSON
• .
O.k_. -
. '
Pembroke, Ontairo _
lI _
T/4/__ ' d_Ot¢_
"' +.
_C,C,--_K'_#_,4_ ._,4-_._/m_ d/4
_t G'/4T- i.tP
Every year the Public Health
Professionassembleto partakein
an educationalconference.
in the
Inn, Kingston,Ont.
Hosted by:
Kingston, Frontenac,Lennox
and Addington Health Unit
Enjoy,learn, andmeetnewfriends
OTTAWA HEALTH UNIT -- Championsfor 1980.They wonthe tournamentand hosted
a great weekend.
(Photo by Seeger)
Spa Brom keeps its coolin hottubs and spas
Do you know another chemical that
can say that? Of course not. Spa Brom
.is bromine based. Hot tubs and spas
are fast spreading across the country,
indoors and outdoo_'s.The relaxing
Soon everybody will be wanting a hot
tub or spa. And when they do, they'll
want the advantages of Spa Brom,
effect of surging, soothing hot water
has become a part of today's life style.
And Spa Brom is right there.
Lonaon. Ootario, POBox2425 N6A4C-3,(519)686-9335
Branch News
Fall Volume
1- Number
Lettersto: to The Editor are welcome and should b'e
Clinton, Ont. N0M 11.0
Publishedby the
CanadianInstitute of Public
Spring Feb.
Summer May 15
Fall August 15
Winter Nov. 15
This issue
0t_wa tekes trophy .............
Glimpses of the Past....
Gnest Edltedal
Different Vaccines used ............
Rabies in Humans .........
A _tbld Rabbltyou say? ..........
On the Lighter side .............
Walk Don't run ........
; .......
Information exchange
Running at both ends ............
Where areyou? ..............
P. 9
P. 10
P. 11
P. 12
P. 13
.P. 14
.P. IS
It has been reported, that most members received their
Summer issue within ten days. We aren't really preoccupied
with time, but sometimes we have dated material to print and the
sooner you receive the ONTARIO BRANCH NEWS, the better.
RABIES: an update. An update on what vaccines are currently
being used for post-exposure prophylaxis; A report on how the
Ministry of Natural Resources is trying to reduce the incidence of
rabies in wildlife, which in turn will help decrease PHI
investigation; Some advice on what to do when confronted by a
growling dog;
* * * * *'* * *
Regular departments include; ON THE LIGHTER SIDE, An
experience with a skunk; RUNNING AT BOTH ENDS disusses
the not so simple sample.
The GUEST EDITORIALby Herb Waters, is a primer for the
Winter issue. Think about it, and if you agree or disagree, write
SubsCription$4. lyr.
/_ot.. 803,London,Ont.
THE COVER: A UFO? No it is a photomicrograph of a negatively
stained rabies virus, and it is courtesy of Dr. P. Blaskovle, who is
with the Virus Laboratory,of the,Ontario Ministry of Helath. Dr:
Blaskovic says that "the particle is typically bulle_-shaped and
the surface is covered with projections which form a fringe. The
virus measures 200 x 90 nm and the magnifications of the
photomicrographs are 300,000 x."We are grateful to Dr.
Blaskovic for submitting this on such short notice.
614 Wellington
34 Stoney Creek Dr.
Owen Sound, Ont. N4K 5P1.
b-15Summerhill Cres.
Lonoon, unt.
Bginburg, Ont. KOH 1MO
Donald Drive
.., Dot. 3H2
3355Carillion Ave.
Mlsslssauga,.Ont. L5C
Hill, Ont.M1E3Lo
The -CARTOON was drawn b_TdmSly, wffo not only is a fine
writer, but also a talented artist.
Hopefully, many of you will be or have attended(depends on
when youreadthis), the annualconferencein Kingston.If it isn't
possible, be sure to read the next issue. A lot of committee
reportswill be presentedanda report of the speaker'stopicswill
be given.
** ** ** ** * *
Thanksto BobDussaultfor
helpingwith this issue.
Our president
Membership increase
Firstly I would like to thank th0se who returned their proxies
to me for the National Conference
in' Saskatoon. It was a very
conference and congatulations
are in order to the
for a very educational
and hospitable
week. Next year the annual conference will be held in Winnipeg
during the first week of July. Also we would like to extend our
thanks and appreciation
to Ron de Burger. Paul Stone, Larry
S/omka, Jim Sandul, Fred Ruf_and Phil Barton for an excellent
job they have done for the institute while in office. We are now
looking forward to working with Tim Roark and his executive,
As of this writing there have been no new de_,elopments with
regards toLicencing and Registration. We are expecting to hear
from our lawyer, in .the not too distant future, of any progress
with the Attorney General. We will certainly keep you informed
of these developments.
This year I and the Branch Executive
have been very
with the substantial
increase in our membership.
For 1980,weare expectingan
increase of approx. 25 percent over
I think the contributing
with the membership
in kbeping them better
informed, our excellent newsletter and the efforts of Jim Cave's
It appeai's we are now reaching more
P.H.I.'s and the Branch will now have to concentrate
on those
non members to find out why they don't belong. We would
certainly like to hear from those Inspectors and their reasons for
not being members.
On behalf of the Branch COmmittee we hope to have the
opportunity of meeting with you in Kingston in September.
Executive meeting
The Ontario Branch-Executive
during their last meeting on
June 21 1980 decidcd
to defer their final decision to the
ht the animal meeting in Kingston regarding the
question of advertising and renumeration
for individuals.selling
pai:d advertising
for insertion in the newsletter.
This decision
, was made when a motion was defeated_which
would provide
individuals soliciting "and promoting a successful
campaign 10 percent of his accounts, upon written request, to
cover their expenses.
Mrs. A.S. O'Hara wrote the Ontario Branch expressing
appreciation at Branch's sympathy in regards to the M,ajor'_
recent death. An acknowledgement
of the Ontario Branch's
donation in memory of the Major was received from the Hospital
for Sick Children.
A recommendation
was made that the Calendar committee be
due toincreased
mailing costs. This question will
be decided upon by the membership
at the annual meeting.
A letter from J Bakkei" expressed concern regarding escalating
costs of application fees for Certificates of approval issued under
Part VII of the E.P.A.
The editor of the Ontario Branch News has been invited tO
the'Annual Meeting in Kingston. with expenses paid. Through a
tmanimous motion by the executive.
,Our Apolog los " read most of the Summer issue of
the Ontario Branch News, you would have noticed (how could •
you have missed [hem) many errors and typing mistakes., The
reader can be reassured that all errors are hunted down and
corrected throughout the production process. At least Rhea and I
try our _damnedes.t, t_ do this. However, when the typesetting
" machine malfunctions, the time is one a.m., andthe
deadline approaches, the inevitabM happened; errors, and dark
pictures. Needless to say the Editor_svoice was the loudest when
, _.the issue came off the press.
The article WHIRLPOOLSby
stated that 100 degree Water would be scalding. The original
article stated that.
" The Whirlpool water temperature
usually is about 104-108 degrees Fahrenheit.
Over 110 .degrees
can be scalding."
.Our apoligies
also to Petar Moedo for consistently
l_s name in the last issue,
in the article T.4JNI_D MEAT: THE CONCLUSION,
a fewseKtem_ces
wereleftout.Following is
a reprintofthe detailswhichshouldbe stressed whenrecording,
informationin your daffyjournal. The details mentionedwill
be used in conjunction with any food item...
Wh.en 1 mention about detailed information in your daily
journal, remember that we Were being asked in 1980 to. give
detailed information of a 1/)74 incident. Some of the questions
asked by the defence were;
1. HOW many boxes were in the cooler?
2. Where were these.located?
3. Were there any other meats in cooler at time? •
4. Where and, when did you examine _the meat and who was
present at the time?
5. Did you open and examine bach and every carton of meat?
6. What did the meat look like? - give details.
7. Where was meat held? - and hog' was each box identified?
8. What was the weight of the cartons?
9. What was the size and colour of each carton?
10. Was
manager present?
Was thethe owner
Did you advise
owner present
of the
action you took at the time?
11. Did you take a sample of the meat?
Ifyoudid -
a) What size sample?
Ph_:a_eturn to page 5
Glimpsesof the past
1960 Montreal
After 27 years of arguing, "hot letters streaming across the
country", and committee activities buzzing, the national
conference held in Montreal voted 103 to 20 (23 abstentions) to
INSPECTORS' as their new name. Seven final name choices
Were voted upon by elimination. Some of the suggestions
considered in the period 1958 to 1960 included: Canadian
Association of Environmental Control Officers; 2. Canadian
Association of Public Health Sanitarians; 3. Canadian Associa-
Memphis was finally free tram yellow fever. This new status was
probably achieved after thirty miles of sewer pipes were laid,
and an equal number of miles of drain tile were laid. Cleaning
and filling of vaults, the,demolition of old buildings, the cleaning
up of cellars and the general renovation of stores and dwellings
was also completed.
tion of Public Health Inspectors; 4. Canadian Association of
Public Health Officers; 5. Canadian Sanitarian Association; 6.
of Health Inspectors; 8. Canadian Association of Health
Educators; 9. Association of Public Health Educators; 10.
of Sanitary
Science (ASS);
Canadian Institute
Canadian Institute
of Sanitarians;
Environmenta_ Health; 12. Canadian Institute of Public Health
Inspectors. The Committee process began to get the legal work
completed to officially change the charter.
July 19 1880-YeHowFever
IScientific American_ in 1880 reposed that "the' terrible
visitation of yellow fever on the cities along the lower Mississippi
has indicated clearly to the United States Medical Department
the great need of a better system of quarantine regulation,
inspection and disinfection and the want of swirl, properly
appointed craft to relieve passing vessels of sick persons and to
convey them to the quarantine stations along the river." During
the same year it was reported in _Scientific American' that
articles and information
more information on the proposed legislation which will enable
LITIGATION is the Winter issue theme. We'll try and get some
Pill's to write summons'. What is your op'm[onon the process o_
lit!gation? How often does your agency get involved in litigation?
The main urban centres should be able to give the smaller areas
some advice, since they inevitably will get more cases.
Do you have an opinion? The guest editorial is open to any
member (or non-member, if you wish to discuss why you want to
retain that status).
A service for[
Homes-Farms" BusJno$$
to let
your area
to the
ARE YOU? so it can
included in that department. Look for our regular departments,
If you attended the conference and took pictures please sendi
Serving: Londonand tlm
Next issue
c 4[.
/ o
• atl_
them to us for the next issue.
Continued from pa_gg2
'Your Protection
Against Pests'_
b) How did you carry same? i.e. how wrapped?
c) How was sample identified?
_ d) Where did you take sample to?
e) Was the refrigerator locked and were there other items in
UP sample
to thi_
on and
on -- these
a few ofsample
the questions,.
"_ regret any inconvenience this may have caused.
._. ,
The need for CIPHI
and even members of our institute for
some reason do not feel that there rea!ly is a need for an
organization Which a pubfic health inspector can belong to.
Certainly, if in their own area there are no problems, and all the
work is completed, without the usual periods of challenge, then
they probably Would not need the information exchange,
updating, c0mpani0nship_ recognition, a_d the sense of
professionalism which belonging to the. Canadian Institute of
Public Health Inspector attempts to provide. For those who are
hesitant to join_or participate, the answer'to Why an Institute for
Inspectors? follows. It is an excerpt from the historical
publication "UP THE YEARS" written by THOMAS E.
ELLIOTr, CPHI (C), documenting our Institt_te's history,
"Public Health Services in Canada are provided by federal,
provincial and local agencies. The major!tyof personnel are from
disciplines such as medicine, nursing, engineering, veterinary,
laboratory, dental, social, clerical or business. These professionals have adopted public health training and used both
backgrounds to fit into the stream,
The public "health inspector was trained and qualified
specifically for public health. The profession was not borrowed or
loaned from another field but created for the demand. It is an old
'profession, outdatii_g many of the Others as history records
inspections of food, housing and unsanitary conditions long
before the formal development of the other medical sciences,
_e affmber of qualified inspectors is extremely small. There
are fewer inspectors in all of Canada than nurses in a single large
hospital complex. Often the inspectors must work in fields where
they are miles from the nearest kindred worker, meeting with
other inspectors on rare occasions to compare interests. The
inspectors,from early days, desired a means of communicating
technical information and comparing techniques so they could
serve the public with better environmental sanitation. They
wanted regional and national association with their fellow
inspectors for training and mutual sources of information. Some
of the early inspectors had been trained in Europe, had enjoyed
membership in various associations at home. Others simply felt
lonely in their work.
All desired recognition and support in the
great complex of health service professions, a basic qualification
training and certification, communication.
The answer, from the beginning, was tOcreate a national body
for the advancement of sanitary science, to raise the status of the
inspector, provide training and qualification, permit representation by inspector's in the major health associations. A body which
Could speak with authority in representing this profession. The
Institute, was_ and is, necessary and desired."
The goals mentioned above are being realized. However, our
voice is ,not very vocal and with all the other more 'newsy"
causes and groups confronting the media and the public,' the
concerns' of the public 'health inspector are put on the back
"Through the work of our Institute we nowhave representation
on the NSF standards-committee; we are being asked to, give
lectures at community colleges, We are at the doorstep in the
process of achieving licencing and registration, so:'that we can
maintain bur professional.integrity; and many other items which
only members can share with each other.
Thomas E. Elliott was absolutely correct in stating that the
Institute is necessary and desired, by our profesion.
To the editor
Tothe Editor:
I would like to tell you what a splendid newsletter you have
been publishing of late. Your next.challenge will be to search oat"
the typos in the copy. I have some comments with respect to the
report of the Role Expansion Committee's report in the Summer
issue. It was quite informative until we reached the last two
paragraphs. Perhaps we in deepest, darkest Durham Region
could be enlightened as to the "new course" at George Brown
College. Also, what did the news item in the London Free Press
say about Public Health Inspectors?
I am enclosing a copy of an Oshawa Times item from May 28,
Thank you for producing such a high quality magazine,
Yours truly,
Robert Skelding, C.P.H.I.(C)
,_ Durham Regional Health Unit,
Editors reply:
There were far too many errors in the last issue andowe can
only improve. The "new course" referred to in Hugh's report is
one presented by the Hostelry Institute opening at the George
Brown College in Toronto• Hugh was offering input by PHI's
from our Institute in,the programme. The Chairmafi of theHospitality Division replied with enthusiasm and suggested that
- PHI's could participate in a series of lectures to'be included in
the 'Sanitation and Safety Program on Equipment and
Maintenance and Safety, Food Microbiology and Litigation.
The answer to your second question is a little bit depressing in
that'it involves a District Health Council (Thames Valley), and
their misunderstanding of the PHI role in Public Health. They
felt that"health units provide such services as home care
and homes and Offerfamily planning services." ,A detailed letter
outlining the PHI Environmental Health Programme was sent to
the Chairman of,the Thames Valley District Health Council from
the Ontario Branch. It also stressed our concern about the
council's impression that PHI's only inspect public washrooms.
The Council felt that health imits should do more streamlining.
The Chairman felt that theCouncil's ro!ewas not to examine day
tO day operations, but only to set standards.
If'other readers find that an article leaves questions in their
mind due to lack of complete details, do not hesitate to write.
Should you have a similar experience, don't hesitate to write.
Dialogue is what makes us strong.
Guest editorial
Educator or enforcer
Classif};ing the Public Health Inspertor as an educator or as an
enforcer is an interesting and thSughtprovokirig title,
Few of us doubt the fact that we were hired basically as
enforcers. We are also though of as .enforcers by those who
suffer as a result of another's violation of a law. At the same
time, the violator thinks of'us as •unreasonable oppressors if we
enforce the law only for the sake of it being a law.
That Public Health InspeCtors must not permit widespread
disregard of Public"Health Laws can not he questioned. In this
respect, they must he enforcers. However, there are two
pathways to the public Health Inspector's utopia. One is named
Cold Blooded Brute Force. The other is Knowledge and
Guidence by Instruction and Examplb.
While our role may well be that of an enforcer and that of an
educator, the enforcement role is over emphasized for the
following two reasons: _
First. A very small percentage of the inspector's time is spent
prosecuting those who disobey orders or break Public Health
regulations. I believe this may even be said for thb larger
municipalities that account for a great percentage of all court
actions in a given period..
Second. Whether it is realized 'or not, the Public Health
In'spector is expected to teach sound Public Health practices
wherever: he goes. He must seek knowledge continuously and
must be prepared to impart knowledge to the public, and to
share it with his colleagues, his subordinates, and using
discretion, even with his supervisors,
Some are convinced that they can't waste time reasoning to
effect a change. I believe they are either uninformed, fooling
themselves, power hungry, or are poorly directed. They are only
aware of the people who jump as they approach, and fail to hear
or be concerned about those who jump right back into' the old
slot, as soonasthey pass.
Compare this situation with one where the Inspector is well
informed, not only on the law, _buton the reasons for which the
law was passed. He takes time to explain when, why, and how a
change in procedure should be made. I believe that most people
are humanitarians. Basically, they do not want to cause others to
suffer through their neglect or ignorance. Because this inspector
is sympathetic, understanding, knowledgeable, and convincing,
they begin to see the error of their ways, not as a breach of a
laws, but as a direct or indirect threat to their ways, or comfort of'
others. If they are properly sold on a new provedure, they adopt
it with pride and will not revert to their old habits.
The knowledge.that an Inspector has taken time to impart is
like a new dollar injected into the economy. The new
dollar is earned, spent, invested, and saved by a succession of
.people. New knowledge or convincing reasons for a desired
action is acquired wisdom and a source of pride. It will be passed
from one to another and will earn a little recognition and respect
for each along the way. The person who is forced to obey a law
Without reason does so but he is not convinced of the merits of
the action.
What are some of the advantages of enforcement? Exerting
authority may be personally gratifying and thus attractive to
some inspectors. Exercising discipline may be reassuring to
those who need reassurance. Persons the inspector is trying to
influence by force may behave respectfully and submissively,
but only in hi s presence..
In some cases restrictive authority is essential. The
do-it-or-else order has the advantage of speed. However it
the disadvantages of no lasting effect, of germinati_
resentment, and of encouraging passive obstructionism.
The value of a Public Health Inspection Educator is withoutl
limits. If through acquired knowledge, you are sold on the worth
of a practice, action,, or measure and in turn can persuade
another, he will change his habits to help himself or others, and
in doing so will conform to your wishes. Further he will respect
you-for your knowledge of the subject and for your sharing this
knowledge with him.
To conclude - Sure the Public Health Inspector is an enforcer
but the effective Public Health inspector is first an educator.
Pupils of the well informed, capable educator' become his
disciples. They will implement his teachings and will spread his"
message to others. My advice ,is to keep searching for new
knowledge related to environmental health, human behaviour
and teacliing methods. Share old and new ideas with others and
keep the big stick concealed but at the ready.
W Icome "''''''''''"
The following applications have been received for membership
in the Ontario Branch:
Lorraine M. Brennen; Susan E. Brunet; Catherine A.
Campbell; Rosemary M. Craig,; Marilyn Eriksen; Bernadette E.
Etzler; Kenneth J. Gorman; Patil L. Cvuilbeault; John R.-Hall;
Susan P. Henry; Danny Kartzalis; Eugene C. Kelly; Mary A.
Kokelj; George R. Korzienicki.
Diana R. Lazure; Jordan K.C. Lee; Barbara J. Marshall; Joan
Mastromartino; Yvon L. Morrisette; Gerald J. Murray; Dale A.
McCrae; Diane Nehrenheim; Michael N. Passarelli; Claude R.
Patry; Jacques E. Perreautt; Andrew P. Roci_e; Wolfgang
Saxler; Regina F.. Szava; Marco A. Vittiglio; Elizabeth T. Wood.
Mark W. Bartlett; DavidM. Bennitz; Patricia Chamak; Teresa
A. Chamot; Ruth M. Cole; John G. Haslam; Maureen P. Howes;
Ma,rtha Hutchinson.
Jessica Ip; Marilyn Lee; James J. Reiffle; Yvonne M. Schiller;
Paul V. Sylvester; Joanne Young.
The PHOTOZONE®process.
A Major Breakthrough in Clean Water
• _
Why our purifying method
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ionization device. The result is a major
breakthrough in economicalwater purification and treatment.
Our Photozone process Water Purifier
instantly cleans water on contact by oxydizing the pollutantsand killing the bacteria. The chemistryof the water rediains
unchanged. The only thingaddedto your
pool is more fresh, healthfuloxygen. The
Photozone process eliminates from 50 to
90% of the chemical treatment costs and
the unpleasan t eye-burning chemicals,
smells and tastes traditionally associated
with swimming pools.Operating costof the
system is usually less than four dollarsa
month. You save in both time and mainten ance costs. For complete details on the
Photozone process, call, wire or write:
Gals. _ _
• •
Sun Sense Solar Systems.
Win. Falrhall Enterprises
P.O. Box 3472, Stn. "A"
London, Ontario
N6A 4K8 [S19] 438.5428
.11 Guardsman Rd.
Thorn_iH, Ontario
Tele. 06-964672
ccine u
In 1546 the Italian physician Girolamo l-racastoro portrayed !"
- vividly what it is like for a human being to be afflicted with rabies ,,- ,.':,
i '
1980 PG. 9
"Its incubation (following a bite by rabid animal) is so stealthy,"
slow and gradual that the infection is very rarely manifest before
the 20th day, in most cases after the 30th, and in many cases not
until four or six months have elapsed. There are cases recorded
in which it became manifest a year after the bite." Once the
disease takes hold "the patient can neither stand nor lie down;
like a madman he flings himself hither and thither, tears his
flesh with his hands, and feels intolerable thirst. This is the most
distressing symptom, for he so shrinks from water and all liquids
that he would rather die than drink or be brought near to water;
it is then that they bite other persons, foam at the mouth, their
eyes look twisted, andfinally they are exhausted and painfully
breathe their last."
: ',.
Modern treatment i_ntails a painful series of from 14 to 21 !_
inoculations (DEV) of vaccine following an exposure to an animal
,that is known to or is suspected of being rabid. A vaccine using a
series of four to six inoculation (HDCV) is rapidly replacing the
longer series. This newer type of vaccine has been developed by
. :, ,
Tadeusz J. Wiktor, Martin M. Kaplan, Hilary Koprowski and
- "
other workers at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology.
Following is a series of articles which attempt to update the
Public Health Inspector on RABIES. Topics include: A vaccine
On very short notice, Tim Sly managed to
update; The incidence of Human Rabies;-Public Health
conjure up this vivid sketch.
Inspectorsand Rabies Investigations;Dogs and the PHI; and
Wildlife animal vaccination program,
has, but the accumulation of experience with DEV suggests that
Although rabies rare_ affect humans in North America,
it is ei_fective.
every year thousands of persons receive rabies prophylaxis. The
Pre-Exposure rabies vaccine is available and is usally offered
problem of treating persons, who have been bitten or scratched i
only to high-risk groups such as veterinarians, animal handlers,
by animals suspected of being infective, or who have otherwise
certain laboratory workers, spelunkers, and forest rangers.
been potentially exposed tO rabies, fortunately is not adecision
Adverse Reactions
we as l_ublic health inspectors have to make. However, it should
Adverse reactions after vaccination does occur with some
be of interest to know what kind of treatment is available and
people. Local reactions such as pain, eruthema, swelling or
currently being used. There is still a lot of unknowns on the topic
itching at the injection site may orrur. Systemic reactions may
of Rabies- In fact data on the effectiveness of active and passive
vary from aheadache and nausea to rare cases of Ne.uroparalvt_j_c.
immunization after rabies exposure have come principally from
reactions. The recently developed Human Diploid Cell Vaccine
studies with animals. Because rabies occasionally developed in
which is usually five doses when administered for post-Exposure
humans who had received postexposure antirabies prophylaxis,
Prophylaxis has not had any serious anaphylactic, systemic, or
research in the vaccine's effectiveness continues,
neuroparalytic reactions reported from it to date. Pregnancy is
Two types of immunizing products are available to physicians
not considered a contraindication to post-exposure prophylaxis..
(usually Via the MOH): 1. vaccines that induce an active
The limited data available indicated that fetal abnormalties have
immune response that requires time to develop (about 7 to 10
not been associated with rabies vaccination. Persons who have a
days for an anti:body response) but persists for as long as a year
history of hypersensitivity would be given rabies vaccines with
or more and; 2. globulins that provide rapid immune protectio.n
that persists for a short period of time (a half-life of about 21
As a note of interest: A man from Lindsay, Ont., in June of this
days). Human Diploid Cell Vaccine [HDCV] is an inactivated
year, was suing Connaught Laboratories and two doctor'son-the
virus vaccine prepared from fixed rabies virus grown in human
grounds that he has given rabies shots after coming in"contact '
diploid cell culture. The Canadian National Advisory Committee
with a rabid cow. The patient helped his brother and his father
on Immunization (NACI) advises that HDCV is the vaccine of
lift a rabid cow. After rabies shots were administered he suffered
choice whenever available and is usually administered in
from permanent paralysis in his arms and legs. (2)
conjunction with Rabies Immune Globulin (HUMAN) (RIG).
HDCV has .been used with RIG (or ARS(Anti-Rabies SerunO
(Equine)) to treat 45 persons bitten by rabid dogs or wolves in
"Women are much fiercer than men. Nobody has ever given us
Iran, 31 persons bitten by a variety of rabid animals in Germany,
weapons for very long have they?" Margaret Mead
and 77 persons bitten by a variety of rabid animals in the United
States. In these studies no treated person contracted rabies.0:)
DuekEmbryoVacclne [DEV] is only recommended if HDVC is
"Be careful about reading health books. You might die of a
unavailable. DEV is an inactivated virus vac_'ine prL;paredfrom
misprint." Mark Twain
embryonated duck eggs infected with a fixed virus. DEV has not
been evaluated for it effectiveness in cl)nical , 'i ,:- ::!. HDCV
Human incidenceof
rabies '
The presence of the rabies virus and symptoms has been
recorded in history for hundreds of years. Historians.
philosophers, wisemen, etc, did not realize why the symptoms
occurred. But they did realize there was a connection, when the
same sequence of events repeated themselves,
In ancient Babylonian times, it was part of the law that an
owner, when informed by the local 'authority of those days that
his dog was mad , had to keep it inside. If he did not and it bit
someone he was liable to a fine which varied, being different
amounts for slaves and free men:In those days, people thought that evil spirits caused the
ammal to go wild and this Was the case until 322 BC when
Aristotle came along and put things in order. He described the
symptoms andstated that there was a connection between the
disease in animals and the fear of water in man. Then he
rec0mmended the painful treatment of cauterizing wounds cause
by affected dogs.
P_etro Martire d'Anghiera, the first bishop in the New
World, recorded early in the 16th century that: "In several
places'bats not much smaller than turtle doves used to fly at
(men) in the early evening with brutal fury and with their
venomous bites brought those injured to madness."
Spanish colonists in_ the Mexican peninsula of Yucatan
recorded_similarobservations of bat bites and deaths in man and
animals. Very few people are known to have recovered from the
disease after the clinical symptoms have appeared,
This fact was recognized by many in later years, in 1836
Ferdinand Raimund, the great Austrian actor and playwright,
shot himself a day after he was bitten On the hand by a (log that
had also bitten other people and Waslater killed by a policeman,
Louis Pasteur and his colleagues were the first to successfully
develop a post-exposure against rabies in 1881. They found that
the rabies virus Couldbe obtained in relatively pure form from
the brain and spinal cord of an infected animal,
It does not take long for the virus, once it has entered tile
body, to begin the process leading to death. When a wound is
caused by a bite, theviral particles penetrate the nerve endings
and progress toward the spinal cord. The movement of the virus
to the spinal cord is passive, at a speed of about three
millimeters per hour:Once the virus enters the spinal nerves,
the infection spreads progressively up the spinal cord and affects
all areas alongside the cord. The course of the virus through the
spinal cord leads rapidly to the brain, where the virus multiples.
Theinfection then follows the nerve trunk: outward to all parts
of the body, including the salivary glands, which are the crucial
site for the transmission of the virus to another animal. The virus
multiplies further in the sali_,ary glands.
According to Kaplan and Koprowski, (3), "the cycle may take
weeks or months. "It is not_=knownhow or where the virus
remains in a latent and und_tectable form during prolonged
incubation periods. Nor is it known what balance of factors
determines•why rabies developsiin certain individuals, and not-in
others, but from the symptoms and the cause of death
(respiratory failure) it is evident that thi_function of the neurons
must be seriously impaired. Als0 .not known is what arrests the
disease in most naturally infected people, including those who
The Canada Diseases Weekly Report (CDV_iR)states that 21
persons have died of rabies in Canada since 1925, when
report,lug began. Two of these cases occurred in Ontario. In the
United States. rabies in humans has decreased from an average
of 22 cases per year in 1946-1950. Since 1966 (12 years) a total of
20 human cases have been reported in the U.S. The decrease
would certainly be due to greater caution and the use and greater
availability of post-exposure prophylax,i$. After an unprovoked
biting incident, a physician should be consulted and rabies
prophylax_is considered, unless rabies is known to be _ibsent
from the animal population. The CDWR states that an animal
fully immunized _ against rabies has litte chance of either
developing or transmitting rabies."
In the last two years there has been approximately six human
rabies related deaths in the U.S. Some of thepatienfs' actual
cause of death was not positively indentified until after they had
died. In one case the patient had been treated symptomatically a
few times and releasi_d, until he returned to the hospital
exhibiting violent and bizarre bchaviour, became comatose the
next day and died. Another patient had clinical symptoms which
were not classic for rabies and he had no exposure history.
However. the staff suspected the di_ignosis and took extra
precautions to avoid contact with his respiratory secretions. ,The
final diagnosis was determined after death as positive for rallies.
In October 1978 and November 1979 two cases .of
human-to-human transmission of rabies via a corneal transplant
were documented. In the most recent case, a 36 year old man
from eastern France died of rabies. 41 "days after receiving a
corneal transplant. The donor was a 57 yea_ old woman Whohad
died following a flaccid quadriplegia syndrome. The donor of the
cornea was a long-time resident •in Egypt, who had lived m
France for two months befor_ the onset Of illness. The CDC
reported in the MMWR .(Vol 29/No3) that "upon discovery of
rabies in .the recipient, histologic .and electron-microScopic
examination of the donor's brain revealed diffuse encepha!omyelitis with the presence of numerous Negri bodies. The donor is
known to have had exposure, while in Egypt, tOa dog who'died.
Medical technology has been very successful in reducing the
incidence of human rabies. HOwever. as in the above case new
solutions can also create new problems.
2. GLOBE AND MAIL,June 10. 1980.
3. RABIES by Martin M. Kaplan and Hilary Koprowski,
Scientific American, January 1980 Vol 242 No 1, pg 120-134.
4, RABIES by Alyn D. Thomson, Sheffield MDC; Environmental
Health, August 1976, pg 200-204.
Baer, Academic Press 1975.
Centre for D,isease Contr61,Atlanta Georgia, USA. Vol. 27 No.
30, Vo127No45, Vo128No10, Vo128No2S, Vo128 No 2?, Vo128
No 36, Vol 28 No 49, Vol 29 No 3, Vo! 29No 23. • .r ....
have been vaccinated..Neutralizing antibodies, certian 'killer'
•lymphocytes attacking rabies-infected cells and interferon may
all be in_,olved in halting _infection. (Interferon is the protein
by cells
stimulated byWhat
a variety
agen.ts, indluding
the rabies.virus.)
is not Of
taterrelafionof these factors."
'"You either have science o_ you don't, and if you have it, you are
obliged to accept the surprising and disturbing pieces of
information, even the overv_helming and :upheaving ones, along
with the neat and prompt!y useful.b_i_." Lewis Thomas
A rabidrabbityou say?
It has been documented that all warm blooded animals are
susceptible to the rabies virus. One does not usually consider a
rabies investigation of a rabid pet rabbit with a straight face.
However, chuckle though we may, it did happen. Rabbits under
normal circumstances scratch and nip at the person handling it.
A person operating a rabbit farm will therefore have numerous
cuts and .scratches on their hands and arms.'.
A lab worker in a hospital was asked nonchalantly by one of
the doctors what had happened when he saw a bandage on her
hand. When the worker explained her pet rabbit had bitten her,
there was very little reaction. Eyebrows were raised, however,
when the worker explained that the rabbit later died and was
buried, The wheels started turning, and when the dust had all
settled, it was found that the rabbit had indeed been rabid.
Apparently the'lady had obtained the rabbit from a nearby
farmer. The farm had been raided by a rabid skunk. Needless to
say, when these facts wererevealed, the entire warron was
Eight people were given post-exposure prophylaxis. Numer-,
ous contacts had to be found to determine how close they actually
got to the creatures. One lady did not feel the situation was a
serious one. Since her daughter had been a contact, she asked
what symptoms she should look for. Not knowing whether the
lady was being facetious or plain naive, she was quickly told to
make funeral arrangements if her daughter developed any
symptoms. This statement rapidly brought the situation back to
. reality and the'humour disappeared.
mayget vaccinated
During the many rabies investigations performed, public
health inspectors inevitably become involved in a number of
cases where wild animals come in contact with domestic animals
who have regular contact with humans.
The majority of wildlife contacts are foxes and skunks. Foxes
have a very low tolerance to the rabies virus and usually develop
symptoms while skunks have a high tolerance and can become
Normally a timid creature, the fox will usually try to avoid
areas of human habitation. Once.infected by the rabies virus, the
fox is not very particular where it wanders. On many occasions, a
rabid fox will travel from one\farm to the next, flipping at the
heels d anything that comes within reach,
During one incident in Huron County, a rabid fox tangled with
- a cat at one farm, an_lproceeded accross the road and nipped at
the legs of several members in a flock of sheep (whose skin is
easily punctured). The confused fox eventu'ally went through
another neighbours herd of cattle and headed towards a nearby
river, when the neighbouring farmers finally caught up with it,
shot it, and sent the head away for analysis. Fortunately,
extreme precautions were taken while handling the fox and no one
•needed any post-exposure prophylaxis,
.This type of interaction between wild animals, domestic
animals and humans causes a lot of anxiety and can
cost a
considerable amount of money. The domestic animals must be
quarantined, (sometimes-destroyed if symptoms develop), and
when there .is human involvement, a costly vaccine must be,
administered to protect the individual.
' To help alleviate some of these problems, the Ministry of
Natural Resources has been researching the possibility of
vaccinating the more common wildlife vectors, that being the
fox and skunk. Baiting experiments which began in 1972 are'
nearing completion. When Connaught Laboratories perfect the
vaccine to be used, the anxiety and some'of the costerable
hopefui|3_ w_[ be .reduced.
The domestic animals must be quarantined,
(sometimes destroyed if symptoms develop), and when there is
human involvement, a costly vaccine must be administered to
protect the individual,
MR. FRANK MATEJKA, a Resource Technician with the
Ministry of Natural Resources ORVAC Program (Ore Rabies
Vaccination)_ during a recent interview stated that S(}different
types of bait were tried before it was concluded that' hamburger
was the most acceptable and economical. The different bait
tested included smoked sausage, and various types of cheeses.
Please turn to page 13
Everyday hundreds of dogs are quarantined for a fourteen
to aa provoked
be initiated
child tries biting
to tak_incident.
awa_ RO,_'_'_
food or pulls at the wrong part of his body.
Many PHI's consider this type of quarantine procedure a
nuisance call and a waste of time.
of the
some public
and health
the potential
Some would say there are very few cases of human rabies so
one incident is necessary, where a dog (not vaccinated)
has been in contact with a rabid skunk and later handled by a
playful child, to bring back the seriousness of rabies.
Dr. John Sterns, Ministry of Health, during a brief discussion, :
stressed that a very important item to remember when
quarantining an animal after a biting incident is that it must be
isolated, ie. no contact with other persons or animals. ' Tying a
dog or cat Up in a yard is not isolation.
Contact could still be made and if the animal did develop
. symptoms
work and anxiety
would be created
in locating
the contactsa iot'of
and administering
prophylaxis. tied outside could still become a contact of, a rabid
. animal while quarantined. What then?
The judgement decision is up to the P.H.I. on whether the
animal should be quarantined at home Or the pound. The
difficulty arises when the municipality does not have a pound,
Dr. Sterns indicated.
In some cases (provoked attacks or minor lacerations where
the animal has been vaccinated) the owner may be allowed to
walk the dog with a leash during a quiet part of the day.
Of course allowing a seventy five pounddog to be walked by a
small child could present itself with some problems. In all cases'
sound judgement should be exercised.
• _,
.... ,....:........"+,=:........
. .........: ,.,
th= rurals,.
On the lighter, side
It Was one of those detestable days when the whole world
seems to be on one's back. The weather ,was lousy, my old
woman was acting like a bitch - and our four-legged bitch was
acting like a... yes, you guessed it--like a woman,
But there was one bright spot on the 'fiorizon.
• The New YorkYankees were playing the Los AngelesDodgers
in the first game of the World Series and it was being televised
that very evening. Just the thoughtof it sustained ,my,flagging
spirits throughout that trying day. A couple of cold beers, maybe
more if,l could keep the missis out of the way, a good steak for
dinner, a big can of peanuts and the tired old hoofs tip on the /
coffee table, with the kids and the better half banished to the
nether regions of the house - and the CBC tuned right in on the
dot. Lovely, lovely.
At the end, of the day my faltering heart rubbed its hands
figuratively at the prospect, as my car Wended homeward its
weary way.
And it all• came
true. Up to a point that is. The beer, the nuts,
the steak droner, the absent offspring along with both bitche s and the TV channel as clear as a Crosby budget!
Then the clamour of the .'phone, shattering my utter
concentration on a brilliant play in the first innings. One of the.
sterling members of our stalwart nightwatch, the local OPP, .was
on _,heothe_ end of the line.
His doleful stoi-ywas that some clown, (are wethe only:-0nes
who are not?) had picked up a skunk which had been attacked by
a porcupine - or vice versa as they used to say in the Roman •
Forum. This comedian was now getting welled about rabies and
fi_sanguished cries and hand-wringing were evidently pitiful_to
see ....
Ye Gods_ Where do .all these people with atrophied brains
come from? One would think they existed just to
• Create problems
• _;
for the innocents of the world !ike ourselves. , .
It is a ten .mile drive from my TV set to our beautiful
downtown, which has been described as the hub of the universe
by those whose perceptions have been somewhat clouded by
extreme age or alcohol or both. Suffice to say tha "downtown" is
big enough to spit across and that's exactly w_hat! felt like.doi0g
after tearing myself away from the goggle .box in mid-evening. •
The town square seemed to be teeming with idle layabouts ana
uniformed officials, all Of whom wel"e obviously awaiting,
• breathlessly, my grand entrance to take charge 9f the handling of
a potentially rabid animal. It looked like the crowed scene in
"Dog Day Afternoon" and half-an-hour later I knew just how Al.
Pacino felt in that movie.,
Two grim faced policemen, looking like rural versions of Dick _
Tracy, were brandishing shotguns menacingly, while the police
car wailed its dying saraband in +the backgrofind, flashing
_lood-red lights all over the place.
The fire brigade was out in force too. No doubt to flush down.
' :he skund-polluted square, which was already redolent with the
mmistakable odour Of the badly scared animal;
And there in the centre of the stage stood our skunk lover,
mjoying all the attentions of the mob, adorned with a wild
ooking beard and draped all over with a girl friend. He was
_racticallywearing her, whe was so entwined into him, gazing
Ldoringlyinto her hero's eyes. I recognized her as the daughter
_fone, of the local restaurateurs..
He, the hirsute one, looked like the poor man's version of
)teen Welles as Falstaff and they both began mouthingoff at me
vhile my. thoughts still dwelt on the second innings andr'my
, +
rapidly warming beer.
' The Story was that they had been driving along a country road.
Ha! That was a hot one. I'll bet-they weren't driving at the time,
not judging by .the way .she was. drooling over him right now.
Apparetitly they'dseen the skunk come tottering down.the road
, (when they came up for air no doubt) with its ass full of
porcupine quills, _likesome giant mobile pincushion.
Our bearded beefeater, urged on by his shrill-voiced harridan,
picked up::theskunk, dumped it in the car, and took off for town
"post-haste", as they Used to say in all the better and now
defunct magazines,
Arriving i_ the square, his wits deserted him. At lejast those.
few scraps remaining to him in his otherwise empty cranium,
and hedecided that maybe he'd done the wrong thing in pickin_
up a possibly rabid animal which was stinking to high heaven to
boot. So lie began bell6wing for police and fire and Humane
Society and,anyone else who might sooth his wounded spirit.
, That's where your denizen of health came in, If you don't know
What todo in, any given situation and the police can't handl e it,
send for Sam_Sam the sanitary man.,He will always provide well
counselled advice,.,calm the most ruffled ruffles and administer
the "most's_thing unctions to the wounded soul.
But_this :pair of: cretinous creatures would not be soothed
espe_ally when I pointed out to El Beardo that since he had
attempted tO sue€our the poor beastie, it was virtually his and
he'dhave to. continue looking after it for another couple weeks.,
:That really put the cat among the pigeons. His beard quivered
with anger, his eyes bugged out like organ stops and!his face
took on the. hue of a cardinal's cloak. The lady friend's voice
be+cameeven more strident and I made'a mental note to give her
.ifather's restaurant a bad report on thenext CAPHIS. They both
.spat .profanities +about
the incompetence of idiotic government
Officialswho could not or would _ot do their job. I tried to explain
about rabies procedure and the fact that there were no facilities
for housing the skunk, but to no avail. There was no calming
them down."
Finally I suggested We take a look at the skunk to try and
assess its future career, and we all approached the car very
gingerly_, the police with their shotguns at the ready, about to
commit mayhem at the first false move of our striped friend wereeven less ginger than anyone 'else! It began to feel like l
was playing in a 1925 gangster movie on the later-late show.
But it was dead! Kaput! Morte! Finis! Moribund! The poor
little sod must have had a coronary _it'the sight and sound of all
thatmob, with the guns and the fire hoses. ,At least the situation
was somewhat relieved. The courage0u_' health inspector could
take action and no doubt earn a mention in the Guiness Book Of
Records-or somesuch - by getting the skunk Off to Health of
Animals for ex_imination.
The, crowd began to disperse, obviously disappointed at the"
lack Of a shoot-out. The Police stasfled away their guns for
another ten years til, the next local crime wave, the firemen
rolled up their hoses, hoping for a burning haystack or summat,
and tile _rtain came down on our little town's most exciting
evening for a decade. But the principal actors remained on stage
fora few moments more while tempers cooled and pertinent
details were noted down.
The_ the trek home. The ball game was over and my favourite
team fiad lost. My beer was warm enough to bath in, the kids
were l0oseand creating havoc and the bitch had eaten all my
,, +_ ,..:.:. ..
, please turn to page 13
Walk don't:run
It is quite probable that many of you reading thiS:have been in
a situation where a dose call or an actual bite occurred while '
attempting to quarantine a dog from a reported bite. In most
cases the reason for the bite was purely' from a sense of
protection on the animal's part..
If a stranger startled you by rushing up and:raisittg the hand,
in all likelihood defense would be top priority,There are several Do's and Don'ts we as Pill's should be
aware of, to decrease the incidence of unwarranted and
embarrassing bites.
Ed Harrison, CIPHI(C) Director of the Huron_County Health
Unit, offers several suggestions. Ed has trained Bouvier's in the
There are many actions a person must avoid when dealing
with dogs. Ed suggests the following: 1)Neverstare directly into
the eyes of any dog (or any animal). This action is a definite$i_
of agression. Look at any other part of the body.
2) Do not walk into a yard or building carrying a stick or
package. The dog interprets this as a weapon and will usually
• attack. This _s probably one reason why the postman is a victim,
3) Try not to surprise a dog or startle it from a deep sleep,
Always make some kind of noise when approaching a building Or '
yard. (ie. whistling, humming)
4) Don't, make sudden moves.
5) Do not turn your back on a growling angry dog with teeth
showing and hair standing up. Slowly walk backwards away from
the animal,
Turning your back away from the animal aIIbws'it .to: ....
become aggresive.
" ....
and PHIs
6) Don't attempt to pet a skulking dog (ears down, head low).
When a hand is extended suddenly, the dog feels you are being
aggressive and is ready to defend itself, Do not bend or kneel
until you know the dog is friendly.
_ •
::_- • 1) Watch a dog when approaching but look at any part of the
bodyexceptthe eyes -whistle, hum or make some kind of noise
to let the dog know someone is approaching.
2) Usecalm confident easy movements. A dog can sense fear.
'_Infact whether you show fear externally or not, there is a
" chemical change in the body which the animal will detect.
' 3; Always try to use a friendly cheerful voice, (ie. high tones)
, while talking to as dog. Dark deep loud voices are a sign of
4) Slowly extend and open hand from the side of the body to
allow the dog to smell. However, use extreme caution.
5) If a dog comes charging at you, stand perfectly still and
don't run. When the dog starts to growl and shows teeth and
Curled.lips, stay and 0bserve. Walk slowly backwards and away.
Speak in high tones to the animal. Do not run. If the dog is
wagging'its tail and hair isn't standing up, speak cheerfully to it
and proceed on.
6) Try to phone ahead so the owner can tie up his dog and
prepare for your arrival_
GenL_ral characteristics of small dogs is that they °won't
hesitate to;nip at.the heels.. Larger dogs are fear biters, ie. they
will not hesitate to protect themselves. All dogs should be
approached Withcaution.
"Mr. Harrisongives us one final note of wisdom - "Discretion is
the better part of valour."
Foxes, Skunks may get vaccinated
Continued from p_a_ 11
• .Todetermine wl_etherthe animal ate the bait, a small amount
of the antibiotic tetracycline was mixed in. With the cooperation of the trappers, the carcasses were returned to the
research starff for examination. When an animal eats the bait,
the teeth when examined under an ultra-violet microscope, show
fluorescent yellow lines. The program to date appears to have
been successful, with a large percentage of animals picking up
the bait. Mr. Matejka pointed out that the research area of the
bait drop covers 200 Square miles south of Goderich.:
Approximately 3 percent of the carcasses brought in for
analysis to dcrtermine the presence of tetracycline are positive
for rabies. Most rabid animals a have little desire to eat and
therefore less likely to be found in a baited trap. Very few
trappers, Mr. Matejka said, get pre-exposure rabies_vaccine,
Most are very particular in taking precautions when handling •
animals found intheir trap lines.
A wildlife
this year
is being
in Peel,
Grey; if '
and Huron counties, Mr. Matejka said. Rabies epidemics
ususally run in three year cycles.
Mr. Matejka explained that when there is a rabies epidemic in :
an area, the fox population is usually decimated due to their low
tolerance of the virus. In some counties there is a high incidence
of rabies in skunks. This is primarily due to the mild winter we
had in 1979 which allowed easy mo_'ement from one area to
another, resulting in a higher density of skunks in some counties.
To further understand how the rabies virus can be dispersed
from one area to another, collars containing radio transmitters
were fitted on foxes, striped skunks, coyotes and raccoons.,
The results showed that one fox travelled from a point west of
Barrie to Essa township near Wiarton in Bruce county. Another
travelled from central Huron to the northern part of the Bruce
peninsula. Understanding the movement of wild animals will
help the research staff determine which areas to bait when the
vaccine is ready to be used.
The vaccination program, if everything goes_well, is scheduled
to begin in 1981. Will we see the elimination 6f rabies in wildlife.
in Ontario? Very unlikely, Mr. Matejka says. In order to
eliminate rabies, 90 percent of the wildlife would have to be
vaccinated. Since the program is primarily aimed at the fox and
skunk population, vaccination of these two groups hopefully will
reduce the severity and cost which many areas are presently
le h
On the .i_ter
Continued from rage 12
peanuts (I'11 leave you to guess which bitch!) What a rotten, •
rotten day, AI Pacino didn't know the half of it.
-"But revenge is sweet. The skunk was proven to rabid and our
bearded buggerlugs got twenty-one needles stuck into him poetic justice vis-a-vis the poor skunk. His belly looked like an
over-used dartboard when the medico finished with him.
" He who laughs last laughs loudest!
' The above incident happened to my colleague inour-Health
Unit sub,office, though it is written in the first person. It points
up the hazards of the job to which we are all subjected to from
time to time.
In the July 1980 (Vol 43, No. 7) issue of the JOurnal of Food
Protection, an investigation reported by Gunn, Taylor, and
Gangarosa, stated that in July and August 1976 "an outbreak of
acute gastrointestinal illness occurred among :persons Who had
,consumed a commercially protein tunafi'sh salad
extender." Three hundred and fifty households reported 508
persons ill within one hour after eating the salad extender,
Principal symptoms were ','nausea (91 percent), abdomihal
cramps (71 percent), diarrhea (53 percent), headache (42
percent), difficulty breathing (36 percent), and vomiting (22
percent)".' To determine the possible cause of illness. the
manufacturer and volunteers eat the tunafish salad extender,
• and then,the single ingredients thereof. The results implicated
the texturized soy protein ingredient of the product. "The
findings in this study demonstrated that consumption of textured
soy protein may elicit an adverse gastrointestinfil reponse in a
smfill but significant number of individuals, especially those with
a history of 'allergy'. ....
.diarrhoea. She noted that no unpleasant or' unusual taste had
been associated with the lobster, but that the episode has
effectively discouraged her from samplinff this delicacy-again.
The internal digestive organs of the lobster vary in colour and
quantity in direct proportion to the quantity of food taken in by
the animal during the previous few days. The colour can vary
from a brown through a red to a deep green colour, the latter
indicating that the lobster was feeding very recently. The
material is contained in the ;cavity anterior to the tail, and
underneath the single hard carapace. If this material is present;
it might be released when the tail is detached, colouring the
normally white or pinkish meat of that section'..In 'addition, in the
ventral C'underside") portion of the tail the single intestinal
tube ("vein") may also be a green colour and in thinsinstance
may have added to the overall aesthetically unpleasant picttire.
The judgement on such a Iobster'would be that this is not of
public health significance, no pathogenic condition is present,
and the lobster cannot be considered unfit for human
consumption. The illness reported by the complainant is possibly
• '
• A .revolutionary concept which was attempted in 1968 by
Nelson's Dairy Ltd. of Toronto will again try to gain acceptance
of the consumers. The buying public rejected sterilized milk in
1968, but Dominion Dairies Ltd. of Toronto is pretty sure that the
consumer is ready for it this time. The milk will.appear under the
Sealtest brand, but will be processed and packaged by Korman's
_ Ltdorof any.other
Timmins, coUeagues'have
an independent custom
If you
milk in their
due to a common feeling of revulsion when it is realized that we
have eaten an unfamiliar and unpleasant-looking material.
,req uires a
Qualified Public Health Inspector _:
• Car is required
area, let us knowof your experience wit:, it. ie. shelf life,
transportation durability (leaks, and lab reports.)
- - [Appeared in the Oshawa times May 28 1980]
':_Failing to keep his ChoColateeclairs lc601ed properly meant a.
$500 fine for a city doughnut store owner in Oshawa provincial
Speros Boutzis, 46, owner of Mama's_Donuts.
44 Bond St. W.,
pleaded guilty to the charge under the Public Health Act and was
told to pay the fine or spend two months in jail.
A public health inspector said he visited the shop on four
occasions between SePt. 26, 1979 and March 27, 1980 and found
the refrigerated display case, containing cream-filled pastries,
not working.
was 70 degrees F., not 41_ the
by temperature
Editor's,Note: The PHI in question was,Jacq_ues PerreaulL Good
Green lobster
_ f
-an unusual complaint ....
_ _....
Last week, a1complaint was received fr0m a citizen'who" had
ordered a whole lobster at a local-restaurant. She"detached the
tail, arid began to eat it. After having takeh a t'e_iforkfulls of the
meat, she noticed that iitstead of pinkishlwl_ite flesh, the meat
on her plate Was coloured by a dai'k-green sticky fluid. At this
point, she complained to the management, who claimed that this
was not unusual, without giving her a' satisfactory explanation.,
The complainant seized what she could of the lobster (the
carapace and head - leaving behind the tail), and left the
restaurant. She contacted the.Health Unit with information that
within ¾ of an hour of having eaten part Ofthe _lobster meat, she
had experience nausea, some Vomiting'and, the next day, a little
• Usual
Salary un_ler review
Send resume to
Harold Rankin CPHI (C)
Director of Public Health Inspectors
Bruce County Health Unit
Walkorton, Ont.
Continued from page 4
himself out by playing rover. He is the guy that literally roves
around the field. John lost ten pounds.
Jaok MacKinnon, pitch_er for the team. challenged other
pitchers to follow his example of high arched balls and accuracy
in covering the base.
And then there was the first base man Klaus _Seeger.
He dressed in torn denims and heavy work socks pulled up
over his pant legs. With that get-up the other teams figured him
for a non-player; but'.his action on first base kept the scores for
the other teams down.
Phil Paquette picked up a tidy habit of hitting home runs and
Jim Moon, that fiesty little guy.gave regular lectures on how we
blew the last tuning and a|most took on the umpire in a dispute
over sliding into home. He wasn't the slider.
The Huron team is already planninglfor next year's tourney
and has made room in .their Goderich office for the trophy. If
tb ere had been a trophy for the most congenial team or best
spirited team Huron would have itsitting in their office this year.
Running at both ends
The not so simple sample
A recent study conducted by Dr. J.H. Silliker, and colleagues, "
publishe_l in the Journal of Food Protection (I) attempted to
determine the effectiveness of three methods of coliform
counting in food products. Fifteen laboratories using eight
different types of inoculated food were involved and the results
were evaluated using advanced statistical methods for
determining the most probable number of coliform present did
not differ appreciably. Significant variation, however, was noted
between laboratories in the study. The data also revealed that
with respect to variation within a given laboratory, variation
between replicate aliquots (samples) is overwhelmingly the most
important sorce of error,
"The two problems of considerable magnitude confound.
administration of microbiological specifications for foods. The
flint rdates to the difficulty in obtaining a sample which is truly
representative of the lot in question and thesecond relates to the
lmeven distribution of micro-organisms within the sample unit
lm_ented to the laboratory for analysis."
In addition, it is unlikely that the precision observed in the
study for (1) taking representative samples, and (2)
homogenizing those samples to achieve uniformity, is ever
actually achieved in routine analysis of food products.
This study, it seems to me, emphasizes the need for careful
consideration when taking a food sample of any sort. A batch or
fact, unless the material has been well homogenized after o
inoculation, the chances are that only a small portion of the
surface area, or a small "zonewithin the total volume will actually
have been incubating and supporting the growth of bacteria. An ,
excellent analog here is the blood-agar plate. The ,contamination of part of the surface of the medium is easily 'seen to
support the growth of bacteria after incubation for 24 hours, but
the remainder of that surface area remains virtually sterile
unless specifically inoculated. In taking a representative sample
of a food product, therefore, it is probably better to take large
number of small samples from the surface and the center of the
food in question.
Chance alone may dictate whether any organisms at all were
found, and that chance may be made mole favourable by .the
taking of a mixed or multiple sample such as this. A further
significance must be recognized: --that of the interpretation of
the numbers of organisms recovered from any one sample. At
best, a single result can be taken as a relative quantity and
should not be the basis for definitive inference as to the number
of organismstobe expected throughout the food being sampled.
I. Silliker, J.H., "ICMSF Methods Studies. XI. Collaborative/
Comparative Studies on Dertcrmination of Coliforms using' the"
Most Probably Number Procedure," Journal of Food Protection,
August 1979, Volume 42, No. 8, Pages 638 to 644.
Where-are you?
Most of you reading this issue will be getting back to the old
grind with the summer holidays ending. Hopefully everyone had
a good summer. Let yourpublication,the Ontario BranchNews
know wha_ new, exciting and unusual events, (personal or
professional) happened during the last three months. Summer
always brings unusual situations that have to be solved. Summer
makes us want to forget deadlines and that is the prime reason
why there is little new's about our colleagues.
South Western
Ledley Coates CPHI (C)
had a shadow accompany him during imspections of two area
restaurants. The shadow was a reporter form CKCO-TV in
Kitchener. Chief Public Health Inspector George Stnblm also
was interviewed during the program.
JlolmCoutta has replaced Sid Hester as Chief Public Health
Inspector with the Kent-Chatham Health Unit. Mr. Hester
retired earlier this year. T.S. Johnson,Senior Public Health
Inspector with the same agency, retiri_Oa_ter 43 years in public
health, 20 of these in Kent-Chatham.
Fourteen Health Unit teams from around b.ltario survived the
Sixth Annual _Ball Tournament held in Ottawa. Survivors
included members from: Peel Regional, Toronto, Hamilton.
Wentworth Regional, Durham Regional, Nlagm Regional,
Congratulations, Joe McNamee on your wedding. Joe took.
the big step on June 21 at 2 p.m. and was married to Theresa
Clancy. Everyone from the office wishes you the best in your new
The quarterly staff meeiting of the Ottawa--Carleton Health
Unit was held on June 19, 1980. The meeting opened with a talk
from Mr. H.:Tremblay of Emergency Measures Organization, at
which time he showed a film on the Earthquake in California. It
showed how emergency organizations were required to clean up
the aftermath, and treat people that were hur_. Much discussion
was generated.
u,,m,, C/ounty, Sudbury, District, Leeds Grenville and Laaadk,
Federal Medical Services, North York, Etobiocke, Slmeoe
County, Ottawa-Cadeton Regional, and Muskoka Parry Sound.
The Ottawa te_m emerged as the overall winners on the
diamond and participation in the social events.
Don't forget to - send your news tidbits to your area
at the Sudbu_ryand District H.U.; Central _
Paul Mclnnis at
the Grey-Owen Sound H.U.; Eutem Area, Tom Steward, at the
Ottawa-Carleton H.U.; South-weStern Area, Hem,y _;
the Halton Regional H.U.; MetroToronto, Pamela Cook, at the
Tar.o_o H.U.: Western Area, Tim Sly or Peter Reaburn at the
London H.U.
Givethis application form to a fellow Pltl
andask him to join today.
. :.
ONT/IJ_O. :',_ "
• KgJ
HIJt,! Affi'_ ZAIlAI_
. T2T OX7
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PublicHealthInspectors.Thisapplicationimpliesthat membershipis to continueuntil resignationistendered,oruntil
membershipisdiscontinuedunderthe conditionscontainedin the By-lawsof theInstitute.
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Spa Brom keeps its cool in hot tubs and spas
Do you know another chemical that
can say that? Of Course not. Spa Brom
is bromine based. Hot tubs and spas
are fast spreading across the country, :
indoors and outdoors. The relaxing
Soon everybody will be wanting a hot
tub or spa. And when they do, they'll
want the advantages of Spa Brom,
effect of surging, soothing hot water
has become a part of today's lifestyle.
And Spa Brom is right:there.
Rexdale, Ontario, 115CifyViewDr.,(416)249-7451
London, Ontario, PO Box 2425, N6A 4G3, (519)686-9335
Profession assemble to partake in
an educationalconference.
HolidayInn, Kingston,Ont.
Hosted by:
and lddington Health Unit
Enioy, leorn, ond meet new friends
OTTAWA HEALTH UNIT --:Ch-ampionsfor1980.They won the tournamentand hosted , a greatweekend.
(Photoby Seegero)