Document 10837

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Abstract Index by Sesion Topic
Aerosol Technology
PS 401 Aerosols, Monday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 132 Aerosols, Thursday, 8:00 a.m.- 12:20 p.m.
Agricultural Health
PS 403 Agricultural Health and Safety, Tuesday,
10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
Air Sampling
PS 401 Air Sampling Instrument Performance, Mon.
10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
Biosafety
PS 401 Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology, Mon.
10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 106 Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology I Allergens, Fungi, and IEQ: What’s New? Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 4:20 p.m.
PO 133 Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology II:
Current Topics in Bioaersols and Agricultural
Health and Safety, Thursday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:20 p.m.
Communication and Training Methods
PO 110 Management and Training Issues:
Communication, Monday, 2:00 p.m.- 5:00 p.m.
Community Environmental Health
PS 402 Community Environmental Health, Mon.
2:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m.
Communication
PS 402 Communication and Training, Mon.
2:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m.
Computer Applications
PO 115 Computer Applications, Tuesday,
10:30 a.m.- 12:50 p.m.
Construction
PO 108 General Topics in Occupational Safety, Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 4:40 p.m.
Engineering
PO 107 Engineering and Control Technology, Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 4:40 p.m.
PS 404 Engineering and Control Technology, Tuesday,
1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
Environmental Issues
PO 123 Environmental Issues for Industrial Hygienists,
Wednesday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:40 p.m.
Ergonomics
PO 102 Ergonomics: Shoulders, Back and Lower
Extremities, Monday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PS 403 Ergonomics, Tuesday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 134 Ergonomics: Upper Extremity Considerations and
Methodological Approaches, Thursday,
1:00 p.m.- 3:20 p.m.
Exposure Assessment Strategies
PO 101 Asbestos Exposure Assessment Strategies,
Monday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
PO 103 Exposure Modeling Strategies, Monday,
10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
PS 402 Exposure Assessment Strategies, Mon.
2:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m.
PO 120 Alternate Exposure Assessment Strategies,
Wednesday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 121 Case Study Methodologies for Skin and
Respiratory Exposures, Wednesday,
10:00 a.m.- 12:20 p.m.
General Practice
PS 401 Industrial Hygiene General Practice, Mon.
10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 118 Industrial Hygiene General Practice, Tuesday,
2:00 p.m.- 6:00 p.m.
Health Care
PS 403 Health Care Industries, Tuesday,
10:00 a.m.- Noon
PO 112 Health Care Industries I: Exposure Assessment
and Control, Tuesday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
PO 125 Health Care Industries II: Construction, PPE and
Other Topics, Wednesday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:20 p.m.
Indoor Environmental Quality
PS 401 Indoor Environmental Quality, Mon.
10:00 a.m.- Noon
PO 106 Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology I Allergens, Fungi, and IEQ: What’s New? Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 4:20 p.m.
PO 117 Indoor Environmental Quality I, Tuesday,
2:00 p.m.- 5:20 p.m.
PO 130 Indoor Environmental Quality II, Thursday,
8:00 a.m.- 10:20 AM
International Issues
PO 122 International Globalization, Wednesday,
10:00 a.m.- 12:20 p.m.
Ionizing Radiation
PO 119 All Things Radiation, Wednesday, 10:00 a.m.- Noon
Lab Health and Safety
PO 105 Laboratory Health and Safety, Monday,
10:30 a.m.- 12:10 p.m.
PS 403 Laboratory Health and Safety, Tuesday,
10:00 a.m.- Noon
3
Lead
PS 403 Lead, Tuesday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
Management
PO 110 Management and Training Issues:
Communication, Monday, 2:00 p.m.- 5:00 p.m.
Mold
PS 403 Mold, Tuesday, 10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
Nanotechnology
PS 404 Nanotechnology, Tuesday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
PO 129 Nanotechnology: Assessment and Control,
Wednesday, 5:00 p.m.- 7:00 p.m.
Noise
PO 104 Noise Protection, Training, Measurement and
Reduction, Monday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
Respiratory Protection
PS 404 Respiratory Protection, Tuesday,
1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
PO 116 Respiratory Protection I, Tuesday,
2:00 p.m.- 5:00 p.m.
PO 124 Respiratory Protection II, Wednesday,
10:00 a.m.- 12:40 p.m.
Risk Assessment/Risk Management
PO 109 Risk Assessment – Case Studies, Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 5:00 p.m.
PO 113 Risk Management Planning and Prevention,
Tuesday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
PS 404 Risk Assessment (Management), Tuesday,
1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
PO 128 Risk Assessment Methods and Applications,
Wednesday, 5:00 p.m.- 7:00 p.m.
Nonionizing Radiation
PO 119 All Things Radiation, Wednesday, 10:00 a.m.- Noon
Safety
PO 108 General Topics in Occupational Safety, Monday,
2:00 p.m.- 4:40 p.m.
Occupational Epidemiology
PS 404 Occupational Epidemiology, Tuesday,
1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
PO 126 Reconstruction of Exposures: Methods and
Application, Wednesday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:40 p.m.
Sampling and Lab Analysis
PS 403 Sampling and Analysis, Tuesday,
10:00 a.m.- 12:00 p.m.
PO 127 New Issues in Biological and Chemical Sampling
and Analysis, Wednesday, 1:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m.
Protective Clothing and Equipment
PO 114 Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment,
Tuesday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:50 p.m.
PS 404 Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment,
Tuesday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
Social Concerns
PO 131 Community Environmental Health, Thursday,
8:00 a.m.- 11:20 a.m.
Toxicology
PS 404 Toxicology, Tuesday, 1:00 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
Real-time Detection Systems
PO 111 Field Detection, Sampling and Analysis: Real-Time
Detection Systems, Tuesday, 10:30 a.m.- 12:30 p.m.
4
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
AIHA®: The viewpoints, opinions, and conclusions expressedin the presentations, sessions, and discussions atAIHce
have not necessarily been approved or endorsed by AIHA® or ACGIH® and do not necessarilyreflect those of AIHA® or
ACGIH®.
NIOSH: The findings and conclusions in the National Institutefor Occupational Safety and Health presentationshave
not been formally disseminated by the NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health andshould not be
construed to represent any agency determination or policy.
Podium Session 101
Asbestos Exposure
Assessment Strategies
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 101-1–PO 101-6
PO 101-1
The Use of Analogous Materials to
Assess Historical Exposures - An
Example Using Asbestos Cloth
Products
M. Holton, R. Adams, ENVIRON
International Corp., Princeton, NJ.
Situation/problem: Asbestos was
historically used in over 3,000 unique
products. Industrial hygiene exposure
data is not available for many of these
products. The majority of these
products are not in production and the
availability of these materials for
workplace simulation testing is limited
or non-existent. Resolution: We
assembled existing data relating to
exposures associated with asbestos
cloth production and use in peerreviewed literature, governmental
documents and unpublished workplace
simulations. Asbestos cloth had
relatively small variation in asbestos
content. Similar materials such as
gaskets, packing and friction products
have been regularly studied. Exposures
associated with asbestos cloth products
such as welding blankets, flexible duct
connector and laboratory products have
been studied less extensively.
Quantitative exposure data collected
from the worker’s breathing zone,
analyzed by a PCM equivalent
methodology and information
pertaining to sample duration were
considered. Data were grouped by
activity type and, where sufficient data
existed, statistical testing of the
variation within and between groups
was performed. Where there was
insufficient data, a qualitative analysis
of exposures was performed. Results:
Although there were many unique
asbestos containing products, the
majority of products were found in a
handful of matrices. When looking at
products within a specific matrix, it was
possible when accounting for factors
including fiber type, percent asbestos
content, and nature of use, to utilize
existing data from analogous products
to estimate exposures associated with
the use of products for which data does
not exist. Lessons learned: The results of
this study will provide insight into the
ability to use existing data from
analogous products to estimate
exposure associated with the use of
asbestos cloth products. This will also
provide information useful for
determining the applicability of this
methodology to other asbestos
containing material matrices.
PO 101-2
Exposure and Airborne Fiber
Concentrations Due to
Environmental Asbestos and
Erionite
C. Robbins, K. Hayman, M. Krause, B.
Kelman, Veritox, Inc., Redmond, WA.
Objective: Epidemiologic studies
indicate increased risk of mesothelioma
associated with living near naturallyoccurring (NO) and human sources (HS)
of mineral fibers such as asbestos and
erionite. The increased risk is not
explained by exposures to average
ambient concentrations, but ambient
concentrations do not reflect exposure
at close proximity to or during activities
at sources of these fibers. Substantial
concentrations may occur due to
proximity to, or activities on, fiber
sources such as NO-exposed
outcroppings, waste materials stored
near processing/manufacturing
facilities or deposited locally as road
fill/surfacing material, or contaminated
quarried materials used on roads, yards
or for home/construction materials.
Methods: Literature searches were
conducted to obtain information about
the presence of NO and HS of fibrous
minerals, and fiber concentrations near
these sources and during human
activities upon them. Results: Sources of
NO and HS asbestos and erionite are
common in the U.S. and abroad. Air
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
measurements near sources and during
human activities are limited. Downwind
concentrations were up to 1.6 f/cc at 1.6
km from asbestos processing tailings,
and to 6.7 f/cc 0.7 km from an asbestos
cement plant dump site. Concentrations
were: up to 8.7 f/cc 5 ft, and 0.28 f/cc 190
ft from roads topped with asbestoscontaining materials; up to 0.02 f/cc on
roads with erionite-containing quarried
materials and 0.03 f/cc with NO erionite.
Personal samples range up to 5 f/cc
during activities and up to 6 f/cc at a
campground in areas of NO asbestos.
Conclusions: Substantial fiber
concentrations occur near asbestos
processing/manufacturing tailings and
dumps, near roads with fibrous mineral
contaminants, and, due to human
activity, in areas of NO asbestos. These
exposures may partly explain increased
mesothelioma risk associated with
living near NO and HS asbestos and
erionite.
PO 101-3
Use of the Releasable Asbestos Field
Sampler and a Breathing Zone
Model for Estimating Exposure to
Environmental Contaminants
J. Thornburg, RTI International,
Research Triangle Park, NC; W. Barrett,
U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH; J. Kominsky,
Environmental Quality Management,
Cincinnati, OH; J. Konz, U.S. EPA,
Washington, DC; D. Collier, U.S. EPA,
Chicago, IL.
This project was conducted at an
inactive primary zinc smelting facility
which began operations in 1858 and
ended in 2000. The site is bounded by
the Little Vermilion River to the North
and East and by private residences to
the South and West. Currently, it is
listed on the National Priorities List due
to the presence of asbestos, zinc, lead,
cadmium, arsenic and mercury
contamination. Local concerns about
offsite exposures resulting from
activity-based sampling (ABS) at the site
made obtaining exposure data for the
subsequent risk assessment difficult.
Objective: This research presents an
approach to assess the public’s
5
potential exposure to asbestos and
inorganic metals found at this site.
Methods: The Releasable Asbestos Field
Sampler (RAFS) aerosolized soil particles
to estimate emissions rates. RAFS
samples were collected from 16
locations across the site, and were
analyzed for the contaminants of
concern. The measured emissions rates
were then entered into a Monte Carlo
exposure assessment model to estimate
likely human exposure. Personal
exposure samples collected at three
locations verified the model results.
Results: Model results suggested that
mean breathing zone concentration for
the population would be 0.000038
asbestos structures/cm3. The maximum
modeled concentration was 0.00093
asbestos structures/cm3. Seventy-five
percent of modeled population would
be exposed to zero concentration.
Predicted zinc exposure concentrations
ranged from 1 to 24 microgram/m3.
Modeled cadmium and lead exposures
were less than 0.01 and 3 microgram/m3,
respectively. The model predicted
arsenic and mercury were not present in
the breathing zone. Conclusions: The
RAFS device combined with the
breathing zone model can provide data
acceptable to assess potential
exposures from activities at a
contaminated property. The RAFS device
is capable of developing emissions data
for contaminants other than asbestos.
simulated precipitation events for one
year and then were scraped to remove
the weathered materials and assess
fiber release and potential worker
exposures. Results: The hand scraping of
weathered products produced more
fibers than the hand scraping of the
cured products tested previously;
however, measured fiber
concentrations during hand scraping of
the weathered products showed 8-hour
TWA concentrations that were below
current occupational guidelines for
asbestos and below ambient
concentrations reported in both urban
and rural areas. There was a notable
difference between fibers released from
weathered and cured roofing products.
In weathered samples, most fibers
collected contained low or absent
concentrations of magnesium and did
not meet the spectral, mineralogical or
morphological definitions of chrysotile
asbestos. The extent of magnesium
leaching from chrysotile fibers is of
interest because several researchers
have reported that magnesiumdepleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic
and produce fewer mesothelial tumors
in animal studies than normal chrysotile
fibers. Conclusions: Regardless of the
biological activity of the fibers, asbestos
exposures resulting from work with
weathered roofing cements and
coatings, such as those tested in this
simulation, are well below the current
OSHA PEL for asbestos
PO 101-4
Simulation Tests of Occupational
Asbestos Exposure from Removal of
Artificially Weathered Roof Coatings
and Cements
PO 101-5
Analysis of Asbestos-Containing
Gaskets and Packing Short Term
Exposure Data by Task
P. Sheehan, Exponent, Oakland, CA; F.
Mowat, Exponent, Menlo Park, CA.
Historically, asbestos-containing roof
cements and coatings were widely used
for patching and repairing leaks.
However, there are virtually no useful
data on airborne fiber concentrations
associated with the repair or removal of
weathered roof coatings and cements
because most studies involve complete
tear out of old roofs rather than only
limited removal of the roof coating or
cement during a repair job. Objective:
This study was undertaken to estimate
potential fiber releases and worker
exposure concentrations specific to the
removal of these types of roofing
products following artificially enhanced
weathering. Methods: Roof panels
coated with plastic roof cement and
fibered roof coating were subjected to
intense solar radiation and daily
C. Simmons, F. Boelter, ENVIRON
International Corp., Chicago, IL.
Objective: To determine exposure
distributions of gasket and packing
removal and/or replacement tasks for
use in retrospective exposure
assessments. Methods: Personal
samples were collected and analyzed in
accordance with the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health
Methods 7400 and 7402. A total of 340
samples were analyzed by phase
contrast microscopy, and 182 samples
were analyzed by transmission electron
microscopy. The 30-minute short term
air monitoring results from 21 exposure
assessments were combined by task
into one data set and analyzed. Twenty
task categories were identified and
minimum, maximum and mean values
are provided for each task. A statistical
analysis was also conducted on the
6
overall data set using two substitution
methods for censored data. The
geometric mean and geometric
standard deviation were estimated
using the Maximum Likelihood
Estimation method. Non-parametric,
Kaplan-Meier, and lognormal statistics
were applied. Results: Work was
performed under conditions with no
mechanical ventilation and work
scenarios described as “worst-case”
conditions. Frequently, the work was
conducted using aggressive techniques
along with dry removal practices.
Censored data ranged from 52% to 77%.
Statistics suggest that the mean and
median exposures of the complete data
set were less than 25% of 1.0 f/cc (30minute samples), and that there is at
least 95% confidence that the true 95th
percentile exposures are less than 1 f/cc
as a 30-min average. Conclusions: These
findings provide a high level of
confidence that fluid sealing devices
used in a wide variety of applications
and conditions are similar in terms of
low asbestos fiber release potential and
resulting low exposures. In addition,
because of the wide range of fluid
sealing devices tested, these findings
can be useful for retrospective exposure
assessments related to historical or
current fluid sealing device operations
PO 101-6
A Validated Approach for Assessing
Exposure to Asbestos in Soil
W. Barrett, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH; J.
Thornburg, RTI International, RTP, NC; J.
Kominsky, Environmental Quality
Management, Inc., Cincinnati, OH; J.
Konz, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC.
Exposure to naturally occurring
asbestos or asbestos containing
materials at brownfield sites is a
significant occupational and public
health threat. Naturally occurring
asbestos is found in residential areas of
all 50 U.S. states, Turkey and South
Korea. Asbestos contaminated
industrial sites are also common,
especially as these sites are redeveloped for other uses. Objective: This
research presents an approach to assess
the public’s potential exposure to
asbestos found at these sites. Methods:
The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler
(RAFS) was designed to quantify
asbestos emission rates from soil with
less than 0.1% asbestos. The asbestos
emission rate data is then input into an
aerosol physics and fluid dynamicsbased model to predict the
corresponding breathing zone
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
concentration. This approach is an
alternative to activity-based sampling
(ABS), currently the only method to
obtain inhalation exposure estimates.
Collocated, simultaneous RAFS and ABS
tests at 12 locations in the U.S. provided
data to validate the RAFS-Model
approach. Results: Asbestos emission
rates generated by the RAFS are highly
correlated with ABS measured
concentrations (R2 = 0.98), but overpredict exposure (slope = 14) because of
the RAFS measured asbestos emissions
at the soil surface. RAFS measured
concentrations vary from 2 fibers per cc
to 0.001 fibers per cc. The breathing
zone model accurately predicted actual
exposure concentrations measured by
ABS. Breathing zone concentrations
ranged from 1 fiber per cc to less than
0.0001 fibers per cc. Regression statistics
showed the slope equaled unity,
intercept was zero, and the R2 was still
greater than 0.90. Conclusions: The
research conclusions support the RAFSModel approach as an accurate, reliable
and economical alternative to ABS for
assessing the occupational and public
health risk from asbestos exposure at
contaminated sites. Further research
will associate chronic, low-level
asbestos exposure to one’s lifetime risk
of developing cancer.
Podium Session 102
Ergonomics: Shoulders,
Back and Lower
Extremities
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 102-1–PO 102-6
PO 102-1
Risk Factors Associated with Low
Back Injuries among University
Residence Hall Employees Based on
Ergonomic and Lifestyle Choices
B. Bidassie, J. McGlothlin, Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN.
Objective: Lower Back (LB) injuries
account for a significant amount of
human suffering, loss of productivity,
increases in workers’ absenteeism rates
among university residence halls (URH),
especially those with dining halls. Many
thousands of employees perform
physically demanding occupational
tasks in URH which can result in an LB
injury presenting a major economic
burden on workers’ compensation
systems. Recent studies have suggested
that there may be a relationship
between LB injuries, occupational risk
factors and lifestyle choices. Methods:
Three years ago, a university initiated a
program to improve the quality of the
workplace through ergonomic
interventions and a healthy lifestyle
(WorkLife) program. Four hundred and
sixty-eight (468) URH employees each
filed a workers’ compensation claim for
a workplace injury and also participated
in the WorkLife program. Of the 468
participants, 49 (10.5%) reported that
they had an LB injury. A study to
determine if there was a relationship
between work risk factors and lifestyle
choices was conducted in three phases:
1) an ergonomic evaluation to address
work risk factors for LB injuries; 2)
qualitative evaluation of lifestyle
choices from Purdue’s Worklife
Program; and 3) development of LB
injury model to determine the
relationship between work risk factors
and lifestyle choices for URH workers.
Results: A logistic regression model
showed that URH employees are more
likely to get an LB injury based on the
following risk factors: daily activities
involving lifting/twisting/bending,
reporting a slip, trip or fall, being
between the age of 30-40 years, sleeping
less than 8 hours daily, having one or
more dependents, and reporting not
handling stress very well. Conclusions:
These results may be helpful when
developing strategies for reducing and
preventing LB injuries among URH
workers
PO 102-2
Can Adding a Seat Cushion Reduce
Exposure to Whole Body Vibration?
S. Chervak, U.S. Army, APG, MD.
Objective: An association between
driving vehicles and low-back pain has
been well documented. One potential
cause of low-back pain is the occupants’
exposure to Whole Body Vibration
(WBV). Often occupants of vehicles will
use a supplemental seat cushion to
lessen exposure to WBV experienced
while in the vehicle’s seat. Methods: A
military High Mobility Multipurpose
Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) was
instrumented with vibration
measurement equipment in order to
determine if the addition of a
supplemental seat cushion would
lessen the occupants’ exposure to WBV.
The HMMWV was instrumented with
four seat pad accelerometers placed on
the driver and front passenger seats,
above and below the supplemental seat
cushion. The vehicle was tested over
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
five test tracks to replicate conditions
typically encountered in combat and
garrison. WBV data was collected and
processed according to ISO 2631-1:1997.
Results: An Analysis of Variance was
conducted on the Weighted Root Mean
Square (Wrms) vibration values
measured above and below the
supplemental seat cushion. The Wrms
vibration values measured above the
supplemental seat cushion were
significantly higher than the Wrms
vibration values measured below the
supplemental seat cushion on four of
the five test tracks. Conclusions: In our
evaluation, the ability of a
supplemental seat cushion to reduce
vehicle occupant’s exposure to WBV was
not evident. The need to develop a seat
cushion that can absorb or dissipate
low frequency vibration would greatly
reduce vehicle occupant’s exposure to
WBV
PO 102-3
Whole Body Vibration in Snow
Removal Loader Operations: Do
Traction Chains Cause Low Back
Pain?
R. Blood, P. Rynell, P. Johnson,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Objective: The goal of this study was
to compare whole-body vibration (WBV)
exposures between three front-end
loader tire conditions. Research has
indicated there is a relationship
between working as a heavy equipment
operator and the development of low
back pain. Methods: Using a repeated
measures design and a standardized
test route, whole body vibration
exposures were compared when twelve
experienced front-end loader operators
drove the same front-end loader with
three different tire conditions, 1) stock
rubber tires, 2) stock rubber tires with
ladder traction chains, and 3) stock
rubber tires with basket traction chains.
The test route included a segment of
driving on paved city streets, a plowing
simulation work task, and a snow dump
manipulation work task all conducted in
the remote city of Valdez, Alaska. The
route was designed with input from the
operators to simulate a typical day of
exposures faced by snow removal
loader operators. A tri-axial seat pad
accelerometer was mounted on the
operator’s seat and a second tri-axial
accelerometer was securely mounted
on the floor of the loader directly
adjacent to the seat. A WBV data
acquisition system was used to collect
raw (raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak, Dk, Sed)
7
and time weighted average (Aw, VDV,
TWA peak) tri-axial WBV measurements
at the seat and floor. Results: When
comparing tire conditions, there were
significant differences in WBV
exposures with the ladder style chains
producing the highest WBV exposures
as compared to the stock rubber tire or
basket chain conditions. Conclusions:
Long-term WBV exposure has been
linked to occupationally-related low
back pain. When selecting traction
devices for front-end loaders it is
important that employers consider the
associated WBV exposure differences
between different types of chains. The
results of this study indicate that ladder
style chains have significantly higher
WBV exposures than basket style chains
PO 102-4
An Analysis of the Clearance
Between Electric Utility Fleet
Vehicle Pedals and Adjacent
Structures for Worker
Anthropometry and Safe Driving
Conditions
P. Seeley, Ergonomics Solutions, LLC,
Wales, WI; R. Marklin, K. Saginus,
Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI; S.
Freier, Dueco, Waukesha, WI.
Electric utility fleet vehicles such as
pickups, vans and aerial bucket trucks
have been found to provide inadequate
clearance for workers wearing large
boots at the accelerator pedal, brake
pedal and adjacent structures such as
the instrument panel and transmission
hump. Objectives: were to determine
safe clearance in the foot pedal area
and then to establish the extent to
which a large number of current utility
fleet vehicles provide adequate
clearance for the electric utility
workforce. Methods: Three sets of
measurements were collected: 1)
detailed dimensions of the cabs of 16
common utility fleet vehicles 2)
functional anthropometric dimensions
of 187 male electric utility field and
generating station employees, including
boot sizes and 3) work boots, snow
shoes, and rain slicker width, length and
height. Results: obtained demonstrated
that many current fleet utility vehicles
lack sufficient foot clearance between
the pedals and adjacent structures. This
creates a number of hazardous driving
conditions. Conclusions: included
providing the funding utilities with
specifications for vehicle selection, and
applying this approach to other vehicle
types in order to provide vehicles that
meet the end users’ needs and prevent
8
unsafe conditions such as “unintended
acceleration.”
PO 102-5
A Radiologic Study of Correlation
between Lumbar Spine Geometry
and Gross Anthropometry
R. Tang, R. Sesek, Auburn University,
Auburn, AL.
Objective: This is a pilot study to
establish a valid and accurate means to
estimate lumbar intervertebral disc
dimensions. Methods: Lumbar spine
vertebral geometry data was measured
using MRI data. Lumbar spine vertebrae
MRI data was obtained from a
participating healthcare institution.
There were four geometric
measurements collected at both the
L4/L5 and L5/S1 vertebral levels. These
measurements were intervertebral disc
body depth (IDBD), intervertebral disc
body width (IDBW), vertebral width (VW)
and vertebral depth (VD). Gross
anthropometric data was included with
each MRI data record. These data
included age, gender, height and
weight. Hypotheses were generated and
tested regarding the correlation
between lumbar vertebral geometry
and gross anthropometry. Statistical
analyses were performed to test the
hypotheses, and regression analyses
were performed to generate
mathematical models estimating
lumbar spine vertebrae and
intervertebral disc geometry. Results:
The relationship of intervertebral disc
dimensions with subjects’ overall
anthropometry was explored. Gender
was correlated with lumbar spine
vertebrae geometry. Age was correlated
with the lumbar intervertebral disc area
and vertebrae geometry. Height was
correlated with the lumbar
intervertebral disc area and vertebrae
geometry. Weight was correlated with
the lumbar intervertebral disc area and
vertebrae geometry. Conclusions: The
findings from this study could be useful
in developing more accurate models to
estimate low back injury risk for
occupational health practitioners.
Individual characteristics, such as
gender and age can be accounted for
and incorporated into our job design,
job evaluation and analysis
PO 102-6
Simple Ergonomic Assessment Tools
and Design Guidelines for the Oil,
Gas, and Petrochemical Industries
B. McGowan, Humantech, Inc., Ann
Arbor, MI.
Objective: The purpose of this
research paper is to develop a simple
assessment tool to identify ergonomic
issues that lead to work-related
musculoskeletal disorders in the oil,
gas, and petrochemical industries. A
secondary purpose is to provide
ergonomic design guidelines to address
the root cause of these issues. The need
for this research is important, as current
approaches are plagued by complexities
that require expert involvement and
considerable time resources. Methods:
Field research was conducted to
determine common injuries and
ergonomic issues in the oil, gas, and
petrochemical industries. A simple
ergonomic assessment tool was
developed. Root causes of common
ergonomic issues were identified.
Design guidelines were developed to
address the root causes of the most
common ergonomic issue. Results: Field
research confirmed ergonomic issues
that lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders are abundant in the
oil, gas, and petrochemical industries.
Analysis indicated most injuries occur
to the shoulders and back. Primary
ergonomic issues include excessive
horizontal reaching, over head reaching,
back bending, high arm forces, heavy
lifting, and contact stresses. Secondary
issues include static postures,
prolonged sitting, vertical climbing, and
vibration. Primary root causes of these
ergonomic issues are valves located too
high/low, excessive manual material
handling of equipment, high forces
required to break/seat valves, and
limited access to equipment. Ergonomic
design guidelines were developed,
based on ergonomic principles and
functional anatomy, to minimize
excessive reaching (≤ 22”), minimize over
head reaching (≤ 74”), optimize manual
material handling heights (24” to 62”),
minimize arm force requirements
(direction dependent), optimize oneperson lifting requirements (≤ 27 lb),
reduce valve turning forces (≤ 70 lb), and
improve equipment access (≥ 46”).
Conclusions: Simple and concise
ergonomic design guidelines are
available to address the primary root
causes of the most prevalent ergonomic
issues in the oil, gas, and petrochemical
industries.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 103
Exposure Modeling
Strategies
does not require the installation of any
additional program and is easily
incorporated in other Microsoft Excel
spreadsheets
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 103-1–PO 103-6
PO 103-2
Application of Traditional and
Bayesian Statistics in Chemical
Exposure Assessments of Factories
Located Outside of the United
States
PO 103-1
Bayesian Statistics Spreadsheets for
Exposure Assessment
S. Kim, M. Virji, NIOSH, Morgantown,
WV; S. Shulman, M. Waters, NIOSH,
Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: The objectives of this study
were to develop user-friendly Microsoft
Excel spreadsheets that can implement
Bayesian statistics in order to increase
the accessibility of this tool for
exposure assessment and to explore the
impact of important factors in the
Bayesian framework using the tool.
Methods: Through discretization
approximation procedures, integral
calculations involved in the Bayesian
approach were transformed into a
discrete summation, which is suitable
for numerical computing. Using intrinsic
functions and macros in Microsoft Excel
software, likelihood and posterior
probability distributions were
calculated and presented in tabular and
graphical forms. The calculation outputs
were compared to those of other
Bayesian statistical programs. The
sensitivity of parameters related to the
discretization and Bayesian framework
was analyzed. Results: When the
number of discretization intervals for
geometric mean and geometric
standard deviation was greater than
100, the probability distributions
calculated were identical or nearly
identical to those from other programs.
As the number of intervals increased,
the accuracy of calculation and
calculation time increased. It took a few
seconds to obtain accurate results,
which was longer than the calculation
time of other programs. The number of
exposure categories did not affect the
probability of a category having the
same range relative to the occupational
exposure limit. Conclusions: Bayesian
statistics holds promise for improved
decision making with limited data. It
will likely achieve wider acceptance in
the environmental health and safety
community if it is made available in
easily accessible software. Microsoft
Excel software is virtually ubiquitous
and available for multiple operating
systems of personal computers. Our tool
M. Andrew, Sumerra, Hong Kong; T.
Chen, Forensic Analytical Consulting
Services, Inc., Hayward, CA.
Situation/problem: Factories outside
of the U.S. often cite the lack of
education, tools, and other resources in
Occupational & Environmental Health &
Safety (OEHS). Often there is a lack of
understanding of the exposure
assessment process. When data is
collected, tools for proper analysis and
interpretation are often limited. The
accuracy of exposure assessments can
determine whether risks are prioritized
and resources are efficiently allocated
to controls, medical surveillance,
personal protective equipment, etc. This
is especially important in cases of
limited resources. OEHS professionals
are often limited to small data sets
within the factory or even within
individual similar exposure groups
(SEG). Small data sets may result in
difficult statistical interpretations (e.g.
95th percentile below the occupational
exposure limit but a 95% Upper
Confidence Limit (UCL) above the OEL).
Resolution: Some practitioners have
presented the application of Bayesian
statistics as a potential tool for rating
exposure control and compliance with
exposure standards. During work with
factories in the Asia-Pacific region we
have conducted or coordinated several
chemical exposure assessments. Sample
numbers for each initially established
SEG were limited by the lack or
resources. Data from these assessments
was analyzed using both traditional
statistics and Bayesian decision
analysis. Results: Results of the study
show that, as noted above, traditional
statistics may not alone be sufficient for
making risk decisions and the Bayesian
decision analysis may be a useful tool in
such real world applications. Lessons
learned: Initially, the factory’s only
concern was meeting compliance with
local authorities and resisted a more
comprehensive exposure assessment.
However, given the additional tools for
data analysis, OEHS personnel and
factory management were shown that
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
with a proper assessment using a
variety of tools, resources could be
better prioritized, while being more cost
efficient and more protective of worker
health
PO 103-3
Comparison of Mechanistic and
Semi-Empirical Two-Zone Models for
Estimating Dust Exposures
R. Jones, C. Simmons, F. Boelter,
ENVIRON International, Chicago, IL.
Objective: The performance of two
two-zone models for predicting
respirable dust exposures during
sanding drywall joint compound is
compared. Methods: Models were
developed using data from 17 testing
events. A mechanistic two-zone model
was calibrated to the test data to
estimate the dust generation rate, and
random air speed (which defines interzone flux). A semi-empirical model was
also developed: The well-mixed box
model to extrapolate dust Ctwa
measured in the testing events to
longer durations of interest in the nearfield, and an empirical factor related
near-field to far-field dust Ctwa.
Respirable dust Ctwa in the two zones
predicted by each model are compared
by R2 to measurements collected at two
field sites. Results: Respirable dust
generation rates calibrated to the
mechanistic model are Lognormal (GM =
10 mg/min, GSD = 1.9), and random air
speeds are Lognormal (GM = 3.4 m/min,
GSD = 1.6). Based on mean predicted
Ctwa, predicted PBZ and area Ctwa were
within two-fold measured values for
two workers at site 1, but both models
under-estimated (> 3-fold) PBZ Ctwa for
the third worker. At site 2, the
mechanistic model over-estimated PBZ
and area Ctwa by more than 3-fold, and
predicted equal PBZ and area Ctwa. At
site 2, the empirical model was within 23 fold of measured values, but tended to
under-estimate PBZ Ctwa. Overall, R2 =
0.0003 for the mechanistic, and R2 = 0.342
for empirical model predictions (mean
values) of respirable dust Ctwa.
Conclusions: Performance of the
empirical model is potentially limited by
the relevance of the testing events to
the field sites. Performance of the twozone model may also be limited because
sanding is a mobile activity at the field
sites, while the model assumes the nearfield zone is stationary. Mechanistic
model performance may depend on the
relative sizes of the zones
9
PO 103-4
Accurate Analysis of Log-normally
Distributed Exposure Data Subject
to Single or Multiple Detection
Limits
T. Mathew, University of Maryland,
Baltimore, MD; K. Krishnamoorthy,
University of Louisiana at Lafayette,
Lafayette, LA.
Objective: For analyzing exposure
data with detection limits, accurate
procedures are unavailable, for
example, for the interval estimation of
the arithmetic and geometric means of
a lognormal exposure distribution, and
for specific upper percentiles of the
exposure distribution. Our objective is
to develop accurate statistical
methodologies for analyzing lognormally distributed exposure data that
contain one or more detection limits. In
addition, sample size issues will also be
addressed, and tables will be provided
to illustrate the increase in the required
sample size, due to the presence of nondetects. Methods: Novel statistical
methodologies are currently available
for obtaining accurate solutions to the
above problems. The methodologies
include modifications of maximum
likelihood methods and bootstrap
based methods. Such methods will be
developed and Monte Carlo simulation
will be used to assess their accuracy.
Results: The ad hoc procedures that
have been recommended in the
industrial hygiene literature can lead to
inaccurate solutions while analyzing
exposure data that include non-detects.
Simple and accurate solutions have
been obtained by applying the proposed
methodology. The proposed procedures
are accurate even for small exposure
samples, when the proportion of nondetects can be quite large. Clear sample
size guidelines have been obtained to
guarantee adequate power for testing a
variety of parameters such as the
arithmetic mean. Conclusions: The
proposed methods are easily
implemented in practice using
computational algorithms that are
straightforward. The results have been
applied to the analysis of actual
exposure samples. Sample size
methodology has been developed for
the first time in the detection limit
scenario, and can be immediately used
by the industrial hygiene community to
plan their studies when non-detects are
expected. The newly developed
methodologies in the context of
lognormal samples have the potential
to provide accurate solutions under
10
more complex models for the exposure
data, under multiple detection limits
PO 103-5
IH SkinPerm: Estimating Dermal
Dose
R. Tibaldi, ExxonMobil, Baytown, TX;
D. Drolet, Exposure Assessment
Strategies Committee, Longueuil, QC,
Canada; W. ten Berg, Santoxar,
Westervoort, Netherlands.
Many occupational health
professionals look to skin notations to
inform whether a substance has the
ability to penetrate the skin. Problem:
The challenge is estimating how much
can permeate through the skin to
contribute to internal dose and effect.
Resolution: This presentation is to
introduce a new Excel-based tool called
IH SkinPerm that has been developed to
estimate skin permeation and dose by
the cutaneous route. The application
originated from the SkinPerm model. IH
SkinPerm is a work product of the AIHA®
Exposure Assessment Strategies
Committee. The tool is formatted and
translated similarly to other exposure
assessment committee tools such as IH
MOD and IH STAT. IH SkinPerm is the
“natural complement” of IH MOD and
serves to help OHS professionals
estimate dose rate and total dose from
the dermal route. Results: Comparison
of IH SkinPerm estimated maximum
dermal absorption to a few measured
absorption values showed IH SkinPerm
estimates were generally within same
order of magnitude. IH SkinPerm can be
used to assess risks of dermal
absorption from an instantaneous
contact or from substance deposition
over time. Users can choose from a
robust library of 132 substances already
built into IH SkinPerm or enter and
select from their own library of
substances. The exposed skin surface
area can also be specified. Lessons
Learned: The goal in developing IH
SkinPerm is to increase understanding
of dermal absorption and provide a tool
for practical estimation of dose from
dermal exposure
PO 103-6
Stoffenmanager: Bringing Science
into Practice
A. Winkes, H. Heussen, K. Verbist, Arbo
Unie Expert Center for Chemical Risk
Management, Nijmegen, Netherlands;
M. van Niftrik, W. Fransman, A.
Hollander, TNO Quality of Life, Zeist,
Netherlands.
Situation/problem: Before 2000
managing the risk of working with
chemicals was difficult and often
considered too expensive for small and
medium enterprises. As a result, a large
percentage of those companies did not
sufficiently comply with the Dutch
Labour law on chemical exposure.
Resolution: To improve this situation,
the Ministry of Social Affairs and
Employment has supported the
development of the Stoffenmanager.
Stoffenmanager was first introduced in
2002 as a web-based control banding
tool (www.stoffenmanager.nl).
Stoffenmanager is unique in its further
development in interaction with its
users. Users and stakeholders are
organised in a network of ambassadors
to communicate their needs and wishes.
Furthermore, new social media
techniques are used for virtual
networking. At the moment, an
operational analysis is done to get
insight into how Stoffenmanager is
being used. Key question: are users able
to perform a complete and reliable
assessment and end up with control of
risk? Results: Stoffenmanager is
(September 2010) worldwide used by
more than 11,000 users (70% Dutch),
with user numbers increasing by
approximately 100-150 a month. It is
freely available on the web in Dutch,
English and German. Finnish and
Swedish versions will probably be
available in 2011. After Stoffenmanager
v3.0, a quantitative algorithm was
derived and subsequently validated for
estimating inhalation exposure to
inhalable dust and vapours. The
exposure algorithms are accepted as a
tier 1+ model under the EU-REACH
legislation for calculating exposure
scenarios. In the latest version (4.5), a
risk prioritization tool for manufactured
nano-objects will be introduced
(January 2011). Lessons Learned: Due to
its large growing number of users,
Stoffenmanager is a helpful tool for
SMEs to manage their chemical risks.
The participation and input of users is of
great value and importance in the
development of new versions and in the
general acceptance of the model.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 104
Noise Protection, Training, Measurement and
Reduction
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 104-1–PO104-6
PO 104-1
User Efficacy in Fitting Hearing
Protection
T. Schulz, Sperian Protection,
Fredericktown, PA; R. Miller, US Airways,
Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: Workers are often overexposed or sometimes even overprotected by their hearing protection.
The purpose of this study was to
determine if quantitative feedback
leads to improved self-efficacy for
appropriate earplug fit. Methods:
Experienced earplug users were tested
several times with an earplug fit-testing
system. They were provided with
feedback on the amount of noise
reduction or attenuation for each of the
first few fits. If necessary, they were
trained on proper fitting of their chosen
earplug or provided an alternate
earplug. After the final fit-test and
before results were revealed, they were
asked to estimate the amount of noise
reduction provided by that fit. Results:
Users were able to learn to estimate the
amount of attenuation provided for
their own fitted earplug. In the pilot
study, 56% estimated their attenuation
with the correct 5-dB category, 88%
were within one category. Additional
data on over 100 workers is being
analyzed. Conclusions: Feedback
regarding the fit of earplugs can teach
users to recognize adequate or
inadequate fit of their hearing
protection. Fit-testing is a valuable
training tool for small and large
employers and can also be a riskmanagement tool for hearing
conservation programs
PO 104-2
Pilot Research Project in
Quantitative Earmuff Noise
Insertion Loss Characterization
S. Caporali-Filho, University of Puerto
Rico, San Juan, PR.
Objective: While much research has
been conducted on hearing protectors’
attenuation addressing usability,
effectiveness, and performance
variability, current noise attenuation
protocols still rely on subjects’ noise
perception. This subjective perception
inputs significant variability in the data,
inflating uncertainty estimates of the
equipment’s noise attenuation. More
objective and less uncertain field noise
attenuation assessment protocols are
needed in order to accurately estimate
worker exposure to noise in the
industry. The main objective of this pilot
research project was to compare noise
insertion loss and performance of two
commercially available earmuffs (SNR =
25dB), while they were worn to control
noise exposure from the real operation
of two power tools (miter saw and chop
saw) simulating construction work.
Methods: This study was conducted in a
simulated construction site where
outside noise was controlled, and
insertion loss was estimated from noise
measurements in the entrance of the
subject’s ear canal. The operation of
each tool was controlled in terms of
frequency (cuts/minute), duration, and
intensity so as to minimize any
confounding variability in the data.
Noise data was collected at 125, 250, 500,
1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 Hz with biaural microphones with pre-molded
silicone fixtures for ear insertion,
connected to a digital recorder. Results:
Results indicated that even though
reported SNR were the same and
reported noise attenuation values were
not statistically different (5%) between
earmuffs, measured noise exposure was
significantly different (5%) between
them with consequent different
insertion loss estimates. In addition,
significant differences (5%) were
observed in the variability estimates for
insertion loss for each earmuff across
the different power tools used, and
across the frequency spectrum of the
noise generated. Conclusions: In
conclusion, this pilot study
demonstrated that there is a large
application and a real need for
quantitative methods assessing real
noise attenuation hearing protectors in
the field
PO 104-3
Evaluation of the NIOSH Hearing
Loss Simulator
R. Randolph, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: The NIOSH Hearing Loss
Simulator was developed to motivate
prevention behaviors by demonstrating
the consequences of noise-induced
hearing loss. As part of the development
process, studies were conducted to
evaluate the simulator’s effectiveness
at meeting these objectives. Methods: A
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
two-stage assessment was conducted: A
58-subject evaluation of user reactions
followed by an 89-subject evaluation of
attitude change and prevention
behavior intentions. In both studies, the
subjects were workers participating in a
one-hour training session on noise and
hearing loss prevention that included a
segment on noise effects using the
NIOSH Hearing Loss Simulator. In the
reaction study, the simulator
demonstration was immediately
followed by an eight-item reaction
questionnaire. For the attitude
change/behavioral intention study, the
participants received pre-test and posttest questionnaires immediately before
and after the simulator demonstration.
The pre- and post-test questionnaires
contained eight items assessing beliefs
about hearing loss. The post-test
instrument contained six additional
items assessing intentions to adopt
hearing prevention behaviors such as
wearing hearing protection and
discussing noise issues with coworkers
and managers. Results: User reactions
to the simulator were highly positive
and training classes using it resulted in
significant positive change in
knowledge about the causes and effects
of hazardous noise. Trainees reported a
higher degree of behavioral intentions
to protect their hearing after
experiencing simulated hearing losses.
Conclusions: Results from the two
evaluations studies indicate that the
participating trainees found the
simulator to be a clear and entertaining
medium for imparting a message about
the causes and impact of a noiseinduced hearing loss. Even though the
workers in the study already had
extensive prior training about hearing
loss, they still showed positive changes
in knowledge and beliefs after training
with the simulator. The trainees also
asserted that these beliefs would
engender preventive actions
PO 104-4
Applying New Noise Criterion to the
Workplace
J. Ratliff, Kanto Corporation, Portland,
OR.
Situation/problem: Noise levels
undefined at a chemical processing
plant. Resolution: noise dosimetry using
three criteria: OSHA hearing
conservation, ACGIH, and a modified
NIOSH criterion. Results: There are
major differences between the three
criteria. The OSHA HP criterion was not
very protective compared to that of
11
ACGIH and NIOSH. The noise dosimeter
was set up on the OSHA hearing
protection, ACGIH, and modified NIOSH
criteria. The OSHA PEL was not used as it
is out of date, and the dosimeter used
could only have three criteria entered.
The findings of the dosimetry are
discussed, along with the differences
between the three criteria as they are
applied to specific workplace settings
such as forklift operations, drum filling,
etc. At high constant levels, the ACGIH
and modified NIOSH criteria were the
same, but in a mixed noise environment,
the modified NIOSH criterion was more
protective. Lessons learned: The three
noise criteria allow the EHS person to
evaluate noise and be more effective in
prescribing a hearing conservation
program than simply using the OSHA
hearing protection criterion. Even if
OSHA does not update its standard to a
3-dB doubling rate, EHS and IH
practitioners should use the 3-dB
doubling rate, and bring the instrument
threshold for recording noise down to
70 dB to ensure that all employees are
adequately protected.
noise exposure reduction at three
selected plant areas. Engineering and
process controls were applied including
controlling noise at elimination source,
enclosures and provision and relocation
of acoustically designed cabins for
operators. Results: The noise monitoring
was repeated after implementing the
controls to determine the degree of
noise reduction. Noise reduction as high
as 6 dBA was achieved at 63 locations of
the high noise areas. Noise levels below
85 dBA were accomplished at 53
locations with high noise levels. The
improvement was evident by reduction
of personal dosimetry of selected three
plants and stationary audiometry
results. Lessons learned: Reduction of
noise exposure is feasible, even in
petroleum refineries, with carefully
crafted strategy of conducting noise
monitoring, prioritizing high noise areas
and implementing cost effective noise
exposure control measures and safe
work practices
PO 104-5
Application of Triage for Noise
Exposure at One of the Largest
Petroleum Refineries in India
E. Miller-Klein, SSA Acoustics, LLP,
Seattle, WA.
The situation/problem: We have
found that many companies perceive
that the most cost and performance
efficient way to address high noise
levels in manufacturing environments is
with hearing protection and a hearing
conservation program over engineering
noise controls. Resolution: Our
resolution included evaluating the
noise reduction of each option with
respect to cost and human impact.
Results: The results of our analysis was
that the higher initial cost of noise
control mitigation includes a higher
human and noise impact, which makes
it a very cost and performance efficient
solution. As part of our engineering and
analysis we examined the cost and
noise impact of the various noise
control options and found that
engineered controls can be extremely
cost efficient with respect to human
impact. Lessons Learned: Our goal is to
share our lessons learned with the
larger community to help improve
safety with respect to noise. This means
maximizing the value of the safety and
facility budget to significantly reduce
noise impact to the greatest number of
employees.
G. Desai, International Safety System,
Inc., Vadodara, India; R. Naik, Essar Oil
Limited, Jamnagar, India; M. Mehta,
International Safety System, New York,
NY.
Situation/problem: Occupational
noise exposure has been a major risk
factor in petroleum refineries and can
lead to NIHL as evident by a study
carried out in Taiwan. A noise mapping
and personal noise dosimetry was
conducted at one of the largest
petroleum refineries situated in
western part of India. A detailed noise
mapping for 519 locations was
conducted and 12 samples of personal
noise dosimetry were carried out for the
identified job profiles. Noise levels
greater than (a) 90 dBA were identified
at 154 locations and (b) 95 dBA were
identified at 44 locations out of total
519 locations. Personal noise dosimetry
identified the 8-hour TWA noise
exposure levels of greater than 85 dBA
in 10 out of 12 dosimetry samples
collected as per ACGIH criteria. As per
Factories Act of India, 8-hour noise
exposure TWA is 90 dBA and noiseinduced hearing loss is a notifiable
disease. Resolution: The principle of
“triage” was applied to prioritize the
12
PO 104-6
Cost and Human Impact Analysis of
Noise Control Solutions
Podium Session 105
Laboratory Health and
Safety
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:10 p.m.
Papers PO 105-1 – PO105-5
PO 105-1
Testing the Protection Level of
Different Lab Coat Fabrics by Direct
Exposure to a Pyrophoric Chemical
(n-butyl Lithium)
M. Fahim, K. Kretchman, North
Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Situation: In 2009, a tragic laboratory
incident occurred in the U.S. where a
researcher lost her life after tert-butyl
lithium (t-BuLi,) splashed onto her
clothes and set them on fire. Lessons
Learned: The lessons learned from this
incident highlight the need to
emphasize proper selection and use of
personal protective clothing in
laboratories. Current standards
categorize flame resistant garments
based on their protection against arc
flash or “arc ratings” (NFPA 70E), or
protection against “flash fire” (NFPA
2112). To the best of our knowledge,
there are no guidelines available that
rate a garment’s protection, based on
direct exposure to
flammable/pyrophoric liquids.
Resolution: The NC State University,
Environmental Health and Safety
Center, in conjunction with the College
of Textiles, designed an informal test to
compare flame and heat-resistant
criteria of seven different labcoat
fabrics (100% cotton, Poly-cotton blend,
and different treated flame-resistant
and inherently flame-resistant fabrics)
by direct-exposure to a pyrophoric
liquid. The test setting included a 35degree angle plate, embedded with two
heat sensors. Fabrics were fixed on the
test plate and sprayed with 10 ml of tbutyl lithium. While the sensors behind
the fabrics were recording the
temperature increase rate, the
degradation and physical change to the
integrity of the fabric was observed and
documented upon exposure to the
chemical. Results: This test indicated
that inherently flame-resistant fabrics
maintained their integrity better than
other tested fabrics. The test also
indicated that, in general, flameresistant fabrics provided significantly
better protection against heat,
compared to 100% cotton and polycotton fabrics. In addition, inherently
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
flame-resistant fabrics showed better
heat resistant properties than treated
flame-resistant fabrics
PO 105-2
Active IEQ Monitoring and Control
of Ventilation in Laboratories
G. Sharp, Aircuity, Inc., Newton, MA.
Situation/problem: The selection of
an appropriate lab dilution ventilation
rate has become more difficult as the
goals of energy conservation and
sustainability conflict with lab safety
needs. Numerous recent studies have
shown that a single air change rate does
meet the requirements of both lab
safety and sustainability. In fact, the
new 2011 NFPA 45 lab standard has
dropped any mention of specific
ventilation rates. Likewise, the new
ANSI AIHA Z9.5 laboratory ventilation
standard steers away from any specific
recommendations for ventilation rates.
Resolution: A science-based solution
that is being applied to solve the
problem of specifying lab ventilation
rates is to use active, real time sensing
of the lab IEQ using a multiplexed
sensing or sampling concept to provide
live information to control air change
rates dynamically based on the actual
cleanliness of the lab room air. Known
as Demand Based Control or CDCV
(Centralized Demand Control
Ventilation), when this approach senses
the lab air is “clean,” the minimum air
change rate is set to between 2 and 4
ACH. However, if contaminants are
sensed, the minimum ventilation rate is
raised to between 8 and 16 ACH for fast
room purging. Results: A research study
analyzing energy and IEQ performance
of 18 sites and over 1.5M hours of
operation shows contaminants were
present in labs only about 1 to 2% of the
time. Case studies at Arizona State
University, University of CaliforniaIrvine, and University of Pennsylvania
show how this approach safely achieved
substantial energy savings and also
uncovered lab safety problems. Lessons
Learned: Active sensing of lab IEQ not
only safely reduced energy
consumption, but was also used
effectively by EHS staff as a source
control tool to find, diagnose and
resolve numerous lab protocol and
equipment issues that were creating
contaminant releases
PO 105-3
Results of Comparison Study of
Sulfur Hexafluoride and Nitrous
Oxide as Tracer Gases for Ashrae 110
Hood Testing
P. Greenley, W. Wong, E. Zuniga, E.
Guffey, L. Norford, A. Kalil,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA.
Objective: To compare ASHRAE 110
hood containment results when using
sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide as
tracer gases. There is interest in the
chemical fume hood testing community
in finding a tracer gas with a lower
global warming potential than sulfur
hexafluoride. Methods: Sixteen
laboratory chemicals hoods of the same
hood model were tested with two
ASHRAE 110 ejectors, one using sulfur
hexafluoride and one using nitrous
oxide as the tracer gases. Two Miran
Sapphire analyzers were used to
measure the concentration of each gas
in the breathing zone of the manikin.
Hoods were tested with a full open sash
for five minutes with the ejectors in the
center position as is and for an
additional 10 minutes with a fan
induced cross draft. Three five-minute
averages were calculated for each hood
for each tracer gas. Results: For the 16
hoods when no cross draft was induced,
the correlation coefficient between
sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide
concentrations for the five minute
averages was 0.86. The correlation
coefficient for the first five minutes
with induced cross drafts was 0.91 and
0.85 for the second five-minute period. If
100 ppb is used as the pass/fail criteria
for the five-minute averages, 43 out of
48 tests produce the same outcome.
Thirty out of 48 concentration pairs
were within the same order of
magnitude. Conclusions: Nitrous oxide
appears promising as a potential
substitute for sulfur hexafluoride. It has
the advantage of being detected by an
instrument already being used for some
ASHRAE fume hood testing. Its main
disadvantage is that it is a more
hazardous gas from a health effects
standpoint than sulfur hexafluoride, so
it must be used and secured with
greater care
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 105-4
Chemical Exposure Assessment of
Graduate Students During Research
Activities in Korea
J. Park, Y. Choi, SoonChunHyang
University, Asan, Chung-nam, Republic
of Korea.
Objective: Working in a research
laboratory means potential exposure to
a wide range of hazardous substances.
Several studies suggest an increased
risk of certain cancers among laboratory
workers, especially who have worked
using chemicals. However, potential
hazards from working in laboratory
settings have not been properly
addressed due to a limited sense of
safety and the political will to tackle the
problem, and few quantitative exposure
assessment studies have been
performed in Korea. The objective of
this study is to determine chemical
exposures for graduate students during
representative activities of their
research. Methods: In 2010, air samples
were collected from research
laboratories in the department of
chemistry, biology, chemical
engineering, and material sciences and
engineering. Research activities were
classified into washing, purification,
distillation, extraction, and synthesis.
Target analyses were limited to acetone,
methylene chloride, benzene and
hexane, which were used commonly in
these laboratories. Personal samples for
8-hr TWA or short-term exposure were
collected according to the nature of
activities. Information about personal
protective equipment and the use of
laboratory chemical hoods was also
collected. Results: The geometric
average concentrations of 26 personal
exposure samples were 6.8 ppm (0.245.4), 7.7 ppm (0.3-35.5), 0.05 ppm (0.00030.27), and 2.4 ppm (0.04-16.95) for
acetone, methylene chloride, benzene
and hexane, respectively. Benzene and
methylene chloride were observed from
a few samples exceeding the action
levels, although all the results were
below the ACGIH TLV-TWA. Conclusions:
From the air sampling results, we
concluded that (1) chemical exposures
in research laboratories showed a wide
range of concentrations depending on
research activities; (2) overall chemical
exposures in the research laboratories
in this study were below the health
standards; and (3) chemical exposures
among laboratories were not
significantly different. Still, hazard
communication, safety training and
laboratory rules enforcement are
13
important for reducing the research
activity-related health risks
PO 105-5
Evaluation of Filtration
Performance of NIOSH-Approved
Particulate Air Purifying Filtering
Facepiece Respirators by
Photometric and Particle NumberBased Test Methods
S. Rengasamy, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA;
B. Eimer, URS, Corp., Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: NIOSH-approved
particulate filtering facepiece
respirators are certified in part by
measuring penetration levels using a TSI
8130 Automated Filter Tester, which
uses a photometric detector. In this
study, penetration levels for 17 models
of N, R, and P series filtering facepiece
respirators were measured using NaCl
or dioctyl phthalate aerosols by the
photometric method and compared
with an ultrafine condensation particle
counter (count-based) for the same
aerosols. Methods: Initial penetrations
for 17 models of N, R, and P series
respirators were measured using NaCl
or dioctyl phthalate aerosols with the
aerosol challenge and test equipment
(TSI 8130) used in the NIOSH respirator
certification (photometric) at 85 L/min.
Penetration levels were also measured
for the same aerosols by a count-based
method using an ultrafine particle
counter. Monodisperse NaCl aerosols
(20-400 nm range) penetrations for all
respirators were also measured using a
TSI 3160 at 85 L/min. Results: Initial
penetrations for five N95, three N99 and
one N100 respirator models by the
count-based method for TSI 8130
aerosols showed several times higher
penetrations than those penetrations
obtained by the photometric method. In
general, the count-based penetrations
for three R95, two P95 and three P100
model respirators were also greater
than the penetrations obtained by the
photometric method. Monodisperse
aerosol tests showed a most
penetrating particle size in the 50 nm
range for the 16 respirator models
utilizing electrostatic filter media with
the exception of one R95 model at ~200
nm size which had mechanical filter
media. Conclusions: The data suggest
that when particulate respirators with
electrostatic filter media are used to
protect against agents with particle
number-based occupational exposure
limits, respirators containing a higher
class of filter efficiency may be
warranted. Count-based filter
14
penetration test methods may also be
an alternative to or a supplement to the
photometric method
improve standardization and
reproducibility of allergen exposure
assessment
Podium Session 106
Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology I Allergens, Fungi, and IEQ:
What’s New?
PO 106-2
Efficacy of Owner-Collected Dust
Samples in the Evaluation
Residential Allergen and Fungal
Levels
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:20 p.m.
Papers PO 106-1 – PO106-7
PO 106-1
Quality Control Procedures using
Multiplex Array for Indoor Allergens
in an Analytical Laboratory
E. King, B. Smith, S. Filep, D. Block, J.
Armstrong, M. Chapman, Indoor
Biotechnologies, Charlottesville, VA.
Objective: Monitoring the
performance of assays in an allergen
analysis laboratory setting is essential
to ensure reproducibility of allergen
exposure assessments. Here, we
evaluated quality control procedures as
part of our ISO 17025-compliant
environmental testing laboratory using
8-plex Multiplex ARray for Indoor
Allergens (MARIATM). The MARIA 8-plex
simultaneously measures the allergens
Der p 1, Der f 1, Mite Group 2, Fel d 1, Can
f 1, Mus m 1, Rat n 1 and Bla g 2.
Methods: Baseline assay-specific intraand inter-assay variability was
evaluated at the beginning of the study.
Quality control and duplicate sample
data were monitored over a period of 14
months, and analyzed following
Westgard rules to monitor the level of
precision in the routine laboratory and
to determine acceptance or rejection of
analysis batches. During the study
period, analyses were performed by five
analysts. Results: QC outcomes were
consistent throughout the study period
as well as between operators. On
average, 96% of QC results for the 8
allergens tested fell within 2 StDev of
the mean. Run rejections based on
Westgard 1-3S rule remained below 2%.
Conclusions: Our study indicates that
MARIA produces reproducible results in
an ISO 17025-compliant analytical
laboratory setting. The quality system
of monitoring multiple quality control
parameters currently in place functions
to ensure the laboratory’s level of
precision. MARIA technology can
M. Van Dyke, C. Rose, A. Ridder, J.
Martyny, National Jewish Health,
Denver, CO
Objective: The objective of the study
was to determine whether a kit
designed to enable homeowners to selfassess their homes for relevant allergen
and fungi levels could provide similar
information to a home evaluation by a
trained industrial hygienist. Methods:
Forty-three participants were recruited
to sample their home for settled dust
allergens and fungi using a pre-designed
sampling kit. The kit consisted of
written instructions and settled dust
and filters. The participant was
instructed to read the included
directions and return the dust samples
when sampling was completed. After
receipt of samples, participants had a
home visit by an industrial hygienist
who performed a walk-through
inspection of their home, collected
settled dust samples, and collected
spore trap samples for fungal spores. All
settled dust samples were analyzed for
allergens including, dust mite (Der f 1,
Der p 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), and
cockroach (Bla g 1), and for the 13
species of mold comprising the
American Relative Moldiness Index
(ARMI). Results: There were strong linear
relationships between allergen levels
measured by the homeowner and the
industrial hygienist for the frequently
detected pet allergens, r2=0.88 for Fel d 1
and r2=0.92 for Can f 1. Linear
relationships were also significant, but
not as strong for the less frequently
detected allergens, r2=0.57 for dust mite
and r2=0.22 for Bla g 1. ARMIs from the
two sampling methods also had a fairly
strong linear relationship (r2=0.68), and
the two samples were in agreement on
their rating (high, medium or low) for
76% of the residences. Conclusions:
Results of the study suggest that
residents can effectively collect settled
dust samples that correlate well in
terms of allergen and fungal levels with
samples collected by IHs.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 106-3
A Field Study on the Growth and
Removal of Microorganisms and
Allergens on Carpet
R. Lewis, K. Ong, B. Emo, J. Kennedy,
Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO; C.
Shorter, University of Otago, Wellington,
New Zealand; C. Hide, Hally Group NZ,
Christchurch, New Zealand.
Background: An important gap in the
literature on removal of dust mites and
mold from carpet is knowledge on the
effectiveness of carpet treatments over
time to see if re-colonization occurs
after the immediate effects of a
chemical or physical agent has waned.
Objectives: Hypotheses were developed
to test the short-term and long-term
effectiveness of steam and a chemical
mixture of Chlorine Dioxide and
Disodium ocotoborate tetrahydrate
(DOT) against dust mites, dust mite
allergen and mold in St. Louis, Missouri
and Christchurch, New Zealand.
Methods: A combined 160 home owners
were recruited in both cities and
protocols developed to sample over two
years time. Results: An analysis of
variance was run on data collected from
St. Louis homes and no significant
effects were found to distinguish
among the treatments for allergen and
mold reduction. However, data close to
significance was found for mold
reduction after a three-month lag time
(p = 0.071) and for dust mite allergen
after a two-month lag time (0.080).
Hypotheses on use of DOT/Chlorine
Dioxide and Steam against dust mite
allergen were supported based on
findings in the New Zealand Study (visit
2, 3, and 4 had p values of 0.007, 0.004,
and 0.016). Steam and DOT/Chlorine
Dioxide significantly reduced live dust
mite populations in the New Zealand
study after only the first and second
visits (p = 0.031). Conclusions: This study
did demonstrate the long-term
effectiveness of Chlorine Dioxide/DOT
on mold after a three-month lag time as
a concentration. The reduction of dust
mites and dust mite allergen, as
reflected by the New Zealand Study,
however, demonstrates that steam and
Chlorine Dioxide/DOT be considered as
an intervention for control of dust mites
and dust mite allergen
PO 106-4
Spore Trap Sampling Data Alone
Does Not Provide Enough
Information in Most Investigations
to Determine the Allergenic
Potential of an Indoor EnvironmentEnhancement with Culture Dust
Analysis Provides More Consistent
Results
R. Billups, Air Allergen & Mold Testing,
Inc., Stone Mountain, GA.
Situation/Problem: Spore traps are
the favored sampling tool for
microbiological analysis of the indoor
air. Consultants relying on spore traps
alone may miss important
microbiological organisms that are
important to accurately determine
cause and effect analysis. Resolution:
Spore trap samples collected from
homes and commercial businesses with
health-related complaints during June,
July and August resulted in 24% of the
sites being identified as possibly
contaminated. When spore traps and
carpet dust were collected
simultaneously and fungi identified to
the species level, the number of sites
identified as potentially contaminated
rose to 70%. Results: Identifications of
organisms known to be associated with
high water activity, along with total
CFUs per gram of carpet dust and data
from spore traps, yielded more accurate
information upon which consultants
could provide better and more complete
remediation plans. Lessons Learned:
Collection of carpet dust for fungi
speciation, as well as analysis of spore
traps, especially in sleeping, living areas
and where children play, provide
substantially more information in
making informed decisions involving
the indoor environment
PO 106-5
Indoor Air Quality in Schools: What
Is Lurking in Our Classrooms and
What Is Done to Remediate It?
B. Cortes, EMSL Analytical Inc.,
Orlando, FL.
Children of school ages K to 12th grade
spend more than 50% of their time in
schools. Asthma incidences in children
are on the rise. While mold cannot cause
asthma where it is not present, some
mold spores by themselves or in
combination with other mold spores
can be triggers of allergic reactions
going from Type I hypersensitivity to full
blown asthma attacks. Our objective
was to examine mold exposure in
schools. Our findings were based on
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
analysis of 4,000 spore trap samples
from schools across the continental U.S.
To compare and contrast results,
samples were divided into five regions
in the U.S.; Region 1: NE, Region 2: SE,
Region 3: Midwest, Region 4: SW and
Region 5: Western states and into
seasons (winter, spring, summer and
fall). Overall, Aspergillus/Penicillium
(Asp/Pen) spores were the main
contaminant followed closely by
Cladosporium spores. Regional and
seasonal variations were observed.
Asp/Pen spores were prevalent during
winter and spring in the NE while
Cladosporium spores were prevalent
during summer and fall. The SE had
Asp/Pen amplification all year long.
Midwest to the west coast were
exposed mainly to Asp/Pen winter to
summer. Cladosporium was prevalent
during the fall. In the SW, Asp/Pen was
most abundant summer to winter, while
Cladosporium was most abundant
during the spring. In addition to the
three most prevalent genera identified,
7-30 different spore types were also
present in classrooms across the U.S.
This exposure can also be responsible
for parallel sensitization to multiple
spores. We wrapped up the study by
looking at a decade review of legislation
addressing protocols to insure that
children are given the best environment
possible in schools. The findings were
culled following the regions examined.
We propose strategies to monitor mold
in schools
PO 106-6
Effects of Flood on Preexisting Mold
Spores within Drywall Sold by
Distributors—Results of a Two-Year
Study
P. Haas, Morse Zehnter Associates,
West Palm Beach, FL.
Objective: Examine whether preexisting mold spores within a drywall
board, in addition to those already
present in the air and flood water,
contribute to mold damage in houses
after flooding. Methods: A chamber was
flooded for 72 hours, drained and sealed
for 120 hours. After a week of
ventilation, humidity in the chamber
and genus of mold were recorded.
Results: Trials show it was likely that the
growth of molds on the drywall
construction germinated from the
spores within the drywall, although the
presence of mold spores from the air
cannot be exclusively excluded from the
tank chamber. Conclusions: The effect of
the experimental design, mold
15
identification in drywall prior to
flooding versus post flooding and
drywall construction types such as mold
resistant types have an impact on mold
growth after flooding
PO 106-7
Eight Proven Steps to Prevent
Indoor Environmental Quality
Problems
M. Matilainen, AMEC Earth and
Environmental, Westford, MA.
Sick building syndrome and indoor
microbial contamination have become
an increasing concern for building
owners in recent years. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) studies that
compare risks of environmental threats
to public health consistently rank
indoor air pollution among the top five
in the United States. EPA estimates that
poor indoor air may cost the nation tens
of billions of dollars each year in lost
productivity and medical care. Dealing
with Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
problems in large multi-building
complexes is a daily challenge for
environmental, health and safety (EHS)
professionals. Implementation of the 8Step Proactive Preventative Strategy
(PPS), modeled after the EPA protocols
for managing IEQ in buildings, provides
resolutions to minimize the impacts
from IEQ problems. Implementation of
the following PPS at large facilities can
significantly reduce EHS staff time
associated with IEQ problems:
• Conducting comprehensive IEQ
studies to develop building profiles and
controls
• Establishing HVAC management and
maintenance programs to reduce IEQ
risks
• Developing engineering controls for
hazardous materials and microbial
growth
• Training staff on best management
practices for IEQ
• Providing on-call emergency
response to assess IEQ problems
• Developing and writing building
specific written PPS
This presentation will focus on the
real world implementation of PPS in
large multi-building complexes, and the
positive results achieved by minimizing
lost productivity from IEQ problems. The
presentation will also review lessons
learned during the development of a
PPS, and provide recommendations for
best implementation practices.
16
Podium Session 107
Engineering and Control
Technology
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:40 p.m.
Papers PO 107-1 – PO107-8
PO 107-1
Design, Development and
Evaluation of a Noise Control
Enclosure for a Model Jet Engine
J. Black, J. Rinker, R. Yon, C. Holder, U.S.
Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; J.
Slagley, School of Aerospace Medicine,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Situation/problem: A cart-mounted
model jet engine used for educational
demonstrations produced a sound
pressure level (SPL) of 89.1 dB at a
distance of 25’, the minimum safety
distance determined for operating the
jet engine at full power. Design,
development and evaluation of an
engineering noise control to lower the
SPL attributable the jet engine to less
than 80.0 dB at a distance of 25’ was
requested by the jet engine’s owner.
Resolution: A noise control enclosure
(NCE) that would reduce the SPL of the
jet engine to less than 80.0 dB at a
distance of 25’ was designed, built and
tested. The NCE is a wood frame
rectangular box 27” x 48” x 24 1/8”, with
3/8” thick Plexiglas sides, special intake
and ducted exhaust ports, a hinged side
access window, and is directly attached
to the existing jet engine cart with
minimal modifications. The NCE’s
predicted SPL reduction was based
upon actual SPL frequency
measurements, a blade pass frequency
(BPF) analysis, and published
transmission loss factors for the
materials used to build to the NCE.
Results: The NCE reduced the SPL
attributable to the jet engine when
operating at full power to 76.4 dB at a
distance of 25’ and met all other owner
desired use characteristics, such as ease
of portability and not inhibiting viewing
the jet engine. Lessons learned: NCEs
are effective in reducing the SPL for
hazardous noise sources and can be
readily designed using basic noise
control principals and published
transmission loss factors. BPF analysis
is of modest utility for predicting the
dominant sound generating frequencies
of devices that are not simple, rotating
fans, and should be best regarded as a
technical tool of interest for such cases.
Actual SPL frequency data should be
used to best design frequencydependent NCEs
PO 107-2
Ensuring a Robust Industrial
Hygiene Program by Maximizing
Engineering Control Success by
Implementing and Cultivating a
Containment Culture and Soft
Elements
A. Doane, K. Borud, Roche Colorado
Corporation, Boulder, CO; K. Schmerber,
D. Zier, Hellman & Associates, Golden,
CO; M. Rothney, Hospira Boulder, Inc.,
Boulder, CO.
Situation: Roche Colorado
Corporation (RCC) continues to evaluate
emerging technologies to target
containment objectives for the handling
of raw materials, isolated intermediates
and active pharmaceutical ingredients.
Containment technologies can
represent significant investments
where success relies on more than just
engineering control installations for
employee protection. In addition to
technically feasible engineering
controls, a containment culture and soft
elements are required. Resolution:
Integrate containment culture, soft
elements and engineering controls in
the site’s industrial hygiene program.
Containment culture is the product of
an organization’s individual and group
values, attitudes, competencies and
behavior patterns that determine the
commitment to and the style and
proficiency of the industrial hygiene
program. These elements are
demonstrated when the drivers for
change are understood and accepted;
management provides emphasis,
support, and realistic expectations; and
a structure for managing the change
process exists. Containment culture
strength relies on the effectiveness and
presence of soft elements, which
include innovative process
development, occupational health preplanning and containment execution
cycles. Results: A strong industrial
hygiene program drives the essential
soft elements to achieve and sustain
containment investment success. The
soft elements are essential and include
trained and motivated industrial
hygiene staff, monitoring equipment
and instrumentation available, budgets
and analytical methods allocated,
aggressive data collection, operational
refinement and timely, pervasive
communication and operational
procedures adherence. Lessons Learned:
This integration of a containment
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
culture, soft elements and engineering
control applications has proven
enhanced and repeatable containment
for specific installations and is vital for
the success of RCC’s robust industrial
hygiene program. Maximizing
engineering control investment success
allows continued alignment to RCC’s
responsible care commitment in
providing a workplace free of
recognized health and safety hazards.
PO 107-3
Determination of Capture Velocities
for Vapors and Gases by Schlieren
Photography
S. Wang, C. Chen, Taiwan University,
Taipei City, Taiwan; J. Ciou, Institute of
Occupational Safety and Health, Taipei
County, Taiwan.
Objective: With the aid of Schlieren
Photography, we redetermined capture
velocities for some gaseous
contaminants, such as VOC vapors and
sulfur hexafluoride, by instant visual
observation. Methods: An experimental
Schlieren Photography facility enables
the observer to see if an interested
gaseous contaminant is well captured
by a miniature exterior exhaust hood
suspended in front of a concave
spherical mirror. A bull-eye color filter
helps to enhance the observation
sensitivity. Some pure VOC vapors
(methanol, alcohol, isopropanol,
toluene) and gases (carbon dioxide,
sulfur hexafluoride) with different
vapor/gas densities are chosen for
comparison. Results: For vapors/gases
chosen in this study, the larger the
density of vapor/gas the higher the
capture velocity needed. We also found
that the capture velocity 0.5m/s
(100fpm) is enough for all the
vapors/gases mentioned above.
Conclusions: We found that Schlieren
Photography can be a quick, practical
and inexpensive method to constantly
monitor the overall efficacy of an
exhaust hood capturing some certain
gaseous contaminant with its density
different from ambient air
PO 107-4
Utilization of Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) in the Design of
Engineering Controls to Reduce the
Exposure to Airborne Lead
Particulate Matter and Volatile
Organic Compounds in an Armory
D. Hall, C. Strode, R. Strode, Chemistry
& Industrial Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge,
CO.
Situation/problem: Armorists
cleaning weapons at two tables in a
small armory room without personal
protective equipment and non-task
specific engineering controls were
assessed for exposure to airborne heavy
metal particulates and volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) associated with the
weapon cleaning process and products.
The employer desired to incorporate a
task-specific local exhaust ventilation
(LEV) control to address the potential
exposures. Resolution: Several
iterations of CFD modeling were used to
assist in the design of local exhaust
ventilation that was subsequently
installed and tested for efficacy. The
armorists’ workstation, air supply
register, hood locations and hood types
were modeled at positions and
configurations to arrive at an optimal
solution. Due to the small volume
characteristic of the room, controls
were required to operate the LEV and
general HVAC system to maintain only a
slight negative pressure within the
Armory. The CFD-optimized design was
then contracted, installed, tested and
utilized. Results: The hood’s capture
effectiveness and the CFD results were
validated by flow measurements and
qualitative particulate tests performed
on the commissioned system,
substantiating the hood’s capture
efficiency. Lessons learned: CFD
provided a beneficial three-dimensional
representation of the hoods’ capture
effectiveness and the flow
characteristics within the room
PO 107-5
Preliminary Results from Tests on
Two Tracer Gas Protocols Developed
to Determine Ventilation Flow Rates
and Patterns in Naturally Ventilated
Munitions Storage Bunkers
R. Rogers, L. Kneten, G. Braybrooke, I.
Richardson, U.S. Army, Bel Air, MD; T.
Mott, U.S. Army, Fort Lewis, WA
Objective: Since World War II, the
Army has stored chemically filled
munitions in large, naturally ventilated
structures known as bunkers. Most of
these bunkers were designed and built
in the 1940s and 1950s. The Army would
like to reliably monitor these bunkers
without first entering them to ascertain
if any munitions are leaking by
measuring agent concentration within
the bunkers. Ventilation is provided
using the natural properties of air such
as pressure, temperature and density;
no mechanical ventilation systems are
used. The ventilation in these large
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
semicircular structures is provided by a
vent located in the front door of the
structure and a rear vent connected to a
stack. Method: The Army assembled a
team to develop and test tracer gas
protocols to determine if this would
provide more reliable information on
the airflow rates within the bunkers.
The team developed two protocols: one
using n-dibutyl sulfide (BS) as the tracer
gas and the second using carbon
dioxide (CO2). The BS gas protocol has
six sampling points within the bunker,
and the measurements are made using a
portable gas chromatograph. The CO2
protocol utilizes 15 sample points, each
monitored by a portable instrument
equipped with an infrared sensor to
measure the concentration. Result:
Results from releasing the gas at two or
three release points within the test
bunkers during three of the four
seasons will be presented.
Measurements for each protocol were
collected using two bunkers (one
equipped with a set of passive filters on
the vents and the other without filters)
and two internal storage configurations.
Each release point was measured under
each of these conditions for a minimum
of eight sampling periods. Conclusion:
Early test results suggest that both
protocols together provided the best
data on air movement within the
bunkers.
PO 107-6
Field Effectiveness of Portable
HEPA-Equipped Air Filtering Devices
(Pilot Study)
D. Walsh, Walsh Certified Consultants,
Inc., Las Vegas, NV.
Objective: Evaluate whether portable
HEPA-equipped air filtering devices
(devices) are performing at or near an
efficiency of 99.97% for 0.3 microns or
greater-sized particles when used under
field conditions. Methods: Three devices
(one back-pack vacuum and two highvolume negative air machines) were
exhausted into an approximately eightfoot cube plastic-lined chamber where
the exhaust air was tested and
compared to device intake air. Testing
was done twice for each device using
laser particle counters, an ultrafine (<0.1
microns) particle counter and
laboratory aerosol analysis of Air-O-Cell
cassettes. The aerosols included molds,
pollens, dander, opaque particles, etc.
Results: The testing indicated that none
of the three devices met HEPA filtration
criteria. Most of the data indicated less
than 90% efficiency for the devices
17
tested with some much less. In the case
of one device, the ultrafine particles
were removed with high efficiency
while the larger particles were removed
with low efficiency. Conclusions:
Additional studies in a more controlled
environment (e.g., University research
lab) should be conducted to confirm the
results of this and other pilot studies in
a more defensible manner. Also, a
method for field assessment of devices
should be developed to assure proper
functioning of these important health
protection devices
PO 107-7
Quantitative Assessment on the
Effectiveness of Different Exposure
Control Strategies for Hexavalent
Chromium Mitigation in Stainless
Steel Welding
S. Caporali-Filho, R. Aviles, University
of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR.
Objective: Hexavalent Chromium
(CrVI) is among the most common
welding hazards in construction. Its
airborne concentration depends on the
welding process and task, the base
metal and the metal being added from
the electrode. Although engineering
controls are required in most situations
where exposure to CrVI exists, control
strategies such as portable Local
Exhaust Ventilation Systems (LEVs) are
not yet a common practice in
construction and still represent an
untested and unfamiliar innovation for
many employers. The objective of this
project was to compile evidence-based
data addressing the effectiveness of
portable LEVs in mitigating CrVI
exposure in a welding task similar to
those performed in construction.
Methods: The study methodology
involved a laboratory-based experiment
where outdoor welding on stainless
steel was conducted under controlled
environmental and welding conditions.
This experiment was designed to test
with air samples the effect of four
different exposure control strategies
(750 cfm LEV, 230 cfm LEV, half mask with
high efficiency particulate air filters,
and powered air purifying respirator,
PAPR) on the worker’s exposure to CrVI
while welding at three different
working heights (overhead, eye height,
waist height). Results: Data was
submitted to an analysis of variance
and results identified a significant
effect (5%) of working height, exposure
control strategy and their interactions
on workers’ CrVI exposure. Hypothesis
testing identified the PAPR and the 750
18
cfm LEV as being the most effective
control strategies across all working
heights, with average exposures
significantly (5%) lower than 2.5 μm/m3,
while waist height was associated with
the highest exposures for all exposure
control strategies (5%). Conclusions: In
conclusion, findings from this research
study can be used to develop
intervention activities to educate
construction employers and employees
on the practical advantage of using
PAPRs and/or large LEVs, instead of half
mask respirators, to properly control
employees’ exposure to CrVI
PO 107-8
Mercury Exposure Assessment and
Control at Third-Party Lighting
Manufacturing Sites in China
X. Jing, International Safety Systems,
Inc., Shanghai, China; T. Mehta, M.
Mehta, International Safety Systems,
Inc., New York, NY.
Mercury is listed in the Highly Toxic
Chemical Inventory by China Ministry of
Health. Liquid or solid mercury is used
in compact fluorescent lamp and metal
halide lamp production. Potential for
mercury exposure exists if exposure
controls are not provided or the
controls are not effective, especially at
third-party manufacturing sites where
hazard awareness is not significant and
resources to control exposures are
limited. Qualitative exposure
assessments (QLEA), Quantitative
Exposure Assessment (QNEA) and a
regulatory compliance audit were
conducted at three third party lamp
manufacturing sites in China. QLEA was
conducted using a model that
considered chemical hazards,
frequency/duration of chemical used,
airborne potential, exposure control,
skin absorption and ingestion potential.
QNEA was conducted with a direct
reading mercury vapor analyzer.
Activities with potential mercury
exposure including: mercury receiving
and distribution, mercury weighing,
mercury dosing, exhausting, aging,
housekeeping, maintenance, mercury
waste disposing were reviewed to
determine the degree of health risk.
Biological monitoring data for mercury
were evaluated. Recommendations
were made on reducing mercury
exposure and determining compliance
status with regulatory requirements.
Improvements in exposure controls,
work practices, respiratory protection
and personal protective equipment
were recommended. One of the three
sites replaced liquid mercury with solid
mercury and the process significantly
reduced potential mercury exposure.
The exposure assessment and the
compliance audit conducted assisted
the sites in reducing mercury exposures.
Podium Session 108
General Topics in Occupational Safety
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:40 p.m.
Papers PO 108-1 – PO108-8
PO 108-1
Fatal Injuries Among New York City
Construction Workers, 1996 - 2008
N. Clark, S. Sedlar, NYC Dept. of Health
and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY.
Objective: The purpose of this study is
to better understand risk factors related
to fatal injuries in the construction
industry in New York City and to
develop recommendations aimed at
increasing safety among specific
construction occupations and activities.
Methods: Surveillance data related to
construction fatalities (1996 - 2008) from
the New York City Department of Health
and Mental Hygiene Office of Vital
Statistics, Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) and New
York City Department of Buildings (NYC
DOB) were collected and reviewed.
Fatality data were analyzed by
demographics, occupation and injury
mechanism to determine the number,
types, risk factors and trends of fatal
injuries among construction workers in
New York City. Results: From 1996 and
2008, a total of 365 fatal occupational
injuries were identified among New
York City construction workers. Though
construction workers make up less than
6% of the New York City work forces,
they account for 30% of occupational
fatalities. The number of fatalities
varied widely from year to year, ranging
from 19 deaths in 1998 and 43 deaths in
2006; on average, 28 construction
workers were killed each year. Most
fatal injuries were caused by falls from
scaffolds and roofs; laborers and iron
workers were the two deadliest
construction occupations. Fatalities
vary by age, education, race and country
of birth. Fatality rates among NYC
construction workers were higher than
national rates for construction and all
industries in most years. Conclusions:
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Construction fatalities are preventable.
This study reinforces the need for
health and safety programs in
construction that focus on fall
prevention. Programs should include
clear roles and responsibilities for
employers and workers. Local and
federal government agencies should
expand outreach to high-risk employers
and workers about ways to prevent
construction fatalities
Conclusions: Published findings of an
association between friction and
slipping in actual work environments
are rare. Restaurant mean COF was
strongly associated with risk of selfreported slipping. The findings suggest
that effective intervention strategies to
reduce risk of slips and falls in
restaurant workers could include
increasing COF and improving
housekeeping practices
PO 108-2
Factors Associated with Worker
Slipping in Fast Food Restaurants
PO 108-3
Particulate Generation, Exposure
and Control in Construction
T. Courtney, S. Verma, Y. Huang, W.
Chang, Liberty Mutual, Hopkinton, MA;
K. Li, Chung-hua University, Hsin-chu,
Taiwan; A. Filiaggi, Liberty Mutual,
Warrenville, IL.
Objective: Slipping, tripping and
falling (STF) are responsible for a
substantial injury burden in the global
workplace. Restaurant environments
are challenged by STF. This study
assessed individual and work
environment factors related to slipping
in U.S. limited service (fast food)
restaurant workers. Methods: Ten
limited service restaurants in the
northeastern U.S. were recruited to
participate. Workers’ occupational slip
and/or fall history within the past four
weeks was collected by multi-lingual
written questionnaires. Age, gender, job
tenure, work hours per week, and work
shift were also collected. Shoe type,
condition and gross shoe contamination
were visually assessed. Floor friction
was measured, and each restaurant’s
global mean coefficient of friction (COF)
was calculated. The logistic generalized
estimating equations model was used
to compute adjusted odds ratios.
Results: One hundred and twenty-six
workers participated in the study.
Participants averaged 34.5 work hours
per week, had a mean age of 30 years,
and had worked in their specific
location an average of 34.5 (median = 17)
months. Results from multivariable
regression showed that higher
restaurant mean COF was significantly
associated with a decreased risk of selfreported slipping in the past four weeks
(Odds Ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.82). From
the highest to the lowest COF
restaurant, the odds of a positive slip
history increased by a factor of more
than seven. Younger age, male gender,
lower weekly work hours and the
presence of gross contamination on
worker’s shoe sole were also associated
with increased odds of slipping.
W. Lenczuk, Tutor-Perini, New York
City, NY.
Professional Practice - 24 Real-Time
Detection
Situation/problem: Exposure
assessment and control of PM 2.5 and
PM 10 generation on a construction site
(NYC - World Trade Center
Reconstruction) occupational and
community exposure. Discussion—
Criteria for equipment emissions and
verification, engineering control
measures, industrial hygiene personal
sampling strategy, and control measure
verification, data analysis and
verification software means and
methods. Resolution: Requiring
technical specifications for written prework contract requirements for diesel
particulate filters and low sulfur
content fuel requirements and written
job hazard analysis requirements for
intrusive work activities, which will
produce PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols.
Written air sampling procedures and
verification requirements. Results:
Using real-time instrumentation and
standard industrial hygiene software
for data analysis and validation in
combination of standardized contract
language and technical requirements
specifications for diesel particulate
filters (DPFs) and low sulfur fuel with
typical engineering controls for
intrusive work activities, the generation
of PM 2.5 and PM 10 can be managed
and integrated into construction work
activities with minimum impact to cost
and schedule with limited exposure
potential to either occupational works
and/or sensitive receptors. Lessons
learned: Pre-work integration of
“safety” contract language, contractor
expectations, engineering control
training, industrial hygiene oversight,
cost estimates for using real-time air
monitor(s) a sustainable program for
limiting PM2.5 and PM exposure can be
realized
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 108-4
Tracking the Effects of
Dehumidification of a Structure
Impacted by Water
M. Divine, P. Haas, Morse Zehnter
Associates, West Palm Beach, FL.
Situation/problem: Building
Information Modeling (BIM) is a
relatively new science available to
architects, engineers and others
including industrial hygienists for use in
designing and managing buildings.
Resolution: Continuous monitoring was
enabled with the use of sensors with
field modified conductivity probes. This
data was then wirelessly transmitted
via a router that was supplied with data
from several sensor locations to a
website over the internet to track the
conditions within the wall assembly.
Results: Applications of BIM practice in
this case study were made in wall
assemblies which evaluated the
fluctuating levels of temperature,
relative humidity, absolute humidity
and moisture content of various
building materials over several months.
The structure studied was equipped
with moisture sensors at various
locations within a wall assembly and
then a dehumidification scheme was
applied using improvements to the
HVAC system. Lessons learned:
Applications for the industrial hygienist
include the use of the sensors as well as
other similar tools to evaluate moisture
dynamics in buildings and to study the
effects of improvements such as
sustainable construction, recycled
(green) materials and weatherization in
structures
PO 108-5
What Happens Next? Bridging the
Gap Between Construction
Industrial Hygiene and Compliance
H. Warren, Georgia Tech Research
Institute, Atlanta, GA; L. Capicik,
Brasfield & Gorrie, LLC, Atlanta, GA.
Situation/Problem: Tasked with
managing multiple short- and long-term
safety requirements for jobsites where
site conditions, schedules and
personnel change daily, addressing
industrial hygiene concerns often
remain low on the priority list of the
construction safety manager. These
personnel are required to manage,
evaluate and communicate with
contractors and subcontractors
regarding their safety and health
programs—a challenging task when
often everyone involved has a varying
level of understanding of compliance
19
with the OSHA health standards.
Collecting air samples during
construction tasks can be difficult due
to changing conditions, language
barriers, and job scheduling; relaying
the results in a timely way and finding
controls that work in the field can also
be a daunting responsibility. Resolution:
The Georgia Tech Research Institute’s
Safety and Health Consultation Program
and the general contracting firm of
Brasfield and Gorrie, LLC, developed a
management and training matrix for the
common construction health hazard
crystalline silica. This tool has been
used by construction safety managers
and field personnel to address silica
hazards on construction jobs by
focusing on the implementation of
feasible controls. Results: Using the
matrix helps managers focus on the
more important prevention messages
regarding compliance, and provide
guidance to sub-contractors and
employees on how to best protect
employees before they start work on
the jobsite. Lessons Learned: It is
important to build industrial hygiene
compliance requirements into the plan
so they become a seamless part of the
construction process—from bid to
project completion. Additional followup is often needed to help contractors
determine next steps, such as
developing a respiratory protection
program, completing re-sampling, and
training. This session will suggest tools
and strategies for practical use when
working with contractors on evaluating
workplace exposures
failure to follow the American
Petroleum Institute recommended
practices on drilling mud circulation,
and others. In order to resolve these
issues it is necessary to create a culture
in which safety is paramount and risk
taking is discouraged, starting with
considering safety in the design stage.
The results of this investigation suggest
changes are needed in the design of the
critical systems, emergency controls,
and testing procedures of these
systems. Changes in the safety and
environmental management program
are needed to counteract human errors.
Engineering analysis should be
performed when changes are proposed
for critical equipment. Management of
change procedures should be followed
when changes introduce new hazards or
compromise safeguards in the original
design. Appropriate inspection
procedures should be established and
implemented to verify that the
instillation of critical equipment is
consistent with design specifications.
Maintenance programs should include
appropriate inspection, and testing
regimens to ensure critical equipment
maintains mechanical integrity. Training
should be developed and implemented
for operating and maintenance
personnel. Safe work practices and
procedures should be established and
implemented for each operation. The
lessons learned from the analysis of this
incident are many, but the most
important lessons are that safety must
be a way of life, beginning in the design
stage and carrying through the entire
project life
PO 108-6
The Macondo Well Blowout—Safety
System Failure from Design to
Catastrophe
PO 108-7
A Paradigm Shift in Safety Culture at
a Diverse Service Organization
M. Larranaga, Q. Wang, H. Kincannon,
P. Smith, R. Lehnert, J. Brown, Oklahoma
State University, Stillwater, OK.
The Macondo well blowout resulted
in 11 fatalities and caused the largest
non-intentional oil spill in history. The
situation stemmed from a series of
human errors through all stages of the
project leading up to the blowout and
subsequent explosion. These errors
include faulty interpretation of signals
indicating problems with well and
safety system integrity, inappropriate
modifications to safety systems,
inadequate design of critical systems,
failure to provide redundancy in the
design stage, failure to adhere to
administrative controls for the safe
operation of the deadman switch,
L. deLaski, Emilcott, Chatham, NJ.
Our problem was a lack of consistent
safety culture in a large engineering
firm with 2,500 employees, 40 offices
and a wide variety of project types. The
goal was to implement a safety program
to support a positive safety culture in
this nationwide, service organization.
The program requirements included
addressing highly diverse job tasks,
meeting regulatory requirements, and
preventing losses in an organization
without a formalized program. We
focused on improving the safety
management systems within the
organization to reduce losses and
improve their competitive edge with
clients looking for a high level of safety.
The resolution began with a company-
20
wide audit and the development of a
flexible safety program focused on
individual project hazard assessments.
The program provided team leader
training in conducting basic hazard
assessments for construction and nonconstruction projects with a simple
format for documentation. Control
methods were specified in standard
operating procedures (SOPs) developed
for specific hazards, and the hazard
assessments were used to train project
team members. In the four years since
program roll-out, the results include a
well developed safety organization,
tracked employee safety training,
regularly scheduled safety meetings,
and a company culture where safety is
managed as an integral part of all
projects. The organization has realized
more than 50% reduction in their injury
and illness rate, and a 40% reduction in
workers compensation costs. In
addition, a very large contract was
recently awarded due in large part to
their focus on safety. Our lessons
learned for catalyzing a safety culture
paradigm shift include the need to
integrate safety management into all
project planning, use of a dynamic but
simple safety program that
accommodates a wide variety of
operations, and a commitment to
continuous improvement of the safety
management systems
PO 108-8
Safety Analytics: The New Science of
Prevention
T. Hohn, PureSafety, Franklin, TN; D.
Duden, Deloitte Consulting, LLP,
Hartford, CT
Situation/Problem: Traditional use of
“lagging” indicators like claims and
injuries to assess an organization’s
culture of safety and health is limiting
and potentially misleading. Wanting
better early warning systems,
companies are turning to the insights
afforded by leading indicators and
safety analytics to identify and
understand risk sooner. This in turn
should drive more proactive, and
ultimately more successful, efforts to
minimize and prevent loss. Until
recently, however, there has not been a
large enough sample of objective data
across multiple organizations to offer
an effective, critical analysis of such
efforts. Resolution: By leveraging
proprietary company and workforce
data to pinpoint risk and exposures, our
case study example looks at the
following: supervisory profile, location
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
demographic characteristics, lifestyle
characteristics of employee base,
employee behavioral characteristics,
financial characteristics, location
characteristics, prior claim history,
injury characteristics and demographic
characteristics. Results: Increased
frequency of mandatory supervisor
training and increased acceptable
thresholds for passing the training,
refocused defensive driving program,
introduced mandatory, random
supervisor ride along program, installed
cameras to monitor driving with
penalties for safety violations,
established work teams comprised of
workers from high and low safety
management performers so the low
performers could influence the behavior
of the high performance workers, and
adopted accident free and near miss
reporting programs. Lesson Learned:
Gained insight into the root causes and
contributing factors of workplace
accidents to better answer the how,
where, when, why and who of injury
prevention and risk management
efforts (emerging safety hot spots).
Better focus on limited resources by
using statistical tools to identify and
assess high-risk areas, and directing
employee safety and health resources
across all aspects of the operation to
reduce workplace accidents.
Podium Session 109
Risk Assessment – Case
Studies
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–5:00 p.m.
Papers PO 109-1 – PO109-9
PO 109-1
Assessing the Risk to Firefighters
from Chemical Vapors and Gases
During Vehicle Fire Suppression
K. Fent, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: Vehicle fires are a
common occurrence, yet firefighters do
not always wear self-contained
breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) during
vehicle fire suppression. Although
vehicle fires are suppressed quickly, the
emissions could present acute health
hazards to firefighters. Resolution: We
conducted a health hazard evaluation
at a municipal fire department to
determine potential exposures to
firefighters during vehicle fire
suppression training. Area and personal
breathing zone (PBZ) concentration data
were used to develop a simple model for
predicting PBZ concentrations for the
compounds that were not measured in
the firefighters’ breathing zones.
Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated
by dividing the predicted and measured
PBZ concentrations by the most
conservative short-term exposure limits
(STELs) or ceiling limits. Exposure risk
estimates were determined by adding
HQs for compounds grouped by the
target organ for acute health effects.
Results: According to this mixture
analysis, the estimated 95th percentile
of the exposure distribution for the
study population represents >9.2 times
the acceptable level of risk to the
respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore,
chemicals known or reasonably
anticipated to be human carcinogens
contributed to >45% of these risk levels.
While STELs are not usually based on
carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures
below STELs may protect individuals
from the biological stress that could
result from short-term exposures to
carcinogens over time. Lessons Learned:
This assessment suggests that
firefighters have the potential to be
overexposed to acute toxins during
vehicle fire suppression and should
therefore wear SCBAs at all times during
vehicle fire response
PO 109-2
Hydrogen Fluoride and Carbon
Monoxide Related Aggregate
Exposure Reconstruction
J. Persky, F. Boelter, ENVIRON, Chicago,
IL.
Situation/problem: Evaluate the
significance of occupational verses nonoccupational exposure to fluorides in
relation to a claim of injury. Resolution:
A timeline of tasks and activities was
developed to correlate with urine
samples. The data and model were
compared with ACGIH BEI values of 3
mgF/gCr pre-shift (PS) and 10mgF/gCr
end-of-shift (ES) as well as the NOAEL of
5 mgF/gCR of a 24-hr sample. Airborne
concentrations of HF and CO were
modeled based on the research reactor
being used by the individual in their
laboratory. Non-occupational and food
sources of fluoride were considered for
the aggregate reconstruction. Results:
The first urine samples were collected
seven and nine days subsequent to the
last day of occupational exposure (4.7
mgF/gCr). Urine samples were also
collected at 50 days subsequent to the
last day of occupational exposure (1.2
mgF/gCr). CO and HF are produced in the
reactor at a ratio of 110:12 (HF:CO). Half-
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
life of fluoride in urine is between four
to seven hours. Lessons learned: The
only symptom reported was a headache
after 40 to 220 minutes of reactor run
time. The odor of HF was not detected.
However, the CO concentrations to
cause a headache would have meant HF
levels would have been lethal if the sole
source of fluoride were occupational. An
aggregate reconstruction was
undertaken regarding the urine fluoride
levels. The cultural background and
practices of the individual reveals a
practice of ingesting brick tea where tea
plant fluoride concentrations typically
range from 8 to 400ppm. As much as 75%
of the fluoride is extracted during
brewing and tea consumption is
typically about two liters per day.
Resulting urinary fluoride
concentrations can be as high as 7.30
mg/liter. A systematic aggregate
exposure reconstruction ruled out
occupational HF as a source of exposure
and risk factor in the claimed injury
PO 109-3
Determinants of Lethal Carbon
Monoxide Exposure Inside a
Recreational Vehicle
S. Gaffney, D. Paustenbach, ChemRisk,
LLC, San Francisco, CA; J. Sahmel,
ChemRisk, LLC, Boulder, CO; J. Knutsen,
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO
Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO) is
a known chemical asphyxiant, linked to
over 2,000 deaths per year. Although
many control and alarm measures have
been installed to prevent CO exposure
in recreational vehicles (RVs), a recent
accident in such a vehicle lead to two
deaths associated with CO exposure,
prompting an evaluation of RV safety.
Methods: Twelve simulation tests were
performed in the same RV where the
deaths occurred to recreate several
possible exposure scenarios. Study
variables included the condition of the
generator exhaust pipe
(attached/detached), the electrical load
on the generator emitting CO (<1 to 20
amps), the position of ventilation
hatches (open/closed), the parking
location relative to a five foot high wall
that was at least three times the length
of the RV (adjacent/perpendicular), and
weather conditions (windy/calm).
Thirteen real-time CO monitors were
placed in various locations both inside
and outside the RV. Results: All five
variables were found to affect the CO
levels detected within the RV, but the
presence or absence of a generator
exhaust pipe was found to have the
21
most impact. Without the exhaust pipe,
CO levels in most areas inside the RV
increased to almost 600 ppm in just over
an hour, and reached 1,000 ppm near a
damaged area of the RV’s undercarriage.
Furthermore, this RV’s factory-installed
CO monitor had been disconnected,
which, if properly connected, would
have alerted the victims to the rising CO
levels. Conclusions: Overall, results from
the study indicated that the RV had
improperly repaired damage (caused by
a collision with another vehicle) that
likely caused the CO exposure. The study
results also underscore the importance
of maintaining a properly functioning
CO alarm in any RV
close to, but not exactly, log-normally
distributed. Conclusions: The lead
containing coatings on construction
and toy surfaces continues to be a
significant source of lead exposure and
potential future health risks in
countries such as Kazakhstan although
maximum lead concentrations in paint
appear to be lower than those in the
United States. Globalization of markets
requires development of international
standards for lead-containing coatings
and coordinated monitoring efforts.
International data may be useful for
understanding relationships between
lead coatings and BLLs in U.S. and
international child-occupied facilities
distribution, the goodness-of-fit ( 2) was
maximized when the LCP cutoff was set
at 0.1 mg/cm2 ( 2=909, p=0, μ=-0.7,
=1.11). Exposure scenarios for work
performed on paints at this limit also
demonstrated a reduction of potential
worker exposures when the LCP
criterion is set at 0.1 mg/cm2.
Conclusions: A limit can be developed
regarding LCPs at industrial sites with
the intention of reducing occupational
exposures below the OSHA PEL.
However, due to the varying
components and paint types at the
facilities, conducting comprehensive
inspections for identifying the LCPs can
be cost prohibitive
PO 109-4
Estimation of Lead-Containing
Coatings Exposure and the Potential
for Future Health Risks for Children
in Kazakhstan
PO 109-5
Development and Validation of
Lead-Containing Paint Limit for Use
During XRF Inspections of Industrial
Facilities.
PO 109-6
A Comparison of Thermal Work
Limit and WBGT Heat Stress Indices
E. Rasmuson, A. Korchevskiy, J.
Rasmuson, D. Hall, R. Strode, Chemistry
& Industrial Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge,
CO; R. Olsen, CDM, Inc., Denver, CO.
Objective: To estimate the use, extent
and concentration-distribution ranges
of lead-based paint and coatings (LBP) in
construction materials and toys in the
former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan
and to identify the potential for future
health risks associated with children’s
exposure. Methods: Comprehensive
inspection for LBP was performed in 20
day-care-centers and orphanages, and
also in homes of children with an
elevated blood lead level (BLL). Portable
XRF instruments were utilized to
measure LBP in 1,256 painted
components. Statistical models were
utilized to estimate lead-containing
paint distributions and predict health
risks. Results: Construction coatings
contained an average lead
concentration of 1.11 mg/cm2 with a
standard deviation of 1.4 mg/cm2,
including 0.8±0.79 mg/cm2 for the walls
and 1.95±2.7 mg/cm2 for the floors.
Painted toys contained an average lead
concentration of 1.10±1.33 mg/cm2 by
XRF and up to 32,000 mg/kg by chemical
analysis. Application and modification
of published mass-balance models
suggest slope factors of BLL to lead in
construction surfaces and lead in toys
of 0.78 and 1.29 ug/dL per mg/cm2
respectively. Modeling results suggest
that the surface LBP concentration data
could be described by the sum of a
random number of normal or uniform
distributions of lead in paint layers,
explains why the concentrations are
A. Duane, A. Korchevskiy, E.
Rasmuson, C. Strode, Chemistry &
Industrial Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge,
CO.
Objective: To develop a criteria for
evaluating lead-containing paints (LCP)
in different components utilizing a
portable X-ray fluorescence device at
the site of large chemical plant.
Methods: A comprehensive inspection
for the presence of lead in paints was
performed at a large chemical
manufacturing facility in Wyoming. A
portable X-ray fluorescence device was
utilized for collecting measurements for
lead concentration in various painted
components throughout the site. The
inspection procedure was performed in
general accordance with the HUD
regulations for performing a lead-based
paint inspection. The criterion used for
defining a lead-containing paint was set
at 0.1 mg/cm2, derived from the
Consumer Product Safety Commission
definition of lead-containing paints at
0.06% lead by weight. This criterion
definition was validated utilizing two
different Methods: (1) comparison of
inspection results against a log-normal
distribution at the derived limit; and (2)
mathematical calculation of likely
exposure scenarios for paints at or
above the derived limit. Results: To
establish the limit for lead-containing
paint at the facility, it was shown that
0.06% of lead by weight could be
equivalent to not less than 0.1 mg/cm2,
based on average thickness and density
measures for paint. When the
inspection results were evaluated
against an expected log-normal
22
O. Malik, M. Dave, M. Levitsky, ECOH
Management Inc., Mississauga, ON,
Canada.
An evaluation of heat stress was
conducted during summer months for
an oil and gas company in Abu Dhabi.
The situation/problem concerned the
appropriate exposure criteria for this
assessment. Two different heat stress
indices were cited by different
responsible authorities: the ACGIH TLVs
based on the Wet-Bulb Globe
Temperature (WBGT) was referenced in
the codes of practice of the firm’s parent
company, while the Thermal Work Limit
(TWL) was referenced by the Health
Authority of Abu Dhabi (HAAD). WBGT
levels ranged up to 40ºC, due to both
environmental conditions and radiant
heat from equipment. The WBGT is
viewed by some authorities as too
conservative for application in very hot
climates, and the TWL has been adopted
in some jurisdictions as a more
appropriate standard. The TWL is a
measure of the maximum sustainable
metabolic rate at which heat can be lost
to the environment under the prevailing
thermal conditions. The resolution of
the problem was to apply the TWL as
the primary criterion, but to use the
ACGIH heat stress guidelines as a
secondary source of advice. Results of
comparisons between the two indices
indicated that they can yield very
different measures of acceptability for
the same set of environmental
conditions. These differences are based
largely on different approaches to
clothing factors and wind speed in
calculating the index. Acclimatized
workers subject to heat stress in this
case study were able to cope with
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
conditions that exceed the WBGT
guidelines but are in TWL zones that
permit work to proceed under diligent
heat stress management protocols.
Lessons learned indicated that the TWL
may be a more appropriate index in very
hot climates but that the WBGT-based
TLVs can be valuable as adjunct criteria.
Lessons also concerned the appropriate
application of clothing and wind speed
factors
PO 109-7
PCB-Caulk Removal Project at JSC
Houston, TX
W. Young, W. Molenda, CSC- Applied
Technology Group, Houston, TX; P.
Stanch, NASA, Houston, TX.
Situation/Problem: In 2010, the EPA
published health concerns related to
PCB-containing caulk. As initial
renovation of buildings erected in the
60s and 70s continues, so does exposure
risks to PCB-containing caulking. In
2009, NASA JSC began a large-scale
project for exterior renovation of over
30 buildings, including caulk
removal/replacement around pre-cast
concrete panels. Due to the variety of
caulks used over many years and few
available detailed records, sampling
was used to evaluate the risks. Twenty
random caulking samples from seven
buildings had PCB concentrations
ranging from ND to 60,521 mg/kg. There
were 130 congeners of PCB used
commercially. Resolution: Two
contractors were approved for this
work. Two unique work-plans were
developed to limit potential PCB and
silica exposures, using varying methods
for partial-containment, exposure
monitoring, clean-up, and disposal. Both
remediation techniques were observed.
Both contractors used HEPA-vacuum
equipped grinders. One contractor used
dry removal methods, respiratory
protection, and evaluated PCB
vapors/silica/dust exposures and bulk
PCB in HEPA-vacuum dust bags. The
other contractor relied on wet methods,
and silica/dust monitoring to control
exposure to dusts and evaluate risks.
Results: Both contractors limited
worker risks and met project deadlines.
Dry removal air monitoring results were
very low (HEPA-vacuum bag bulk
samples <5,000 ppm PCB). Wet removal
results were also low allowing for
discontinued use of respirators.
Potential PCB exposures, calculated
from dust monitoring results, were
below the TLV and PEL. Lessons Learned:
Health risks for many chemicals,
including PCB-containing caulks, are
still unknown. There are only three
published OELs in the U.S. for PCBs even
with the 130 congeners. Conservative
practices are required to evaluate and
protect workers and reduce impacts to
the environment. In the interim,
industrial hygienists must evaluate
feasible methods to ensure protection
of worker health. At JSC, two methods
were utilized to meet these
requirements
PO 109-8
Airborne Asbestos Concentrations
Associated with Replacement of
Internal Valve Gaskets and Packing
A. Madl, D. Hollins, E. Donovan,
ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA; K. Devlin,
ChemRisk, Boulder, CO; P. Dopart, The
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,
MD; P. Scott, ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: Asbestos-containing
gaskets and packing have historically
been used in a variety of equipment
(e.g., pumps, valves) and applications.
While the use of these materials was
more prevalent 20-30 years ago, there is
still an opportunity for workers to
handle asbestos-containing gaskets and
packing during equipment repair and/or
facility renovation or demolition.
Although several published studies have
evaluated asbestos exposures to
workers handling gaskets and packing,
none have specifically focused on
internal equipment components (e.g.,
replacement of bonnet gaskets and
packing during a valve overhaul). Thus, a
study was performed to evaluate the
replacement of gaskets and packing
contained within valves. Methods:
Breathing zone samples on the lapels of
the mechanic (n=78) and assistant (n=40)
and area (n=57), background (n=24), and
ambient (n=9) samples were collected
during twelve sampling events
(involving 10 valves) and analyzed using
PCM (NIOSH 7400) and TEM (NIOSH 7402).
Ten of the twelve sampling events
involved valve overhauls, one event
involved clean-up only, and one event
involved clothes handling. During each
overhaul, samples of all packing and
gasket material removed and installed
were collected for bulk asbestos
analysis using PLM (NIOSH 9002).
Results: Applying the ratio of asbestos
fibers:total fibers as determined by TEM
to the PCM results, the average shortterm airborne chrysotile concentrations
(PCM equivalent) were 0.011 f/cc for all
worker samples and 0.008 f/cc for all
assistant samples. Considering the time
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
involved in a valve overhaul, and
assuming eight valve overhauls per day,
the average 8-hour TWA was estimated
to be 0.012 f/cc by PCME. Conclusions:
Based on the results of this study, valve
maintenance activities would not be
expected to produce TWA exposures
greater than the historical or current
PEL. Further, the low airborne asbestos
levels that were measured in this
analysis are consistent with previous
studies of gasket and packing
replacement activities
PO 109-9
Antineoplastic Drug Contamination
Levels Throughout the Medication
Circuit in British Columbian
Hospitals
C. Hon, G. Astrakianakis, W. Chu, K.
Teschke, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC, Canada; P. Chua, Fraser
Health, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
Objective: To examine the
antineoplastic drug contamination
levels on surfaces/objects that are
frequently contacted throughout the
medication circuit in several hospitals
in British Columbia, Canada. This will
broaden the understanding of sources
of potential occupational dermal
exposure to these agents. Methods: The
medication circuit at each site was
repeatedly observed and the staff
involved were noted, as were the
surfaces contacted. The most frequently
contacted surfaces were selected for
inclusion. Drug contamination levels
were measured by collecting wipe
samples using a pre-moistened
Kimwipe®. Where the object was flat, a
plastic 100 cm2 template was used to
delineate the wipe surface. For non-flat
objects, the entire surface was wiped,
its dimensions were measured and the
surface area was calculated. Samples
were analyzed for a marker drug,
cyclophosphamide, using highperformance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Results:
Five hospitals participated in the study
with a total of 170 surfaces sampled
(e.g., countertops, IV pumps, etc.).
Overall, 42 (25%) of the surfaces had
detectable levels of cyclophosphamide
contamination with each individual
site’s results as follows: Site A - 38% of
surfaces contaminated, Site B - 50%, Site
C - 25%, Site D - 12% and Site F - 16%.
Mean contamination levels of those
with detectable drugs was 50.05
ng/wipe (SD: 191.3; Range: 1.82 - 1,221.93
ng/wipe). There was little commonality
in the results between sites even when
23
similar surfaces were sampled.
Detectable levels of cyclophosphamide
were found on some surfaces even
though the drugs were not
mixed/prepared within the area.
Conclusions: Antineoplastic drug
contamination of surfaces is common in
British Columbian hospitals and not
isolated to the pharmacy department
where the drugs are prepared for
eventual patient administration. Nonpharmacy workers may not have the
appropriate level of training and/or
protection required to avoid exposure.
Changes in practice are recommended
to reduce antineoplastic drug
contamination levels.
Podium Session 110
Management and Training Issues: Communication
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–5:00 p.m.
Papers PO 110-1 – PO110-9
PO 110-1
The Impact of HAZWOPER Training
on Workplace Knowledge, Skills and
Behavior
B. Alexander, C. Rice, University of
Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: The HAZWOPER standard
requires initial and refresher training
for those who work with hazardous
waste and for emergency responders. In
the U.S., over one billion dollars
annually is spent on training. It is
desired to gauge the impact of
HAZWOPER training on changes in the
workplace. Methods: The participants
received training through the Midwest
Consortium for Hazardous Waste
Worker Training. Previous data from
participants served by these centers
showed a high level of satisfaction with
training and high numbers of trainees
reporting making changes in the work
place. In this investigation, participants
in refresher training were asked to
report changes they made in their own
behavior to work more safely, how they
had helped their coworkers to work
more safely, changes that participants
wanted to make but did not, and the
barriers to these attempts. Data were
computerized and responses grouped
into categories. Categories included
actions, awareness, attitudes,
24
equipment, improvements, knowledge,
planning, and promotion. Consistency in
the grouping was evaluated using the
Kappa Statistic to compare assignments
by two independent raters. Results:
Data for 235 site workers and 484
emergency responders are reported,
showing statistically significant
changes in knowledge, skills and
behavior. Answers from site workers
were over 10% more likely to reflect
changes in work actions, while
emergency responders were over 10%
more likely to report changes in
attitude, awareness and pace of work.
Few participants reported changes that
they wanted to make but did not. Those
who did report them largely cited a lack
of material support or moral support, or
poor attitudes, as reasons that changes
were not made. Conclusions: Trainees
made safety improvements in the
workplace. Study results may be useful
in tailoring refresher training to
encourage increased safety behaviors
and other workplace improvements,
and in giving participants effective tools
to overcome barriers
PO 110-2
Pimex: A Successful Tool for Risk
Communication in the Netherlands
(New Developments)
A. Winkes, P. Beurskens, J. Willems, K.
Verbist, Arbo Unie Expert Center for
Chemical Risk Management, Nijmegen,
Netherlands.
Situation/problem: In the
Netherlands, risk communication in
SMEs needs to be improved. More
awareness of the risks in the working
environment and knowledge of safe
methods are needed. Usually there is a
lack of materials, manpower and
financial resources. Video Exposure
Monitoring (VEM) was already used for
visualization and risk communication in
Stoffenmanager (a web based control
banding tool for chemical risk
management). PIMEX, an acronym for
PIcture Mix EXposure, implies the
method is based on mixing video images
with data on a worker’s exposure to
chemical agents. Resolution: To improve
this situation, the Ministry of Social
Affairs and Employment has supported
the further development of PIMEX
videos as a means for risk
communication. The main idea is to
make invisible hazards in the work
environment visible and in this manner
facilitate the reduction of hazards in
workplaces. New methods are realised
to use PIMEX for other than chemical
hazards in the working environment.
Results: There are now over 100
professional PIMEX videos available for
different industries/branches
visualizing the exposure to nano
particles, physical load, noise vibration
climate and chemical compounds. The
PIMEX videos show the effect of a
control measure, by comparing the
exposure of situations with and without
the specific measure. Most of them are
freely available. Some examples will be
given. Lessons learned: PIMEX has been
used widely to train workers to use PPE
and control measurements in the right
way, enlarge the knowledge of risks and
to motivate workers/management to
use safe working procedures, analyze
workplaces (hazard identification), and
visualize good practices. PIMEX is
evaluated as a strong tool for risk
communication. The effects of PIMEX
interventions still have to be validated.
Therefore, a study to evaluate improved
motivation for work environment
improvements needs to be done
PO 110-3
GHS SDSs: It’s More Than Just
Dropping the “M”
J. Dipper, J. Chappel, CCOHS, Hamilton,
ON, Canada.
As part of the implementation of the
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
(GHS), the familiar MSDSs will become
SDSs (Safety Data Sheet). Transitioning
to the new format will involve more
than simply dropping the “M”. This
presentation will identify the
challenges of converting an ANSI Z400.12004 MSDS to a GHS SDS by highlighting
what information is in, what’s out,
what’s new, what’s moving, what is
being renamed and what is staying the
same. Situation/problem:
Implementation of the Globally
Harmonized System of Classification
and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) means
that many suppliers will be
transitioning from the ANSI A400.1-2004
MSDS format to the recommended GHS
SDS format. The transition will not be as
simple as dropping the “M,“ and there
are some new and modified data fields
which require specific attention and
expertise. Resolution: CCOHS evaluated
how ANSI MSDS content can be
transitioned into an SDS format. The
analysis looked at GHS data sheet
information requirements and asked
the questions: what’s in, what’s out,
what’s new, what’s moving, what is
being renamed and what is staying the
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
same? Results: This presentation will
highlight some key tips about how to
manage the transition from MSDS to
SDS by presenting the CCOHS
evaluation of how MSDS data will move
in an SDS.
Lessons learned: GHS is coming, and,
as a result, MSDSs will be changing. This
presentation will help you be better
prepared for converting to the new SDS
format. These tips will help both (M)SDS
authors and (M)SDS users be better
informed about the changes that are
coming
PO 110-4
Developing a Culture with a
Foundation of Recognition
T. Efird, Caterpillar, Portland, OR.
Situation/problem: There is an
ongoing debate about pay for
performance in safety. This 2010 case
study addresses the concerns of little or
no recognition for safety performance.
Resolution: The result of an
organization’s Continuous Improvement
(CI) team’s efforts is a “no-cost highly
effective recognition process” that
definitely improves their safety culture
performance. Results: The organization
performed a quantitative safety
perception survey that showed
recognition to be low at all levels of the
company; did field interviews to get
qualitative data as to what their
employees felt was the most effective
type of recognition; and formed a
continuous improvement team with
members from all levels of their
organization. The team focused on
delivering a recognition system that
met their unique needs and culture. This
included a training program that taught
the principles of effective employee
recognition and how to consistently,
frequently and meaningfully do this
important “zero cost” safety
improvement act. Once their plan was in
place they did a pilot test to get realtime feedback of the proposed
recognition solution. The pilot included
an audit of performance effectiveness
and an evaluation of the leading metrics
and accountabilities they had expected
to be important indicators of their
desired recognition culture. Lessons
learned: The problems with various
kinds of recognition; the use of safety
perception surveys and one-on-one
interviews as viable safety culture
diagnostics; the fundamental
requirements and training of an
effective safety recognition process. The
recognition solution decided upon: the
audit results, the leading metrics and
accountabilities of a viable safety
recognition process, and the cost of an
effective safety recognition process
PO 110-5
Progress in the Development of a
Canadian Workplace Exposure
Database
A. Hall, H. Davies, P. Demers, C. Peters,
A. Nicol, CAREX Canada, Vancouver, BC,
Canada.
Objective: The Canadian Workplace
Exposure Database (CWED) is being
developed to house Canadian
workplace exposure measurement data.
Data will be used to support research on
exposure, epidemiology and policy
development, by characterizing
exposure levels and trends by province,
occupation and industry. We will
describe work performed to identify
data sources and summarize findings.
Methods: Workplace exposure
measurement data held by five
Canadian public agencies was initially
obtained for a related study, CAREX
Canada. We then surveyed other
national, provincial and territorial
workplace regulatory agencies
regarding their data holdings, including
current/historical collection practices,
volume, storage format, and retention
policies. Results: Almost all Canadian
regulatory agencies surveyed (N=11)
held exposure data; total number of
measurements > 1 million. The amount
of data held was limited by short
retention windows and changes in
workplace sampling policies. Only three
agencies collected significant amounts
of workplace exposure data at survey
time; most others collected a range of 0300 measurements annually. The
majority of data was stored in hard copy
or individual files however, making
abstraction difficult. Conclusions:
Accessibility of workplace exposure
data across regulatory bodies in Canada
varies widely, due to significant
decreases in sampling since the 1990s,
variation in data formats, and retention
policies. We noted downward trends in
the availability of historical and
prospective workplace exposure data in
Canada, which will negatively impact
effective exposure surveillance.
However, information from this study
has led to new funding to retrieve and
save additional workplace exposure
data. Three of the surveyed agencies
have partnered with us to transfer their
workplace inspection report data
(approximately 70,000 measurements
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
total) into searchable electronic
databases—a process requiring
extensive time and hygiene knowledge.
As the CWED project gains momentum,
we hope to communicate the practical
value of this data to various
stakeholders, to encourage increased
collection and improve accessibility
PO 110-6
Eliminating Preventable Vehicle
Incidents Through a Process of
Employee Involvement
T. Efird, Caterpillar, Portland, OR.
Situation/problem: Our organizations
have an ever increasing number of
vehicles that are piloted by an ever
growing number of our employees who
are competing for an ever decreasing
amount of road space. In the meantime,
the number of distractions (texting,
computers, dashboard buttons,
workday stressors to get the job done,
etc.) is increasing. Resolution: This
presentation will show how a large
Canadian utility addressed and resolved
the challenges of Preventable Vehicle
Incidents (PVI). It is more than drivers’
training, on-board cameras, computer
assists and the like. Sure there are many
stand alone tools out there like driver
training, circle checks, and UPS learning.
But how does your organization develop
a system and a process that is a fit for
who you really are? How do you
transform what is often thought as a
low-risk routine task into a part of the
day that is planned for and risk
assessed? Results: The CI team solution
decreased PVIs 25% in 9 months from a
2009 rate of 2.5 per million KM driven to
1.9 per million KM in 2010. Lessons
learned: How to use continuous
improvement teams to error proof your
challenging safety issues and build
employee driven excitement; what
foundational material is needed for
effectively preventing vehicle incidents;
what innovative material was
developed and used; what metrics make
sense; what are the roles of both labor
and management in preventing our
employees and their families from being
involved in vehicular incidents
PO 110-7
Using ANSI Z10 as a Program
Assessment Tool
A. Sheaffer, J. Yasalonis, LMI, Belcamp,
MD.
Situation/Problem: A government
organization’s OSH program evaluation
results are good, but OSH performance
is stagnant. Management is wondering
25
what else can be done to improve OSH
performance. Resolution: We worked
with several Federal clients whose
programs easily met the regulatory
criteria established in 29 CFR 1960 (Basic
Program Elements for Federal Employee
Occupational Safety) and Executive
Order 12196 (Occupational Safety and
Health Programs for Federal
Employees), yet their OSH performance
was stagnant. To find new areas for
improvement, we used ANSI Z10
program criteria to review their OSH
policy documents that defined required
program elements and organizational
responsibilities. Results: Organizations
that were intimidated by the prospect
of implementing an entirely new “safety
management system” were quite willing
to use the ANSI Z10 standard as a
program evaluation tool to identify
potential areas for improvement. We
found that many of the program
elements identified in the Z10 standard
had already been established in the OSH
programs we evaluated, but program
elements focused on continual
improvement were not strongly
addressed in the existing programs. We
found that continual improvement
activities were being practiced
informally in some parts of the
organizations we evaluated, but
requirements for continual
improvement activities had not yet
been integrated in agency OSH policy.
Lessons Learned: Using a different set of
evaluation criteria can identify program
gaps that were not recognized under
the established program models.
Existing safety programs often have
many SMS elements in place, and can
use ANSI Z10 to identify weak or nonexistent program elements. In order to
consistently identify and leverage
lessons learned, OSH program policy
must institutionalize continual
improvement practices
PO 110-8
Using EHS Business Value Tools for
Strategic Program
Planning/Development
D. Downs, EHS Management Partners,
LLC, Shorewood, MN.
Situation/problem: EHS managers are
beginning to better understand the
need for communicating in business
terms and for demonstrating the value
of their activities and programs to the
achievement of the organization’s
business objectives. The tools
developed have focused on how to
demonstrate the business value of EHS
26
initiatives, such as projects to reduce
the risks of employee exposure to
stresses in their environment. But how
can these approaches and tools be used
to plan the EHS organization’s overall
goals, objectives and structure?
Resolution: We present the results of a
strategic planning effort for a major
multi-national manufacturing
enterprise, using a variation of the tools
and approaches developed for EHS
business value assessment. The
approach was grounded in
understanding the organization’s
business objectives, determining the
key EHS risks, and prioritizing those
risks based on their relationship to the
business values. Based on this
assessment, an evaluation of current
resource allocation to the identified
risks was conducted, identifying
potential gaps and over-allocations of
resources. Results: This information
allowed the development of ten
strategic actions designed to re-align
the resources appropriately to better
focus on addressing the key risks. For
example, it was determined that energy
management was the top-rated risk
area for the organization, but there was
little if any current EHS management
focus on the issue. Lessons learned: The
tools used for demonstrating EHS
business value can be effectively used
for strategic planning as well as
justifying key EHS project initiatives
PO 110-9
Utilizing OHSAS 18001 Model for
Occupational Hazards Reduction at
Mining and Metallurgy Facilities in
Central Asia
A. Korchevskiy, E. Rasmuson, J.
Rasmuson, Chemistry & Industrial
Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO.
Situation/problem: At one of the
largest mining and metallurgy facilities
in Central Asia (a few thousand
employees), corporate culture was
heavily influenced by the Soviet
experience. Safety professionals had
difficulties addressing complicated
problems and improving the corporate
safety culture. Fatalities and injuries
were common in the mines, resulting
from mechanical equipment, such as
conveyors, and in the metal production
facilities, including burns from furnaces
and electrocutions. Resolution: OHSAS
18001:1999-2007 was utilized to enhance
occupational health and safety
performance at the facilities. The
Occupational Health and Safety Manual
for the company was prepared in
collaboration with top management,
and a package of internal standards and
procedures was issued. Comprehensive
training was organized for about 400
mid-level facility managers. Managers of
all levels were trained how to involve
small groups of employees in hazard
identification and risk assessment for
their assigned tasks. After the system
was implemented, responsibilities for
controlling the identified safety and
health hazards were reassigned from
the safety department to managers at
different levels. Results:
Implementation of OHSAS 18001 showed
significant benefits. During the first
year, decreasing concentration trends in
air quality were observed. The rate of
serious injuries was significantly (by 6065%) reduced. During the period of time
when consulting services were
provided, no fatalities occurred.
Prioritization of safety and health focus
was increased dramatically. Lessons
learned: OHSAS 18001:1999-2007 is one of
the most effective management
programs to handle injury and illness
prevention issues. Following
implementation of the standard, a
company continues to be performance
oriented by developing its own policy,
setting and correcting the goals and the
program, and providing effective selfmonitoring through internal audits. At
the same time, psycho-social factors
have to be addressed during the
system’s implementation, preventing it
from becoming a documentation
routine.
Podium Session 111
Field Detection, Sampling and Analysis: RealTime Detection Systems
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 111-1 – PO111-6
PO 111-1
Fast GC Analysis with PID & FUV
Detectors for Industrial Hygiene
Monitoring at Low ppb Levels
J. Driscoll, D. Walsh, PID Analyzers,
LLC, Pembroke, MA; P. Smith, Uniform
Services University, Bethesda, MD.
Objective: Fast analysis of gases and
solvents—industrial hygienists are
typically pushed to provide rapid
solutions involving a variety of complex
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
mixtures that threaten workers’ health.
Methods: Portable gas chromatography
with a photoionization detector (PID),
one of the most sensitive detectors for
organic compounds, and a Far UV
detector (nearly universal detector with
ppb detection capability). The detection
limits for benzene with these two
detectors on a conventional capillary
column (0. 32 mm id X 15M wax with an
0.5 μ film) were 0.5 ppb for the PID and
30 ppb for the FUV. Results: Our
approach involves using a 25m x 0.32
mm packed with Hayesep P (for analysis
of solvents) that is restively heated and
can be programmed at a high rate. It can
also be cooled faster since it has a very
small thermal mass. A sample of 50 ppb
of benzene was run on the PID & FUV.
Note that the peak heights (counts)
were improved by 5-9 times for these
two detectors as indicated in Table I.
The analysis times were similar because
of the stronger retention of benzene on
the porous polymer column. The
advantage here is that the porous
polymer column can be used for gases
or solvents whereas the capillary
column is designed only for solvents.
Conclusions: The precision (coefficient
of variation) at 50 ppb was +/- 5% for the
PID and +/- 15% for the FUV. No
significant difference in precision was
observed between the two types of
columns. The main advantage was that
the fast GC (with porous polymer
column) could analyze a much wider
range of compounds than the capillary
column.
PO 111-2
Improved Exposure Assessment
with Person-Portable Gas
Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry
P. Smith, OSHA, Salt Lake City, UT.
Objective: To investigate a potential
role in improving basic exposure
assessment characterization
capabilities with the use of a personportable gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry system to identify a wide
range of unexpected chemical
components in near real time. Methods:
A 13 kg person-portable gas
chromatograph with a small toroidal ion
trap mass spectrometric detector was
used to analyze solvent standards,
contact cement, paint thinner, and
polychlorinated biphenyl samples.
Passive solid phase microextraction
sampling, and fast chromatography
using a resistively heated low thermal
mass analytical column were used.
Qualitative results for the commercial
products were compared to the
corresponding material safety data
sheets. Results: Combined sampling and
analysis times were <2 min for solvent,
contact cement, and paint thinner
samples, and <13 min for the
polychlorinated biphenyl sample. Mass
spectra produced by the small toroidal
ion trap detector used were similar to
those produced with conventional
transmission quadrupole mass
spectrometers for polychlorinated
biphenyl compounds, simple alkanes,
and cycloalknes, while mass spectra for
benzene and the ketone compounds
analyzed showed evidence for
ion/molecule reactions in the ion trap.
For one of the contact cement samples
analyzed, no evidence was found to
indicate the presence of n-hexane,
although the relevant material safety
data sheet listed this ingredient.
Conclusions: The results show that
routine qualitative screening could
strengthen the exposure assessment
process by identifying the unexpected
presence or absence of individual
chemical components in mixtures to
which workers are exposed. Personportable gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry may find a role in
improving the quality of exposure
assessments based on the high
portability of the system and the fast
analysis times which were shown to be
possible. Further work is needed to
ensure that non-standard mass spectra
produced by the toriodal ion trap
detector may be used to identify a wide
range of unexpected analytes
PO 111-3
Evaluation of a Direct-Sampling
Instrument for Detecting Benzene
in a Mixed-Hydrocarbon
Environment
M. Plisko, J. Spencer, Environmental
Profiles, Inc., Columbia, MD.
Objective: Many of the direct-reading
gas detection instruments in use today
are calibrated to standards other than
benzene and rely on correction factors
for reporting benzene air
concentrations. The objective of the
work presented herein was to evaluate
the efficacy of a portable directsampling mass spectrometer for
measuring benzene concentrations in a
mixed-hydrocarbon environment.
Methods: The method of evaluation
employed the direct-sampling mass
spectrometer in conjunction with
Summa canisters to measure the
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
airborne mass concentration of benzene
evaporating from a solution of mixed
organic solvents. The solution was
evaporated from a glass plate under
controlled environmental conditions in
an isolated glove box and air duct
system. Air samples of the solvent vapor
were obtained through sampling ports
located more than 7.5 duct diameters
downstream from the glove box. The
direct-sampling mass spectrometer
incorporated a cylindrical ion trap mass
analyzer (CIT) for separating ions
according to their mass-to-charge ratios.
Twenty-five one-liter Summa canister
samples were collected serially during
the 19-minute evaporation period and
were analyzed via EPA Method TO-15.
Results: Comparison of the results
between instrument recordings and
Summa canister analysis revealed a
correlation coefficient and covariance
0.95 and 20, respectively, indicating
strong association between the data.
The actual measured data showed that,
although there was strong correlation,
the values of the instrument recordings
were consistently less than the Summa
canister data by approximately 50%. It
was subsequently determined that
approximately one half of the
evaporated benzene was being
quantified at the CIT detector.
Additional evaporation trials involving
pure benzene and the individual organic
solvents indicated the ionization of
cyclohexane, present in the organic
solvent mixture, resulted in signal
suppression at the CIT detector.
Conclusions: The authors conclude that
while the data exhibited strong
correlation, further investigation is
proposed in order to fully characterize
the magnitude of observed signal
suppression
PO 111-4
Laboratory Comparison of PhotoIonization Detector (PID) and
Sorbent Tube Sampling for
Measuring m-Xylene and n-Hexane
W. Groves, B. Marpoe, Penn State,
University Park, PA; E. Lee, M. Harper, J.
Slaven, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV.
Objective: A study was conducted to
examine whether there are significant
differences between organic vapor
concentrations measured using
activated carbon sorbent tubes with
three different sample tube
configurations (no sample holder, SKCand Buck-brand sample holders), and a
photo-ionization detector (PID).
Methods: A two-level fractional factorial
27
experimental design was used with the
following factors: vapor (low-, high-b.p.),
pump type (pulsating, continuous),
exposure profile (variable, constant),
flow rate (30-mL/min, 200-mL/min),
duration (30-min, 80-min), and sample
placement (mannequin, free-hanging).
Two of each sample holder
configuration (six total) were placed in
an exposure chamber with a calibrated
(100 ppm isobutylene) PID, and a
dynamic test-atmosphere generation
system was used to prepare
atmospheres containing approximately
12-16 ppm n-hexane (b.p.=69ºC) or mxylene (b.p.=139ºC) with exposure
profiles and sampling conducted
according to the experimental design.
Temperature (70-75ºF) and humidity (1535%RH) were recorded for all runs. A
total of 24 runs were completed with six
sorbent tube samples collected per run,
yielding 144 samples which were
analyzed by GC/FID. PID data logged at
one-second intervals were used to
examine exposure profiles and estimate
average vapor concentration for each
run (n=24). Results: Results of a one-way
ANOVA (Minitab 14) showed no
significant difference (p=0.134) between
mean sorbent tube (13.5 ppm) and PID
(14.3 ppm) concentrations. The ratio of
PID and sorbent-tube results was then
examined in order to control for the
effect of daily variation in testatmosphere concentrations. The results
of a one-sample t-test (Ho: ratio=1)
indicated a significant difference
(p=0.036) between PID and sorbent tube
results (95%CI=1.005-1.138); however the
magnitude of the difference was
relatively small (<10%) and not likely to
be of practical importance. Conclusions:
Although representing only a limited
range of conditions, results
demonstrate good agreement between
PID and reference methods and provide
support for the use of calibrated direct
reading instruments for exposure
assessment
PO 111-5
Effect of Environmental Condition
on Performance of Two DirectReading Organic Vapor Monitors
R. Lebouf, C. Coffey, T. Pearce, NIOSH,
Morgantown, WV.
Objective: This study investigated the
performance of direct-reading organic
vapor monitors (DROVMs) under a
variety of environmental conditions.
Methods: The study evaluated three
single beam infrared
spectrophotometers, photoionization
28
(PIDs) detectors, and flame ionization
detector (FIDs). The performance of the
DVROMs was compared to an active
sampling method using coconut
charcoal sorbent tubes (NIOSH Method
1500). The instruments were calibrated
per the manufacturer’s instructions. The
environmental conditions consisted of
four concentrations of cyclohexane (30,
150, 300, and 475 ppm). Inter- and intramonitor type agreement at the various
cyclohexane concentrations was
determined by an analysis of variance
and Tukey’s method on the monitor
results. Results: The results of this
analysis were: (1) the inter-monitor
agreement among all monitors
increased as the concentration
increased; (2) for intra-monitor
agreement, two infrared spectrophotometers agreed with each other
but not with the third except at 150 ppm
where none of the monitors agreed; the
three PIDs were the same at 0 and 150
ppm, all three were different at 30 ppm,
and at 300 and 475 ppm, two of the
monitors agreed; and one FID was
different from the other two at all
concentrations except 150 ppm where
all three were different. Overall,
monitor performance was measured by
a ratio of the monitor result to tube
measurement times 100 percent. The
mean ratios and standard deviations are
as follows: infrared spectrophotometer111±36; FID - 107±20; and PID - 96±49.
Tube measurements were compared to
target concentrations. The mean ratio
and standard deviation were 90±14.
Conclusions: The results indicate
DROVMs may vary in the readings
provided and care should be exercised
when using them to determine
compliance with occupational exposure
limits. DROVMs do have utility as survey
meters to identify exposure sources or
concentration profiles
Standard sampling and analysis of Cr(VI)
usually takes days or weeks before
results are received from the laboratory.
This creates a lag time between sample
collection and analytical sample data
being available for evaluation of
implemented controls and potential
worker exposure to Cr(VI). Methods:
Stainless steel welding fume was
sampled during ten sampling events
with three filter-cassettes used per
event while simultaneously monitoring
the fume with the three real-time
aerosol monitoring instruments. A total
of 36 filter-cassette samples were
collected and analyzed following the
standard NIOSH 7600 sampling and
analytical method. That is, a 37 mm
polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and
an air flow rate of 1 to 2 liters per
minute. A correlation of the welding
fume analytical data from the filtercassettes and the monitoring data from
the real-time aerosol instruments was
statistically compared using simple
linear regression statistics. Results: The
coefficient of determination value (R2)
from the linear regression of filtercassette data and aerosol instrument
data was 0.87 with a p-value of 0.0001 for
the Grimm, 0.88 with a p-value of 0.0001
for the DustTrak, and 0.92 with a p-value
of less than 0.001 for the Haz-Dust.
Conclusion: Study results show that the
Grimm, DustTrak, and Haz-Dust
monitoring data is highly correlated
with Cr(VI) sampling and analytical
filter-cassette data during stainless
steel welding operations. These results
indicate that these three real-time
aerosol monitoring instruments can be
used to accurately measure airborne
Cr(VI) concentrations during welding
activities, can be used to evaluate
effectiveness of controls, and evaluate
potential for worker exposure during
stainless steel welding operations.
PO 111-6
Indirect Monitoring of Hexavalent
Chromium Concentrations During
Stainless Steel Welding Operations
Using a Grimm 1.109, a TSI 8520
DustTrak, and a Haz-Dust EPAM 5000
L. Pahler, R. Larson, The University of
Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
Objective: The primary objective of
this study was to determine if the
Grimm 1.109, the TSI 8520 DustTrak, and
the Haz-Dust EPAM 5000 real-time
aerosol monitoring instruments can be
used to estimate the concentration of
hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) during
stainless steel welding operations.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 112
Health Care Industries I:
Exposure Assessment
and Control
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 112-1 – PO112-6
PO 112-1
Evaluation and Control of Dust from
Lead Shielding in a Healthcare
Facility
J. Nesbitt, D. Krageschmidt, G.
Sturchio, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Situation/problem: Lead shielding is
used prolifically in healthcare facilities.
Numerous applications of lead shielding
occur in research, nuclear medicine,
radiology, radiation oncology and
various other departments in a large
healthcare facility. This presentation
will focus on a few specific examples of
evaluating and controlling
contamination resulting from use and
processing of uncoated lead shielding in
a large healthcare facility in the
Midwest. Resolution: Although elevated
airborne lead exposures were not
identified, persistent surface
contamination was identified in various
locations through the use of surface
wipe sampling. Specific examples of
problem areas, controls, and sampling
methods will be presented. Results:
Surface contamination of >1,000 μg/ft2
was identified in several locations
associated with lead use and/or
processing. Contamination from lead
shielding has been reported in the
literature and controls proposed. The
presenters of this session evaluated
various lead use areas in a healthcare
facility and worked with applicable
groups to implement controls. Lessons
learned: When utilizing elemental lead
as an engineering control (shielding) to
reduce radiation exposure from
radioactive materials and ionizing
radiation, occupants sometimes forget
or ignore the potential chemical
hazards associated with lead exposure
PO 112-2
Evaluation of Staff X-Ray Exposure
and Protection Requirements in
Operating Rooms
R. Ciconte, Fraser Health, Burnaby, BC,
Canada; A. Yu, Fraser Health, New
Westminster, BC, Canada.
Use of x-rays, especially fluoroscopy,
in medical procedures continues to
increase in hospitals. Nurses who were
not originally trained to work with
radiation are now assisting in these
procedures with potential exposures
occurring on a regular basis. Objective:
To determine x-radiation exposure
levels to Operating Room (OR) Nurses
and medical staff participating in
fluoroscopy procedures in order to (a)
ensure appropriate personal protective
equipment is in use and (b) determine
ongoing exposure monitoring
requirements. Methods: Over a 2-year
period, approximately 500 OR nurses at
11 hospitals, including a regional centre,
wore chest and collar personal
dosimeters (PDs) throughout each shift.
PDs were analyzed quarterly. Chest PDs
measured exposure to protected areas
(i.e. body organs) while collar PDs
measured exposure to unprotected
areas (i.e. head and eyes). Additional
direct-reading dosimeters measured
worker dose during specified
fluoroscopy procedures. Front and back
exposures were measured for scrub
nurses while only front exposure was
measured for surgeons and x-ray
technologists. Descriptive statistical
analyses, including average exposure
levels per medical procedure type and
by occupation, were determined.
Results: Average annual radiation
exposure to OR nurses did not exceed
1mSv, the annual whole body action
level. No fluoroscopy procedures
performed in the OR exposed scrub
nurses or x-ray technologists to greater
than 5% of the annual dose limit for the
lens of the eye. Conversely, surgeon
exposures during Endovascular Arterial
Repairs (EVAR) could exceed this value.
Conclusions: Scrub nurses should wear
wrap-around x-ray attenuating
protective clothing with at least 0.5mm
lead or equivalent protection on the
front and 0.25mm on the back. Eye
protection should be available but not
required for assisting nurses and x-ray
technologists. Surgeons involved in
EVAR must wear eye protection. All OR
exposures were well below annual xradiation exposure limits, negating the
need for ongoing continuous exposure
monitoring for these staff
PO 112-3
Evaluating Exposures to Waste
Anesthetic Gases During Head and
Neck Surgeries
L. Swenson, Veritox, Portland, OR; M.
Krause, Veritox, Redmond, WA.
Situation/Problem: Hospital surgery
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
staff are potentially exposed to
anesthetic gases used during surgical
procedures. The type of surgery, patient,
and anesthetist determine what
anesthesia is used and how it is
delivered. Our goal was to understand
how these factors may influence
exposures to waste anesthetic gases
(WAG) and how exposures vary based on
surgery staff roles. Resolution: We
conducted personal air sampling for
WAGs for surgical personnel during
head and neck surgeries where the
surgical field is close to the
administration and expiration of
anesthetic gases and may represent a
higher likelihood of exposure.
Anesthetics used were Sevoflurane and
nitrous oxide. Samples were collected
using ChemDisk personal monitoring
badges for halogenated anesthetic
gases (Assay Technology #574) or nitrous
oxide (Assay Technology #575). Results:
There are no OR-OSHA permissible
exposure limits for these gases. The
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) has a
recommended exposure level (REL) for
waste anesthetic nitrous oxide of 25
ppm as a time weighted average (TWA)
over the time exposed. The 2010
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold
limit value (TLV) is an 8-hr TWA of 50
ppm. The anesthesiologist’s exposure
exceeded the 25 ppm REL but was below
the ACGIH TLV-TWA of 50 ppm. There are
no specific Sevoflurane limits but NIOSH
has a REL of 2 ppm for halogenated
anesthetic gases like Sevoflurane.
Several personnel monitored had
exposures greater than 2 ppm for
Sevoflurane. Lessons learned: Surgeries
that involve the head and neck where
the surgical field is close to the
administration and expiration of
anesthetic gases may represent a higher
likelihood of exposure to waste
anesthetic gases. Our sampling results
suggest that individuals working in
close proximity to the patient such as
the anesthesiologist, scrub nurse, and
surgeon had the highest exposures
PO 112-4
Helicopter Exhaust Entrainment in a
Hospital Laboratory: Assessment of
Adverse Air Quality Outcomes after
the Application of Controls
P. Chua, Fraser Health, Burnaby, BC,
Canada.
Situation/Problem: To assess control
methods in preventing entrainment of
helicopter exhaust into the hospital
29
during landing and take-off at the
adjacent landing pad. Resolution: Two
control methods were tested: (1)
installation of charcoal filters on the
intake of the air handling units, and (2)
temporary shutdown to the general air
handling unit for a 30-minute period. Air
quality monitoring was conducted in
fixed areas of the laboratory for a twoweek period. Similar monitoring was
conducted in the summer and winter
months in selected areas during
temporary shutdown of the associated
air handling unit. Basic air quality
parameters, CO, CO2, relative humidity
(RH), temperature, and total volatile
organic compounds (TVOC) were
datalogged. Results: To monitor the
effectiveness of the charcoal filter
installation, three laboratory locations
were chosen. Overall, parameters of CO,
CO2, RH, and temperature were within
established guidelines. Elevated TVOC
levels coincided with staff health
effects and helicopter arrival/departure,
with indoor levels reaching 493 ppb. To
examine conditions during temporary
shutdown of the air handling unit, these
three locations as well as spot
measurements through the laboratory
were monitored. Despite a slight
temperature elevation, qualitative and
quantitative measurements of basic air
quality parameters remained within
acceptable limits. Minimal variation was
recorded between winter and summer
months. Local exhaust ventilation was
unaffected. Lessons Learned: Charcoal
filters were ineffective in preventing
entrainment of helicopter exhaust into
the building. A 30-minute shutdown of
the associated air handling unit in the
laboratory does not appear to have a
significant adverse effect. A
communication system must be
established between the helicopter
operator, facility management, and
laboratory staff to ensure (i) the air
intake is halted with adequate time for
dissipation of helicopter exhaust; and
(ii) laboratory staff do not initiate
chemical processes that may increase
chemical vapour concentrations within
the open laboratory areas
PO 112-5
Hazardous Specimens in Medical
Archive Collections
D. Krageschmidt, J. Nesbitt, K. Van
Hoven, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Situation/problem: Medical museum
staff frequently encounter hazardous
chemicals and equipment. Many
substances once used for medical and
30
pharmacological treatments are now
recognized as toxic and dangerous
when handled or inhaled. Museum
specimens such as archived antiseptics
containing picric acid, bone saws
contaminated with dried blood,
sphygmomanometers leaking mercury,
equipment dials with radioactive
luminous paint, and documents
contaminated with mold have been
identified in medical collections. In
addition, archived chemicals may
become increasingly concentrated and
toxic over time; and glassware, seals
and stoppers may become broken or
damaged. Resolution: Industrial
hygienists teamed with medical
archivists from one of the largest
medical museum collections in the
world to identify, sample and remediate
potential chemical and physical hazards
in the collection. Chemical hazards were
assessed using various monitoring
strategies including direct analysis,
wipe sampling and air monitoring. Realtime analyses, such as IR and
colorimetric techniques, were
performed in conjunction with active
and passive monitoring methodologies.
Results: The collection was categorized
and hazardous chemicals were
remediated. Museum staff were
presented the findings and given
training on what to look for in the
future. The industrial hygienists
presented hazard awareness training to
other institutions’ medical archivists at
a world-wide medical museum curators’
conference. Lessons learned: These
methodologies will assist industrial
hygienists in evaluating archival
specimens and in training medical
archivists/curators to recognize IH
hazards so they may work with their
collections more safety. The information
is transferable to personnel working
with other museum and archive pieces,
not just medical collections
can support a determination of workrelatedness for workers’ compensation
claims. Resolution: Exposure
assessment begins with the patient’s
description of his or her occupational
and environmental exposures in concert
with the physician’s diagnosis. Exposure
information from a variety of sources
such as material safety data sheets,
conversations with the employer,
workplace exposure records, reports
from regulatory agencies, and direct
site visits is used to validate and
supplement the patient’s description of
the workplace and estimate dose. In
judging work-relatedness, additional
factors include the toxicology of the
exposure(s) of interest and review of the
published literature. Results: Cases of
occupational illness highlight how
exposure assessment is used to inform
the workers’ compensation claim
process and patient care. Case examples
include workplace aggravation of upper
respiratory tract symptoms in a fabric
cutter, stomach cancer in a patient
exposed to three carcinogens,
occupational upper respiratory
irritation due to particulates and low
humidity in an office building, and
others. Lessons Learned: Occupational
illnesses are usually very similar to
illnesses caused by non-occupational
factors. The claimant’s diagnosis guides
the exposure investigation. Workplace
exposure monitoring information is
helpful but rarely available. A detailed
exposure assessment, used in concert
with clinical information, can be very
helpful in making a determination of
work-relatedness.
PO 112-6
Exposure Assessment, Occupational
Illness and Workers’ Compensation:
Lessons Learned by a Clinical
Industrial Hygienist
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Papers PO 113-1 – PO113-6
N. Beaudet, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA.
Situation/problem: Industrial
hygienists can provide essential
information that help occupational
medicine physicians evaluate
relationships between chemical
exposures and medical problems. A
detailed occupational and
environmental exposure assessment
Podium Session 113
Risk Management Planning and Prevention
PO 113-1
Analysis of the Risk Assessment
Process Utilized by Select
Government Agencies
K. Grissom, J. Spencer, Environmental
Profiles, Inc., Columbia, MD.
Situation: Navigating regulations set
forth by various governmental agencies
can be a cumbersome task. Even within
an agency, different regulatory
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
standards may exist, based on the
applicability to different settings and
circumstances, and exemptions for
certain industries and/or chemical uses.
Particularly in smaller companies,
industrial hygienists and safety
specialists may be responsible for
keeping abreast of multiple agencies’
regulations and their applicability to
chemicals produced, consumed, and/or
disposed of in the manufacturing
process. While they can typically access
this information with relative ease, the
methods that agencies use when setting
the standards are not broadly
understood. Resolution: This
presentation summarizes the basics of
the risk assessment process that
various governmental agencies
undertake in setting regulatory
standards to limit exposures to
carcinogens. Results: It includes an
analysis of the risk assessment
processes that OSHA, EPA, CalEPA
(Proposition 65), and the European
Chemical Agency (ECHA- REACH) have
followed when setting regulatory
standards for carcinogens. It highlights
the intention of each governmental
organization when setting the
standards and relates each application
to that intended by OSHA. Additionally,
an illustrative table will present the
regulatory standards of selected
carcinogens to highlight different
organizations’ standards. Lessons
Learned: The audience will be left with a
clearer understanding of the regulatory
development process and be better
equipped to apply the appropriate
standards in their workplace
PO 113-2
EPA’s Chemical Action Plans: An
Overview
A. Lamba, EPA, Washington, DC.
Situation/problem: EPA is initiating a
comprehensive approach to enhance
the Agency’s current chemicals
management program within the limits
of its existing authorities to increase
confidence that chemicals used in
commerce are safe and do not endanger
public health and the welfare of
workers, consumers, and sensitive subpopulations such as children.
Resolution: EPA’s approach includes
development of chemical action plans
which will target the Agency’s risk
management efforts on chemicals of
concern. These action plans are based
on EPA’s review of available hazard,
exposure, and use information, and will
outline the risks that each chemical may
present and the specific steps that the
Agency will take to address those
concerns. Results: To date, EPA has
posted action plans for the following
chemicals: benzidine dyes, bisphenol A
(BPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD);
nonylphenol and nonylphenol
ethoxylates; perfluorinated chemicals
(PFCs); penta, octa, and decabromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs); phthalates; and
short-chain chlorinated paraffins
(SCCPs). Chemicals that are currently in
the action plan development process
include diisocyanates and siloxanes.
Lessons learned: EPA intends to utilize
the full array of regulatory tools under
TSCA to address risks, including the
authority to label, restrict, or ban
chemicals under Section 6 of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA). As EPA’s
actions begin, there will be
opportunities for public and
stakeholder comment and involvement.
The chemical action plan for one of the
chemicals will be discussed in detail to
identify the specific actions that EPA
will be taking to reduce the potential
risks from that chemical
PO 113-3
What’s Normal: Considering
Background When Assessing Risk
D. Walsh, Walsh Certified Consultants,
Inc., Las Vegas, NV.
Situation/problem: In many cases,
acceptable or low risk (e.g., less than 1 in
100,000 increase cancer risk)
concentrations in the environment as
identified by risk assessments are less
than what is normal or background.
Examples include asbestos, benzene,
and perchloroethylene. In the case of
asbestos, the California Prop 65 No
Significant Risk Level for asbestos is 100
fibers per day (f/d) while the average
number of asbestos fibers breathed in
by a human in an urban environment is
approximately 10,000 f/d. This situation
can lead to the risk level being
considered irrelevant or not valid in the
real world. Resolution: The traditional
process of risk assessment must
consider what is practical to achieve
when establishing reference doses or no
effect levels. Results: Without
considering background, the no-risk
levels are often adopted by agencies for
cleanup levels of contamination
resulting in unachievable or very
difficult to obtain criteria. Lessons
learned: Background or normal levels of
environmental contaminants are
unavoidable in our daily lives and their
presence must be identified and
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
communicated so as not to give the
public a false impression that the goal is
zero or that the levels started at zero
PO 113-4
Management of Occupational Risks
at Single or Multiple Locations
V. Hillman, Liberty Mutual Group,
Hopkinton, MA; P. Zybert, Raytheon
Company, Waltham, MA.
Situation/problem: Multiple location,
multinational companies made up of
several business units and large or
complex single locations have difficulty
establishing a uniform method of
occupational disease (OD) risk
management. There was a need to
establish a systematic method of
identifying and rank ordering physical
and chemical agent risks. Resolution: A
web-based qualitative risk assessment
(QRA) tool was developed which
contains pre-populated “severity” or
“toxicity” ratings of chemical and
physical agents. This is combined with a
“likelihood” of negative outcome
established in the field as an “exposure
rating”, using professional judgment
and available quantitative data. The
resultant 5x5 risk matrix is modified by
exposure frequency and PPE use. Handson workshops were used to train
assessors. Run rules were established
and tools developed to minimize interassessor variability. Results: A QRA tool
and use process was established with
the following outcomes across highly
variable operations, departments,
businesses, and locations: • Clear
identification of the most pressing
needs for exposure reduction efforts; •
Identification of the need, or absence of
need, for quantitative exposure
assessments; • Ability to rapidly identify
where specific agents are used when
new regulations or toxicity concerns
surface. Results of one company’s
implementation of this tool will be
presented to demonstrate its impact on
EHS operations. This company has
documented 17,000 worker-agent
similar exposure group combinations
across nearly 3,000 “processes”. Risk
data generated by this tool is now on
senior management’s performance
dashboard and risk reduction outcomes
are tracked by the board of directors.
Lessons Learned: The need to better
account for the “real risk reduction”
within this QRA, as afforded by effective
training, PPE program, medical
surveillance, implementation of best
available technology, etc. was identified
and addressed
31
PO 113-5
The NORSOK S-002 Working
Environment Standard - A Proven
Concept of Prevention Through
Design from the Norwegian Oil and
Gas industry
H. Smedbold, Occupational Hygiene
Solutions AS, Stavanger, Norway.
Situation/problem: How to achieve in
a cost effective manner a good working
environment through systematically
follow-up of modifications and new
buildings within the Norwegian oil and
gas industry. Resolution: Considerable
experience has been accumulated
within oil companies on how to design
offshore platforms in order to promote
a satisfactory working environment
during operation. As part of the NORSOK
initiative to improve the
competitiveness of the oil and gas
industry in the Norwegian sector of the
North sea, oil companies, contractors,
vendors, trade unions and authorities
have cooperated in developing a set of
common technical standards. Standard
S-002 “Working environment” is one of
five NORSOK standards concerning
health, safety and environment. Results:
Harmonization of company
specifications is one important element
in the NORSOK philosophy for achieving
significant cost reduction in offshore
development projects. The suppliers are
expected to take a larger responsibility
for detailing and development of
technical solutions. Work with the new
standard on working environment
started in 1994 in a group consisting of
experts from the three Norwegian oil
companies. The first revision of the
standard was issued in December 1994.
A second revision was issued in January
1996, a third in 1998 and the current
forth version in 2004. Over these two
decades work place accidents have been
reduced to less than 10% compared with
pre 1990 levels. Significant
improvements have also been seen
related to material handling, work place
noise and chemical exposure among
others. Lessons learned: The NORSOK S002 is an example of a human centered
working environmental design standard
- that has contributed significantly to
reduce the risk level at the workplace.
The standard could be applied in other
sectors and other countries.
32
PO 113-6
Guidance on Handling and Disposal
of Chemically Dosed Research
Animal Waste
Podium Session 114
Personal Protective
Clothing and Equipment
M. McCullough, Dana-Farber Cancer
Institute, Boston, MA.
Situation/problem: In research,
laboratory animals are dosed with
potentially hazardous chemicals.
Animals excrete toxic chemicals and
toxic metabolites of these chemicals,
particularly during the first 72 hours
after dosing. Bedding contaminated
with hazardous chemicals can be
disposed of as untreated solid waste,
infectious waste, or as chemical waste.
This bedding is acceptable for trash or
infectious waste disposal as long as it
does not have any of the classic
characteristics of a hazardous waste.
However, only meeting the letter of the
law does not account for the large
volume of bedding contaminated with
albeit small, but potentially significant
concentrations of chemicals—
particularly carcinogenic, mutagenic
and teratogenic ones. Resolution:
Appropriate procedures to manage
animals dosed with radioactivity and
biologicals exist, but the management
of chemically dosed animal waste is
complicated and confusing. One must
account for the myriad of chemicals
used in research animals, including
many that have not had toxicity testing.
This difficulty in determining the proper
disposal has led us to address and
create a procedure for the handling of
animal waste dosed with chemicals.
Results: This procedure has proven to
address the need for worker safety and
environmental protection. Simply
stated, the innovation in this disposal
procedure is that it places each
chemical into a classification scheme
that allows for simple determination of
protective and disposal measures.
Lessons learned: The best time to insert
required handling procedures and
disposal practices is at the time of
animal protocol approval through the
Animal Care and Use Committee.
Requirements can be added as a
condition of approval. The risk category
is assigned at the time of each protocol
approval and a list of previously
classified chemicals is available.
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:50 p.m.
Papers PO 114-1 – PO114-7
PO 114-1
Triethanolamine Permeation
Through a Disposable Nitrile Glove
A. Mathews, S. Que Hee, University of
California, Los Angeles, CA.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to investigate the protectiveness of
a disposable nitrile glove against
triethanolamine using the American
Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
F739-96 closed loop method. Methods:
Experiments involved a 1-inch
permeation cell at 35 oC at a water
shaking speed of 8.52 cm/sec. The goal
was to determine the normalized break
through time. The challenge cell was
filled with pure triethanolamine and the
collection solvent was water, the
preferred collection solvent because of
the water solubility and glove
compatibility. All experiments were
completed in triplicate. The analytical
method utilized an Agilent 6890N gas
chromatograph with non-polar capillary
column and an Agilent 5973 mass
spectrometer. Triethanolamine was
derivatized to triethanolamine borate
ester for increased sensitivity before
analysis. The collection side was
evaporated before derivatization. The
lower quantifiable limit (LQL) was 10 ng.
Results: The results indicated that in an
8-hour period triethanolamine did not
permeate the nitrile barrier greater
than 250 ng/cm2, the ASTM threshold
value for the closed-loop method.
Conclusion: This disposable nitrile glove
could be protective enough for reuse
against triethanolamine over an 8-hour
work shift, preferably after rinsing the
outside surface with water
PO 114-2
Permeation of Ethylene Glycol
Through Disposable Nitrile Gloves
J. Zavala, S. Que Hee, University of
California, Los Angeles, CA.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to investigate the permeation of
the organic compound, ethylene glycol,
through disposable nitrile glove
material. Methods: Testing was
conducted in triplicate using the ASTM
F739 closed-loop permeation method
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
using water collection solvent and a
worst case challenge concentration of
99% certified ethylene glycol. The
analytical procedure was based on
capillary column gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) to quantify
the permeated ethylene glycol in the
collection side of the permeation cell
using m/z 31 in the selective ion
monitoring mode. Fourier transform
reflectance infrared analysis was
conducted to assess changes to the
molecular structure of the glove.
Results: Chromatographic analysis, post
permeation, demonstrated that the
disposable nitrile glove material
showed resistance with a normalized
breakthrough time greater than the 8hour workday since the minimum
threshold permeation of 250 ng/cm2 was
not reached. The average thickness
measured for the gloves before
conditioning at relative humidity of 60%
at room temperature (25 deg C) was
0.115 mm ± 0.002 mm and 0.117 mm ±
0.001 mm after conditioning, not
statistically different. After the 8-hour
permeation experiment, the average
thickness for the gloves material
remained at 0.117 mm ± 0.001 mm. The 8hour chemical exposure changed the
weight of the glove material by an
average of 0.008 mg ± 0.006 mg. Infrared
analysis after the 8-hour permeation
test revealed increased percent
transmittance at 1200 cm-1, and the
broadening of the OH H-bonded stretch
at 3400 cm-1 for the test samples.
Conclusions: This disposable nitrile
glove material is an effective barrier for
8 hours against ethylene glycol as
shown by measurements of permeation,
glove thickness, weight, and molecular
structure
PO 114-3
Aerosol Penetration Through
Particulate Protective Clothing
Materials
W. Lin, S. Huang, Y. Huang, C. Chen,
National Taiwan University, Taipei,
Taiwan; Y. Kuo, Chung Hwa University of
Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan.
Objective: The main objective of this
study was to develop test methods for
evaluating. Methods: Three test
methods were developed: (1) Active
sampling method, (2) Closed-return
sampling train method, and (3)
Fluorescent aerosol method. A variety of
protective garments, currently used in
health care industry, were tested for
aerosol penetration and air resistance.
In order to cover a broad size range, a
constant output atomizer and an
ultrasonic atomizing nozzle was used to
generate polydisperse sub-micrometersized and micrometer-sized particles,
respectively. The aerosol output was
neutralized by using a 25 mCi
radioactive source, Am-241, and then
introduced into the mixing (test)
chamber. Two different particle size
spectrometers were used to measure
the aerosol concentrations and size
distributions upstream and
downstream of the filters: a scanning
mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for
particles smaller than 0.7 micrometer,
and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS)
for particles larger than 0.7 micrometer.
Results: Under extremely low face
velocity, gravitational settling became
the principal filtration mechanism. This
was particularly true for large particles.
The approaching velocity played an
important role pushing aerosols
through particulate protective clothing.
However, this effect diminished as the
velocity decreased or the air resistance
of the clothing material increased. In
general, the aerosol penetration
measured by active sampling method
(filtration velocity in the proximity of
0.01 cm/sec) was about 10 times higher
than that of closed return sampling
train method. The aerosol penetration
determined by fluorescent aerosol
method decreased by a factor of 100
when compared to active sampling
method. Conclusions: Active sampling
method is appropriate for simulating
wearer in motion. All three test methods
showed that the aerosol penetration
through particulate protective clothing
with seam was much higher than that of
clothing without seam
PO 114-4
Quantitative Analysis of Uniquely
Distributed Submicron
Paramagnetic Fe3O4 Particles Using
Computer Controlled Scanning
Electron Microscopy
P. Gao, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA; P.
Jaques, URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA;
P. Hopke, Clarkson University, Potsdam,
NY.
Objective: This study was designed to
optimize particle counting of a unique
deposition pattern. Fe3O4 particles
were deposited onto a substrate using a
magnetic passive aerosol sampler
(MPAS), developed for evaluating
particle penetration through protective
clothing. The MPAS has 140 1.5 x 1.5 mm
magnets with alternating polarity. It
collects particles in a non-uniform
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
pattern with higher deposition towards
the center of the individual magnets,
while producing a uniform distribution
of particle clusters across the entire
substrate. Methods: Two counting
methods were proposed using
Computer Controlled Scanning Electron
Microscopy (CCSEM). First, a particle
deposition function was developed to
predict the number of particles across a
given magnet based on a sequential set
of measurements at known coordinates.
Since the distribution of particle
clusters across the MPAS was relatively
uniform, any cluster was considered
representative. The substrate was
marked at the edge of a cluster, and the
CCSEM was programmed to measure
adjacent fields. Secondly, since the
dimensions of an individual sampling
field (0.000324 mm2) is small (0.014% of
the area of an individual magnet and
0.0001% of the full 314 mm2 collection
surface), the probability of acquiring a
representative sample in a non-uniform
distribution using normalized random
distribution counting is very low. Thus,
the function derived from the
sequential procedure was used to
predict the sample number needed for
the randomized procedure. Results: The
distributions were compared within and
between paired MPAS samples using the
sequential procedure and the random
sampling procedure. Preliminary results
show that, between samples, particle
number increases more rapidly towards
the cluster center for samples with
higher concentrations. The results
additionally show that single particle
counting results were repeatable for
particle counts ranging from 100 to 6000
particles/mm2. Conclusions: The CCSEM
provides a powerful tool for
quantitative analysis of particles with a
unique deposition pattern
PO 114-5
Integrity of Disposable Nitrile Exam
Gloves Exposed to Simulated
Movement
R. Phalen, California State University
San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA; W.
Wong, University of California, Los
Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Every year, millions of healthcare,
first responder, and industry workers
are exposed to chemical and biological
hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a
common choice as both a chemical and
physical barrier to these hazards,
especially as an alternative to natural
latex gloves. However, glove selection is
complicated by the availability of
33
several types or formulations of nitrile
gloves, such as low-modulus, medicalgrade, low-filler, and cleanroom
products. Objective: This study
evaluated the influence of simulated
movement on the physical integrity (i.e.
holes) of different nitrile exam glove
brands and types. Methods: Thirty glove
products were evaluated out-of-box and
after exposure to simulated whole-glove
movement for 2 h. In lieu of the
traditional 1L water-leak test, a
modified water-leak test, standardized
to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in
different regions of the glove, was
developed. A specialized air inflation
method simulated bi-directional
stretching and whole-glove movement.
A worst-case scenario with maximum
stretching was evaluated. Results: On
average, movement was not found to
have a significant effect on glove
integrity (chi-square; p = 0.068). The
average effect was less than 1%
between no movement (1.5%) and
movement (2.1%) exposures. However,
significant variability in glove integrity
was observed between different glove
types (p ≤ 0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on
average, had the highest percentage of
leaks and 50% failed the water-leak test.
Low-modulus and medical-grade gloves
had the lowest percentages of leaks and
no products failed the water-leak test.
Conclusions: Variability in polymer
formulation was suspected to account
for the observed discrepancies, as well
as the inability of the traditional 1 L
water-leak test to detect holes in
finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly,
greater than 80% of the glove defects
were observed in the finger and thumb
regions. It is recommended the existing
water-leak tests be re-evaluated and
standardized to account for product
variability
PO 114-6
A Web Computer Tool for the
Selection of Glove Material Against
Chemicals Based on the “Hansen
Solubility Parameters” Theory
D. Drolet, J. Lara, IRSST, Montreal, QC,
Canada; G. Perron, Consultant,
Boucherville, QC, Canada; F.
Zimmermann, INRS, Vandoeuvre-lèsNancy, France; A. Chollot, INRS,
Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; C.
Hansen, Consultant, Hoersholm,
Denmark; R. Bourbonnais, Consultant,
Laval, QC, Canada.
Situation/problem: Skin absorption of
chemicals is a major exposure route and
makes the use of personal protective
34
equipment sometimes mandatory.
Polymeric materials (PM) used in
protective gloves have their limitations
and no one can ensure a full-range of
protection against all chemicals or
mixtures. Standardized methods (ASTM
F-739 or ISO 6529) have been used to
evaluate the protective properties
(breakthrough times and permeation
rates) of chemicals and PM in this and
other studies, but the available data are
very limited in comparison of the
variety of exposures found in real life
situation. Resolution: Using the Hansen
Solubility Parameter (HSP) theory, a
parameter called “RED” (Relative Energy
Difference) based on the DPH forces
(Diffusion, Polarity, Hydrogen bonding)
of the substance or a mixture and a PM
has been calculated. The RED parameter
can be used to predict the resistance of
a PM in different scenarios. A database
of HSP parameters of more than 1000
chemicals already exists. An algorithm
has been built to define the minimum
RED values that ensure a given degree
of protection for 5 types of PM. The
predictions made with this algorithm
have been cross-checked with available
data in the literature. The comparisons
showed good agreement thus allowing
further development of the tool.
Results: The algorithm and all relevant
parameters have been implemented
into a WEB computer tool that allows a
user to select a list of chemicals in a
mixture and their volume fractions and
PM. The results will display the suitable
PM for the selected chemicals mixture.
Lessons learned: The tool will be
available in French either on the IRSST
and INRS Web sites. An English version
should be available in the near future.
This presentation will include a realtime demonstration
PO 114-7
How Clean Is “Clean”? Regulations
and Standards for Workplace
Clothing and Personal Protective
Equipment
G. Sirianni, Jonathan Borak & Co, New
Haven, CT.
Situation/problem: A systematic
review of standards, regulations and
recommendations provided by federal
agencies (e.g., OSHA, MSHA, and NIOSH),
nongovernmental advisory bodies (e.g.,
ACGIH, AIHA, and ANSI), and
manufacturers of protective clothing
and equipment has proven to lack
specific clarity and guidance for end
users of personal protective equipment.
Resolution: The objectives of this
study were to compile current
regulations, standards, and
recommendations addressing the
cleanliness of worker clothing and
personal protective equipment (PPE), to
evaluate the adequacy of criteria for
determining whether clothing and
equipment actually achieved required
levels of cleanliness, and to propose
future actions that might better ensure
the safety and cleanliness of such
personal equipment and the workers
who use them. Results: We identified an
array of terms describing “cleanliness”
and the processes for achieving
“cleanliness” that were almost never
defined in regulations and
recommendations. We also found a
general lack of criteria for determining
whether cleanliness and/or sterility
have been achieved. Lessons learned:
There remains a need to harmonize
cleanliness-related terminology,
establish best practices for equipment
cleaning and sterilization, implement a
signage system to provide equipmentspecific cleaning instructions, and
adopt objective criteria for determining
what is “clean.”
Podium Session 115
Computer Applications
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:30 a.m.–12:50 p.m.
Papers PO 115-1 – PO115-8
PO 115-1
IH and Occupational Health
Professionals Communicating?
K. Wisniewski, S. Parker-Monk, P.
Steven, US Army, Gunpowder, MD.
Situation/problem: Army Industrial
Hygiene (IH) Program Managers must
communicate recommendations for
medical surveillance to occupational
health providers. Each local program
manager provides information in a
different format. There is a need to
standardize communication.
Resolution: The Fort Eustis Industrial
Hygiene Program Manager and
Occupational Health Physician in
cooperation with the U.S. Army Institute
of Public Health created a business
process for effectively communicating
medical surveillance recommendations.
The process involved first providing
access to the Defense Occupational
Environmental Health Readiness
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
System (DOEHRS-IH) to the Occupational
Health Physician. DOEHRS is the
automated data collection and storage
tool built on Department of Defense IH
exposure assessment model. The second
step in the process was creation of
medical surveillance reports. Results:
Occupational health professionals had
timely access to potential and
documented occupational exposures so
they could make appropriate decisions
on medical surveillance. Lessons
learned: The “old” way of
communication was written
documentation provided on a case-bycase basis. It was cumbersome and time
consuming. A more efficient flow of
communication was developed with the
assistance of an automated data
collection and storage system
clients. Additionally, we will develop the
web portal framework for clients to
build agency-specific OHSMS; develop a
tool to perform and record safety and
health inspections; and develop an
accident investigation tool to support
accident investigation processes
including root causes. Lessons Learned:
Agencies implementing an automated
SMS will benefit from collaboration and
sharing of lessons learned. Such
collaboration will enable better sharing
of information and provide oversight of
large hierarchal organizations; and
current initiatives support the use of
SMS to include the Injury and Illness
Prevention Plan proposed OSHA
standard requiring each employer to
implement a prevention program
tailored to actual hazards in the
workplace using an SMS framework
PO 115-2
Safety Toolkit - Occupational Health
and Safety Management Systems
Tools
PO 115-3
Using Database Software to Manage
IH Exposure Data
A. Ornstein, LMI, San Antonio, TX; J.
Yasalonis, LMI, Aberdeen, MD; M.
Kephart, LMI, Portland, OR.
Situation/Problem: Ineffective safety
programs create huge workers’
compensation costs and a lack of
management control over Occupational
Health and Safety (OHS) performance.
With an OHS Management System
(OHSMS), there are significant
opportunities to reduce injuries and
illnesses and associated direct and
indirect costs. Currently, most federal
agencies do not maintain a structured
OHSMS. Resolution: Our objective is to
develop a safety toolkit, an integrated
suite of online and associated mobile
computing tools, to assist federal
clients in developing and maintaining
an OHSMS. Results: Using a phased
approach we first identified best
management practices for OHSMS—
American National Standard for OHSMS
(ANSI/AIHA Z10) and OSHA Voluntary
Protection Program (OSHA VPP) and
then developed general software
requirements for an OHSMS suite of
tools. We developed technical
guidelines and templates required for
conformance to the ANSI Z10 standard
and developed an initial web portal
framework to serve as the data
repository. Next, we developed software
requirements and design documents for
a dynamic web portal that is
customizable by the client. Currently,
we are developing a customizable
architecture that maintains a core set of
functionality that is common across all
K. Jaggassar, C. Briggs, ENVIRON
International Corporation, Boston,
MA; P. Webb, National Grid, Waltham,
MA.
A major electrical utility with
approximately 28,000 employees had
historically managed its IH exposure
monitoring data using a paper-based
system. As the company grew, the
paperwork, manual tracking and
trending of data developed into a
burdensome situation. Since sifting
through paper reports to locate relevant
data was inefficient, the goal was to
find a software solution that would
assist in constructing a comprehensive
IH management framework. The
company procured a commerciallyavailable IH software product, this
resolution provided a means to both
securely store volumes of IH data, as
well as the ability to quickly and
efficiently retrieve information
electronically. Approximately 15 years
of surveys and data were reviewed and
entered following specialized criteria or
“rules.” These rules provided specific
instructions on how to populate,
standardize, and control the variability
of the information entered into the
database. It became increasingly
evident during the exercise, that
standardizing the data entry process
greatly impacted the capability of the
database to generate meaningful
reports. Data and decision-making
inputs included hazard identification,
exposure assessment, risk assessment
and characterization, and other
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
parameters. The ultimate goal of the
project was to utilize the data
management software and newly
organized data to generate results
emphasizing improved risk
communication (via management
summary reports and health risk
assessments) and enhanced tracking of
control options (via recommendations
and action items). Overall, the
implementation of the comprehensive
tracking software has allowed for more
1) complete data analysis and retrieval,
2) thorough documentation of the IH
decision-making process, and (3)
standardized report generation. This
podium presentation will demonstrate
the logical steps taken to review various
survey data, extract pertinent
information, populate the database,
and develop standardized reports. The
lessons learned will also be highlighted
along with some on-going program
benefits
PO 115-4
Implementing a Global Database for
Exposure Monitoring and Risk
Assessment in Shell Oil Company
P. Owens, Shell Martinez Refinery,
Martinez, CA.
This presentation provides an
overview of a global exposure
monitoring and health risk assessment
(HRA) database implemented during
2007-2009 for Shell Oil industrial
hygienists. Situation: Prior to 2007, a
situation existed in Shell where a
variety of methods of planning,
performing and reporting health risk
assessments and recording exposure
monitoring data. Furthermore, there
was limited sharing of monitoring
results and communication among
hygienists and between occupational
medicine professionals. Resolution: The
resolution was a global database
consisting of exposure monitoring data
and risk assessments evaluations,
linked to medical surveillance
assignments and exam results. Also, the
system links to the human resource
employee database. Other system tools
include reports for exposure monitoring
and risk assessments, management
actions items and exposure monitoring
lab result uploading. The database
includes a link between the exposure
monitoring and health risk assessment
via the health hazard. If exposure
monitoring is done for a hazard, it will
appear in the risk assessment. To
resolve inconsistent assessments,
hygienists were provided guidance
35
protocols for a number of select
hazards. The health risk assessments
identify both hazard-specific and
generic control measures. Results: This
presentation includes an overview of
the results of health risk assessments;
their hazards, control measures,
exposure ratings, and other aspects.
Lessons Learned: Challenges and
learning post-implementation included
transferring historic exposure
monitoring data, report languages
legally mandated in some countries,
occupational exposure limit variations,
and historic practices conducting health
risk assessments.
PO 115-5
Utilizing Web-Based Tools for an
Effective Risk Management Program
C. Shaw, Succeed Management
Solutions, LLC, Wilsonville, OR.
Situation/problem: Risk management
efforts have become a costly antiquated
nuisance in need of a paradigm shift. It
is no secret that the current economic
climate is forcing organizations to do
more with less. Resolution: Web-based
solutions are available to the EHS
professional which enable effective EHS
programs with less staff, which are also
cost effective. Results: This program will
explore web-based solutions available
in areas of safety program maintenance
and risk assessment and how the EHS
professional can take advantage of
these tools. Lessons learned: This
program will outline real world case
studies on how EHS professionals have
established cost-effective/worker safety
first and foremost utilizing various webbased tools
PO 115-6
Development of a Sample Size
Calculator Using Land’s Exact
Procedure to Assess Occupational
Exposures
P. Gao, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA.
Situation/problem: Calculating
suitable sample sizes for estimating the
mean occupational exposure is an
important issue in exposure
assessment. If a sample size is too small,
the objectives of the analysis cannot be
achieved; if a sample size is larger than
necessary, industrial hygienists’
resources are wasted. Sample size for a
normal distribution can be easily
calculated, but may not be
inappropriate as workplace exposure
data are usually lognormally
36
distributed. Although several
procedures have been derived to
calculate sample size for workplace
exposure with a lognormal distribution,
Land’s exact procedure has been
recommended as an unbiased estimate
of sample size (number) needed for both
employers and OSHA inspections. Land’s
procedure involves an H-score that is
also sample size dependant, and the
required iterative procedure is
laborious without a computer program.
Resolution: A powerful Microsoft
Windows program, referred to as
“Sample Size Calculator” has been
developed for industrial hygienists
using Microsoft Visual C++. A total of
11,400 H-scores were incorporated into
the computer program, which covers
different confidence levels (i.e.,
values), a variety of F values (i.e., the
ratio of mean exposure to occupational
exposure limit, OEL), and up to 1,000
degrees of freedom. Results: The
program calculates and displays the
required sample size on the screen
immediately after entering four values;
a mean of the exposure, geometric
standard deviation, occupational
exposure level (e.g. OSHA’s permissible
exposure limit), and confidence level.
Lessons learned: This computer program
will benefit industrial hygienists, OSHA
compliance safety and health officers,
and others involved in exposure
assessment
PO 115-7
Preparing your Organization for
GHS Compliance
J. Braselman, Safetec, York, PA.
Situation/problem: With the official
announcement from OSHA of the
implementation of GHS into the current
hazard communication standard, many
organizations are struggling to
understand the complexities of these
new regulations and how they will
affect their organization. Resolution:
This presentation details the specific
steps companies must take in order to
prepare for and meet the GHS challenge,
and offers a broad overview of the
Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for
hazard classification and labeling,
including safety data sheets,
pictograms, signal words, hazard
statements, and chemical
classifications. Results: Specific steps,
checklists of considerations, regional
variations and cost considerations are
detailed for organizations preparing for
GHS compliance. Lessons learned: View
the results of four companies that have
begun the process of migrating to GHS
platform
PO 115-8
WITHDRAWN: New Solutions for
EMS: Converting from Paper-Based
to the Web
J. Payson, NW Natural, Portland, OR.
Podium Session 116
Respiratory Protection I
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
2:00 p.m.–5:00 p.m.
Papers PO 116-1 – PO116-9
PO 116-1
Enhanced Respiratory Protection
Offered by a Strapless Filtering
Facepiece Respirator
S. Grinshpun, T. Reponen, R. McKay, K.
Cho, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati,
OH.
Objective: Aerosol particles penetrate
into a filtering facepiece particulate
respirator (FFPR) through the filter
media and faceseal leaks. It has been
shown for conventional FFPRs that the
latter often represents the primary
penetration pathway. To reduce face
seal leakage, some manufacturers of
FFPRs have developed new respirator
designs. The objective of this study was
to evaluate a strapless FFPR with a
medical-grade adhesive, which aims at
establishing a better seal between the
respirator periphery and the wearer’s
face. Methods: A respirator developed
by Wein Products Inc. (Los Angeles, CA)
was tested in a laboratory facility with
respect to its filter collection efficiency
for different particle sizes (0.04 to 1
mkm) and face velocities corresponding
to inhalation flow rates up to 85 L/min.
Field testing was also conducted on 20
human subjects (10 subjects
representing general population and 10
subjects recruited from the Cincinnati
Fire Department) to evaluate respirator
fit for novice and experienced users.
Results: The filter collection efficiency
was dependent on the particle size and
face velocity; it was mostly below 0.1%.
Fit testing revealed overall fit factors
ranging approximately from 240 to
7,100, with the geometric mean values
of approximately 2,300 and 2,050 for the
general population and firefighters,
respectively. No statistical difference
was identified between the two subject
groups (t-test: p>0.05). Additional
subjects are being recruited to increase
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
the test statistical power and further
investigate the respirator performance
for different users. Conclusions: Fit
factors for the strapless FFPR utilizing
peripheral adhesive were significantly
greater than levels typically observed
for conventional FFPRs.
PO 116-2
Head-and-Face Shape Variations of
U.S. Civilian Workers
Z. Zhuang, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA; C.
Shu, P. Xi, National Research Council of
Canada, Institute for Information
Technology, Ottawa, ON, Canada; M.
Bergman, URS, Corp., Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: In a recent anthropometric
survey by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),
3,997 subjects were measured using
traditional methods and 953 of them
were also scanned using a 3D head
scanner. The subjects were
representative of the current U.S.
civilian population of respirator wearers
age 18 to 66. The objective of this study
was to quantify head-and-face shape
variations of the U.S. civilian workers
using modern methods of shape
analysis. Methods: The raw 3D scan data
for the 953 workers were parameterized
using geometric processing techniques.
This process allowed the individual
scans to be put in correspondence with
each other in such a way that statistical
shape analysis could be performed on a
dense set of 3D points. This process also
cleaned up the original scan data such
that the noise was reduced and holes
were filled in. The next step, statistical
analysis of the variability of the headand-face shape in the 3D database, was
conducted using Principal Component
Analysis (PCA) techniques. Results:
Through these analyses, it was shown
that the space of the head-and-face
shape was spanned by a small number
of basis vectors. Less than 50
components explained more than 90%
of the variability. Furthermore, the main
mode of variations could be visualized
through animating the shape changes
along the PCA axes with computer
software in executable form for
Windows XP. Conclusions: The results
from this study could be used for
respirator design to achieve safer, more
efficient product style and sizing.
Future study is needed to determine the
overall utility of the point cloud-based
approach for the quantification of facial
morphology variation and its
relationship to respirator performance
PO 116-3
Total Inward Leakage—An
Assessment of Variation in
Implementation of Anthropometric
Marking and Measurement
Techniques
A. Quiring, Scott Health & Safety,
Monroe, NC.
Objective: In order to address
questions regarding the Total Inward
Leakage draft concept published by
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), a study was
initiated to assess respirator fit and
variability in anthropometric
landmarking and measurement for
facial dimensions described in the
Principle Component Analysis panel and
NIOSH’s new Bivariate Panel for
quantitative fit testing. Methods: One
hundred subjects will be manually
measured using 2D anthropometric
landmarking and measurement
techniques by three different operators
trained in fit test administration on
three separate visits. 3D scans will also
be taken of the subjects during their
initial visit to compare with manual
measurement. A quantitative fit test of
subjects in elastomeric half masks
utilizing Portacount will be conducted
following each subject’s measurement
per OSHA 1910.134. Results: Variation in
measurement and panel size
determination will be assessed visit to
visit, within subject and within
operators. Geometric mean of
quantitative fit tests will be evaluated
to determine statistical significance.
Conclusion: This study seeks to assess
the gage repeatability and
reproducibility of the anthropometric
measurements required to carry out
total inward leakage testing on
elastomeric half masks per the NIOSH
protocol
PO 116-4
Adsorption Characteristics of
Activated Carbon Fibers for Toluene:
Application on Respiratory
Protection
J. Balanay, C. Lungu, University of
Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham,
AL.
Objective: Granular activated carbon,
the standard adsorbent in respirators
against gases and vapors, needs
containment due to its granular form.
This makes respirators bulky and
uncomfortable to wear, resulting to
poor compliance in its use. Activated
carbon fibers (ACF) are considered
viable alternative adsorbent materials
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
for developing thinner, light-weight and
efficient respirators because of their
larger surface area, lighter weight and
fabric form. This study determined the
critical bed depth and adsorption
capacity of different ACF types for
toluene to understand how thin a
respirator can be and the service life of
the adsorbents, respectively. The D-R
equation was also assessed to predict
the adsorption capacity for toluene at
low concentrations. Methods: ACF in
cloth (ACFC) and felt (ACFF) forms with
three different surface areas per form
were tested. Each ACF type was
challenged with six toluene
concentrations (50-500 ppm) at constant
air temperature (23°C), relative humidity
(50%) and air flow (16 LPM) at different
adsorbent bed depths. For each
adsorbent, breakthrough data were
obtained using gas chromatography,
and surface area using an automatic
physisorption analyzer. Results: ACFC
has a lower critical bed depth and
higher adsorption capacity compared to
ACFF with similar surface area for each
toluene concentration. Among the ACF
types, ACFC 2000 (highest BET surface
area = 1614±5 m2/g) has one of the
lowest critical bed depths (ranging from
0.11-0.22 cm) and has the highest
adsorption capacity (ranging from 595878 mg/g) for toluene. When the
experimental adsorption capacity was
compared with predicted, ACFs with
lower surface area had the smallest
difference. Conclusion: ACF has great
potential for application in respiratory
protection, particularly the ACFC 2000,
which is the best candidate for
developing thinner and efficient
respirators. The D-R equation may need
to be modified to better predict the
adsorption capacity at low toluene
concentrations
PO 116-5
Advances in Mask Integrity Testing
E. Hanson, M. Serach, Air Techniques
International, Owings Mills, MD.
Situation/problem: Mask integrity
testing goes beyond traditional fit
testing and is now utilized as a critical
element of respirator protection
programs, particularly within the DoD
and DoE. The mask integrity tests
include a variety of leakage tests on
protective masks in addition to fit tests.
These tests are conducted on masks
directly without the individual present.
This testing has historically been
somewhat limited due to compatibility
with the test heads that were originally
developed for military masks.
37
Resolution: A new approach to ‘test
head’ design was required to enable
testing of a wide variety of mask sizes
and configurations. These masks
include traditional ‘face-fit’
configurations as well as neck-seal and
half-mask configurations. Results: An
innovative new family of test fixtures,
or ‘test heads’ has enabled many types
and sizes of commercial masks to be
easily and quickly tested for integrity.
These test heads interface easily with
the widely deployed U.S. Military Joint
Service Mask Leakage Tester (JSMLT) as
well as commercial variants of this
equipment. Lessons learned: The
development of these ‘test heads’ is a
significant step in the migration of mask
testing best practices from the military
to the commercial world. A key lesson
learned in this process is the
acknowledgement that an effective
mask test fixture, or “test head,” does
not necessarily have to look like a
human head. To the contrary, this
counter-intuitive approach has
underscored some very creative mask
testing solutions
PO 116-6
Comparison of Pressure Drop and
Filtration Efficiency of Particulate
Respirators Using Welding Fume
and NaCl
C. Yoon, H. Zho, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; J.
Lee, S. Lee, Dongtan Laboratory, 3M
Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea; A.
Viner, E. Johnson, 3M, St. Paul, MN.
Objectives: The aims were to evaluate
the pressure drop and particle filtration
efficiency of certified PRs for protection
against welding fumes and to compare
them with our own results for NaCl
aerosols. Methods: Fifteen commercial
PR products (nine single-type and six
dual-type filters) were chosen. For the
NaCl test, the NIOSH protocol was
adapted with the TSI model 8130
automated filter tester. For the welding
fume test, welding fumes from mild
steel flux cored arcs were generated and
measured with a SIBATA filter tester and
a manometer in the upstream and
downstream of the PR test chamber. The
initial pressure drop and initial
penetration, peak pressure drop and
peak penetration, penetration pattern
and pressure drop pattern, and SEM
images were compared. Results: The
count median diameter (CMD) and mass
median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl
aerosol were small compared with the
measured welding fumes (CMD; 70-80 vs.
38
170-240 nm, MMD; 200-300 vs. 500-700
nm, respectively). The ANOVA test
showed no significant difference
between the initial pressure drop of the
tested aerosols when single or dual
filters were used (p = 0.42), whereas the
pressure drop at peak penetration was
significantly higher with welding fumes
than for the NaCl aerosol (p = 0.04). Also,
pressure drop increased much more
rapidly in the welding fume test than
the NaCl aerosol test. The high initial
penetration and peak penetration
occurred with the NaCl aerosol and not
the welding fumes (p = 0.03, p < 0.001,
respectively). Neutralized NaCl aerosols
were less likely to be captured by
electret PR filter media than the
untreated electrically charged welding
fumes. Taken together, these findings
suggest that PRs, which are suitable for
NaCl certification, could also be used in
workplace settings where welding
fumes occur, albeit with caution,
because of rapid pressure drop
increases
PO 116-7
Factors Affecting Filter Penetration
and Quality Factor
P. Chen, S. Huang, C. Chen, National
Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; C.
Chen, Institute of Occupational Safety
and Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: This work was designed to
generate more scientific information
that can be used to criticize the
adoption of the latest particulate filter
test requirements promulgated in 1996.
Methods: In the present study, a semiempirical filtration model was used to
examine the factors that might affect
the filtration characteristics. The major
operating parameters included face
velocity, fiber diameter, packing density,
filter thickness, and fiber charge
density. The characteristics of the most
penetrating size were also
demonstrated under the same ranges of
operating parameters. Results: Aerosol
penetration through electret and
mechanical filter media increases with
increasing face velocity or fiber
diameter, and decreases as packing
density, filter thickness or fiber charge
density decreases. The face velocity and
fiber charge density have more
significant influence on filter quality
factor than the other factors. Filter
quality factor increases with decreasing
face velocity or increasing fiber charge
density. For electret filters, (1) the most
penetrating size increases with
increasing fiber diameter; (2) an
increase in packing density, thickness,
or fiber charge density would cause the
most penetrating size to decrease, and
(3) the most penetrating size through
electret filters increases with increasing
filtration velocity and decreasing filter
thickness. Whereas, for non-electret
filter media, the most penetrating size
increases with decreasing face velocity
and is not affected by the filter
thickness. Conclusions: The size of
challenge aerosol should be identical
with the most penetrating size (MPS) of
the filter to be tested, from the
perspective of sensitivity of test
method. Moreover, since the MPS is a
variable, the test results based on one
particular size distribution can be
misleading
PO 116-8
Air Purifying Cartridge Sensor
Integration Approach for Active End
of Service Life Indication
M. Parham, Tyco/Scott Health &
Safety, Monroe, NC.
Situation/problem: End of service life
indication or the use of a change out
schedule is required by OSHA when
using air purifying respirators under the
requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134.
Solutions for active end of service life
indication are not readily available
commercially. Passive solutions such as
colorimetric indicators are available,
but they are limited in utility. Barriers in
the past to active ESLI systems have
included cost, chemical sensor
technology, electronics, and most
importantly, sensor integration into the
sorbent bed of an air purifying
cartridge. An active solution must
integrate into a cartridge without
significantly degrading cartridge
performance whilst also accurately
detecting the chemical breakthrough.
Resolution: A new approach has been
recently developed for sorbent bed
integration and chemical sensor data
interpretation. The sensor is integrated
in such a way that it can be readily
reused; enabling calibration and
maintenance of the sensor in between
usage. A semi-empirical approach is
utilized to interpret in bed data to
provide both residual and end of service
life. Results: Our objective in this study
was to verify the operation of this
system in a relevant laboratory
environment against a common set of
industrial contaminants. Both filter
outlet and in bed chemical sensor data
was collected at different flow rates,
concentrations, and relative humidity.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Results demonstrate the performance
of this system. Recommendations with
respect to next steps for ESLI research
will be given along with a discussion of
the overall readiness of this solution
PO 116-9
Evaluation of the NIOSH SCBA
Positive Pressure Test and NFPA Air
Flow Performance Test
J. Parker, J. Palcic, A. Reeder, NIOSH,
Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: The objective of this study
is to compare the current NIOSH
certification test criteria for SCBA
performance in 42 CFR 84 to the
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) 1981 Standard on Open-Circuit
SCBA for Emergency Services 2007
Edition. The NIOSH test uses a
ventilation rate of 40 L/min, while the
NFPA test requires an airflow test based
on a ventilation rate of 100 L/min. SCBA
that meet the NFPA test are expected to
have been tested to more stringent
requirements than required for NIOSH
certification. The NIOSH positive
pressure test for pressure-demand type
SCBA is performed on a breathing
machine with a minute volume of 40
liters and requires that the pressure
inside the facepiece in relation to the
immediate environment remains
positive during both inhalation and
exhalation. NIOSH uses this 40 L/min
rate because it represents a moderate
work rate whereas NFPA has found that
a ventilation rate of 100 L/min
encompasses the 98th percentile of all
fire fighters studied. Methods: The
methods used include a side-by-side
comparison of type of breathing
machine, number of cycles per minute,
tidal volume, peak inhalation flow rates,
calibration procedures, pressure probe
position, probe design, headform
design, lung breathing waveforms,
resistance requirements and data
acquisition. Methods involve
monitoring the pressure within the
facepiece during testing. Results: Test
results are presented and compared for
equipment evaluated in the NIOSH
Firefighter Fatality Investigation and
Prevention Program and on new units.
Conclusions: Conclusions are presented
based on these comparisons of the
NIOSH test results to NFPA test results.
The potential implications of the NIOSH
certification test differing from the
NFPA test are explored.
Podium Session 117
Indoor Environmental
Quality I
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
2:00 p.m.–5:20 p.m.
Papers PO 117-1 – PO117-10
PO 117-1
A Post-Construction, Pre-Occupancy
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Baseline Survey for LEED
Construction
S. Ndiritu, Kennesaw State University,
Kennesaw, GA.
Situation: Kennesaw State University
conducted a post-construction, preoccupancy Indoor Environmental
Quality (IEQ) baseline survey in the
University’s new Health Sciences
building Aug. 2–3, 2010. The survey was
conducted to determine whether the
IEQ performance criteria had been
achieved, as stipulated in the standard
for Leadership in Energy &
Environmental Design for New
Construction and Major Renovations
(LEED-NC) promulgated by the U.S.
Green Building Council (USGBC).
Resolution: A total of 140 samples of five
LEED criteria contaminants were
collected and analyzed. The
contaminants included formaldehyde,
total volatile organic compounds
(TVOCs), 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH),
carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate
matters (PM10). The survey findings
were evaluated against maximum
concentration levels spelt out in the
LEED standard to determine whether or
not the building met the IEQ preoccupancy criteria. In addition to the
criteria contaminants, measurements of
basic IEQ parameters including
temperature, relative humidity, and
carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken. The
survey was conducted following
protocol consistent with the LEED
guidelines and industry standards.
Results: Concentrations of TVOCs
ranged from 300μg/m3 -1200μg/m3
(mean, 554.5±181.7 μg/m3).
Concentrations of formaldehyde ranged
from 13ppb3-30ppb (mean, 17.6±3.66ppb).
All concentrations of 4-PCH were below
the laboratory reporting limit of 50ng.
Office spaces recorded the highest
concentrations of both formaldehyde
and TVOCs (21.57±4.69ppb and
635.71±282.42μg/m3), respectively. All IEQ
indicators were within acceptable
ranges, as defined by ASHRAE standards.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Additional flush-out of the building was
recommended in order to accelerate
dissipation of the off-gassing products.
Follow-up air monitoring in noncompliant areas will also be conducted.
Lessons learned: This is an emerging
area and common protocol for
conducting baseline IEQ survey per
LEED guideline is lacking. The survey
findings provide a sound foundation for
a proactive IAQ management for
commercial building. This presentation
will describe the protocol adopted,
highlight the challenges, and discuss
follow-up actions undertaken
PO 117-2
Air Quality Monitoring During the
Construction and Commissioning of
the North Carolina Museum of Art
R. Herrick, Herrick Engineering Inc.,
Cary, NC.
Art collections are susceptible to
environmental damage. The situation
was that the museum wanted a
recorded history of air quality through
the construction period and into the
public occupancy so that desirable
conditions would be documented or so
issues of concern could be addressed
immediately. The resolution was to
install air quality dataloggers that
produced a continuous record of fine
particulates, temperature, humidity,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and
VOCs. This air quality monitoring started
a year before the opening, after the
building was dried in. The public
opening of this new 127,000 square foot
building was in April 2010. The results
from this monitoring provided
information that was of interest to the
architects, engineers, contractors and
the Museum’s conservations staff
during the construction process. The
lessons learned included a better
understanding of the operation of the
HVAC systems. The systems for the
galleries had temperature and humidity
control, two stages of particulate
filtration, one stage of activated carbon
gas filtration, and automatic outside air
modulation to limit the CO2 concentration to 900 ppm. The particulate
filtration was excellent. Fine particle
concentrations rapidly returned to low
levels even during the sanding of the
flooring. The project learned that the
carbon filters had been installed too
early in the schedule. The VOCs from the
urethane floor finish saturated the
carbon. The rush of visitors at the public
opening increased the CO2 concentration in the building but the HVAC system
39
limited the concentration at 900 ppm.
The use of air quality dataloggers during
the construction and commissioning
provided useful information in real
time. The levels of fine particulates and
carbon monoxide were well under the
LEED requirements. The indicated VOC
levels were higher than the LEED
requirement. Air quality datalogging
during construction adds a useful
dimension to the LEED process
PO 117-3
Lessons Learned From the First
Generation of Green Buildings
V. Holden, CH2M HILL Plateau
Remediation Company, Richland, WA.
Situation: While interest and activity
in developing green buildings in the
United States is at an all time high; the
availability of databases to monitor and
measure the success of the projects is
relatively small but growing steadily.
Green buildings should be healthier
buildings, but that is not always the
case. Resolution: This presentation will
examine experiences and some of the
results to date from the earliest
adopters of green building, green
development and high performance
buildings in the United States. What can
we learn from projects that were
undertaken over the past five years
from design teams, developers, users
and owners? Results: Many cost
effective, energy efficient innovations
have emerged from the increase in
green building activity. However, there
have been a number of “classic
blunders” in building green involving
green roofs, solar photovoltaics,
material selection and design of
ventilation systems. Lessons Learned:
The presentation will provide valuable
insights on what you should do—and
not do—when planning, designing,
constructing or retrofitting green
buildings. The presentation underscores
the importance of design and
construction of sustainable, easily
maintained and people-friendly
buildings to protect building occupant,
worker and public health
PO 117-4
WITHDRAWN: An Evaluation of
Green Building Remodeling and
Weatherization Programs for
Content that Protects and Promotes
Occupant Health
M. Kawamura, Institute for the Built
Environment, Windsor, CO
40
PO 117-5
Characterization of Indoor-Outdoor
Air Quality at a Coast Guard Facility
Near the Houston Ship Channel
T. Stock, L. Whitehead, L. Pompeii, D.
Beasley, C. Maypole, University of Texas,
Houston, TX.
Objective: The chief purpose was to
assess levels and patterns of indoor and
outdoor VOCs, PM2.5, and several
inorganic gaseous contaminants over
multiple monitoring periods in response
to concerns about air quality at a USCG
facility in a highly-industrialized area of
Houston. Methods: Measurements were
performed at multiple indoor and
outdoor locations at the facility during
four separate three-day monitoring
periods: December 2007/January 2008,
February 2008, April 2008 and June 2008.
These periods were chosen to achieve a
variety of meteorological conditions,
especially predominant wind directions,
which influence source contributions to
the air quality. The following
measurements were performed: indoor
and outdoor integrated 72-hour
sampling of volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) with passive badges; indoor and
outdoor integrated 24-hour sampling of
inorganic pollutants and formaldehyde
with passive dosimeter tubes; indoor
and outdoor 72-hour measurement of
PM2.5 with continuous logging
monitors; indoor 72-hour measurement
of carbon dioxide (CO2) with continuous
logging monitors. Results: Half of the
VOCs with quantifiable measurements
exhibited similar concentrations in all
indoor and outdoor locations,
suggesting the absence of indoor
sources. The remaining VOCs frequently
showed elevated concentrations
indoors, suggesting the presence of
important indoor sources, including
kitchen emissions of combustion
products and natural gas constituents.
Continuous measurements of indoor
PM2.5 closely tracked the
simultaneously measured outdoor
levels, again suggesting the importance
of outdoor air as a determinant of
indoor air quality. Measurement of
indoor carbon dioxide levels indicated
generally adequate outdoor air
ventilation, relative to building
occupancy, consistent with the
measured impact of outdoor air quality.
Measurements of formaldehyde and
several inorganic air pollutants with
dosimeter tubes were mostly below
detection limits. Conclusions: The
results of this study confirm that the
indoor air quality at this facility is
largely determined by the outdoor air
quality, which is significantly impacted
by nearby sources of industrial and
automotive emissions
PO 117-6
Recommended Practices for
Sampling and Analysis of PCBs in
Indoor Air
W. Mills, Mills Consulting Inc., Oak
Park, IL.
Situation/problem: Indoor air
exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) from building materials has
received increased attention recently in
the United States (U.S.), although this
issue has been recognized in Europe for
many years. In September 2009, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) issued guidance for dealing
with PCB in building materials, which
included sampling and analysis
methodologies. However, investigators
need to be aware of a number of issues
with the sampling and analysis of air for
PCBs, which are not addressed by this
guidance. Resolution: The available
sampling and analysis methodologies
for PCBs in indoor air with their
associated uncertainties were reviewed.
A review of worldwide guidelines for
PCB air concentrations was completed.
Dynamic flux chamber experiments to
investigate changes in PCB patterns due
to volatilization were carried out.
Results: The USEPA, NIOSH and OSHA
sampling documents for PCBs are all
based on work from the 1970s and 1980s,
when occupational exposures to
Aroclortm mixtures were at much higher
concentrations than current guidelines.
As a result of the changing exposure
scenarios and analytical advances,
Aroclortm analysis of indoor air samples
is no longer an acceptable methodology
and the use of congener or homolog
specific PCB analysis is required in order
to provide accurate, usable data.
Passive air sampling methods under
development may offer less intrusive,
longer term monitoring data for the
same or lower costs. A predictive model
for vapor phase congener patterns was
developed. The air sampling data
(congener or homolog) can be used to
predict the source of the PCBs using
several data analysis techniques.
Lessons learned: Indoor air sampling for
PCBs has a number of potential sources
of errors. This presentation provides
recommended practices to avoid, or
minimize, these sources of error.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 117-7
Investigation and Resolution of Air
Quality Complaints Associated with
the Breakdown of Carpet Materials
in a New School Building.
C. Robbins, M. Krause, J. Thom, Veritox,
Inc., Redmond, WA; L. Swenson, Veritox,
Inc., Portland, OR.
Situation/problem: A situation
involving malodors and upper
respiratory tract irritation and other
symptom complaints was investigated
in a new school building (<1 year old).
The school was evacuated due to
complaints and because the source,
composition, and potential long term
health effects due to compounds
creating the odor/irritation problem
were unknown. Initial investigation
implicated the carpet as the source of
odors. A sampling strategy was
designed to test the air in the school for
aldehydes, other individual and total
VOCs. Laboratory sampling of carpet
materials, including the backing and
adhesive, were carried out
simultaneously. The materials’ science
literature indicated that carpeting in
contact with high-moisture, alkaline
cement floors released ethyl hexanols,
so the laboratory was directed to
include these compounds in the GC-MS
analysis. Resolution: Sampling and
analysis resulted in the identification of
compounds associated with carpet
backing breakdown. The compounds
were found in low concentrations, thus
long-term adverse health effects were
not a concern. Results showed that the
complaints were not likely due to a
single compound present, but were
likely due to the presence of several
compounds with similar chemical
properties. Among detected
compounds, ethyl hexanols have been
found to produce objective signs of
irritation in exposed persons; however,
dose-response data are lacking. Results:
Removal of the carpet and adhesive and
other remediation steps resulted in
elimination of the odor and measurable
airborne hexanols, and the school has
since been successfully re-occupied.
Lessons learned: Ethyl hexanols were
not identified in industrial hygiene
literature as a source of irritating
compounds and would not have been
identified without consideration of
materials science literature.
Collaborative work among industrial
hygienists, toxicologists and materials
scientists resulted in determination of
the source of odors/complaints and
successful resolution of the problem
PO 117-8
Validation, Expansion and
Application of a Mass Transfer
Model to Predict Diffusive Styrene
Emissions from a Composite
Building Material
S. Crawford, C. Lungu, University of
Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham,
AL
Objective: Diffusive emissions of
volatile compounds from building
materials have been well documented
as a source of indoor air pollution. While
laboratory testing can accurately
quantify these emissions and predict
volatile concentrations in indoor air, the
ability to precisely model emission rates
from any given building material would
provide a useful tool to air quality
professionals to anticipate, identify and
mitigate potential sources of indoor air
pollution. Composite materials, some
made with vinyl ester resins, are
replacing metal in transportation
applications (bus bodies, airplane
fuselages) but contain volatile styrene.
Here, a mass transfer model for
predicting volatile emissions from a
“dry” building material is presented,
validated and expanded for use over a
range of temperatures. Methods: A vinyl
ester resin (VER) composite material
containing 38% styrene by weight,
reinforced with E-glass fiber and formed
by a vacuum assisted resin transfer
method is characterized for styrene
emissions using small environmental
test chamber (ETC) methodology.
Styrene concentrations in the ETC were
collected at regular intervals for a range
of temperatures using charcoal
sampling tubes analyzed by gas
chromatography. The VER composite
material parameters and emission
profiles were applied to an existing
mass transfer model for validation at
23 C. Results: Total mass of styrene
emitted, as well as emission factors,
were obtained for each test
temperature. Total mass of styrene
emitted ranged from 2.76 mg at 10 C to
15.5 mg at 50 C over a two week period.
The styrene emission factor ranged from
0.029 mg m-2 hr-1 at 10 C to 0.079 mg m-2
hr-1 at 50 C. The VER composite emission
factors over a temperature range were
then applied to scale the model over
varied environmental conditions.
Conclusions: This scalable model allows
for the prediction of volatile emissions
and resultant concentrations in indoor
air over a temperature range with few
(material, environmental) parameter
inputs
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 117-9
Inconsistencies of Indoor Air Quality
Criteria in Guidance Documents for
the Remediation of Indoor
Marijuana Grow Operations
T. Lucas, InAIR Environmental Inc,
Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Indoor marijuana grow operations
(IMGOs) are a growing problem for
residences in both the United States
and Canada, with an estimate that one
in twenty homes will be utilized as an
IMGO in the next ten years. Currently in
Canada, guidance documents have been
written by both provincial and
municipal health organizations to
enforce a set of indoor air quality (IAQ)
criteria, including mold, for the
remediation of IMGOs. These documents
provide guidance to both homeowners
and the consultants on assessing and
remediating IMGOs. However, when
reviewing the sets of IAQ criteria in each
document, there are apparent
inconsistencies concerning the criteria
and the measurements to be collected.
As a tool to compare these documents, a
comparison list of investigation,
remediation and sampling criteria in
these documents was created. A review
of the list found that, for the majority of
these documents, common
inconsistencies are the descriptions of
“acceptable values” of post-remediation
airborne mold analyses; the use of, or
absence of use, for air scrubbing to
reduce levels of airborne mold spores
during the remediation process; and
requirements for indoor moisture and
humidity assessments. The
inconsistencies of identifying mold
clearance criteria in the guidance
documents create challenges for the
consultants due to lack of clarity. Clarity
in mold clearance criteria is provided by
the Calgary Regional Health’s (CRH)
guidance document. There are clear
consistencies between these
documents (CRH, City of Burlington and
City of Ottawa). They all require that as
part of the initial survey the following
be performed: a designated substance
survey, an intrusive visual inspection of
the residence’s wall cavities, and
chemical sampling. Based on the review,
it is important that these
inconsistencies be addressed and that
provincial and municipal organizations
develop comprehensive IMGOs indoor
air quality guidance documents.
41
PO 117-10
Water Treatment Rooms Have Been
Neglected in Occupational Exposure
Surveys in Indoor Swimming Pools
Podium Session 118
Industrial Hygiene General Practice
P. Kalliokoski, T. Rahkonen, University
of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; T.
Jauhiainen, P & T Jauhiainen Ltd,
Helsinki, Finland; S. Rautiala, Finnish
Institute of Occupational Health,
Kuopio, Finland; T. Rantio, Finnish
Institute of Occupational Health,
Tampere, Finland.
Objective: Indoor swimming pools have
been monitored earlier for airborne
concentrations of chlorination byproducts and microbes but no such data
were found for the water treatment areas
even though evaporation of chlorination
by-products takes place there, too and
water leaks are common. This study was
conducted to measure technical
personnel’s exposure to chloroform,
trichloroamine, and bioaerosols.
Methods: Gaseous air impurities were
studied in eight and bioaerosols in five
swimming pool buildings. Chloroform
was sampled with Tenax GR/Chromosorb
106 adsorption tubes which were
analyzed with GC/MS. Trichloroamine
was sampled with impregnated quartz
filters and determined as chloride with
ion chromatography. Microbes were
determined with cultivation methods.
Ventilation rates were measured with
tracer gas. Results: The concentration of
chloroform was 60-100 μg/m3 in the plant
rooms with open gravity sand filters. The
concentration was only 4 μg/m3 when the
filters were covered. The corresponding
concentrations of trichloroamine were
70-180 and < 5 μg/m3. High concentrations
(up to 440 μg/3) of chloroform were
measured above open balance tanks. If
the filters and tanks were closed,
chloroform and trichloroamine
concentrations were low (≤ 5 μg/m3). The
microbial growth was only moderate on
wet concrete surfaces. There is, however,
a risk of microbial growth because the pH
of the leakage water was close to neutral
and there was no free chlorine present
anymore. In two water treatment rooms
where other materials also got wet, the
microbial concentrations were very high,
up to 11 million cfu/g for fungi and 66
million cfu/g for bacteria. Conclusions:
There are both chemical and microbial
exposure risks in the plant rooms. The
emissions of chloroform and
trichloroamine are high from open tanks
and filters but are easy to control with
coverings. Microbial exposure can be
controlled by preparing the water leaks
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
2:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m.
Papers PO 118-1 – PO118-12
42
PO 118-1
Association Between Environmental
and Biological Concentrations of
Petroleum Derived Hydrocarbons
Among Offshore Workers Exposed
to Crude Oil
G. Talaska, P. Succop, The University of
Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; N. Hopf,
Institut universitaire romand de Santé
au Travail, Lausanne, Switzerland; J.
Kirkeleit, University of Bergen, Bergen,
Norway.
Objective: Upstream petroleum
workers have increased health risks due
to simultaneous exposures to several
hydrocarbons present in crude oil. Our
objectives in this study of petroleum
production workers were to (1) assess
the exposure to benzene, toluene,
ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); (2)
explore the usefulness of biomarkers of
benzene and toluene in these workers;
and (3) test whether the higher than
expected from measured benzene air
concentrations, internal benzene
concentration in tank workers
described in a previous study, could
partially be explained by dermal
absorption of benzene, using urinary 1hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a metabolite of
pyrene, in the statistical analysis as an
indirect measure of dermal absorption.
Methods: BTEX exposures were
measured during three consecutive 12hour shifts among 10 tank workers, 15
process operators and 17 controls.
Biological samples were collected preshift on the first day and post-shift on
the third day of the study. Results: BTEX
air concentrations were low compared
to recommended occupational limits,
but were significantly higher in tank
workers than in process operators.
Urinary benzene and toluene were both
useful biomarkers for benzene and
toluene exposures, respectively.
Conclusions: t,tMA, was not a good
biomarker for benzene exposures. There
was a potential for dermal absorption of
benzene; however, the extent of dermal
absorption of PAHs and benzene must
be determined in this population to rule
out an association with this route and
cancer risk
PO 118-2
Health Hazard Profiles: IH for NonIHs
J. Hinton, Baker Hughes, Houston, TX.
Situation/Problem: Within the oil and
gas service industry, workplace health
aspects generally lag behind safety. This
is partially due to most HSE
practitioners in this sector having
skillsets limited to safety, with few
having industrial hygiene skills or
training. This results in the occupational
hygiene aspects of the workplace not
being effectively addressed. Resolution:
IH exposure assessments and control
techniques were conducted, with
findings placed into tailored, fieldfriendly health hazard profiles for each
routine service sector activity. General
HSE practitioners across the company
then used the profiles in their
recognition and management of the
health aspects of their workplaces and
to establish their IH monitoring
program. Results: Health hazard profiles
allowed non-IH skilled HSE practitioners
to make self-guided decisions of
exposure potential and appropriate
controls. Use of the profiles reduced the
number of occupational illness related
incidences by 30% within eight months
of introduction (121 incidents during the
previous 30-month period, or 4
incidences per month, and 21 incidences
in the following 8-month period, or 2.6
incidences per month). Profiles proved
cost effective, by not having to require a
CIH to travel international distances or
hire local consultants to perform the
same service. Analysis confirmed the IH
aspects of oil and gas sector activities
can readily be addressed with basic
industrial hygiene principles and
controls. No new science or techniques
required to manage IH aspects. Creation
of the profiles revealed insufficient
baseline exposure monitoring is
historically performed, but use of
profiles has now established
baseline/ongoing IH monitoring
requirements for each workplace.
Lessons Learned: HSE practitioners and
employees are eager to manage the
health aspects of their workplaces
when provided activity relevant
guidance. This simple tool gave them
the empowerment and ownership that
was needed for them to take charge of
the health aspects of their workplaces
and make a difference
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 118-3
Elevated Postshift Levels of 2Naphthol in Rubber Workers Do Not
Predict DNA Adduct Levels in
Exfoliated Urothelial Cells
G. Talaska, The University of
Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; B. Gaultney,
PPG Industries, Natrium, WV; S. Peters,
R. Vermeulen, Utrecht University,
Utrecht, Netherlands.
Objective: Rubber workers have
elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer.
We recently reported that a group of 52
nonsmoking rubber workers had
elevated postshift levels of 1hydroxypyrene (1HP) and correlated
increases in levels of carcinogen DNA
adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells.
Workers who were most exposed and
affected were those in mixing and
curing departments. Lower molecular
weight polycyclic aromatic compounds
(PAC) like naphthalene have significant
vapor pressure and are often found in
the gaseous phase; more carcinogenic
PAC are less volatile and more often
associated with the particulate phase.
In the current study, we measured 2naphthol, a major urinary metabolite of
naphthalene, in order to determine the
potential contribution of more volatile
compounds to total exposure and
effects. Methods: Pre-and post-shift
urine samples were obtained. Workers
from mixing and compounding, pretreating, molding, curing, finishing,
shipping engineering and laboratory
departments were included. Samples
were coded so that the analyst did not
know which samples belonged to any
person or whether it was a pre-or postexposure sample. HPLC conditions were
similar to those reported earlier except
that flowrate was 0.8 ml/min and the
excitation/emission settings were 227
and 355nm, respectively. DNA adduct
analysis was conducted using
postlabeling. Results: Postshift 2naphthol levels were elevated for 17
persons as opposed to 7 where the postexposure sample was decreased. The
sign test for this distribution was
significant at p=0.053. There was a 50%
increase in 2-naphthol level in all
samples; however, this difference was
not statistically significant.
Nonetheless, urinary 2-naphthol levels
appear elevated in post-shift samples of
rubber workers, indicating an exposure
to volatile PAC. However, there was no
relationship between 2-naphthol levels
and any of the DNA adducts measured.
Conclusions: Rubber workers are
exposed to volatile PAH in their
workplaces, but this exposure does not
appear to contribute to genotoxicity
PO 118-4
The Industrial Hygiene Path to VPP
W. Adams, R. Moon, Safex, Inc.,
Westerville, OH; T. Reeves, Nucor,
Marion, OH.
Situation/problem: Three steel mills
and one steel fastener manufacturer
were preparing for application to the
OSHA Voluntary Protection Program.
Their internal resources had limited
industrial hygiene experience and the
company was experiencing an economic
turndown. Resolution: The company
contracted with a team of industrial
hygienists to assess the status of their
industrial hygiene program and provide
suggestions for developing an
exemplary industrial hygiene program.
The IH team worked with the facilities’
industrial hygiene team to implement a
comprehensive inhalation risk
assessment program. The associates
and the facility IH team understand the
value of the assessment program and
are proactively involved in identifying
potential hazards and controls. Results:
One facility is a VPP site, one has been
recommended for VPP and the other
two are waiting their site evaluations.
The industrial hygiene program was
noted as one of the strongest aspects of
the Health and Safety Management
System by the VPP assessors. The VPP
preparation included documenting
qualitative assessments, summarizing
years of quantitative assessments,
conducting additional industrial
hygiene monitoring and developing a
written inhalation risk assessment
program. The inhalation risk assessment
program defines personnel
responsibilities and establishes
procedures for hazard assessment, risk
assessment and risk management.
Hazard assessment incorporates raw
material, by product and intermediate
product health hazard ratings. Risk
assessment procedures include
development of SEG and conducting
qualitative and quantitative
assessments. Risk management
includes establishing corrective action,
implementing controls, and periodic
industrial hygiene monitoring. Lessons
learned: The IH team had to work closely
with the facility and the production
scheduling in order to maximize the
amount of sampling that could be done
during a single shift. Analytical costs
were minimized by regularly
scrutinizing the sampling strategy and
prior results. Education and effective
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
communication between the industrial
hygienists and the facility personnel
were paramount in the success of the
endeavor
PO 118-5
Industrial Hygiene Exposure
Management at a DOE Gaseous
Diffusion Plant
J. Romine, Energy Solutions,
Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: The Portsmouth
Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located
on a 3,778 acre federal reservation,
owned by the U.S. DOE and operated by
USEC, Inc., began operations in 1954 for
the production of enriched uranium. In
May 2001, USEC ceased uranium
enrichment at PGDP, changing the site
focus towards cleanup. The mission is
now focused on the areas of
environmental remediation, depleted
Uranium Hexafluoride conversion and
D&D. DOE has awarded work in these
focus areas to several prime
contractors. While the primary scope of
work performed by these DOE prime
contractors is remediation, they’re
compelled to provide a safe and
healthful workplace. This is
accomplished by mandate of an
integrated safety management program
through the terms and conditions of the
contract. The requirements of OSHA
were codified in 2007 through the
issuance of 10CFR851 “Worker Safety
and Health.” Accordingly, a major
objective of these contracts is
optimization of worker S&H. Resolution:
This paper will highlight the types of
work performed and industrial hygiene
data collected by three site contractors.
It will then compare the results to
occupational exposure limits. In
accordance with DOE regulations,
worker exposure is benchmarked
against OSHA PELs and the ACGIH TLVs®.
The remediation work being conducted
at PGDP encompasses common hazards
expected at an industrial facility.
However, in addition to these hazards,
this site also has additional industrial
hygiene concerns including
trichloroethylene plumes, noise
exposure, temperature stresses,
asbestos, silica, heavy metals,
radiological contamination,
polychlorinated biphenyls, and
beryllium. Results: Over 1,000 data
points, not including direct-reading
monitors, were collected in the first
three quarters of CY2010. This paper will
correlate this data with project work
and discuss the results in context to
43
exposure limits. In its closing text, the
discussion will culminate by pointing
out conclusions and highlighting any
lessons learned during the data
collection and analysis
PO 118-6
Industrial Hygiene Assessment of
Foundry Work
L. Kneten, R. Rogers, USAPHC, APG,
MD.
Foundry work has been plagued with
negative views and the basis of for the
foundation of occupational health
standards. Today, foundry work is less
“dirty,” but there are still occupational
hazards to assess and protect against.
Objective: Conduct an industrial
hygiene exposure assessment of
foundry workers performing various
activities, including metal melting
operations, mold making operations,
and cast cleaning operations. Method:
Conduct a basic walk through of the
processes and identify areas needing
assessment. Sampling and analysis will
follow the NIOSH 7300 method for heavy
metal exposure assessment and NIOSH
7500 method for silica exposure
assessment. Results: Over exposures to
silica were found during the pouring of
sand into cast templates and cast
cleaning tasks. Heavy metal
overexposures were found during
multiple cast cleaning operations.
Conclusion: Overexposures were found
in the foundry environment. Exposures
should be monitor and controls should
be implemented during the pouring of
sand to eliminate silica overexposures.
Foundry activities should continue to be
monitored and evaluated for potential
and continuous occupational hazards
PO 118-7
Evaluation of Health and Safety in
Small Auto Collision Repair Shops
A. Bejan, D. Parker, M. Skan, Park
Nicollet Institute, Minneapolis, MN; L.
Brosseau, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN.
Objective: The purpose of this project
was to obtain a baseline evaluation of
health and safety issues in small auto
collision businesses participating in a
three-year study of effectiveness of
safety interventions. Results were used
to inform business owners and provide
guidance with selecting and prioritizing
corrective actions. Results were also
used to assist with identifying
intervention activities. Methods: A
44
comprehensive shop evaluation survey
was developed with assistance from
state regulators and private
consultants. The survey contains 94
safety-related items that were assigned
one of four priority ratings. Items
address safety programs and training,
fire safety, personal protective
equipment, shop equipment, and
environmental issues. Survey results
were communicated to the shop owners
in a written report. Owners were asked
to commit to correcting at least 30% of
the items identified, with emphasis on
highest priority items. Results: In the
twenty-five shops evaluated to date, 1855% of items were missing (mean 41.6
items missing, SD= 8.7). Twenty-three of
the shops had no written safety
programs, nor did they provide Right-toKnow or respiratory protection training.
Twenty-one shops did not provide
annual respirator fit-tests. The most
common missing item in the highest
priority category was GFCI outlets in
areas where water was used. Medicalgrade latex gloves, unsuitable for
chemical protection, were used by
painters in more than half of the shops.
All shop owners chose to address
between 30% and 100% of the items
present in the report. Conclusions: Our
results indicate that most shop owners
are not aware of the requirements of
the applicable OSHA standards and do
not have a good understanding of basic
electrical safety issues or personal
protective equipment needs and
limitations. Intervention activities were
designed to assist shop owners with
understanding regulatory requirements
and improve safety in their businesses
PO 118-8
Evaluation of Asbestos in Dust on
Surfaces by Side-by-Side
Comparison of Micro-vacuum and
Wipe Sampling Methods
J. Kominsky, Environmental Quality
Management, Inc., Cincinnati, OH; J.
Millette, MVA, Inc., Duluth, GA.
Objective: As part of a study to
determine contamination levels of
asbestos, metals and other World Trade
Center-related contaminants in the wall
cavity of a high-rise office building,
paired samples were collected from 15
locations. The surface type of 14 of the
15 locations was concrete-masonry
block; the remaining surface type was a
PVC-coating. Methods: Micro-vacuumwipe pairs were obtained from the same
wall component at contiguous
locations. A 16-part grid template was
used to assure that equal 100 cm2 areas
were consistently sampled. Microvacuum and wipe samples were
collected and analyzed for asbestos
using ASTM Methods D 5756 and D 6480,
respectively. Results: The average
surface concentration reported by the
micro-vacuum samples was numerically
higher than the wipe samples, but the
difference was not statistically
significant (p=0.195). Both methods
yielded an equal number of non-detects;
the false negative rates were the same
for each method. Micro-vacuum and
wipe sample concentrations were not
correlated (R2 = 0.207). The length and
width of asbestos structures collected
by wipe samples was significantly larger
than by micro-vacuum samples
(p=<0.001). Conclusions: Micro-vacuum
sampling for asbestos in dust on rough
surfaces yields numerically higher
concentrations of asbestos. Despite
variations in the relative efficiency of
particle collection by these methods,
the data pairs demonstrate that microvacuum and wipe samples produced
statistically equivalent results, with
micro-vacuum samples being more
efficient on the rough surfaces tested.
Selection of the sampling technique
(micro-vacuum vs. wipe) should consider
the textural characteristic of the surface
PO 118-9
Total and Respirable Dust and Silica
Exposures in the Simulated Lunar
Operations (SLOPE) Facility
B. Hodgson, SAIC-NASA, Cleveland, OH.
The NASA Glenn Research Center’s
(GRC’s) SLOPE laboratory has test rigs
and equipment used for studying the
traction and power consumption of
lunar vehicles and other machines
operating in soil. A 12 meter long, 6
meter wide and 0.3 meter deep soil bin
filled with small particle size silica sand
is used for the flat surface testing of
extraterrestrial vehicles. The bin is also
equipped with a 7 meter long, 5 meter
wide and 0.3 meter deep adjustable
tilting section for sloped surface
testing. The objective of the monitoring
was to evaluate airborne
concentrations of dust and silica in
order to ensure proper personal
protective equipment is used during
various activities. Methods used
included both personal and area
sampling for total and respirable dust
and silica using NIOSH methodology
during routine activities including
loading the bin with sand, raking and
shoveling sand, lunar/Mars rover
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
vehicle testing, surface strength testing,
sand removal, and cleaning operations.
Eight-hour time-weighted average
results ranged from less than detectable
levels up to 120 ug/m3; the highest levels
measured during raking and moving
sand. The conclusions from this
evaluation indicated PPE, including
respiratory protection, is required to
prevent exposure to silica until
engineering controls are implemented.
Additionally, a medical surveillance
program was implemented for those
working in the facility.
PO 118-10
Exposure Assessment of Airborne
Total Dust and Asbestos
Concentrations from Asbestos
Containing Interior Materials
Removal in Korea
S. Byeon, J. Lee, H. Choi, H. Moon,
Korea University, Seoul, Republic of
Korea; K. Lee, Korea Institute of Science
and Technology, Seoul, Republic of
Korea.
Situation/problem: It has not
measured the asbestos concentration
during asbestos abatement in Korea
because asbestos removal works have
short times (usually less than four
hours). Resolution: The measurement
and analysis were carried out with
removal site of ceiling textile containing
asbestos and bamlite board of building
in Seoul. The personal and area
sampling were performed from
February to April, 2010. Total dust
samples were analyzed by gravimetric
analysis method. And the asbestos was
analyzed with phase contrast
microscope (PCM) according to NIOSH
7400 method. Results: The geometric
mean (GM) of total dust concentration
showed 2.46 mg/m3 for personal and
0.54 mg/m3 for area sampling when
bamlite was removed and it was
significantly different(p<0.05). But it
showed 10.66 mg/m3 for personal and
10.49 mg/m3 for area sampling when
ceiling textile was removed. The GM of
asbestos concentration showed 0.044
f/cc for personal, 0.033 f/cc for area
when bamlite was removed and showed
0.054 f/cc for personal, 0.067 f/cc for area
when ceiling textile was removed and
they are not significantly
difference(p>0.05). Lessons learned:
Although total and asbestos
concentration does not exceed the
occupational exposure limit (OEL) when
it applied to 8-hour time weight average
(8hr TWA), some concentrations during
work for short time exceeded the OEL.
Because asbestos removal works have
short times (usually less than 4 hours),
it’s difficult directly to compare with the
OEL of labor ministry, but it should have
some standard and control of workplace
for asbestos abatement in Korea
because asbestos is carcinogenic (A1)
PO 118-11
Fibre Escape from Asbestos
Abatement Enclosures: Qualitative
Results
P. Bozek, University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON, Canada.
Objective: Potential for fibre release
from indoor asbestos removal
enclosures was studied to elucidate
factors that may contribute to airborne
exposure in proximity to such projects.
Methods: Twenty Type 3 asbestos
abatement projects in Ontario, Canada
were studied by visual observation,
questioning of workers/supervisors, and
short term air sampling, during key
tasks where fibre release may occur:
enclosure set-up (disturbance prior to
abatement), active abatement tasks,
waste removal, exiting of personnel
through 3-stage decontamination, and
enclosure tear down after completion of
work. Qualitative observations only are
reported in this paper. Results: Control
practices were inconsistent and not in
conformance with at least some of the
regulatory requirements on most
projects observed. The most frequent
error was lack of pre-decontamination
of personnel in the dirty room of the 3
stage decontamination facility. Second
was improper technique to
decontaminate waste bags during
removal out of the enclosure. Third was
lack of wetting of asbestos containing
materials during abatement. On some
projects, negative pressure was not
adequately maintained during some
tasks. On only one project did workers
follow guidelines for PPE from the
provincial training curriculum during
teardown of the enclosure. All projects
involved use of a third party consultant
to monitor the abatement contractor
for at least key project milestones,
although no site consultants were
CIH/ROHs. Conclusions: Abatement
contractor training and supervision
were not adequate to ensure all best
practices for fibre control were followed
at most projects observed, despite
province-wide certification of workers
and supervisors, and the presence of
third party consultants. Potential for
airborne fibre release from abatement
enclosures exist due to contaminated
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
personnel, contaminated waste bags, or
in some cases, inadequate negative
pressure
PO 118-12
In-Cab Employee Exposure
Assessment During Street Sweeping
Operations
J. Biddle, Northern Arizona University,
Flagstaff, AZ.
Situation/Problem: Employees
performing mechanical street sweeping
activities on paved roads are concerned
about their in-cab exposure to both
total and respirable particulates
generated during the street sweeping
process. There is further concern that
the street sweeping equipment being
utilized is old and outdated and does
not provide adequate protection in the
cabin during the sweeping process.
Sustained appropriate cabin pressure is
questionable. Compromised integrity of
cabin door seals and the ventilation
system is also suspect as a contributor
to exposure. Resolution: Perform
employee exposure assessment
following appropriate sampling
protocol to determine compliance with
established occupational exposure
limits for total and respirable
particulate matter not otherwise
regulated (OSHA PNOR). Evaluate the
integrity of cabin seals at the doors and
assess the equipment’s ventilation
system to determine cabin pressure.
Check the machine’s filter in the
ventilation system and filter chassis
housing for potential particulate matter
bypass. Results: Analytical results for
both total and respirable particulate
matter resulted in levels that were
below established occupational
exposure limits (OSHA PNOR). Cabin
pressure inside was observed to be
positive in relation to outside the cabin.
Fugitive particulate matter emission
generated outdoors during the
sweeping process did not appear to be
penetrating cabin space. The filter and
chassis housing appeared tight
indicating an absence of bypass.
Lessons Learned: Cabin door seal status,
frequent filter maintenance of the
ventilation system, and following
established street sweeping protocol
most likely results in employee
exposure below established maximum
occupational exposure levels (OSHA
PNOR).
45
Podium Session 119
All Things Radiation
PO 119-2
Case Studies in Radiation Risk
Communication
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PO 119-1 – PO119-6
R. Johnson, Dade Moeller and
Associates, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.
Situation Problem: Cases have been
evaluated at facilities using radioactive
materials where workers have made
statements, such as: “Radiation, I don’t
want anything to do with that!” “I don’t
want my DNA damaged!” “I saw the
radiation meter go off scale!” “Does that
clicking Geiger counter mean that I will
not be able to have children?” “We got a
hot one here!” “I don’t want to glow or
have children with three eyes!” Each of
these statements indicates varying
degrees of fear of radiation. How would
you respond to these people as an
industrial hygienist? Resolution: In each
case, the risk communication skills of
the person responsible for radiation
safety were challenged in efforts to give
the most helpful responses. Hearing and
responding to feelings (fears) is often
difficult for technical specialists. The
communication tool called Active
Listening was (or could have been) very
effective in each case. Active listening
responds to both the content and the
feeling of a communication. Results:
Three of the cases were resolved by use
of active listening. However, three of
the cases did not use active listening
and poor responses to worker fears
resulted in worker and union upset,
turmoil in the facility, and expensive
resolutions. In one case a worker sued
for damages and it cost the facility over
one million dollars for legal defense.
Lessons Learned: Industrial hygienists
and radiation safety specialists can
learn to use risk communication tools,
such as active listening, to hear and
respond appropriately to upset workers.
Ideally, use of these tools would defuse
worker concerns before they get to the
point of needing expensive resolutions.
Hearing feelings may be more important
than solving problems. Training in the
use of risk communication tools could
be an important asset for industrial
hygienists for implementing good
safety programs
PO 119-1
Laser Safety Program at Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution
R. Reif, Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution, Woods Hole, MA.
Situation/problem: Implementing a
laser safety program at the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)
presents many challenges and
opportunities for improving safety
performance. Getting all laser users to
take ownership of safety and comply
with all laser safety requirements are
key ingredients of a successful laser
safety program. Resolution: WHOI’s
laser safety program includes the
following elements: registration of high
power lasers, hazard analysis of lasers,
proper design of laser facilities,
selection of hazard controls, laser
operating procedures, laser safety
training for all laser users, and routine
inspections of laser facilities. Laser
owners are required to sign the high
power laser registration form and agree
to comply with all applicable
requirements. All laser users are
required to sign the laser operating
procedure that applies to their facility
and follow are requirements. Laser
users are included in the development
of laser operating procedures, design of
their facilities, review of hazard analysis
calculations for their lasers, and in the
selection of hazard controls. Laser
safety training for new laser users
includes a tour of established laser
facilities, review of laser operating
procedure, and review of basic laser
safety information. Results: By engaging
the laser users in all elements of the
laser safety program, ownership of laser
safety at the user level is more easily
established and compliance with safety
requirements is significantly improved.
Lessons learned: New laser owners and
users should be mentored by
experienced laser users and be given an
opportunity to observe the
implementation of laser safety
procedures at established laser
facilities before operating their own
high power lasers
46
PO 119-3
Estimating Spectral Error in Solar
Ultraviolet Radiation
Measurements From Broadband
Detectors
M. Phillips, Y. Janah, University of
Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK.
Objective: Accurate determination of
the effective radiation dose from
ultraviolet (UV) sources by broadband
detectors requires good matching of the
detector’s spectral response to the
spectral effectiveness function. The
purpose of this study was to estimate
the spectral error of three broadband
detectors commonly used by industrial
hygiene practitioners or researchers to
evaluate exposure to solar UV. Methods:
The effective solar UV irradiance was
calculated by weighting the ASTM G17303 Reference Solar Spectrum Irradiance
by the ACGIH/ICNIRP Relative Spectral
Effectiveness function. The spectral
response function for the International
Light (IL) UV Actinic Hazard detector
was obtained in numerical form from
the manufacturer. The spectral response
functions for the Gigahertz-Optik X-2000
personal dosimeter with ACGIH/ICNIRP
detector and for polysulfone film
dosimeters were measured from
published detector response curves and
normalized to 1 at 270 nm. Results: The
IL UV Actinic Hazard detector had a
spectral error of about negative 5% over
the range 250-316 nm. No detector
response data were available outside
this wavelength range, omitting about
5% of the effective solar UV spectrum.
The detector would thus underestimate
effective solar UV radiation by no more
than about 10%. The single-sensor X2000 ACGIH/ICNIRP detector response
curve covered nearly the whole
effective solar UV spectrum and was
calculated to overestimate the effective
solar UV irradiance by 16%. Polysulfone
film grossly overestimated the effective
solar UV irradiance due to poor spectral
matching at wavelengths greater than
270 nm. Conclusions: Despite poor or
undefined spectral matching to the
Relative Spectral Effectiveness function
in the UV-A region, where the direct
solar UV radiation is strongest, two
commonly used electronic UV detectors
were subject to only modest spectral
errors when measuring effective solar
UV irradiance. Polysulfone film was
subject to large spectral error and is
therefore not recommended for solar
UV dosimetry
PO 119-4
Field Testing EMF Survey
Instruments
D. Baron, dB-emf, Austin, TX.
Situation: While all EMF (non-ionizing
radiation) survey instruments require
periodic calibration verification, what
assurances can you provide that the
instrument you are using today can be
reasonably assumed to be operating
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
properly? Resolution: There are several
simple tests (tricks?) you can use to
increase your confidence in obtaining
good survey data to protect you and
your client. Pretest procedures
developed over 25 years of EMF field
testing are outlined for checking the
operation of field survey meters.
Results: The procedures reported cover
parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
from DC (static) magnetic fields up to
2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields. Lessons
Learned: Knowing of possible problems
before a survey rather than three
months after can do wonders for a good
night’s sleep
PO 119-5
Practical Application of the
ANSI/IEEE RF Safety Program
Standard to Cellular/Wireless
Antenna Sites
R. Curtis, Curtis Engineering &
Management Services, South Jordan, UT.
Situation/Problem: From a regulatory
perspective, it can be concluded that
violations of FCC and OSHA
radiofrequency (RF) safety standards
are increasing with the proliferation of
antenna sites to support the growth of
cellular/wireless services. Violations
commonly occur when maintenance
workers, such as third-party painters,
HVAC technicians, electricians, and
roofers are allowed access to structures
which host transmitting antennas.
Resolution: Industrial hygienists
recognize the utility of site-specific
safety and health programs to mitigate
workplace hazards. Safety and health
program elements to mitigate RF
hazards are described in the ANZI/IEEE
standard C95.7-2005 entitled
“Recommended Practice for Radio
Frequency Safety Programs, 3 kHz to 300
GHz”. Results: This presentation will
show photos of common RF violations
occurring at cellular/wireless antenna
sites based on surveys of more than a
hundred sites, none of which having a
compliant RF safety program. It will also
present steps for developing
inexpensive (< $500) RF compliant site
programs, including the identification
and control of RF restricted areas,
custom wording of RF signs to provide
site-specific instructions, and sitespecific training sheets for prequalifying maintenance contractors and
for pre-work safety briefings. Lessons
Learned: The development of practical
site-specific RF safety programs was
shown to be greatly simplified by
focusing on the information needed by
those potentially over-exposed, i.e., the
locations of RF hazard areas, and what
to do if they need access to those areas.
Complicated issues were typically
avoided by using previous experience
and conservative RF analysis in lieu of
RF measurements; thus reducing the
cost of developing the RF safety
programs compliant with the ANSI/IEEE
standard
PO 119-6
Practical Application of the
ANSI/IEEE RF Safety Program
Standard to Radio/TV Broadcast
Antenna Sites
R. Curtis, Curtis Engineering & Mgmnt
Services, South Jordan, UT.
Situation/Problem: Radio and TV
broadcast antenna sites are a
traditional source of violations of FCC
and OSHA radiofrequency (RF) safety
standards. Violations commonly occur
when maintenance workers, such as
aviation lights technicians, tower
repairmen and painters, electricians,
and antenna system technicians
perform work too close to transmitting
antennas. An assessment of 80
broadcast sites revealed that none had
formal power-down procedures or
appropriate RF signage to protect
workers and comply with applicable
standards. Resolution: Industrial
hygienists recognize the utility of sitespecific safety and health programs to
mitigate workplace hazards. Safety and
health program elements to mitigate RF
hazards are described in the ANZI/IEEE
standard C95.7-2005 entitled
“Recommended Practice for Radio
Frequency Safety Programs, 3 kHz to 300
GHz”. Results: This presentation will
show photos of common RF violations
occurring at AM and FM radio and TV
broadcast sites based on the
assessment of 80 sites, none of which
have a compliant RF safety program. It
will also present steps for developing
inexpensive (< $1000) RF compliant site
programs, including the identification
and control of RF restricted areas,
custom wording of RF signs to provide
site-specific instructions, and sitespecific training sheets for prequalifying maintenance contractors and
for pre-work safety briefings. Lessons
Learned: The development of practical
site-specific RF safety programs was
shown to be greatly simplified by
focusing on the information needed by
those potentially over-exposed, i.e., the
locations of RF hazard areas, and what
to do as workers climb into and out of
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
those areas. Complicated issues were
typically avoided by using previous
experience and conservative RF analysis
in lieu of RF measurements; thus
reducing the cost of developing the RF
safety programs compliant with the
ANSI/IEEE standard.
Podium Session 120
Alternate Exposure Assessment Strategies
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PO 120-1 – PO120-6
PO 120-1
Comparison of a Two-Zone (Near
Field-Far Field) Exposure Model with
Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) and Spatial Concentration
Distributions Measured in a
Simulation Chamber to Estimate
Breathing Zone Concentrations and
Bystander Exposure Factors
D. Hall, C. Strode, E. Rasmuson, J.
Rasmuson, Chemistry & Industrial
Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO.
Objective: Compare the time-tested
two-zone (Near Field-Far Field) model
for determining breathing zone and
bystander exposure concentrations
with CFD modeling software followed
by verification with a real world
experiment. Methods: The Exposure
Assessment Strategies Committee twozone mathematical model and CFD
modeling software were utilized to
predict contaminant concentration
spatial distributions under similar
environmental and contaminant
generation conditions followed by a
controlled experiment conducted in a
25x20x9ft simulation chamber to
validate the two methods and to
interpret variations in the results.
Ventilation rates and mixing factors
within the simulation chamber were
determined via the ASTM method
utilizing SF6 and CO2. Spatial
distribution contaminant analysis was
determined with SF6 utilizing syringesample collection followed with gas
chromatography (GC) analysis. Results:
Pictorial and tabular comparisons of the
results for each of the three methods
will be presented. Conclusions: CFD
provides a useful tool to supplement
other mathematical exposure models.
More detailed spatial distribution
47
contaminant information can be
successfully modeled although
validation via real-world and simulation
chamber measurements will be required
on an on-going basis to fully validate
the procedure.
PO 120-2
A Comparison on the Characteristics
of Benzene Exposure Between the
Coal Chemical and Petrochemical
Refining Method during Turnaround
E. Chung, Korea Occupational Safety
and Health Agency, Incheon, Republic of
Korea.
Objective: To compare the exposure
level of benzene for between
petrochemical and coal chemical
workers working during turnaround (TA)
in BTX process where benzene was
being produced. Methods: Three
companies handling benzene were
investigated, where the TA was
classified into three stages: shut down,
maintenance and start up. A target
process was BTX (Benzene-TolueneXylene, Naphtha-based and coal tarbased) process. Data was analyzed by
classifying the refining method into 2
groups (Petrochemistry 202, Coal
chemistry 238) for 823 plant workers
who participate during TA. To measure
the benzene concentration, both
passive sampling by organic vapor
monitor and active sampling by
charcoal tubes were used together and
were collected as possible as plant
workers worked for eight hours
continuously. Benzene was analyzed
according to the NIOSH Manual of
Analytical Methods 1500 and 1501. The
distributions were assessed by the
Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Differences
between groups were assessed using
the t-test for independent samples. And,
it was replaced “not detected (N.D.)”
with half the detection limit for
statistics. Results: The time-weighted
average concentration in the
petrochemical and coal chemical
refining method was the geometric
mean 0.10(5.62) ppm and 0.12(6.94) ppm
(p> 0.05). The short-term exposure
concentration was the geometric mean
0.03(5.89) ppm and 1.39(31.43) ppm (p<
0.001), respectively. The excess rates of
occupational exposure limits (OELs in
ACGIH: TLV-TWA 0.5 ppm, TLV-STEL 2.5
ppm) of benzene were 8.3% in
petrochemical refining method and
were 21.4% in coal chemical refining
method, respectively. The benzene
concentration of petrochemical refining
method in the maintenance and start up
48
stage of TA were higher than those coal
chemical refining method (p <0.01).
Conclusions: These findings suggest
that the coal chemical refining site
requires more stringent work practice
controls compare to petrochemical
refining sites during TA. Personal
protective equipments including
organic respirators should be used by TA
workers to protect them from benzene
over-exposure
PO 120-3
Validation of the USEPA Integrated
Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model
(IEUBK) at High Levels of Lead
Exposure among Children Living
Near an Active Lead Smelter in
Shymkent, Kazakhstan
J. Rasmuson, A. Korchevskiy, D. Hall, R.
Strode, D. Larson, E. Rasmuson,
Chemistry & Industrial Hygiene, Inc.,
Wheat Ridge, CO; R. Olsen, CDM, Inc.,
Denver, CO.
Objective: In Shymkent, Kazakhstan,
60,000 children with lead in blood
concentrations (blood lead levels - BLLs)
up to levels exceeding 100 μg/dl live in a
14 km2 zone surrounding an active lead
smelter. The IEUBK model for predicting
BLLs has not been validated above 30
μg/dl BLL according to the EPA manual.
The objective of this work was to
validate/calibrate the IEUBK model for
the dry Shymkent climate and at the
higher BLLs encountered so that it could
be accurately and effectively applied to
evaluate different environmental cleanup scenarios. Methods: A group of 156
children in daycare centers and
orphanages at different distances from
the smelter were tested for BLLs with
the portable ESA LeadCare Model 3010B.
Soil, indoor dust, and collected air
samples were analyzed with portable
XRF devices. Soil samples were tested
for lead bioavailability using an in vitro
method (EPA 9200.1-86). Continuous air
samples were collected over a one
month period at various locations
within the affected zone. The USEPA
IEUBK software was systematically run
with different assumptions, and results
were statistically compared with
measured BLLs. Results: The geometric
means of BLLs varied from 7.72 μg/dl
(geometric standard deviation, GSD=1.6)
for children in a remote daycare center
to 27.7 μg/dl (GSD 1.8) for a center within
about one km of the smelter.
Concentrations for lead in soil ranged
from 100 to 24,000 mg/kg, in indoor dust
from 433 to 4625 mg/kg, and in air from
1.0 to 7.9 μg/m3. The IEUBK model
effectively predicted the BLL
distribution for all four locations
evaluated (r=0.996, p=0.003) assuming
100% bioavailability, 50% lead uptake,
and a soil/indoor dust ingestion factor
of 70/30. Conclusions: The effectiveness
and accuracy of the IEUBK model was
demonstrated at BLLs greater than 30
μg/dl, for dry climate conditions
involving active smelter emissions.
PO 120-4
Design and Execution of a MDI
Exposure Assessment: Lessons
Learned and a Brief Comparison of
Two Analytical Methods OSHA 47
and IsoChek
M. Hutchison, G2 Consultants, Inc.,
Lake Oswego, OR.
Situation/problem: A client requested
review of the Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) for a product designed to
expedite parcel packing. The product
works as a two-part chemical reaction
that creates an expanding foam within a
bag that cures and hardens within a
five- to ten-minute time period. MDI is
the primary chemical constituent in this
two-part foam and presents a potential
health hazard to the skin and
respiratory tract. We were asked to
report results and generate a final
written report on a rush turnaround
(within two to three business days).
Resolution: The IsoChek and OSHA 47
methods were selected to characterize
the oligomer and monomer forms of
MDI. Short-term, 15-minute samples
were collected to characterize
exposures while two employees each
packed two boxes using the expanding
foam product. The first employee
performed typical production tasks
while the second employee performed
elevated production tasks. Air samples
were collected from the personal
breathing zone (PBZ) of each worker
using side by side sampling with both
OSHA 47 and IsoChek media. Results:
Both analytical methods measured
non-detect concentrations of airborne
MDI and limits of quantitation were
below the OSHA and ACGIH exposure
limits (TWA and Ceiling). These results
were reported to the client and specific
recommendations were made about
minimizing all routes of exposure (e.g.,
dermal and ingestion).
Recommendations were made about
PPE, hazard communication training,
and additional exposure assessments.
Lessons learned: Utilizing two separate
analytical methods improved
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
confidence when reporting results. Air
exposure sampling only characterizes
one route of possible exposure. It is
critical to remind clients that all routes
of exposure need to be controlled
PO 120-6
New Basis for Interpreting
Historical Exposures to Dust from
Chrysotile-containing Joint
Compound
basis now exists to better estimate and
interpret historic joint compound
exposures.
PO 120-5
Determining Particulate
Containment Through Surrogate
Monitoring at Pharmaceutical
Companies in India
P. Sheehan, G. Brorby, K. Bogen,
Exponent, Oakland, CA; W. Berman,
Aeolus, Inc., Albany, CA; S. Holm, GeorgiaPacific LLC, Atlanta, GA
Chrysotile-containing joint
compound, i.e., fibers in a calcium
carbonate- or calcium sulfate-based
matrix, has not been manufactured in
the U.S. for more than 30 years but was
commonly used in residential and
commercial construction from the late
1940s through the mid 1970s.
Unfortunately, little is known about
actual human exposures to fibers that
may have resulted from the use of
chrysotile-containing joint compound,
because few exposure and no healtheffects studies have been conducted
and there are reasons to question
whether the few historic exposure
measures are representative.
Objectives: Therefore, bench-scale
studies were undertaken to re-create
and test a chrysotile-containing calcium
carbonate-based joint compound from
an original 1960s formulation, along
with a current asbestos-free joint
compound to characterize fibers in
respirable and TSP dust. Methods: A
bench-scale test chamber with
controlled air flow dynamics was
designed constructed and tested to
evaluate performance. Ten chamber
tests were conducted to characterize
the respirable and TSP fractions of
chrysotile-containing joint compound
as the number of chrysotile fibers per
mass of dust generated during sanding
and the amount of respirable or TSP
dust emitted during the sanding of
chrysotile-containing and asbestos-free
joint compound. These data were
combined with previously published
field data on respirable dust
concentrations during sanding of
modern-day joint compound during
actual construction projects to estimate
the airborne chrysotile concentration
associated with historic sanding
chrysotile-containing joint compound.
Results: Study results indicate that
historic measurements in TSP dust
overestimated potential exposures to
fibers in respirable dust by a factor of 6
to 12. The noted differences are
primarily due to historic sampling and
preparation artifacts unique to this
material that also were documented in
the present studies. Conclusions: A new
Podium Session 121
Case Study Methodologies for Skin and Respiratory Exposures
G. Desai, International Safety
Systems, Inc, Vadodara, India; M. Mehta,
International Safety Systems, Inc, New
York, NY
Globally, India ranks third in terms of
manufacturing pharma products by
volume. The Indian pharmaceutical
industry is expected to grow at a rate of
9.9% till 2010 and after that 9.5% till
2015. Potential for exposure to active
pharmaceutical ingredients exist in
absence of effective particulate
containment. Resources available to
determine the degree of exposure to
active pharmaceutical ingredients are
limited. Surrogate monitoring is an
effective tool to determine particulate
containment efficiency in
pharmaceutical industries. Qualitative
and quantitative assessments were
conducted at three Indian and three
multinational pharmaceutical
industries. Free flowing lactose of USP
grade was used in place of API for
containment verification. Surrogate
monitoring methodology established by
a renowned international
pharmaceutical association was used
for the purpose of the monitoring. More
than 500 surrogate airborne and swab
samples were collected. An American
Industrial Hygiene Associationaccredited laboratory in the U.S.
analyzed the samples. The surrogate
monitoring results were compared with
exposure control band limits to
determine adequacy of the particulate
containment provided. Engineering
controls and work practices related
recommendations were made to reduce
API exposures. The type of respiratory
protection needed was determined
based on the surrogate monitoring
results. The surrogate monitoring was
found effective in (a) determining the
degree of particulate containment
efficiency provided and (b) exposure
controls, work practices and respiratory
protection needed
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:00 a.m.–12:20 p.m.
Papers PO 121-1 – PO121-7
PO 121-1
Chemical Occupational Asthma: Is
Skin Exposure the Missing Piece of
the Puzzle?
T. Morris, Morris Innovative IH&S
Solutions, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: Ever lower
chemical sensitizer OELs and the
resulting lower worker exposures have
not had a significant impact on
occupational asthma (OA); it continues
to be a leading work-related respiratory
disease. Inhalation has historically been
the only route of exposure considered
for chemical respiratory sensitizers.
Skin exposure is typically only
evaluated in the context of dermatitis
or absorption with systemic toxicity.
Industrial environments can provide
conditions that facilitate skin
penetration by respiratory sensitizers
such as the use of solvating chemicals
and skin irritants. Resolution: LEV
systems and respirators are used to
control exposures but they obviously
have a poor record protecting workers
and preventing OA; there must be a
missing piece to the sensitization
puzzle. Results: Immunotoxicology
research has demonstrated the complex
nature of the immune response and
illuminated the many factors that
influence sensitization. Route of
exposure is being reexamined in light of
evidence demonstrating respiratory
sensitization can occur via skin
exposure (e.g., isocyanates and acid
anhydrides). Lessons learned: In
contrast with our previous
understanding of the mechanism of OA,
some well studied chemical respiratory
sensitizers have produced OA via skin
exposure alone and data indicate that,
under appropriate conditions, other
respiratory sensitizers also possess this
capability (at least facilitate
immunologic priming). This helps
49
explain the dichotomy of low airborne
exposures and continuing cases of OA. A
better understanding of chemical
respiratory sensitizers’ mode of action
coupled with a thorough accounting of
all routes of exposure, including skin,
will allow resources to be targeted at
high risk activities, worker education
and more complete protection so OA is
prevented
PO 121-2
Occupational Exposure to Artificial
Butter Flavorings: A State-of-the-Art
Analysis
D. Hollins, D. Galbraith, B. Finley,
ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA; J. Pierce,
ChemRisk, Chicago, IL.
Objective: Since investigating
potential health hazards of the GilsterMary Lee sentinel plant in 2000, the
National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) and
numerous other researchers have
conducted additional industrial hygiene
and cross-sectional medical
investigations in microwave popcorn,
flavorings manufacturing, and other
related facilities. While initial
conclusions offered in these NIOSH
reports suggest that respiratory
disorders were elevated in certain
workers and that diacetyl appeared to
have been a potential causative agent,
concerns have recently shifted to other
flavoring chemicals that are present in
artificial butter flavorings. Methods: We
performed a weight of evidence analysis
reviewing the existing animal
toxicology and epidemiology studies
pertaining to artificial butter flavorings,
and completed a detailed analysis of the
relevant NIOSH Health Hazard
Evaluations (HHEs) that have been
conducted to date. Results:
Occupational exposures to artificial
butter flavorings during food
manufacturing and processing have
only been recently studied.
Interestingly, while deep lung effects
have been reported in humans
potentially exposed to these chemicals,
high exposures to butter flavorings did
not cause deep lung effects in the
animal model. Further, the
preponderance of studies fails to
demonstrate an exposure-response
relationship between exposure to
artificial butter flavorings and lung
disease. Although, current research has
identified additional chemical
constituents of artificial butter
flavorings, research is limited and little
is known about toxicity and exposure to
50
these chemicals in the workplace.
Conclusion: The health effects
associated with exposure to artificial
butter flavorings remain unclear. Future
research is warranted to determine (1)
the concentrations of the various
constituents of artificial butter
flavorings in the workplace, and (2)
whether or not these exposures are
associated with increased disease
occurrence
PO 121-3
Development of Method and
Preliminary Field Results for
Measurements of Skin Exposure
during Secondary Water Contact
Recreation
S. Cali, D. Das, J. Piatek, R. Lopez, S.
Dorevitch, P. Scheff, University of Illinois
at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Objectives: This project was designed
to support an epidemiological study of
health risks from recreational,
secondary water contact activities in
certain Chicago-area rivers and lakes.
We developed a method for estimating
skin exposure from transitory water
splashes on the body and face during
activities such as canoeing and
kayaking. The results will be used to
evaluate self-reported water exposure.
The splash volume estimation methods
and results are presented here for
industrial hygienists to consider when
developing skin exposure assessments
in other settings. Methods: The method
quantified the volume of water contact
by using three families of bacteria as
tracers. Laboratory experiments
demonstrated that small sterile
sponges inoculated with indicator
bacteria could retain organism viability.
The field exposure evaluation method
placed the sponges on participants’ life
vests and ankles during recreational
water activities. The ratio of sponge
organisms to recreational water (river
or lake) organisms was utilized to
estimate the volume of water splashing
onto the sponges. Sponge area was prorated to skin area, using U.S.EPA
Exposure Factors Handbook values to
calculate ranges of water splash to the
body. Results: The laboratory
experiments quantified the recovery
fraction of viable organisms at 60-70%
for a four-hour period. The field
sampling preliminary results suggest
that the mean total body splash volume
exceeds 1.9 liters of water per person.
The results were relatively consistent
across three different types of
recreational boating activities.
Conclusions: The results across three
different types of recreational boating
activities suggest a consistent,
reproducible exposure assessment
method. A limitation is the need for a
reference concentration (in this case,
the river or lake water organisms) to
develop a ratio for calculating liquid
volume. However, the efficacy of a
reservoir such as a sponge to retain
splash volume of liquid may prompt IHs
to consider such tools for skin exposure
assessments
PO 121-4
Using Qualitative Exposure
Assessment for Occupational
Contact Dermatitis
A. Sussell, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: Industrial hygienists assess
dermal exposures to support
occupational contact dermatitis case
management and research studies. A
single-substance approach is often not
applicable because workers’ have
combined exposures to many skin
irritants and allergens.
Methods: Skin exposures to relevant
substances, including chemical
products, personal protective
equipment, hand cleaners, and soaps
and detergents were assessed
qualitatively. In this study of car
assembly plants, where > 1200 chemical
substances were used, a list of
potentially relevant substances and
substance categories was developed
from previous dermatitis case reports
and observations of the processes.
Workers who were diagnosed with
occupational contact dermatitis in a
plant clinic (cases) and randomly
selected controls from the same plants
were asked to recall and self-report
their average frequency of skin
exposure to each of the selected
substances or categories (the exposure
frequency categories were: none, daily,
weekly, monthly, yearly) at work and at
home for the past 18-months. Results:
Due to the distribution of reported
exposure frequencies among car
assemblers (110 cases and 107 controls),
data were collapsed to two exposure
categories. Dermal exposures to
potential irritants and allergens were
nearly ubiquitous, but the prevalence
and frequency of the exposures varied
greatly. Daily or weekly exposure to
paint and primers, sealants, or solvents
at work; and to soaps or water-based
cleaners at home; and daily wearing of
cloth gloves, other gloves, or other
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
rubber gloves at work were found to be
associated with the risk of occupational
contact dermatitis. Conclusions:
Qualitative exposure assessment
methods are useful for dermatitis
studies to screen among a large number
of potentially relevant exposures. In
additional to workplace chemicals,
protective gloves (worn daily), and
common soaps and cleaners (including
those at home) should be considered as
potential causes or contributing factors
for occupational contact dermatitis
PO 121-5
Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD):
How Should we Evaluate Sensitizer
Exposures?
T. Morris, Morris Innovative IH&S
Solutions, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: ACD is a
significant and costly occupational
disease; the number of reported skin
sensitizers varies from the 100’s to
>3700. The sensitizer (SEN) notation
indicates a chemical can produce
dermal/respiratory sensitization but
provides no additional information such
as its potency. The sensitization dose for
most industrial chemicals is unknown
and there are no quantitative dermal
exposure limits. Known skin sensitizers’
potencies span five orders of
magnitude, yet they are all treated the
same, especially for regulatory
purposes. Since there are no potency
distinctions, the same hazard
assessment could apply to a weak
sensitizer as to a potent one and may be
inadequate. Resolution: The murine
local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a
lymphocyte proliferation assay used to
identify and quantify dermal
sensitizers’ induction potencies. The
lowest effective concentration (EC3)
producing sensitization is reported as
mass per unit area (μg/cm2) or %. The
LLNA is used in the personal care
products industry to test raw materials;
few industrial chemicals have been
tested in this assay. Results: Simply
classifying a chemical as a sensitizer
does not adequately reflect the wide
range of potencies and hazard posed by
this class of chemicals. NIOSH’s revised
strategy for assigning the skin SEN
notation continues this broad
characterization. Lessons learned: EC3
values should be included with a SEN
listing or a categorization scheme
should be developed for skin
sensitizers. This information can be
used to better characterize risk and
refine a hazard assessment. Personal
care product manufacturers have
successfully used sensitizers for
decades; it’s time to apply that
assessment knowledge to industrial
exposures. Skin sensitization, EC3 dose
and their use in ACD hazard assessments will be among the topics
discussed
PO 121-6
Comparison of Simulated vs. Actual
Worker Exposures to Airborne BFRs
C. Torres, ENVIRON International
Corporation, Monument, CO; M.
Buckalew, ENVIRON International
Corporation, Atlanta, GA.
Situation/problem: Plastic polymeric
industrial, construction, commercial,
and consumer products regularly
employ flame retardants (FRs) to meet
product flammability standards. Recent
concerns related to potential
biopersistence, bioaccumulation and
health effects have led to some
previously common halogenated FRs
being removed from the market and a
general consumer and occupational
based concern related to usage of FR
products as an entire category. One
such concern involves the warehouse
handling of a durable polymer product
containing a commonly used
brominated flame retardant (BFR) and
related potential employee exposures
to the airborne BFR by warehouse
workers. Resolution: In order to address
employee exposure concerns related to
BFRs, the following studies were
designed and conducted. Initially, a
simulated warehouse exposure
assessment study was developed and
executed to measure likely worst case
potential airborne exposures to the
primary BFR of interest during
aggressive warehouse handling of the
polymer product. Subsequently,
exposure assessments were conducted
utilizing the same methodology from
the simulated study but during actual
warehouse handling of the same
polymer product. Results: This case
study presentation compares results of
the simulated warehouse handling
study to the results of the actual
warehouse handling studies to identify
methodologies that were successful and
those that would benefit from further
refinement in order to improve
subsequent simulation studies.
Compared results will include simulated
and actual personal breathing zone and
area samples collected and analyzed
utilizing validated industrial hygiene
methods. Lessons learned: Initial results
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
suggest similar outcomes related to
potential employee exposures to
airborne BFRs were produced by the
simulation and actual exposure
assessment studies. However, certain
aspects of the simulated versus actual
exposure assessment studies were
identified that could be further refined
(e.g., consideration of analytical
sensitivity and potential non-detect
results). The presentation will conclude
with a discussion of lessons learned
that could improve subsequent
simulated exposure assessment studies
PO 121-7
Validating Aggressive Air Sampling
for Beryllium Clearance
E. Wenger, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas
City, MO; D. Weitzman, P. Wambach, US
Dept of Energy, Washington, DC; K. Kerr,
US Dept of Energy, Kansas City, MO; J.
Wyckoff, Honeywell Federal
Manufacturing & Technologies, Kansas
City, MO.
Objective: This study evaluated the
efficacy of aggressive air sampling
(modeled after the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency method for clearing
asbestos-abatement spaces) for use in
validating that facility spaces are
adequately free of re-entrainable
beryllium in surface residues so as to
not result in exceeding 20% of the
ACGIH® Threshold Limit Value®
concentration under extreme reentrainment conditions. Methods: The
study area was an 8,500 square foot
former maintenance area in which dust
had accumulated on inaccessible
surfaces. Prior characterization found
beryllium surface levels ranging from
non-detectible (Reporting Limit = 0.02
microgram) to 0.85 microgram per 100
square centimeters. The clearance
threshold was defined as the 95th per
cent upper confidence limit of the 95th
percentile of air sample results not to
exceed an eight-hour time-weighted
average of 0.01 microgram of beryllium
per cubic meter of air. Copper, iron, and
calcium were included in the analyses
as index metals to evaluate spatial
distribution of airborne dust. Results:
Sixty-five samples were collected in the
study space. Preliminary analyses using
different frequency distribution models
of the results indicate the 95th per cent
upper confidence limit of the 95th
percentile is in the range of 0.007 to
0.008 microgram beryllium per cubic
meter of air. The correlations between
any of the possible pairs of beryllium,
copper, iron, and calcium
51
concentrations are statistically
significant. The Pearson correlation
values between beryllium and any of
the index metals’ (copper, iron, calcium)
concentrations ranged between 0.64
and 0.67; and the Pearson correlation
values between any of the possible
pairs of the three index metals’
concentrations ranged between 0.97
and 0.99. Conclusions: This study
demonstrates that aggressive air
sampling may be a practicable method
for determining appropriate access to
decontaminated facility areas
previously found to have surface
residues containing beryllium.
Podium Session 122
International Globalization
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:00 a.m.–12:20 p.m.
Papers PO 122-1 – PO122-7
PO 122-1
Best Practices for Chemical
Management in a Computer Driven
Age—Case Studies
K. Kawar, Actio Corporation,
Naperville, IL.
Situation: Products across the globe
are under increasing demands for
transparency and regulatory
compliance. Companies of all sizes face
challenges to keep in compliance with
increasing regulations and transparency
demands from share holders, consumer
advocates, and other non-governmental
organizations (NGO). The demand to
know a product’s makeup down to the
substance level creates a mandatory
process for manufacturers. The crux of
the challenge is to get ahead of - and
stay ahead of - the data management
curve. Solution: This presentation uses
real-world case studies to focus on
techniques currently in use to track the
compositional makeup down to the
substance level throughout the supply
chain. One example is a data-culling
supplier engagement technique which
is 1) automated and 2) designed to
either clear a supplier of “un-green”
supply chain elements or, where
applicable, to document legal limits of
any “un-green” elements are under the
legal limit; in essence, an automated
path to compliance. A second example is
a BOM (Bill of Material) or formula
52
simulation tool. The ability to simulate a
product’s components allows
companies to choose suppliers and
materials towards a greener supply
chain, lower risk, and more flexibility in
a global marketplace. This presentation
will highlight real companies using
these techniques to rationalize a
product’s unique history and its
components in a supply chain, analyze
the data, and produce defensible
reports on findings. Lessons Learned:
Automated communications up and
down the supply chain is the best way
to get and disseminate reliable, rational
and up-to-date data from suppliers to
downstream users. Specific companies
today are using these tools to eliminate
risks associated with public backlash,
customer demand, and environmental
compliance challenges created by
EPA/TSCA, RoHS, REACH, CONEG, GADSL,
SVHC and SIN lists; along with hundreds
of other hurdles worldwide
PO 122-2
Exposure of Egyptian Cotton
Workers to the Pesticide
Chlorpyrifos
K. Galvin, R. Fenske, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA; F. Farahat,
Menoufia University, Shibin el Kom,
Egypt.
Objectives: There is concern about the
health risks to Egyptian cotton workers
when applying organophosphorus
pesticides, specifically chlorpyriphos.
This is partly due to the limited use of
interventions. The objectives of this
study are to assess inhalation and
dermal exposures and to use study
results to inform the selection of
appropriate interventions. Methods:
Full-shift sampling was conducted
during the summer of 2009 at cotton
fields in the Egyptian Governorate of
Menoufia. Samples were collected for
twelve workers, four from each job
category: applicators using a backpack
sprayer; technicians assisting the
applicators in the fields; and engineers
supervising from outside the field.
Personal air samples were collected
with OVS sampling tubes at 1.0 LPM. To
assess dermal exposure,
chromatographic paper “patches” were
attached at six locations to the worker’s
clothing. Geometric mean (GM) air
concentrations by job category were
compared using the Welch Anova and
Bonferroni test. Results: The mean shift
duration was 3.5 hr (SD=14.4 min). The
GM chlorpyrifos air concentrations were
significantly different (p<0.001) for the
three job categories and the applicators
results (GM=44.5 μg/m3) were
significantly greater (p<0.000) than both
the engineers (GM=5.06 μg/m3) and
technicians (GM=8.21 μg/m3). Dermal
samples showed similar findings with
the highest results for applicators. CPF
load rate was highest on the upper legs
for all job categories with means of 58,
2.9, 0.33 μg/cm2/hr for applicators,
technicians, and engineers, respectively.
Conclusions: The data confirm the
primary exposure route was dermal. The
higher CPF loads on upper legs point to
protecting this region as a first step.
This data was presented at focus groups
of Ministry of Agriculture officials and
cotton workers. The groups used the
data to select interventions that use
low cost local materials. These
interventions are now part of an
intervention evaluation study (NIH/R01
ES016308)
PO 122-3
Health Hazard Evaluation of the
Princess Margaret Hospital in
Nassau, The Bahamas
T. Niemeier, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH; M.
Kiefer, NIOSH, Denver, CO.
Situation/problem: NIOSH received a
health hazard evaluation request from
the Public Hospitals Authority of the
Commonwealth of the Bahamas,
through the Pan-American Health
Organization, to evaluate mold
contamination at the Princess Margaret
Hospital (PMH) in Nassau, The Bahamas.
NIOSH investigators conducted a site
evaluation from September 27-October
3, 2009. We conducted an opening
conference and walked through PMH to
observe conditions and speak with staff.
Although we evaluated many hospital
areas, our primary focus was the Eye
Block building as this was identified as
area of greatest concern. Resolution: We
conducted a visual inspection of the Eye
Block building interior to determine
sources of moisture and extent of mold
contamination. We examined the
drainage around the building perimeter
to identify potential sources of water
intrusion and measured temperature
and humidity in the Eye Block and other
hospital areas. The ventilation systems
in the inspected areas were evaluated
for functionality and condition. Lastly,
we reviewed the hospital safety,
environmental, housekeeping, and
maintenance programs with
responsible managers. Results: Many
environmental conditions conducive to
mold growth were identified at PMH,
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
including both internal and external
water sources and poorly designed and
maintained ventilation systems that did
not effectively control ambient
temperature and moisture levels. We
identified numerous serious safety
issues, and made recommendations for
their immediate correction during our
closing conference. Some critical safety
issues included fire and life safety
(blocked corridors, locked exits, and
improper flammable materials storage),
electrical shock hazards, improper
chemical storage (labeling, aged
chemicals, and incompatibilities),
bloodborne pathogen hazards, leaking
sewer pipes, and improperly discarded,
deteriorated and unidentified
compressed gas cylinders. Lessons
learned: Poorly functioning health and
safety, facilities, and housekeeping
management programs largely
contributed to the poor conditions
observed at PMH. Better management
practices are needed for sustainable
changes to occur at the facility
PO 122-4
Things Behind the Occupational
Safety Accidents of Coal Mining
Industry in China
X. LIU, Saint Louis University, St Louis,
MO.
Problem: Rapid development of coal
mining industry has brought wealth to
China. However, the occurrence of
unprecedented occupational safety
problems has become an inconvenient
truth. At least 80% of the deaths
throughout the world caused by coal
mining accidents happen in China
annually. And 70% of them happen at
private or township coal mines. Lessons
learned: Out of date equipment is being
used at these illegal private coal mines.
Neither safety evaluations for the
exploitation sites nor contingency plans
for occupational accident have been
made. Most of the employees are from
rural areas. They are asked to start
working without preliminary training
and appropriate personal protective
equipment, leading them to be the
primary victims. Collision between the
local governments and private coal
mines for economic interest has
weakened the enforcement and
supervision directly. Additionally, since
most of exploitation sites locate at rural
areas, it is easy to become the blind spot
of the central government. Resolution
and Results: Therefore, we need to face
the cruel reality and figure out
resolutions, by extracting lessons
learned from previous success and
failure, just like when we first coped
with environmental protection issues.
Strong enforcement and supervision
from both central and local
governments is the premise for the
thorough prohibition of private coal
mines. Next, gap between the supply
and demand of qualified occupational
safety personnel in this field should be
closed, by introducing related majors
into more Chinese universities and
colleges, providing periodic career
training to maintain a high performance
of the personnel, and increasing the
working benefit to reduce the brain
drain. Last, social support should be
provided to the disadvantaged groups
to encourage them to protect
themselves actively. We believe an
effective implementation of the above
resolutions will absolutely result in a
promising start for the coal mining
industry in China
PO 122-5
Case Study: Using the GHS
Transition Check List to Ensure
Global Regulatory Compliance.
L. Seguin, KMK Regulatory Services
Inc., Blainville, QC, Canada.
Situation/problem: Attempts at a
‘harmonious” global implementation of
GHS, the Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labeling of
Chemicals, vary widely from country to
country, creating challenges to
companies in the chemical
manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and
petrochemical industries, among
others. Accompanying the shipment of
these finished products are Safety Data
Sheets and labels; these regulated
documents address whether the
products are hazardous, based on
product quantity and where sold. Given
the disharmony in the worldwide
adoption of GHS, what steps should
these manufacturers take to ensure
their regulated documents make a
smooth transition to GHS? Resolution:
All chemical manufacturers in this case
study committed to a detailed and
systematic approach to updating their
existing research and development
process. Their analysis of individual
formulations based on the United
Nations GHS classification scheme and
end-point classes in relation with local
GHS rules (e.g., Europe, Japan and Korea)
led to the compilation of a series of
comparative reports. In some cases, this
data analysis supported the reformulation of certain mixtures, based
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
on these locally-enforced GHS
classifications. Results: These
comparative reports/research and
development support tools provided
critical data in the re-authoring of these
manufacturer SDSs and labels. SDS
content was based initially on the
adoption of the most ‘strict’
classification (Japan, in most cases),
then adapted to the country of product
distribution. Also addressed were
limited quantity and other exemptions,
and the ‘industrial versus consumer’ use
of the products. Lessons learned: The
end result of the investment made by
the chemical manufacturers in this case
study was the “GHS Transition
Checklist.” This checklist impacted all
aspects of the chemical manufacturing
process, from research and
development to product marketing and
distribution. GHS (and GHS-ready) SDSs
and labels were generated on the basis
of the current regulations for a given
country in support of worldwide market
distribution
PO 122-6
Abu Dhabi EHSMS—World’s First
Integrated Regulatory System
C. Sall, Abu Dhabi EHS Center, Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Situation/problem: As Abu Dhabi¸
UAE developed their health and safety
regulatory system, they realized issues
crossed over many regulatory agencies.
This caused a problem of multiple
regulations covering similar issues and
some of the regulations had conflicting
requirements. Another issue was that
many regulations required similar plans,
but with different requirements, so
entities would create multiple plans
that were similar with only minor
variations. Resolution: Instead of
developing a system based on
established regulatory systems, Abu
Dhabi had an innovative idea. First, they
decided that the core of their system
will be an Environmental Health and
Safety Management System (EHSMS).
Second, they created the Abu Dhabi EHS
Center and tasked them with
developing the EHSMS, writing and
safety and health requirements, and
integrating all similar regulatory
requirements. Results: World’s first
regulatory system that integrates EHS
requirements so that people using the
system can find all requirements in one
location. No longer do people have to
search different regulatory agencies for
requirements. EHS plans and
assessments have also been combined,
53
so documents developed under the
EHSMS area applicable to all regulatory
agencies. Lessons learned: Abu Dhabi
had to create EHS Center and charge
them with working with various
regulatory agencies to integrate
regulations. EHS Center has had to
convince other regulatory agencies that
they do not lose control of developing
their regulations. The EHS Center has
had to assure regulatory agencies that
they are still responsible for enforcing
their regulatory requirements. To
ensure success of integrating
regulations, the EHS center has created
working groups with regulatory
agencies to develop integrated
regulations
PO 122-7
H&S in a Genuine “No Sweat”
Garment Factory
G. Brown, Maquiladora Health &
Safety Support Network, Berkeley, CA.
Worker health and safety was a key
concern of operators of a new, avowedly
“no sweatshop” garment factory
established by a major U.S. garment
retailer in the Dominican Republic in
2010. Management began working with
industrial hygienists and safety
specialists before the plant was set up
to ensure that the factory’s physical
plant and electrical systems met code,
chemical and noise exposures were
limited, local exhaust ventilation
systems were effective, ergonomic
hazards and physical agents like heat
stress in a tropical locale were
controlled. Management has recognized
a worker-selected union on site, and has
established a joint management-worker
safety committee. The plant was
profiled in a major article in The New
York Times (7/16/10). This presentation
will detail the yearlong effort to
establish safe conditions, including site
visits in February and June 2010, and
identify the recognized garment
industry hazards and the controls
implemented on site. Development and
training of the plant health and safety
committee, as well as training of the
general workforce, will also be
discussed. Situation/problem: global
supply chains often include
“sweatshop” factories with unsafe and
unhealthy conditions. Resolution: Plant
operators worked with IH and safety
specialists to establish safe conditions.
Results: Newly established plant has
H&S conditions markedly better than
standard garment plants. Lessons
learned: Safe working conditions can be
54
established, even in global “sweatshop”
industries like garment, with
management commitment and IH
involvement
Podium Session 123
Environmental Issues for
Industrial Hygienists
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:20 a.m.–12:40 p.m.
Papers PO 123-1 – PO123-7
PO 123-1
Efficacy of Methamphetamine
Decontamination for Clothing and
Building Materials
K. McInnis-Serrano, M. Van Dyke, J.
Martyny, National Jewish Health,
Denver, CO.
Objective: The objective of this study
was to investigate the efficacy of
common decontamination methodologies for methamphetamine on
building materials and clothing.
Methods: Building material samples
(drywall, plywood, galvanized metal,
and glass) and clothing samples (denim,
loosely woven cotton, and fire resistant
material) were contaminated by heating
methamphetamine in a sealed chamber.
Methamphetamine decontamination
methods tested included three common
household cleaners and one industrial
cleaner for building materials and
typical machine washing for clothing
samples. In addition, some drywall and
plywood samples were painted to
encapsulate the remaining
methamphetamine after cleaning.
Methamphetamine was measured preand post-decontamination using wipe
samples for building materials and by
directly submitting clothing swatches.
All samplers were analyzed using NIOSH
method 9111. Results: Average removal
of methamphetamine from building
materials with a single washing using a
typical household cleaner ranged from
53% for plywood to 100% for glass.
Comparing different household
cleaners, it appeared a single wash with
quaternary ammonia based cleaners
was more effective at removing
methamphetamine than sodium
hypochlorite based cleaners (90%
removal vs. 57%). Typical clothes
washing resulted in 95-99%
methamphetamine removal with one
wash regardless of the clothing
material. Encapsulation of
methamphetamine on painted drywall
and plywood resulted in an average
surface methamphetamine reduction of
80% for latex paint and 100% for oilbased paint. Conclusions: In most
instances, typical clothes washing will
effectively decontaminate clothing with
very little remaining methamphetamine
suggesting that first responders
entering contaminated areas can easily
decontaminate their clothing with
normal washing. In terms of building
materials, items that have smooth
surfaces can be easily decontaminated
by washing with detergent and water.
More porous surfaces typically need
additional remediation, such as
encapsulation following washing, to be
in compliance with most state
regulations
PO 123-2
Analysis of Air Quality Data from a
Fixed Monitoring Site for
Implications for a Nearby Coast
Guard Facility
L. Whitehead, T. Stock, L. Pompeii, D.
Beasley, C. Maypole, University of Texas,
Houston, TX.
Objective: Continuous air monitoring
(CAM) data were utilized to characterize
air quality for possible impact at a USCG
facility on the Houston Ship Channel.
Methods: The CAM site is near the
western end of the Ship Channel, 0.4 km
from the USCG facility, and near
refineries and chemical plants (1 to 4
km), Interstate highways (0.8, 4.7 km), an
arterial highway (2.9 km), streets with
heavy truck traffic (0.1 km), and a large
unpaved storage yard (0.3 km).
Prevailing wind is from the refineries,
chemical plants, arterial and local
streets, and more-distant petrochemical
plants. Hourly data from 2002 to mid
2008 were obtained from the Texas
Commission on Environmental Quality.
Results: Median (and upper 1-sided 95%ile) for pollutants were: CO: 0.1 (3.6) ppm;
SO2: 3.7 (199) ppb; NO: 4.5 (124) ppb; NO2:
12.2 (431) ppb; NOx: 18.0 (600) ppb; O3:
16.1 (290) ppb; PM2.5: 12.6 (40.9) ug/m3;
benzene: 1.1 (5.0) ug/m3; 1,3-butadiene:
0.26 (2.5) ug/m3; ethylbenzenes: 0.48 (1.8)
ug/m3; o-xylene: 0.52 (2.0) ug/m3; m,pxylene: 1.44 (5.8) ug/m3; toluene: 2.33
(9.0) ug/m3. Analyzing hourly averages
by wind direction indicated directional
effects for SO2 (refinery, sulfuric acid
incinerator), NO and NOx (Interstate
highways), O3 (area-wide photochemical
smog), benzene (refineries), and 1,3butadiene (manufacturer of 1,3-
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
butadiene). NAAQS for PM2.5 were
exceeded for the annual average
standard for three of six years observed,
and the 24-hour standard for 0.50% of
2,405 days of data. 0.08% of 55000+
hourly O3 values exceeded the 1-hour
standard. No other criteria pollutants
exceeded standards (8-hour O3 averages
were not available for analysis).
Benzene and 1,3-butadiene levels
exceeded the 10-5 EPA IRIS lifetime
cancer risk levels in all five complete
years analyzed, but did not exceed the
10-4 level; trends were slightly
downward. Conclusion: The use of CAM
data permitted a thorough analysis of
outdoor air for the study site
PO 123-3
Now, What’s That Smell? Challenges
of Community Odor Evaluation
E. Shamberger, Bureau Veritas, North
America, Akron, OH.
Problem: A small mixed development
community with an older industrial area
was experiencing, on regular intervals, a
foul odor. A local handler of liquid
wastes was suspected of being the
cause, but no hard evidence was
available to support the allegation.
Odor issues are notoriously difficult to
diagnose, as most odor-causing issues
are transient involving very low odor
thresholds. Many communities do not
have regulations that cover odorous
compounds, except to note that noxious
odors from processes onsite are not
permitted to cross the property
boundary. The city retained Bureau
Veritas to design an odor sampling
program to demonstrate that the
business was the likely source of the
odor. Resolution: A sampling program
was designed and implemented based
on available technology and low
detection limit analytical methods for a
number of known, odorous compounds
suspected to be present at the site
based on a review of its processes.
Results: On execution of the sampling
program, a definitive trend was noted
with respect to reducing sulfur
compounds, highest onsite and falling
off gradually to the property line, where
the compound (dimethyl sulfide) was
still above the odor threshold. The
results showed a clear relation between
emissions from vessels at the site and
concentrations above the odor
threshold at the property boundary.
Lessons learned: While the emissions
from the plant were shown to cross the
property boundary, the challenge to the
city remained: lack of regulation of
odorous compounds left them no choice
but to litigate on behalf of their
residents. The sampling program was
praised by a number of agencies for its
thoroughness; however, the universe of
potentially odorous compounds is
immense, but available analytical
technology limits the contaminants
that can be collected and analyzed
efficiently
PO 123-4
Deepwater Horizon Response—
Redefining ICS and the Safety
Officer’s Role
L. Hartline Weems, U.S. Coast Guard,
Washington, DC.
Situation/problem: The off-shore oil
rig, Deepwater Horizon, exploded and
sank in April 2010. As a result, the United
States faced the largest oil spill it had
ever encountered. As the U.S. Coast
Guard Safety Officer at Incident
Command Post Houma during the initial
response, it became evident that
responding to such a massive, nonfederalized oil spill would require a
paradigm shift in how the USCG defines
the NIMS/ICS Safety Officer’s roles and
responsibilities. From the beginning of
this unique event, it was clear this
would not be another Hurricane Katrina
response for the USCG; in many ways it
would be more difficult. Resolution: As a
non-federalized response, BP
maintained ownership while the USCG
ensured that the response was
conducted properly. Within the
Command Staff, BP held the Safety
Officer (SOFR) title while the USCG
safety representative was the Assistant
SOFR. As ASOFR, the USCG had to
understand and help manage BP’s
unfamiliar safety system. Flexibility
became key for all members of the
safety team. Changes in USCG protocols
were made due to the shear size of the
response and the number of involved
personnel. The safety team grew so
large that subunits within the team
were created. Results: The Site Safety
Plan fulfilled the needs of all
responders. Collaboration, born out of
much patience and understanding by
the various groups of safety
professionals, industrial hygienists,
toxicologists and governmental
representatives, led to synergistic
results. Safety’s united front resulted in
low mishap injury/illness rates despite
the numerous high risk operations.
Lessons learned: Maintaining flexibility
within the safety organization is the key
to success. The NIMS/ICS system should
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
be followed as best as possible, but it
should also be considered a template.
Safety professionals, especially those
within an emergency response system,
must be willing and able to adapt
PO 123-5
NOAA’s Office of Response and
Restoration Response to the
Deepwater Horizon Spill: Safety
Challenges and Lessons Learned
N. Barnea, NOAA ORR, Seattle, WA.
Situation/problem: On April 20, 2010, a
fire and explosion occurred on the
Deepwater Horizon, a semisubmersible
drilling platform located in the Gulf of
Mexico some 50 miles southeast of the
Mississippi Delta. The platform sank
two days later, and the subsequent oil
release from the well head, 5,000 feet
below sea surface, was the largest ever
in the US. Federal government, states
and local agencies, NGO, and private
industry have mobilized in force to
address the oil spill. NOAA’s Office of
Response and Restoration field teams
faced significant safety challenges
during the spill response including heat
stress; contact with spilled oil during
beach surveys; deployment on small
boats to remote locations; overflight on
helicopters and small planes; and severe
weather, from lightning storms to
hurricanes. Resolution: To address these
safety challenges, training was provided
before and during the spill response,
specialized equipment was used by
overflight personnel and teams
deployed to remote locations to ensure
communication and survival in an
emergency, and cooperation with BP
and the U.S. Coast Guard was done
throughout. Internal safety
assessments were also conducted and
their recommendations implemented
promptly. Results: The collaborative
safety effort facilitated well trained and
equipped field teams, increased safety
awareness, and quickly mitigated safety
risks, all of which resulted in zero
injuries in the six months since the spill
occurred. Lessons learned: The main
lessons learned suggest that: 1)
investing in safety training, equipment,
and overall readiness prior to a spill
event greatly increases both the
operational capability and safety, 2)
periodic safety assessment are a useful
tool to identify existing and potential
safety risks and address them promptly,
and 3) close cooperation among
response entities greatly contributes to
safety
55
PO 123-6
Evaluating Workers Potential
Asbestos Exposure During Handling,
Installation, Cutting, Sanding and
Clean up of Vinyl Asbestos Floor Tile
A. Bilenki, L. Burrelli, J. Spencer,
Environmental Profiles, Inc., Columbia,
MD.
Objective: To determine the potential
asbestos airborne concentration from
various vinyl asbestos floor tile
installation techniques and clean-up.
Methods: A total of 117.75 linear feet of
tiles were cut by 5 Methods: guillotine,
utility knife, score/snap, torch and
shears, and linoleum knife. The tiles
were both 12” by 12” and 9” by 9”.
Following cutting, the worker sanded
one edge of each tile resulting in 148.5
linear feet of sanding activities. Air
samples were analyzed by N7400 and
N7402 methodologies. Results: For all
cutting activities, no asbestos fibers
were detected on personal samples. The
calculated concentration was <0.0041
f/cc for the approximate three hours of
work. Short-term personal samples were
also non-detect for asbestos at a
calculated limit of <0.026 f/cc. Six area
samples were collected within the
chamber during the cutting. Two
samples were found to have one
chrysotile fiber on each filter resulting
in a calculated airborne concentration
at the detection limit of 0.0015 f/cc. The
remaining samples were below the
detection limit (< 0.0015 f/cc). Three
personal samples were taken during
sanding tasks. A total of 1.5 chrysotile
fibers were counted. The resultant
concentration for the 65-minute task
was 0.012 f/cc. Two 30-minute task
sample concentrations were 0.026 f/cc
and <0.022. Area samples collected
during the sanding had a total of five
chrysotile asbestos fibers detected. The
airborne concentration therefore
ranged from <0.0019 f/cc to 0.0039 f/cc.
Conclusions: All personal exposures are
below the OELs set by OSHA and ACGIH.
The calculated 8-hour TWA for the
worker, which included the 186 minutes
of cutting and clean-up, and the 65
minutes of sanding, installing and cleanup, was calculated at 0.0024 f/cc
56
PO 123-7
Control Guidance on the Exposure
Associated to the Use of Carbon
Tetrachloride Substitutes in Various
Industrial Sectors in India—A Case
Study
K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Sambandam, A.
Ramalingam, K. Balakrishnan, Sri
Ramachandra University, Chennai, India.
India is one of the 196 signatories to
the Montreal Protocol for phasing out
the production and consumption of
ozone depleting substances. Carbon
tetrachloride (CTC) is an ozone-depleting
substance, and its physico-chemical
properties are supportive to make it a
well accepted cleaning agent in various
industrial applications. As per the
agreement, India had committed to
phase out CTC solvent completely by
Dec. 31, 2009, and subsequently the
workplace exposure assessment of CTCsubstitutes has become inevitable with
respect to occupational and
environmental risks. It needs scientific
exposure control strategies. This study
adopted for risk management with dual
focus on “risk prevention” through
substitution and “risk management”
through installation of workplace
engineering controls with improved
work practice in the industrial sector.
The success story depends on the
unique model of multilateral dialogue
emphasizing participatory approach.
Based on cleaning efficiency, cost and
exposure potentials, 19 substitute
chemicals have been identified as
cleaning agents in eight different
sectors like oxygen manufacturing and
refilling, refrigeration and air
conditioning (RAC), metal degreasing,
jewelry casting, textile, electrical
contact cleaning, foundry and offset
printing. Area and personal exposure
concentrations were measured and
analyzed for those solvents across
various states of the country. In many
cases, the solvent exposure in the
workplace crosses the permissible limit.
Therefore, a comprehensive control
guidance sheet has been prepared for
each industrial sector based on
respective complete data sheet of the
used CTC-solvent substitutes including
meteorological condition, work posture
and practice. This approach is expected
to be useful not only for management
but also for end users of the chemicals.
As the control of chemical exposure in
work environment is directly related to
the environmental pollution, this study
would serve as a significant contributor
in the field of air quality management
and climate change mitigation. Key
words: Exposure, risk-management, riskprevention, participatory approach.
Podium Session 124
Respiratory Protection II
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
10:00 a.m.–12:40 p.m.
Papers PO 124-1 – PO124-7
PO 124-1
Performance of Conventional and
Antimicrobial-Treated Filtering
Facepiece Respirators Against
Viable Influenza Virus A
N. McCullough, J. Sebastian, A. Viner,
3M Company, St. Paul, MN; M. Lore, T.
Brown, S. Hinrichs, University of
Nebraska, Omaha, NE.
Objective: To compare the filter
performance of conventional and
antimicrobial-treated respirators
challenged with two different strains of
influenza virus type A (H1N1 and H5N1).
To determine the efficacy of the
antimicrobial treatments, studies were
performed using the SMPS, cell culture
and quantitative PCR. Methods: The
physical and viable filtration efficiency
of the NIOSH-approved filtering
facepiece respirators (FFRs) were
measured using H1N1 and H5N1
influenza virus (~ 0.1 micron) and inert
NaCl aerosols at 85 L/min. Physical
particle penetration was measured
using two different methods,
quantitative real-time polymerase chain
reaction (qRT-PCR) and a Scanning
Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS).
Additionally, viable penetration was
measured using a tissue culture
infectious dose endpoint assay (TCID50).
The results from testing of the two FFR
types were compared for all three assay
methods. Results: 1. The physical
filtration efficiency measured using the
traditional inert aerosol predicted the
filtration performance of the influenza
aerosols in the equivalent particle size
regime. 2. The physical filtration
efficiency for each influenza aerosol
was equivalent to its corresponding
viable filtration efficiency. 3. For each
influenza aerosol, the viable filtration
efficiencies of the antimicrobial-treated
respirators were not enhanced over
conventional non-antimicrobial-treated
respirators. Conclusions: The filtration
of influenza virus aerosols by FFRs was
comparable to NaCl inert aerosols. The
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
antimicrobial-treated FFRs examined in
this study did not provide any higher
influenza virus filtration efficiency
(physical or viable) than comparable
conventional models
PO 124-2
Bioaerosol Interaction with
Respirators: The Efficacy of
Antimicrobial Treatment as Tested
by a Standard Test Method and by a
Bioaerosol Test Method
C. Ylitalo, J. Sebastian, A. Viner, N.
Stepanova, E. Laingen 3M Company, St.
Paul, MN.
Objective: The objective of this work
was to examine bioaerosol interaction
with respirators. More specifically, it
was the goal of this project to assess the
inactivation of bioaerosols captured on
respirators containing an antimicrobial
treatment. Methods: In order to reach
this objective, we developed a
bioaerosol application method that
simulates real usage conditions of
respirators, and we used this method to
assess the efficacy of standard N95
respirators along with several
commercially available respirators with
antimicrobial treatment. In addition, we
tested those respirators using an in
vitro standard test method typically
utilized for assessing antimicrobial
efficacy of porous and non-woven
substrates. Results: It was found that
the in vitro test method results did not
agree with the more realistic bioaerosol
test method results. More specifically,
antimicrobial-treated respirators that
show excellent efficacy when tested
using the in vitro test method did not
show measurable improvement in
bioaerosol deactivation over the control
(standard N95 respirator) when tested
using the more realistic bioaerosol test
method. The difference in test results
was due to the nature of the test
environment. The in vitro test method is
usually conducted under complete
liquid saturation conditions, which
activates the biocide applied to the
respirator. This is in contrast to the
more realistic bioaerosol application
method, where the respirator remains
relatively dry during the testing process.
In clinical situations, respirators do not
get saturated with liquid even in high
humidity conditions since they are
typically made of hydrophobic
materials to prevent moisture
condensation on the respirator surface.
Conclusions: Our findings lead to the
conclusion that that the biological
efficacy of antimicrobial treated
respirators should be assessed using a
test method that mimics real use
conditions of the respirator
PO 124-3
Workplace Protection Factors for
Two Types of N95 Respirators Used
on Farms for Respiratory Protection
against Bioaerosols
K. Cho, T. Reponen, R. McKay, A.
Adhikari, U. Singh, A. Dwivedi, R. Shukla,
S. Grinshpun, University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH; S. Jones, G. Jones,
Western Kentucky University, Bowling
Green, KY.
Objective: This study compared the
performance of an N95 elastomeric
respirator (ER) and an N95 filtering
facepiece respirator (FFR) against five
types of particulate contaminants.
Methods: Farm workers (n=25) wore the
ER and FFR while performing activities
at eight locations representing horse
farms, pig barns, and grain handling
facilities. For the determination of
workplace protection factors (WPFs),
number concentration of particles was
measured using an optical particle
counter, and particles were collected on
filters simultaneously inside and
outside of the respirator. Extracts from
filters were analyzed for endotoxin,
fungal spore count, (1 3)- -D-glucan, and
particle mass. A reporting limit (RL) was
established for each contaminant as the
lowest possible measurable value.
Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and
censored regression were used in
statistical analysis. Results: The WPFs
provided by the two types of respirators
were not significantly different.
Significant differences between
different types of contaminants were
observed. Geometric mean WPFs for ER
and FFR respirators combined were 153,
34, 21, 20 and 183 for endotoxin, fungal
spore count, (1 3)- -D-glucan, particle
mass, and particle number, respectively.
The highest WPF was obtained for total
particle number. In order to obtain this
high WPF, the minimum outside
concentration needed to be 183 times
the respective RL. Of the outside
concentration values measured for
endotoxin, fungal spore count, (1 3)- -Dglucan, and particle mass, 75.0, 27.1, 20.8,
and 8.3% were above this value,
respectively. Furthermore, the WPFs
against endotoxin (r=0.64, p<0.001),
fungal spore count (r=0.81, p<0.001),
(1 3)- -D-glucan (r=0.58, p<0.001), and
total particle mass (r=0.48, p<0.001)
correlated more significantly with the
outside concentration than the WPF
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
against total particle number (r=0.31,
p=0.04). Conclusions: The observed
differences in WPFs may be attributed
to outside concentration as well as the
differences in the inherent sensitivity of
analytical methods.
PO 124-4
Physiologically-Based
Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling
for Evaluating the Effect of Dermal
Absorption of Vapors on the
Measurement of Workplace
Protection Factors (WPFs)
W. Groves, B. Pullampally, Penn State,
University Park, PA.
Objective: A study was conducted to
apply physiologically-based
pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to
simulate exhaled breath concentrations
resulting from exposure and dermal
uptake for a range of organic vapors, so
that effects on measurements of
respirator workplace protection factors
(WPFs) could be evaluated. Methods: A
set of six organic vapors (chloroform,
perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene,
m-xylene, 2-butanone, styrene)
representing a range of skin permeation
coefficients (Kp) were selected for
examination based on the availability of
published PBPK models. Exhaled breath
concentrations simulated using PBPK
models were used to estimate
respirator face-piece concentrations
and the resulting WPFs for both
continuous (during inhalation and
exhalation) and intermittent
(inhalation-only) face-piece sampling
protocols. The following PBPK
simulation model parameters were
varied to represent different
exposure/sampling scenarios: respirator
penetration/leakage (0.1, 0.01, 0.001,
0.0001, 0.00001), concentration (1x, 5x,
10x PEL), and exposure/sampling time (1,
4, 8-hr). Berkeley-Madonna modeling
and dynamic analysis software (version
8.3.9) was used to run all PBPK
simulations. Results: Simulation results
indicate that dermal absorption of
vapors can significantly bias the
measurement of WPF in some cases.
Decreases in WPFs ranging from 51% to
97% (up to 1-2 orders of magnitude)
were predicted for the lowest
penetration factors and longest
sampling times. The intermittent
sampling protocol was slightly less
affected than continuous sampling. The
magnitude of the reduction in WPF was
related to the exhaled breath
concentrations, which are a function of
vapor characteristics, including
57
physicochemical parameters (e.g.,
partition coefficients) and biochemical
parameters (e.g., skin permeability,
metabolic rate constants). The effect of
this potential bias on the resulting point
estimate of the 5th percentile for a
distribution of WPFs varies and is not
necessarily significant. Conclusions:
While dermal absorption of vapors can
bias WPF measurements, simulation
results suggest that scenarios can be
identified for which the effect on a
point-estimate of the 5th percentile
WPF is likely to be negligible
PO 124-5
Field of View of Commercial AirPurifying Respirators
K. Coyne, D. Barker, U.S. Army,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; T. Rice,
Science Applications International
Corporation, Abingdon, MD; B. Elmore,
Aberdeen High School, Aberdeen, MD.
Objective: Visual field may be
decreased while wearing an airpurifying respirator (APRs). This can
impact a person’s orientation and
mobility and may require more scanning
for obstacles. The National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
requires a minimum Visual Field Score
(VFS) of 70 to pass certification for
commercial chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) APRs.
Because the score is not released, there
is no way to know which respirators
perform better than others. The goal of
this effort was to assess the visual field
of twelve NIOSH-certified CBRN APRs.
Methods: NIOSH respirator certification
standard testing procedures were
followed. Briefly, each respirator was
mounted on the headform, the eye
lights were illuminated, the outline of
the shadow was recorded on the VFS
grid overlay, and the VFS determined.
The overall VFS was determined by
averaging the VFS for three separate
fittings of each respirator. An ANOVA on
Ranks identified differences in VFS
among respirators while Tukey post-hoc
analysis was used to identify which
respirators differed. Results: All
respirators exceeded the NIOSH
minimum. The average VFS for each
respirator was: Survivair Optifit (106),
MSA Ultra Elite (104), Avon FM12 (103),
Peltor-AOSafety M-TAC (103), Avon C50
(102), Scott M120 (102), MSA Millenium
(101), Scott M110 (101), Drager CDR 4500
(100), North 5400 (100), 3M FR-7800B (99),
and 3M FR-M40 (89). The Optifit scored
significantly higher than both the FR7800B and FR-M40 while the Ultra Elite
58
scored significantly higher than the FRM40. Conclusions: The Optifit and Ultra
Elite would be expected to provide
higher visual field scores than the FRM40. However, someone wearing an FRM40 would have only a mild visual
impairment. As a result, the wearer
might be surprised occasionally by
obstacles on the sides. All other
respirators fell in the normal range of
vision with normal orientation and
mobility
PO 124-6
Ultrasound for in situ Estimation of
Respirator Fit
W. King, J. Szalajda, NIOSH, Pittsburgh,
PA.
NIOSH/NPPTL has been conducting an
evaluation of airborne ultrasound
technology with the objective of
obtaining respirator fit information
which would be useful in improving
respirator efficacy. Research has
indicated that the magnitude of
ultrasound penetrating through a gap
(or opening) is proportional to its
diameter; airflow into air-purifying
respirators is not a likely source of
nascent ultrasound; and that nasal
breathing is a source of periodic
ultrasound. The method to assess the
relationship between respirator fit and
ultrasound leakage consisted of the
simultaneous determination of
quantitative fit of probed respirators
using standard methods (TSI
PortaCount) while taking ultrasound
measurements with typical device (UE
Ultraprobe 100). Output was recorded
and processed using LabVIEW. The
results show that the average of
ultrasound levels appropriately
measured at several points around the
face seal (when using nasal breathing as
the ultrasound source) correlate well
with fit factor for both elastomeric and
filtering face piece half-mask
respirators. Another method consisted
of using a breathing head form fitted
with an ultrasound source and an ATI
Protective Mask Leakage Tester in the
leakage isolation test mode. These
results show that ultrasound leakage
measurements around the face seal of
half-mask respirators correlated with
aerosol penetration. The conclusion is
that the application of airborne
ultrasound technology looks promising
to be the basis for assessing half-mask
respirator face seal leakage while being
worn
PO 124-7
Exposure Assessment Associated
with the Use of Respirators
C. Manning, Assay Technology,
Livermore, CA.
Exposure assessment (EA) is required
prior to initiating a respirator program,
but regulatory guidance on its conduct
is vague. According to OSHA’s
respiratory protection e-tool,
“Employers must characterize the
nature and magnitude of employee
exposures to respiratory hazards before
selecting respiratory protection
equipment.” However, “The final rule
does not specify how the employer is to
make reasonable estimates of employee
exposures for the purposes of selecting
respirators.” Objective: To compare and
analyze different exposure assessment
methods associated with respirator
selection. Methods: (1) Modeling (factbased calculation using worst-case
assumptions). (2) Monitoring (air
sampling). (3) Combination of Modeling
(simple models) with Monitoring. OSHA’s
web-site provides suggestions for
performing an EA by monitoring (air
sampling) and/or by modeling
(fact/assumption-based calculations).
While practitioners often favor
modeling as quicker and less expensive,
going beyond simple models can require
a costly sophistication. This study
featured analysis of several approaches
to exposure assessment as a prelude to
respirator selection including an
estimation of their respective accuracy,
cost, and speed. Results: Modeling
demonstrated an inaccuracy that would
be unacceptable unless the costs of
instituting respiratory protection were
modest. Use of monitoring alone led to
over-spending and risky delays in
instituting protection. A combination of
modeling and monitoring was found to
allow rapid implementation and
requisite accuracy. Conclusion: The
combination of simple models and
monitoring was found to provide the
most cost-effective way to assess
exposures accurately to avoid overspending on a respiratory protection
solution.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 125
Health Care Industries II:
Construction, PPE and
Other Topics
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:20 p.m.
Papers PO 125-1 – PO125-7
PO 125-1
Helping the Owner and Contractor
Project Team Move from ICRA to
PCRA
J. Martinelli, Forensic Analytical
Environmental Health Consultants,
Citrus Heights, CA; C. Cannell, Regional
West Medical Center, Scottsbluff, NE.
Situation/Problem: Proactive
construction risk assessments (PCRA)
are required by standards for hospital
construction and renovation. The
construction project team may not
always be aware of applicable
standards or may only have a cursory
knowledge of how to appropriately
assess risk in a hospital construction
project, how to document the
assessment, how to assign and evaluate
the effectiveness of risk mitigation
measures, and how to periodically audit
projects. Lacking a proper risk
assessment tool can result in missed
risks, ineffective or unneeded
mitigation measures and costly delays.
Resolution: A PCRA tool was developed
to include required criteria such as air
quality, infection control, noise,
vibration, and other hazards. This tool
was presented to the construction
project team of a large hospital
construction project. The team included
representatives from corporate
engineering, facilities management,
infection control, safety, project
management and the contractor. The
PCRA tool was utilized to assess the
project. Results: The PCRA tool helped
identify risks that could be mitigated or
eliminated, including emerging issues
such as water intrusion, mold, fire
safety, asbestos, lead, mercury, and
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The
PCRA tool helped identify the
challenges hospital construction
project teams face when planning for
large projects. The PCRA tool assisted in
providing a method for documenting
compliance of monitoring processes.
Lessons Learned: The PCRA tool is an
appropriate method for identifying
hospital construction related risks and
provides an opportunity for the
construction project team to identify
issues/concerns, assign mitigation
measures and provide appropriate
documentation for the hospital
construction project. During the process
in addition to identifying the limitations
of individual knowledge the tool helped
guide the multi-disciplinary team to
maximize their collective knowledge,
gather and interpret evaluation data
and improve communications between
the project team and the clinical teams
PO 125-2
Evaluation of a Program to Protect
Hospital Patients from Airborne
Aspergillus during an Air-handler
Replacement Project
I. Goldberg, T. Barton, NYU Langone
Medical Center, New York, NY.
Situation/problem: Replacing an air
handler and modifying its distribution
ductwork poses a risk to hospital
inpatients because of the potential to
disturb dust that contains Aspergillus.
When immunocompromised individuals
inhale Aspergillus spores, they can
develop life-threatening diseases.
Resolution: An interdisciplinary team
designed a program to mitigate the risk
of exposing patients to such dust during
an air handler replacement project at a
large metropolitan medical center. The
cornerstone of the program was
installation of Minimum Efficiency
Reporting Value (MERV) 8 filters in
custom filter holders over supply and
return air diffusers. The effectiveness of
controls was evaluated by taking 113 air
samples for culturable fungi and
Aspergillus spp. in four locations and
during four sampling intervals. A
Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test (P < 0.05) was
used to examine differences in
distributions of sample results from
different locations and different
sampling intervals. Results: The
difference between an area impacted by
the work and two non-impacted indoor
sites was not statistically significant.
There also was no significant difference
in concentrations in the impacted area
immediately before work began and
those either during or immediately after
work. Lessons learned: An
interdisciplinary team representing
facilities management, environmental
health and safety, infection control, and
a general contractor developed an
innovative program to protect hospital
patients during an air handler
replacement project. To our knowledge,
this is the first study to evaluate a
hospital dust control program based on
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
installation of moderately efficient
filters over air diffusers
PO 125-3
Safety by Design: Managing and
Designing for Ergonomics
C. Bain, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland,
CA.
Situation/Problem: The delivery of
medical care and the integration of
many people in many roles within a
complex and ever-changing
environment creates and environment
where people are at risk for injury. Data
analysis and trending have identified
ergonomic-related injuries to comprise
a large part of the injuries sustained and
reported by staff. Resolution: The input
of environmental health and safety
professionals, labor and management
representatives, and over one hundred
experts and stakeholders throughout an
organization have developed tools to
promote the implementation of a
comprehensive, systematic and metricsdriven approach to managing
ergonomic injuries. They have also
highlighted a spectrum of solutions
applied, outlining where safety and
ergonomic related risks and injuries
occur in the design of facilities and how
the goal of ergonomic design is to
optimize the performance of an
individual operating within the context
of the overall system. Results:
Implementation of a systematic process
that reduces ergonomic risk factors and
the potential for ergonomic-related
injuries to occur will prevent and
control injuries and illnesses by
eliminating or reducing worker
exposure to work related
musculoskeletal disorder risk factors;
reduce the potential for fatigue, error,
or unsafe acts by adapting the job and
workplace to the workers’ physical
capabilities and limitations; reduce
absenteeism and worker turnover;
improve overall work productivity and
quality; and reduce workers’
compensation claims and associated
costs. Lessons Learned: Awareness of
the role of the ergonomist on the design
team and development of partnerships
with the stakeholders; learning
ergonomic guidelines to help with the
design of facilities and the limitation of
ergonomic design guidelines; gained
knowledge of basic information on how
to design for human performance and
the prevention of injuries; and applying
ergonomic design guidelines to the
design of facilities and purchasing of
equipment
59
PO 125-4
Fit Testing Large Groups of N95
Respirator Users by Integrating a
Pump Powered-Nebulizer to the Fit
Test Process
P. Numoto, S. Colligan, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA.
Problem: In 2009, the CDC identified a
concern for exposure to H1N1 to
healthcare workers and continued its
trend of recommending the use of a
fitted N95 respirator to protect against
airborne infectious agents. UW
healthcare organizations conducted a
risk assessment and identified 5,000
prospective N95 respirator users.
Resolution: UW collaborated with UW
Medical Center to develop a pumppowered nebulizer that we integrated
into the fit test process and conducted
multiple concurrent fit tests. Results:
Our fit test teams fit tested groups of
230 and 1300 N95 respirator users. The
fit test process, tasks performed by
team members, and outcome will be
presented. Lessons Learned: Actions to
improve efficiencies in the fit test
process will be presented
PO 125-5
Development of an Exhaled Breath
Aerosol Monitoring System
W. Lin, S. Huang, C. Chen, National
Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Y. Kuo,
Chung Hwa University of Medical
Technology, Tainan, Taiwan; C. Chen, C.
Chang, Institute of Occupational Safety
and Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: The main objective of this
work was to set up a sampling train and
to optimize measurement instruments,
in order to characterize the aerosol
emission from normal breathing.
Methods: An Exhaled Breath Aerosol
Monitoring System comprised of a
pneumotachograph, a condensation
particle counter, an optical counter, and
an aerosol-free chamber with a flow
rate over 200 L/min, was constructed
and used as the principal apparatus in
the present study. The subject(s) were
asked to respire through a mouth piece
and a pneumotachograph connected to
an aerosol-free chamber. In order to
monitor the aerosol concentration
during exhalation period and to
determine the location of aerosol
generation, only high sampling rate (at
least 10 Hz) aerosol instruments were
used. A nose clip was used to force the
respiration through mouth only.
Subjects were asked to perform a
variety of breathing patterns generated
60
by a cylinder-piston type breathing
simulator in order to study the
breathing pattern dependency. Results:
Among the aerosol instrument tested,
the Welas and TSI CPC 3025 had the
shortest response time. The APS and TSI
CPC 3010 had the highest aerosol count.
The human lung needs to be washed
with clean air before test; therefore, the
subject’s head was place in a hood,
supplied with humidified (RH 70%)
aerosol-free air, to speed up the test
process. The aerosol generation rate
increased with increasing tidal volume.
For the same tidal volume, exhaled
breath aerosol concentration decreased
with increasing breathing frequency,
indicating that portion of the exhaled
breath aerosols were deposited due to
inertial impaction. Conclusions: The
aerosol generation is likely due to the
film burst in the expanding bronchiole
during inhalation. The aerosols were
drawn into alveoli first, and then
expelled during exhalation. The aerosol
concentration of exhaled breath is
ranging from a few to tens of particles
per c.c
PO 125-6
The Overlooked Role of State Health
Departments in Early Occupational
Disease Control: An Analysis of New
Jersey Department of Health
Activities Prior to 1915
M. Holton, R. Adams, ENVIRON
International Corporation, Princeton, NJ.
Situation/problem: The historical
roots of industrial hygiene are well
known; however, significant gaps in
understanding this development exist,
particularly prior to the early 20th
century. The “White Book” identified
sentinel events, including the work of
Alice Hamilton in the early 1900s and
the organization of the Industrial
Hygiene and Sanitation division of the
U.S. Public Health agency in 1914.
George Clayton noted in the 4th Edition
of Patty’s Industrial Hygiene that there
were probably fewer than fifty
industrial hygienists in the early 1930s.
To our knowledge, a detailed account of
efforts to address occupational health
risks or what role state governments
played in advancing the knowledge of
risks prior to the 20th century has not
been presented. Resolution: We
identified a series of annual reports of
the NJDOH from 1877 until 1915. The
NJDOH commonly investigated
workplace hazards during this time
frame. We performed a systematic
review of the annual reports with an
emphasis on the sections of the reports
discussing suspected occupational
diseases. We then compared this
information to major historic events
presented elsewhere in the scientific
literature. Results: The NJDOH was
active in assessing occupational
environments, researching causes of
occupational diseases, developing
industrial hygiene methodology, and
identifying efforts to reduce exposures
before the sentinel industrial hygiene
developments of the early 20th century.
In addition to presenting their findings
and research, the NJDOH also reported
on the findings of other researchers
when relevant. Lessons learned: This
study suggests that despite the lack of
formalized industrial hygiene programs
within state government the
development of our understanding of
occupational diseases was not stagnant
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Further review of similar documents by
other state DOHs would enhance the
understanding of the role state health
departments played in the assessment
and understanding of occupational
disease risk
PO 125-7
Innovations in Industrial Hygiene
and Response to Catastrophic
Events
J. Koerner, US Dept of Health and
Human Services - ASPR, Washington, DC.
Situation/problem: Following
catastrophic incidents such as
earthquakes, massive chemical attack,
or nuclear detonation, huge numbers of
casualties are anticipated and
thousands of responders may be at risk.
Resources for assessing exposure and
mitigating exposure risk will be scarce
and they must be allocated in a
coordinated way to maximize their
utility and save lives. Existing devices
and systems do not adequately address
this problem. Resolution: This
presentation will describe current
innovations, technological advances
and programmatic interventions are
under development to improve
detection and monitoring capabilities,
operational decision making to
minimize exposure risk, and coordinate
and integrate protection of response
workers into response planning and
operations and medical operations.
Results: This presentation will provide
an overview of developments in the
following: RFID chemical sampling
technology, novel applications and
research for a proposed national
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Radiation Laboratory Network (Rad-LN)
for biodosimetry and determination of
radiation exposure, exposure registry,
and specific guidance developed within
the federal government to assist in
managing employee risk for radiation
and biological exposure and allocation
of scarce resources. The discussion will
also focus on multiple uses for certain
interventions and integration across the
spectrum of response operations
including medical operations. Lessons
learned: The discussion will utilize
actual responses (such as Katrina, Haiti,
and the Gulf Oil spill) as well as planning
scenarios for terrorist events (e.g.
nuclear detonation, B. Anthracis release,
and chemical attack) to frame the
requirements and potential solutions.
Lessons learned from the responses and
gaps identified in scenario planning
demonstrate the utility of such
innovations. The need for improved realtime sampling and detection,
biodosimetry techniques, and guidance
regarding allocation of scarce resources
and management of exposure risk is
clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the
criterion that innovations are useful
during daily operations and all-hazards
response, as well as response to
catastrophic events, is indicated by past
responses and experience.
Podium Session 126
Reconstruction of
Exposures: Methods and
Application
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:20 p.m.
Papers PO 126-1 – PO126-8
PO 126-1
Comparison of Three Methods of
Retrospective Exposure Assessment
in a Case-Control Study of Chronic
Beryllium Disease
M. Van Dyke, L. Maier, M. Mroz, L.
Silveira, J. Martyny, National Jewish
Health, Denver, CO; M. Ruttenber,
Colorado Department of Public Health
and Environment, Denver, CO; S.
Reynolds, Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, CO.
Objective: The objective of this study
was to compare three different but
related retrospective exposure
assessment methods applied to the
participants of a case-control study
evaluating the risk of chronic beryllium
disease (CBD) in the nuclear weapons
industry. Methods: Workers (n=316) from
a former nuclear weapons production
facility were enrolled in a case-control
study including 61 with CBD. Beryllium
exposures for each participant were
assessed using three different Methods:
1) a job exposure matrix (JEM method)
that assigned beryllium exposures at
the job title level; 2) individual worker
interviews evaluating the tasks each
worker performed followed by “expert”
assessment of task exposures by two
industrial hygienists (IH rating method),
and; 3) individual worker interviews
followed by extensive analyses of
industrial hygiene exposure data to
assign exposures to tasks (IH data
method). Task and participant
exposures produced using these three
methods were compared in terms of
correlation, absolute agreement, and
odds ratios from logistic regression
analyses. Results: With a binary
exposed/unexposed outcome, the JEM
method had high specificity (0.94) but
low sensitivity (0.27) compared to the IH
data method. Participant exposure
assignments using all three of the
methods were significant predictors of
increased CBD odds. Odds ratios ranged
from 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22) for each unit
increase in lifetime-weighted average
(LTWA) exposure for the JEM method to
2.50 (95% CI: 1.47-4.26) for each unit
increase in LTWA exposure for the IH
data method. Conclusions: Use of any of
the three exposure assessment
methods resulted in the identification
of increasing odds of CBD with
increasing LTWA exposure. Exposure
misclassification likely attenuated the
odds ratio point estimates for the risk of
CBD by approximately 5% using the
“expert” assessment method and
approximately 40% using the JEM
method both compared to the IH data
method
PO 126-2
Development of Job Exposure
Matrices for the pre-1974 Vinyl
Chloride Industry
L. Dell, K. Mundt, ENVIRON, Amherst,
MA; C. Torres, ENVIRON, Atlanta, GA; R.
Adams, ENVIRON, Princeton, NJ.
Objective: To create job exposure
matrices for estimating individual pre1974 vinyl chloride (VC) exposures for
10,109 workers from 37 facilities
participating in the North American
vinyl chloride industry cohort study.
Methods: Data and information from
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PubMed, the 1974 OSHA vinyl chloride
rulemaking docket, corporate
documents, and publications and
monographs by government agencies
and authoritative bodies were reviewed
and synthesized. The following were
performed: assess changes in
technology, work practices, and
scientific knowledge regarding VC
health hazards between 1940 and 1974;
develop default JEMs, estimating 8-hr
time weighted average VC exposures,
separately for monomer and polymer
production; develop facility profiles
describing process, product, workplace
characteristics, work practices, etc; and
modify the default JEMs and develop
facility-specific JEMs. Results: From 14
publications in peer reviewed journals,
testimony and supplementary
information supplied by 15 of 16
companies that owned the 37 facilities,
we identified historical or
contemporaneous vinyl chloride
process information, including over
4,000 exposure measurements, to
summarize in facility profiles. Based on
these, we identified 5 similar exposure
groups (SEGs) each for PVC and VCM
operations. Summary exposure
estimates for 25 time-period/SEG
combinations were derived, ranging
from 1 part per million (ppm) to 800
ppm. Facility-specific JEMs for 36 of the
37 plants were generated. We described
uncertainties and assumptions used to
inform exposure estimates in facilityspecific JEMs from the default PVC and
VCM sector JEMs. Conclusions: We
incorporated historical data, limited IH
measurements and expert judgment
and applied a consensus approach to
create facility-specific JEMs for
reconstructing vinyl chloride exposures.
These JEMs will be used to estimate
individual exposures to vinyl chloride
for workers in the pre-modern (before
implementation of the current OSHA
PEL) vinyl chloride industry and to
assess exposure-response patterns for
various cancers reported among vinyl
chloride employees
PO 126-3
Retrospective Exposure Assessment
in the Specialty Chemical Research
Facility
Y. Chen, G. Ramachandran, B.
Alexander, J. Mandel, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Objective: The epidemiologic
evidence for brain cancer risk related to
chemical exposures is not consistent,
and its specific causal agents remain
61
unknown. The goal of this study was to
reconstruct exposures to chemical
groups with potential links to brain
cancer for employees in a specialty
chemical research facility. Methods:
Several chemical classes of interest,
including acrylates, bis-chloromethly
ether, (BCME), chloromethyl Methyl
Ether (CMME), isothiazolones, and
nitrosoamines, were first identified
through several logical criteria. Similar
exposure groups (SEGs) were created
based on department group, time
period of the department’s existence,
and the function associated with job
title. The exposure history for acrylates,
BCME and CMME for each SEG were
estimated using a combination of
historical monitoring data, exposure
modeling and professional judgments.
Since sufficient measurement data for
isothiazolones and nitrosoamines were
not available, the exposure histories for
these chemical groups were estimated
using exposure modifiers based on
general determinants of exposure and
using formaldehyde exposure levels as a
surrogate. A detailed assessment of
exposure misclassification was also
carried out. Results: An exposure data
matrix was constructed that contained
the estimated exposure histories and
cumulative exposures for each of these
chemical groups in each SEG, which
were then used in epidemiological
analysis. The cumulative exposures for
each employee for each selected
chemical were also estimated based on
their employment histories. We found
using formaldehyde exposures as a
surrogate is not a biased estimator of
exposure if we assume the chemicalspecific exposure assessment to be the
reference. Conclusions: This study
successfully uses a novel combination
of measurement data, exposure
modeling, professional judgment and
exposure modifiers to estimate workers’
cumulative exposures to multiple
chemical classes in a specialty
chemicals research facility. The
methodology can be used in most
studies where historical monitoring
data are insufficient
PO 126-4
Exposure Reconstruction in
Occupational Human Health Risk
Assessment: Current Methods and a
Recommended Framework
J. Sahmel, K. Devlin, ChemRisk, Inc.,
Boulder, CO; D. Paustenbach, D. Hollins,
S. Gaffney, ChemRisk, Inc., San
Francisco, CA.
62
Objective: Exposure reconstruction
for substances of interest to human
health is a process that has been used
as far back as the 1930s. The importance
of robust and high-quality exposure
reconstruction has been recognized by
many researchers. It has been noted
that misclassification of reconstructed
exposures is relatively common and can
result in potentially significant effects
on the conclusions of a human health
risk assessment or epidemiology study.
In this analysis, a review of the key
exposure reconstruction approaches
described in the peer-reviewed
literature is presented along with a
recommended framework for future
exposure reconstruction studies.
Methods: Over 400 peer-reviewed
papers were reviewed to determine the
approaches used for exposure
reconstruction. These approaches were
critically evaluated and classified
according to quantitative, semiquantitative, and qualitative
approaches. Based on this review, a
recommended framework for future
studies was developed. Results: Results
of the review demonstrated that a
number of specific types of approaches
were commonly used for exposure
reconstruction. Based on the strengths
and weaknesses of these approaches,
seven steps for conducting future
exposure reconstruction studies were
developed: identifying the goals of the
reconstruction, organizing and ranking
the available data, identifying key data
gaps, selecting the best information
sources and methodology,
incorporating probabilistic methods,
conducting an uncertainty analysis, and
validating the results of the
reconstruction. Influential emerging
techniques, such as Bayesian data
analysis, are highlighted. Conclusions:
Our analysis indicated that much can be
done to improve the overall quality and
consistency of exposure
reconstructions and that a systematic
framework would help to standardize
the exposure reconstruction process in
the future. Important issues that will
likely influence the conduct of exposure
reconstruction into the future include
improving statistical analysis methods,
addressing the issue of chemical
mixtures, evaluating aggregate
exposures, and ensuring transparency
with respect to variability and
uncertainty in the reconstruction effort
PO 126-5
Long-Term Exposure to
Occupational Dust and Major
Causes of Death in Chinese Workers
W. Chen, Y. Liu, H. Wang, S. Weng, J.
Chen, T. Wu, Huazhong University of
Science and Technology, Wuhan, China;
E. Hnizdo, F. Hearl, NIOSH, Morgantown,
WV; Y. Sun, F. Bochmann, Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health of
German Social Accident Insurance (IFA),
Sankt Augustin, Germany; X. Zhang,
Jingdezhen Health Bureau, Jingdezhen,
China.
Objective: Occupational dust exposure
is the main health hazard around the
world, especially in developing
countries. However, the health effects of
long-term exposure on workers are not
well studied. The purpose of this study is
to examine the health effects of longterm exposure to occupational dust in
Chinese workers. Methods: We studied
74,040 workers at 29 metal mines and
pottery factories in China from 1960 to
2003, with a median follow-up of 33
years. Cumulative dust exposure (CDE)
was estimated by linking work histories
to a job-exposure matrix. Standardized
mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated
based on Chinese national mortality
rates. Hazard ratios (HRs) for causes of
death associated with CDE were
estimated using the proportional
hazards model. Results: We observed
19,516 deaths during 2,306,007 personyears of follow-up. The mortality from all
causes was 846 per 100,000 person-years,
559 per 100,000 person-years for nondust-exposed workers, and 978 per
100,000 person-years for dust-exposed
workers. The three leading causes of
death were cardiovascular disease
(mortality rate, 192 per 100,000 personyears), respiratory diseases (187), and
malignant neoplasms (157). The SMR
from all causes was 1.21 (95% confidence
interval [CI], 1.19-1.23) for dust-exposed
workers and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) for
non-exposed workers, compared to
national mortality rates. Compared to
non-exposed workers, the risk of death
among dust-exposed miners was
significantly elevated for all causes (HR,
1.36; 95% CI, 1.31-1.41), cardiovascular
diseases (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.39-1.64),
respiratory diseases (HR, 4.52; 95% CI,
3.98-5.14), lung cancer (HR, 1.52; 95% CI,
1.30-1.78), and accidents (HR, 1.30; 95% CI,
1.13-1.49). Conclusions: Long-term
exposure to occupational dust is
associated with a substantially elevated
overall and cause-specific mortality
among workers
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 126-6
Exposure-response over Time and
Lifetime Risk of Silicosis—
Regulatory Risk Assessment of
Silicosis Among a Cohort of Chinese
Pottery Workers
F. Bochmann, Y. Sun, IFA-DGUV, Sankt
Augutin, Germany; W. Chen, Huazhong
University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan, China.
Objective: Regulatory discussions
concerning dust exposure safety
standard based traditionally on
quantitative regulatory risk
assessments. In order to quantitatively
estimate the impact of silica dust
exposure on the incidence and lifetime
risk of silicosis, we made an analysis
among a cohort of Chinese pottery
workers. Methods: The cohorts
comprised 3,691 employees with a
median follow-up duration of about 37
years. Incident cases of silicosis were
identified via silicosis registries.
Individual exposure to respirable silica
dust was estimated based on about 2
million historical measurements. The
association between silica dust
exposure and the absolute and relative
risk of silicosis was quantified by
Poisson regression analysis adjusted for
age and smoking. Lifetime risk was
quantified for a target population by
using the estimated exposure-response
relationship derived from this study.
Results: This analysis provides an
exposure-response-relationship
between silica dust exposure and
silicosis over time. The risk of silicosis is
dependent not only on the cumulative
silica dust exposures, but also strongly
dependant on its related exposure
patterns over time (various
combinations of longtime average,
highest exposure and exposure
duration) and latency period. Silicosis
risk reaches the highest point about 30–
35 years after the exposure.
Conclusions: This analysis
demonstrated the importance of
exposure patterns in risk quantification
and communication. The results of this
analysis may provide useful guideline in
regulatory decision making of silica
related health problems
PO 126-7
Cardiopulmonary Mortality and
Long-Term Exposure to
Occupational Dust: A Cohort Study
Objective: To examine the exposureresponse relationship between longterm exposure to occupational dust and
mortality risk of cardiopulmonary
disease. Methods: We studied
cardiopulmonary mortality in a retroprospective cohort of 57920 workers,
from 8 tungsten mines, 2 iron/copper
mines, 4 tin mines and 8 pottery
factories, in south-central China
between 1960 and 2003. Cumulative
exposure to respiratory dust (CDE) for
each worker was estimated by linking
his work history to a job-exposure
matrix. With adjustments for year of
birth, gender, and smoking, multiple Cox
regression models with nonproportional hazards and penalized
smoothing spline models were used to
estimate the dust effects on the
mortality risk of cardiopulmonary
disease. Results: During an average of 32
years of follow-up (1,903,435.85 personyears, 16,622 deaths), we identified 7,257
cardiopulmonary deaths, including
3,616 deaths from cardiovascular
disease (CVD) (including 2,044 deaths
from pulmonary heart diseases [PHD])
and 3,641 deaths from diseases of
respiratory system (RD, including 2,272
deaths from pneumoconiosis). For dustexposed workers, the crude mortality
rates of CVD and RD were 227 and 266
per 100000 person-years respectively.
Compared with workers without
occupational dust exposure, multiple
Cox models showed that CDE was
significantly associated with CVD
mortality for the entire cohort (p<0.001),
and workers from tungsten (p<0.001) and
iron/copper mines (p=0.005). We found
increasing mortality risk of RD and PHD
with increasing CDE for the entire
cohort. Compared with the first
category of CDE, positive exposureresponse trends (p<0.001) were observed
for pneumoconiosis in the entire cohort
and workers from tungsten mines, tin
mines and pottery factories. Similar
trends were detected using penalized
smoothing spline models. Conclusions:
Long-term exposure to occupational
dust is associated with elevated risk of
mortality from CVD, PHD, RD and
pneumoconiosis among Chinese
workers. The findings also indicate that
mortality risk of cardiopulmonary
diseases is different in four types of
mine/factory
Y. Liu, W. Chen, Huazhong University
of Science and Technology, Wuhan,
China; K. Steenland, Emory University,
Atlanta, GA.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 126-8
COPD in Construction Workers:
Results from Two Medical
Monitoring Programs
J. Dement, Duke University Medical
Center, Durham, NC; L. Welch, Center for
Construction Research and Training
(CPWR), Silver Spring, MD; K. Ringen,
Stoneturn Consultants, Seattle, WA.
Objective: Construction and craft
workers are at increased risk of COPD;
however, research is needed to identify
specific occupational exposures
causally related to COPD risk. This study
investigates COPD risk among
construction workers participating in
two large medical screening programs.
Methods: The study population included
7,579 Department of Energy (DOE)
workers participating in the Building
Trades National Medical Screening
Program (BTMED) and 1,967 workers
participating in the Sheet Metal
Occupational Health Institute Trust
(SMOHIT) examination program. Both
programs included a detailed work
history, respiratory history and
symptom questionnaire, posterioranterior (P-A) chest radiograph classified
according to the ILO Classification of
Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis, and
spirometry meeting American Thoracic
Society (ATS) criteria. Prevalent COPD
was based on an FEV1/FVC ratio below
the lower limit of normal (LLN) using the
prediction equations of Hankinson et al.
Results: The overall prevalence of COPD
among DOE workers was 13.3% (95%
CI=12.6-14.1) while the prevalence
among sheet metal workers was 9.8%
(95% CI=8.6-11.3). The DOE population
included workers from many different
crafts and internal analyses based on
logistic regression, which controlled for
smoking, observed more than a two-fold
risk for many trade groups. Specific
agents associated with COPD risk were
explored in both populations using
qualitative scores based on work tasks.
Among the DOE population, statistically
significant positive associations were
observed for exposures to asbestos,
welding/cutting, silica, and cement
dusts. Among sheet metal workers,
welding/cutting was statistically
associated with COPD risk as well as
exposures to molds and spores.
Suggestive associations were observed
for having been exposed to talc dust,
lime dust, and wood sealers.
Conclusions: These analyses have
shown construction workers to be at
increased risk of COPD and suggest a
number of specific exposures that
63
increase risk; however, additional
research is needed to establish a causal
association with some of these
exposures.
Podium Session 127
New Issues in Biological
and Chemical Sampling
and Analysis
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
1:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m.
Papers PO 127-1 – PO127-9
PO 127-1
Concentration Factor as a Function
of Particle Size and Sampling Flow
Rate for the Virtual Impactor of the
XMX/2L-MIL Biological Air Sampler
J. Black, Air Force Institute of
Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH;
C. Cooper, J. Slagley, School of Aerospace
Medicine, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Objective: The objective of this
research was to determine the
concentration factor (CF) as a function
of particle size and sampling flow rate
for the virtual impactor of the XMX/2LMIL (XMX) biological air sampler.
Methods: The CF is defined as the
particle concentration of air drawn
through the virtual impactor, the
secondary flow, divided by that of
ambient air. The XMX uses a vacuum
pump to separate the secondary flow
from the major flow. Aerodynamic
particle sizers (APSs) were used to
simulate the vacuum pump and
generate the secondary flow. A test
aerosol of Arizona Road Dust was
generated, charge neutralized, and
lofted into a 14 cubic meter chamber.
The CF as a function of particle size was
determined by simultaneously
measuring the particle concentrations
of the secondary flow and chamber
using APSs. Three XMXs were analyzed.
Secondary flow rates of 5 LPM and 10
LPM were obtained by using either one
or two APSs to draw the secondary flow
through the virtual impactor. Results:
CFs were calculated for the three XMXs
over the particle size range of 1 to 10
microns. For a secondary flow rate of 5
LPM, the maximum CF was 115 for 4.5
micron particles. A secondary, local
maximum CF of 75 was found for 10
micron particles. An intermediate
minimum CF of 20 was found for 6.5
micron particles. There was no
64
statistically significant difference in CF
across the three XMXs (P < 0.05).
Additionally, there was no notable
change in the CF profile for a secondary
flow rate of 10 LPM. Conclusions: The
virtual impactor of the XMX
concentrates particles in the 1 to 10
micron size range. The virtual impactor
showed no statistically significant interinstrument performance variability, and
no significant change in CF as a function
of secondary flow rate was noted
PO 127-2
The Influence of Air Volume on
Fungal Spore Viability: A
Comparison of Four Bioaerosol
Samplers
M. Saleh, University of Toronto/
Sporometrics, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Objective: This study compared the
effect of various air volume treatments
on fungal spore viability using four
bioaerosol samplers, including the
Andersen N6, the SAS, the RCS and the
RCS high flow model samplers that are
commonly used in indoor air quality
assessments. Methods: A combination
of outdoor and HEPA-filtered air was
used to investigate the processes, which
influence spore viability; in particular
media moisture content and spore
desiccation. Samples were exposed to
varying volumes of HEPA-filtered air (up
to 360L), either before or after outdoor
sampling for fungal propagules. Fungi
were designated into three groups
including Cladosporium, Alternaria and
an “other” category. Fungal colonies
were counted and the number of colony
forming units (CFUs) calculated. Results:
Each of the tested bioaerosol samplers
performed consistently in the collection
of fungi throughout the study. Greater
numbers of CFUs were collected on
nutrient media following RCS and
Anderson N6 bioaerosol collection
compared to SAS and RCS high flow
samplers. These findings demonstrate
that higher air volumes have a
deleterious effect on fungal spore
viability in samplers with high flow
rates. Furthermore, sampling HEPAfiltered air before outdoor sampling
tended to have a larger effect on
decreasing spore viability than the
reverse treatment. Conclusions: These
results suggest that sampling outcomes
are heavily dependent on the type of
bioaerosol sampler. The higher flow
rates of the SAS and RCS high flow
samplers (100L/min) may have
contributed to the under sampling of
fungi relative to the RCS and Andersen
N6. The effects of air volume on colony
counts are still preliminary and require
more advanced statistical analysis.
While sampling with high air volumes
can achieve very low limits of detection,
this study demonstrates that the results
obtained may not truly represent the
airborne mycoflora
PO 127-3
Validations of the Dynamic Air
Sampling Method for Microbial
Volatile Organic Compounds
(MVOCs) by Solid-Phase
Microextraction (SPME) with the CoExist of BTEX
I. Wang, Y. Chen, S. Tsai, National
Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: MVOCs are of increasing
interest considering their possible
contribution to adverse health effects in
human and the role as indicators for
mold growth indoors. Other than
MVOCs, chemicals such as benzene,
toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene
(BTEX) also exist in indoor
environments. Therefore, competitive
effects between different compounds
might be observed when the
adsorption-based air sampling methods
are performed. The objective of this
study was then to examine if BTEX, the
most abundant VOC indoors, will affect
the dynamic sampling of MVOCs by
SPME. Methods: Total of seven MVOCs
were prepared in mixtures and injected
into the dynamic sampling system by a
syringe pump. Besides, vapors which
contained BTEX and seven MVOCs were
also generated. Sampling was
performed by different SPME fibers
under a fixed air velocity for various
combinations of sampling time as well
as concentrations of BTEX and MVOCs.
After exposures, the SPME fibers were
inserted into the injection port of gas
chromatograph with mass spectrometer
(GC/MS) for thermal desorption and
analysis. The results from MVOCs alone
versus MVOCs with the co-exist of BTEX
were compared. Results: It showed that
Carboxen/PDMS was the most suitable
fiber for extracting MVOCs. Under 40
min of sampling, there were no
significant differences between the
results from MVOCs alone and the
results from MVOCs with the co-exist of
BTEX. Effect of competitive adsorption
was not observed, and the linear ranges
of detection for MVOCs were around
4.24 to 149.31 μg/m3. The experimental
sampling rates were 0.0127±0.0040 cm3/s
for 2-mrthyl-1-propanol, 0.0276±0.0010
cm3/s for 1-butanol, 0.0390±0.0017 cm3/s
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
for 3-methyl-1-butanol, 0.0757±0.0021
cm3/s for 2-hexanone, 0.0771±0.0019
cm3/s for 2-heptanone, 0.0323±0.0015
cm3/s for 1-octan-3-ol, and 0.0587±0.0023
cm3/s for 2-pentylfuran, respectively.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated
the potential to apply SPME for dynamic
air sampling of MVOCs. Indoor BTEX
were not expected to cause the effects
of competitive adsorptions
PO 127-4
Field Evaluation of Diffusive
Samplers for Indoor Air VOC
Measurements
H. Hayes, Air Toxics Ltd., Folsom, CA.
Objective: Although diffusive
samplers are routinely used to support
worker exposure assessments, IAQ
professionals are interested in using
diffusive samplers for long-term
monitoring of VOCs in indoor air. Few
field studies have been conducted to
directly compare various diffusive
samplers for these environmental
monitoring applications. The purpose of
this study is to evaluate the
performance of several commonly used
diffusive samplers in terms of
sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy.
Methods: Several types of diffusive
samplers were deployed at various
industrial and residential buildings to
measure trace level VOCs in indoor air
over periods of up to 7 days. Badge-style
and radial sampler geometries were
evaluated as well as charcoal and
thermally desorbable sorbents.
Samplers were also deployed
concurrently with EPA TO-15 Summa
canisters to evaluate agreement
between the technologies. Results:
Results showed good comparability
between diffusive samplers with
precision generally 30% RPD or less. TO15 canisters were also deployed at
several sites alongside the badge-style
samplers with the thermally desorbable
(TD) sorbents, and agreement was
excellent (typically less than 30% RPD)
for targeted VOCs over a wide
concentration range. Overall, the
sensitivity achievable with the badgestyle and radial-style samplers paired
with the TD sorbent was an order of
magnitude higher than the radial-style
charcoal sampler. As compared with the
radial TD sampler, the badge TD sampler
provided quantitative measurements
for more compounds and had a built-in
blank correction which allowed for
improved accuracy at trace level
concentrations. Conclusions: Each of
the diffusive samplers tested provided
quantitative indoor air measurements
for trace level VOCs. The specific
sampler geometry and sorbent selection
provided flexibility in meeting the
target reporting limits and the expected
VOC concentrations. The badge-style
sampler with the TD sorbent and the
built-in blank correction provided
excellent sensitivity, accurate trace
level measurements, and a
comprehensive list of VOCs
PO 127-5
Passive Monitoring of Volatiles in
the Workplace Using a Matrix
Insensitive Diffusion Sampler
T. Robinson, D. Cardin, Entech
Instruments, Inc., Simi Valley, CA.
Simple diffusion samplers offer an
easy means of monitoring volatile
chemicals in the workplace. This
simplicity sometimes comes at the cost
of reduced certainty in the quantitative
accuracy of the monitoring event.
Diffusion devices can suffer from
temperature, humidity, face velocity,
and chemical matrix effects that can
change both the uptake rate, and the
rate of back diffusion out of the
sampler. The objective of this study was
to evaluate a whole air sampling device
that eliminates matrix effects on
sampling uptake rates by completely
eliminating the use of adsorbent media.
A small 1 x 4” sampler is worn near the
collar where air is collected
continuously during either a 15 min
STEL or an 8-hour TWA measurement.
Helium diffuses out of the sampler at a
constant rate, allowing air to be
collected “actively” in response to the
vacuum created by the loss of helium.
Workplace chemicals collected in the
sampler remain effectively trapped,
with no apparent back diffusion. After
collection, the sampler is capped off for
return to a laboratory for analysis,
where the sampler is weighed to
accurately determine the true weight of
sample collected. These monitors are
equivalent to methods based on
canister sampling so they are reusable,
yet weigh less than 2 ounces. Results
demonstrating consistent sampling
rates of commonly monitored
compounds such as Benzene in both a
single and a multi-component
environment will be presented.
Precision will also be evaluated for
compounds that have been difficult to
quantify using passive samplers, such as
Diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione). Conclusions
will be drawn regarding the overall
effectiveness of these devices for
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
workplace monitoring
PO 127-6
An Analytical Evaluation of Ontario
Firefighters’ Exposures to Volatile,
Semi-volatile and Particulate
Organics During Firefighting by Air
Sampling, Skin Sampling and
Selected Urinary Metabolites
B. McCarry, S. Fernando, L. Shaw, D.
Shaw, McMaster University, Hamilton,
ON, Canada.
Firefighters may be exposed to
harmful chemicals while fighting fires.
Adverse health effects from prolonged
exposures to smoke include lung and
kidney failure, heart attacks and many
types of cancers. Objective: The
objective of this study is to develop
robust methodologies to assess
exposures of Ontario Firefighters to
volatile, semi-volatile and particulatebound organic compounds during fire
fighting by measuring the levels of
these substances in air, on firefighters’
skin and in their urine. Methods: Air
sampling involves comparing chemical
profiles from classical gas-phase plus
particle phase samplers to the profiles
from a small, passive sampler such as
the Gerstel Twister. The Twister, a
magnetic stir bar coated with
polydimethylsiloxane, has proven to be
a reliable passive sampler in a number
of applications. The profiles of target
analytes (PAH as well as a number of
methoxyphenols) collected on Twisters
indicate that the Twister absorbs
almost all of the gas phase compounds
and some particle-phase components
from the air. The major advantages of
the Twister compared to classical
samplers include its small size, ease of
deployment for air sampling, ease of
clean-up and reusability. Skin sampling
involves taking pre- and post-exposure
skin wipes of exposed areas of the skin
followed by analysis for target analytes.
Skin wipe analysis involved a solid
phase extraction clean-up followed by
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
analysis. Results: Preliminary results
have shown that the profiles of the
target analytes in the air samples and
the skin samples are very similar. The
methodology for the determination of
metabolites of both PAH and
methoxyphenols in urine used a
different solid phase extraction method
followed by gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry techniques.
Conclusions: Our conclusions show that
the methodology is selective and
sensitive enough to detect background
65
metabolite levels and increases in these
levels due to rather modest airborne
exposures to smoke
PO 127-7
Determination of Particle Size
Distribution from Welding Rod Flux
Handling
L. Burrelli, J. Spencer, Environmental
Profiles, Inc., Columbia, MD.
Objectives: A study was completed to
determine the particle sizes of debris
generated from the flux of three types
of welding rods during handling
activities. The three activities studied
were hammering the flux off of rods in a
procedure called “slugging,” bending
rods, and walking on bent rods.
Methods: Each rod type and handling
activity was studied separately to
obtain specific data for a rod type and a
handling activity. Debris generated from
the handling activities was collected
and submitted for analysis for particle
size distribution (PSD). The
methodology used by the laboratory
was Analytical Method for Particle
Sizing of Bulk Powders by Sieve
Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
(EDS) and IXRF Digital Image System.
Results: Results showed that in excess
of 94% of the particulate generated
from each of the handling activities was
larger than 125 micrometers. Particulate
in the range of respirable diameters, i.e.,
<10 micrometers, ranged from none
detected to 0.074%. From a review of the
data it appears that particle sizes were
not dependent on rod type. Following
completion of the study, a QA validation
study was conducted to verify the initial
results. Specifically, the welding rod flux
slugging and bending activities were
performed within a glove box to collect
and monitor airborne particulate that
may have been generated. Results of the
validation study showed that the total
weight percentage of the respirable
component for the slugging activity was
measured at 0.0183%, i.e., lower than the
initial study of 0.0694%. For the other
handling activities, the total weight
percentage for the respirable fraction
was not statistically different than the
initial study measurements.
Conclusions: In conclusion, particle size
measurements including air
particulates are not significantly
different than measurements of
particles collected only from work
surfaces
66
PO 127-8
Development of a Consensus
Standard for a Smaller Wipe for
Beryllium in Settled Dust
PO 127-9
Determination of Natural Beryllium
in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing
Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio
M. Brisson, L. Youmans-McDonald,
Savannah River Nuclear Solutions LLC,
Aiken, SC; K. White, Consultive Services,
Virginia Beach, VA; A. Agrawal,
Berylliant, Inc., Tucson, AZ; K. Ashley,
NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.
T. Gran, W. Word, National Security
Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Mercury, NV.
Situation/Problem: Surface wipes
that were originally developed for use
in wiping surfaces for measurement of
lead in settled dust have been applied
to sampling for measurement of
beryllium. The size of the wipes was
established by an international
consensus standard based on wiping
1,000 sq. cm, or about one square foot,
of surface. However, for beryllium, a
convention of 100 sq. cm, or about one
tenth of the value in the lead wiping
standard, has been established by
Department of Energy regulations.
Additionally, for measurement of ultratrace levels of beryllium, it is necessary
to minimize the volume of liquids used
to bring the sample into solution. As a
result, available surface wipes are larger
than desirable for beryllium sampling.
Resolution: A group of individuals
affiliated with the Beryllium Health and
Safety Committee have proposed and
developed a new international standard
for a surface wipe whose surface area is
approximately 10% of the area of
existing wipes. This area is still
sufficient to allow for the wipe to be
folded three times in the course of
collecting the sample and is thus
consistent with current practice.
Results: The status of the new wipe
standard, and data from a round robin
of wipes that meet this standard, will be
presented. Lessons Learned: Due to the
differences in sampling and analysis
requirements for various surface
contaminants, sampling approaches
that are effective for one contaminant
may not necessarily be equally effective
for other contaminants. The
concentration range of the contaminant
in question, along with requirements
for sample preparation and laboratory
analysis, are factors that must be
considered
Objective: A method to determine
whether beryllium (Be) components in
surface swipe samples are from a
natural source is needed. Methods: Soil
samples and surface swipes from area
facilities were analyzed for marker
elements to identify source pathways
for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the
natural marker element must be present
at reasonably consistent levels across
the site, must correlate with the Be
concentration, and not have the
potential to be present from nonnatural sources. Results: The research
on marker elements used to identify
source pathways for beryllium (Be)
concentrations demonstrates a clear
correlation between Be and yttrium (Y)
in natural soils on the Nevada National
Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed
as a method to characterize the source
of Be in soil and surface swipe samples
and to aid in recommendations for
follow up actions. Swipe samples are
analyzed using an ICP/MS method and
compared with results from soil
samples. Natural soil constituent levels
and the Y/Be Ratio range are
determined for the occupied and
historical facilities and surrounding
areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical
range established indicate the Be is
from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower
than this range indicate the presence of
another Be source and may then be
correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other
operational sources by the ratios of
copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or
niobium. Example case studies of
evaluations of buildings with historical
operational beryllium usage, current
ongoing technical processes, and heavy
equipment used in large building
demolitions are included demonstrating
the value of the ratio approach.
Conclusions: This differentiation is
valuable as there is no known
correlation between natural beryllium
in soil and beryllium disease. This work
was done by National Security
Technologies, LLC, under contract No.
DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Dept.
of Energy. DOE/NV/25946—XXX
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 128
Risk Assessment Methods and Applications
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
5:00 p.m.–7:00 p.m.
Papers PO 128-1 – PO128-6
PO 128-1
Validation of Control Banding:
Performance of the COSHH
Essentials Model at a Small- and a
Medium-sized Plant
E. Lee, J. Slaven, M. Harper, NIOSH,
Morgantown, WV; R. Bowen, Bowen EHS,
Inc, Chapel Hill, NC.
Objective: To evaluate the Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health
(COSHH) Essentials model from two
different industrial situations, one small
printing shop and one medium-sized
automotive coatings producer.
Methods: A total of 188 exposure
measurements of three volatile organic
chemicals (VOCs) (methylene chloride,
isopropanol, and acetone) were
collected (sample duration: 60-min per
measurement) in the small plant and
three tasks (cleaning, printing process,
and print preparation) were employed.
General ventilation was provided at this
plant. At the medium-sized plant,
exposures of five chemicals in a mixture
(acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl
ketone, toluene, and xylenes) were
measured from a batch-making task
(n=24 per chemical) and a bucketwashing task (n=18 per chemical). The
control methods at the time of sampling
were containment and general
ventilation for the batch-making and
containment, general ventilation, and
local exhaust ventilation for the bucketwashing. The paper version of the model
and the web-based model were used to
estimate a Predicted Exposure Range
(PER) for each chemical and to
determine recommended control
methods, respectively. Probabilities of
being above or below the PER or the
applicable occupational exposure level
(OEL) were determined. Results: The
time-weighted average exposures for
each chemical at both plants were lower
than the corresponding OELs. The
estimated PERs at both plants showed
inconsistent agreements with exposure
measurements. This may be because of
the different volatilities of the
chemicals or the complex mixture of
control measures in use. The model
recommended ‘general ventilation’ for
the tasks at the small plant except for
methylene chloride (containment) and
‘special advice’ for both tasks at the
medium plant. Conclusions: Overall, our
findings suggested that the model
worked reasonably well for the VOCs at
both plants. The experience of using the
web-based model generated some
suggestions to provide a more userfriendly tool and to further refine
control banding systems
PO 128-2
Dermal Absorption of Benzene in
Occupational Settings: Estimating
Uptake and Applications for Risk
Assessment
P. Williams, E Risk Sciences, LLP,
Boulder, CO; J. Sahmel, ChemRisk,
Boulder, CO; J. Knutsen, Colorado School
of Mines, Golden, CO; J. Spencer,
Environmental Profiles, Inc., Columbia,
MD.
Objective: There is growing emphasis
in the United States and Europe
regarding the quantification of dermal
exposures to chemical mixtures and
other substances. In this presentation,
we characterize the dermal flux of
benzene in neat form, organic solvents,
and aqueous solutions based on a
critical review and analysis of the
published literature, and discuss
appropriate applications for using
benzene dermal absorption data in
occupational risk assessment. Methods:
We synthesize and analyze data for 77
experimental results taken from 16
studies of benzene skin absorption. We
also assess the chemical activity of
benzene in simple hydrocarbon solvent
mixtures using a thermodynamic
modeling software tool. Results: Based
on the collective human in vivo, human
in vitro, and animal in vitro data sets,
we find that the steady-state dermal
flux for neat benzene (and benzenesaturated aqueous solutions) ranges
from 0.2 to 0.4 mg/(cm2 h). Observed
outlier values for some of the animal in
vivo data sets are possibly due to the
use of test species that have more
permeable skin than humans or study
conditions that resulted in damage to
the skin barrier. Because relatively few
dermal absorption studies have been
conducted on benzene-containing
organic solvents, and available test
results may be influenced by study
design or vehicle effects, it is not
possible to use these data to quantify
the dermal flux of benzene for other
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
types of solvent mixtures. However, we
describe several potential approaches
that can be used to derive a rough
approximation of the steady-state
benzene dermal flux for these mixtures.
Conclusions: Important study
limitations include a lack of data on
factors that affect the dermal uptake of
benzene, meaningful metrics for
evaluating the dermal uptake of
benzene, the effect of skin damage on
the dermal flux of benzene, and
standardized test methods for
estimating the dermal flux of benzene
PO 128-3
A Combined Monte Carlo/USEPA
Integrated Exposure Uptake
Biokinetic Model (IEUBK) Approach
for Evaluating Remedial Action
Scenarios for an Active Smelter Area
in Shymkent, Kazakhstan
A. Korchevskiy, J. Rasmuson, E.
Rasmuson, Chemistry & Industrial
Hygiene, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO; R. Olsen,
CDM, Inc., Denver, CO.
Objective: Evaluation of potential
remediation scenarios for a 14 km2 zone
surrounding an active lead smelter in
Shymkent, Kazakhstan, where 95% of
children have blood lead levels (BLL)
above 10 μg/dL, required prospective
exposure assessment. The IEUBK model
predicts ranges of BLL for single-value
environmental media concentrations,
but does not allow input of ranges to
describe “what-if” scenarios associated
with potential remediation efforts. The
objective of this work was to develop a
stochastic method that would allow
consideration of variability in
environmental concentrations.
Methods: The current version of IEUBK
software was run for different random
combinations of input variables, and
statistical software was used to build an
exposure/uptake model based on
multivariate linear regression. Five
scenarios that varied soil and indoor
dust lead concentrations along with the
effect of the smelter being inactive or
active were modeled. Variability was
forecasted with stochastic
methodologies. Results: BLLs can be
effectively modeled for Shymkent as
follows: BLLpredicted = 7.06 +0.3095
*Lair + 0.0073 *((100-R)/100 *Lindoor dust
+R/100 *Lsoil), where BLLpredicted
(μg/dL ) is the geometric mean BLL; R is
the ratio of soil to dust ingestion (%);
and Lair (μg/m3), Lindoor dust (mg/kg),
and Lsoil (mg/kg) are lead
concentrations in the environment. The
67
linear model closely reproduces IEUBK
predictions (r=0.994, p<0.0001) although
theoretically the IEUBK is non-linear.
With prognostic uniform distribution
for lead in soil in the range of 150-200
mg/kg, and for indoor dust in the range
of 200-300 mg/kg, with no air emission,
and assuming superposition of
environmental and individual
variability, we predict 95% of children
would have BLL below 10 μg/dL.
Conclusions: Approximation of the
IEUBK model by linear regression is a
valid method allowing stochastic
consideration of varying environmental
media concentrations on the modeled
BLL probability distribution
PO 128-4
WITHDRAWN: Re-Assessment of
Inorganic Arsenic Risk Analysis with
Consideration of Substantial Effect
Variables
S. Lamm, S. Robbins, Consultants,
Washington, DC; R. Chen, Georgetown
University, Washington, DC; J. Lu,
American University, Washington, DC
PO 128-5
Metalworking Fluid Risks Identified By Research Growing Out
of A Union Campaign
F. Mirer, City University of New York,
New York, NY.
Objective: Metalworking fluids (MWF)
are used in the manufacture of engines,
transmissions, chassis parts and other
industrial products. Concerns for
occupational cancer prompted the UAW
to launch a research program on effects
of MWFs in the early 1980’s. Early results
of this program showed material
respiratory health issues at low
exposure levels. This review was
conducted to identify trends in
publication. Methods: Electronic
reference sources from the earliest date
available through the end of 2009 were
queried. All items returned were
reviewed for relevance to MWF
regulation. Results: The search found
475 reports in professional literature
directly relevant to regulation of MWF
exposures. Of these, 75 addressed
cancer, 108 respiratory effects, 87 skin
effects or absorption, 92 microbial
contaminants, and 117 exposure
measurements and controls. At least 92
of these reports were in UAW
represented workplaces or funded by
UAW-management joint funds. Only 61
reports preceded the launch of the UAW
68
campaign. By 1993, when the UAW
petitioned for the standard, there were
142. OSHA denied the UAW petition
based on data available in 1999, when
there were 228 reports. An additional
247 reports had accumulated by the end
of 2009. Studies identified excess lung,
liver, pancreatic, laryngeal and
leukemia, asthma and hypersensitivity
pneumonitis associated with MWF
exposures. A substantial wave of
reports on microbial contamination and
control followed the 1989 publication
on acute respiratory effects which
established the 0.5 mg/M3
recommendation. Conclusion: The
evidence for significant risks of material
impairment of health at prevailing
exposure levels to MWFs, and the
feasibility of lower exposure limits,
grew from a union campaign which
included funding research. Started by
concerns for cancer, respiratory health
issues emerged from this research as
the health effect to be targeted by
exposure controls
PO 128-6
Analysis of Human Health Risk
Throughout the Life Cycle of a
Gallium Arsenide Thin Film
Photovoltaic Cell
W. Cyrs, ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA;
K. Krause, A. McIntyre, EORM, San Jose,
CA.
Gallium arsenide (Ga-As) thin film
photovoltaic (PV) cells have shown
promise for large-scale commercial
production, with conversion efficiencies
reaching as high as 40.7% using
concentrators. Objective: The purpose
of this study is to present an analysis of
the human health risks throughout the
life cycle of a Ga-As thin film PV cell.
Methods: A comprehensive analysis of
the literature was performed, with
critical points of human health risk
identified throughout the lifecycle of
Ga-As thin film PV cells. In addition,
process information for the obtainment
of raw materials, manufacture of PV
cells, module assembly, installation, and
commercial deployment were analyzed
in order to further refine the risk
characterization by describing exposure
potential to hazardous substances.
Where data was unavailable for Ga-Asbased PV cells, available information
from other thin film PV cell types was
applied. Results: The manufacture of PV
cells is a key point of risk during the life
cycle of Ga-As thin film PV cells, due to
the use of process chemicals such as
highly toxic metal hydride gases (e.g.,
arsine) and pyrophoric metal-organics
(e.g., trimethyl indium) as feedstock
materials. On the other hand, the
incorporation of PV cells into modules
provides little opportunity for exposure;
thus risk becomes minimal. In this
study, measures used to control
exposure to potentially hazardous
materials are discussed, with a focus on
engineering controls. Conclusions: From
this assessment, it is clear that although
unique occupational hazards exist for
the different life stages of Ga-As thin
film PV cells, experience from the
development of other PV cell types, as
well as a precautionary approach, are
being used to minimize the associated
risks. The results of this study provide
data necessary for regulatory
compliance with a number of
international regulations such as REACH
and companion product safety
requirements.
Podium Session 129
Nanotechnology: Assessment and Control
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
5:00 p.m.–7:00 p.m.
Papers PO 129-1 – PO129-6
PO 129-1
Comparison of Instrument
Response when Measuring
Different Types of Nanomaterials at
the Occupational Settings Using
Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer,
Surface Area Monitor and
Condensation Particle Counter
S. Ham, E. Lee, K. Lee, K. Lee, C. Yoon,
Seoul National University, Seoul,
Republic of Korea; D. Park, Korea
National Open University, Seoul,
Republic of Korea; K. Ha, Changwon
National University, Changwon,
Republic of Korea; E. Jung, Korea
Occupational Safety and Health Agency,
Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Objective: Exposure monitoring of
nanomaterial has been a challenging
issue in these days. In this study, we
investigate the relationship of response
among several instruments including
scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS),
surface area monitor (SAM) and
condensation particle counter (CPC) at
several workplaces where incidental
and engineering nanomaterials
occurred.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Methods: Total of 5 workplaces, 3 of
engineered nanomaterial handling and
2 of welding fume occurring workplaces,
were investigated with two SMPS
(model A, model B), a SAM and a CPC.
About 36 hours, 2 work shifts and night
background time, were monitored with
all instruments. Pearson’s correlation
coefficient (r) was calculated to
compare the instrument response
according to the types of nanomaterial.
Results: When engineered nanomaterial
was handled, Pearson’s correlation
coefficients of SAM and ‘A’ SMPS, and ‘B’
SMPS were 0.9 and 0.89, respectively.
Pearson’s correlation coefficient values
between ‘A’ SMPS and SAM, ‘B’ SMPS
and, SAM were 0.82, 0.84, respectively
when welding fume was generated, SAM
also shows a reasonable relationship
with CPC at the engineered
nanomaterial handling workplaces.
There was a considerable difference in
Pearson’s correlation coefficients when
measured during work-shift and night
duration (background). Conclusions:
This study suggests that SAM, more and
relatively not expensive equipment,
could be used to measure both welding
fume and engineered nanomaterial at
the occupational settings
PO 129-2
Applying Control Technology to
Airborne Nanoparticles: Evaluation
of Filtration Performance for
Engineered Nanoparticles
S. Tsai, C. Huang, M. Ellenbecker,
University of Massachusetts Lowell,
Lowell, MA; M. Echevarria-Vega,
University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, PR;
G. Sotiriou, Particle Technology
Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland; P.
Demokritou, Harvard University, Boston,
MA.
Objective: Applying engineering
controls to airborne nanoparticles is
critical to prevent worker exposure and
environmental releases. This study
evaluated the effectiveness of two
aerosol sampling and six environmental
fabric filters at collecting engineered
nanoparticles. Methods: Filters
evaluated including quartz and glass
fiber air sampling filters and six air
cleaning fabric filters, i.e., woven
polyester with (WP-TMC) and without
(WP) Telfon membrane coating,
polyester felt with no coating (PF), with
Teflon (PF-TMC) and Goretex membrane
coating (PF-GM), and polyester filament
(PFL). A Versatile Engineered
Nanomaterial Generation System
(VENGES), recently designed and
constructed at Harvard, generated 10
nm spherical silica nanoparticles by
flame spray pyrolysis. Generated
nanoparticles were diluted with HEPAfiltered air and passed through filter
samples at two filtration velocities (0.5
m/min and 1.0 m/min). Concentrations
were measured upstream and
downstream of the filters using a
specially-designed filter test system to
evaluate filtration efficiency. An FMPS
and APS measured particle surface area
and number concentration for
diameters from 5–20,000 nm. Aerosol
particles were sampled on upstream
and downstream TEM grids to
characterize particle morphology.
Results: Generated aerosols were
spherical particles with mobility
diameters primarily from 30-200 nm. All
filters had higher collection efficiency
at the lower filtration velocity. The
highest efficiency (> 99.5%) was
obtained using the quartz filter. The
glass fiber filter had efficiency > 95%,
while the WP-TMC, PF-GM and PF-TMC
had 70-90% efficiency, and the PF, WP
and PFL had efficiencies < 50%. Coating
filters enhanced nanoparticle collection
efficiency by 20-40%. Using TEM, few
large agglomerates were seen
upstream, and many small
agglomerates were seen downstream of
the low-efficiency filters. Conclusions:
Filtration can effectively reduce
nanoparticle release, reducing worker
exposure and environmental release.
Coated fabric filters can provide
sufficient filtration with lower cost
compared to aerosol sampling filters
PO 129-3
The Optimum Approach to Control
Nanoparticle Exposure Using Local
Exhaust Ventilation
S. Tsai, C. Huang, M. Ellenbecker,
University of Massachusetts Lowell,
Lowell, MA; K. Dunn, NIOSH, Cincinnati,
OH.
Objective: Local exhaust ventilation
systems such as fume hoods have been
investigated to evaluate the potential
for nanoparticle release and
subsequent worker exposure when
handling nanoparticles (Tsai et al 2009).
This study evaluated two new
nanoparticle-handling enclosures and
two biological safety cabinets for their
ability to contain nanoparticles and
discusses optimum approaches to
reduce associated exposure. Methods:
Airborne concentrations were measured
while handling nanoalumina particles
inside each enclosure. Measurements
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
were taken at the source inside the
enclosure, workers’ breathing zone and
room background. Real-time particle
surface area and number concentration
for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm were
measured using the FMPS and APS.
Particles were sampled on TEM grids at
source and breathing zone locations to
determine particle morphology. Face
velocities from 0.2 - 0.5 m/s were tested
for the two enclosures. Airflow patterns
were characterized visually using laser
sheet and fog. Results: Both
nanoparticle-handling enclosures have
the same front-to-back airflow as
regular hoods, which usually causes
turbulence in the wake region. But the
low face velocities, doorsill baffle
design and improved airstream through
the edge and back slots reduced eddies
formed in the enclosures, which
reduced the chance for nanoparticle
escape. The breathing zone average
number concentration was < 1000
particle/cm3 at all face velocities when
pouring and transferring nanopowders.
Similar results were also seen when
testing biosafety cabinets. For tested
enclosures/hoods, the upstream source
concentrations were typically much
higher than the breathing zone data
indicating the presence of turbulence
around handling source. Smoke tests
showed that worker’s rapid hand
motion caused nanoparticles to escape
biosafety cabinets. Conclusions: The
challenge of front-to-back airflow can
be partially overcome by gentle motion
and low velocity to reduce nanoparticle
escape. The modified enclosures had
comparable performance to biosafety
cabinets and both were better
approaches for containing
nanoparticles than traditional fume
hoods
PO 129-4
Use of Zero-Background Techniques
to Improve Sensitivity and
Specificity when Measuring
Airborne Exposure to Engineered
Nanoparticles
H. Papinchak, University of California,
Berkeley, CA; R. Kelly, LBNL, Berkeley, CA.
As applications of the field of
nanotechnology expand, there is an
increasing need to develop inexpensive,
sensitive and specific procedures to
measure occupational exposures to
engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). The
use of hand-held direct reading
instruments to screen for nanoparticle
exposure is attractive due to the
relatively low cost of commercially
69
available instruments and the
immediate feedback provided. However,
ambient air typically contains
thousands of ultrafine particles per
cubic centimeter that must be
accounted for in quantifying ENPs.
These background particles reduce the
achievable sensitivity and specificity of
ENP measurements based on directreading instruments. Objective: Develop
techniques that improve the sensitivity
and specificity of nanoparticle exposure
measurements using a direct reading
instrument. Methods: We developed
tools to attenuate or eliminate
background ultrafine/nanoparticle
interference during measurement of
engineered nanoparticle exposure in
research laboratories. We constructed a
portable fume hood antechamber and a
portable, bottomless glovebox that
were temporarily installed in
laboratories and ventilated with HEPAfiltered, particle-free air. This allowed
exposure monitoring without
interference from the high and variable
concentration of ambient
nanoparticles. Results: Using a
commercially available direct reading
nanoparticle photometer we achieved a
>100x increase in sensitivity and
improved specificity. Combined with
filter-based sampling and SEM/TEM
analysis, we have been able to measure
employee exposures that were
previously not detectable using more
traditional sampling techniques.
Conclusion: The increased sensitivity
achieved by using low-background
techniques has allowed us to more
confidently establish exposure controls
for ENPs in an R&D setting
PO 129-5
Evaluation of the Potential Release
of Unbound Engineered
Nanoparticles at Laboratory
Research Facility
K. Rickabaugh, G. Casuccio, K. Bunker,
R. Ogle, RJ Lee Group, Monroeville, PA.
There are a significant number of
laboratories where unbound
engineered nanoparticles (UNP) are
used as part of nanoscale related
research activities. The
situation/problem to be addressed was
the need for additional information in
order to assess the potential for worker
exposure and/or release of
nanoparticles into the environment
during research activities. The
resolution was to conduct a multiphase
pilot study on a subset of laboratories
where UNP are used to evaluate the
70
potential for worker exposures. The
study was also intended to evaluate the
potential for emissions of UNP to the
outdoor environment and assess
whether there is a need for additional
controls including high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) exhaust filtration.
Samples of UNP source materials used
in process activities were obtained from
various laboratory operations. These
samples were analyzed using
inductively coupled plasma-optical
emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and/or
electron microscopy (EM) to establish
morphological and elemental
signatures of the various starting UNP
materials. Based on the results of the
initial work, preliminary control bands
were developed based on information
obtained through observation of the
research processes, review of existing
process controls, characteristics of the
starting UNP materials, and review of
information related to the UNP
materials (e.g., materials safety data
sheets). Integrated air sampling and
sampling using direct-read
instrumentation was performed
simultaneously at background locations
and areas of interest. Samples were
analyzed using mass based (i.e.,
gravimetric and ICP-OES) and countbased laboratory analysis techniques
(i.e., high resolution scanning
transmission electron microscopy, HRSTEM) to provide data in order to
evaluate worker exposure and
emissions to the outdoor environment
through sampling of research processes.
The lessons learned from the study were
then used to validate, or modify as
appropriate, the preliminary control
bands that were assigned
PO 129-6
Exposure Assessment for Carbon
Nanotubes
J. Baker, ICU-A Total Safety Company,
The Woodlands, TX.
Situation/Problem: A pilot plant
which manufactured single walled
carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and
associated laboratories were being
decommissioned. The interested parties
wished to document worker exposure
to SWNT and confirm decontamination
of the facilities. There were no
established occupational exposure
limits or sampling and analytical
methods for SWNT at the time.
Resolution: Several lines of evidence
were used to characterize exposures
including mass based concentration of
respirable dust and respirable synthetic
graphite, particle number concentration
and size distribution by a hand-held
optical particle counter and particle
number concentration by a hand-held
condensation particle counter and
optical and electron microscopy of air
filter and surface wipe samples. Results:
Comparison of data from all modes of
analysis: mass and particle number
concentration and microscopic
examination allowed confirmation of
relative degrees of exposure. Particulate
was found to be in aggregate form. Task
length durations of some of the
equipment decommissioning activities
were less than an hour, limiting the
effectiveness of respirable mass
concentration determinations. Control
and protective measures used included
pre-job planning and briefing workers,
blanking and steaming of equipment,
piping and valves, protective coveralls
and nitrile gloves, powered air purifying
respirators with P-100 filters, plastic
barriers for containment of laboratory
areas, and HEPA filtered room air
scrubbers. Lessons Learned: No one
exposure assessment method by itself
was sufficient to characterize exposure.
Several lines of evidence were needed
to compare and confirm airborne
concentrations of SWNT aggregates.
Podium Session 130
Indoor Environmental
Quality II
Thursday, May 19, 2011
8:00 a.m.–10:20 a.m.
Papers PO 130-1 – PO130-6
PO 130-1
Case Studies Using Particle
Identification for Forensic Indoor
Environmental Quality
Investigations
M. Andrew, Sumerra, Hong Kong.
Situation/problem: Particles may be
deposited on surfaces in buildings and
may result in indoor environmental
quality issues or property damage. The
following case studies illustrate
problems where the use of
environmental forensic microscopy
assisted in the investigation of
potential indoor contaminants. Case
Study 1: Complaints of irritant
symptoms had been received in a
general office area. During this time,
southern California experienced a large
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
amount of wildfires and occupants
suggested their symptoms were related
to residual smoke particle
contamination. Occupants reported
dark particles deposited on their desk
surfaces. Case Study 2: Occupants of
residential buildings in southern
California filed claims of health effects
from combustion-byproducts deposited
on surfaces following wildfires that
occurred in the area. The insurance
companies retained our company to
provide forensic analysis of the dust to
determine the impact of the fires on the
dust composition in these residences.
Resolution: As part of the
investigations, samples of surface dust
were collected. Polarized light
microscopy (PLM), and in some case
scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), was
used to evaluate the composition of
surface dust samples in order to
generate conclusions regarding
reported IEQ issues. Results: Case Study
1: Results of particle identification
indicated evidence of an issue unrelated
to wildfires. However, based on the
results of the sampling a problem with
corrosion of HVAC components was
discovered. Case Study 2: Results of
particle identification of dust in
claimant’s houses were used in
determining the likelihood of
significant impact of wildfire smoke and
provided guidance to the client in
determining whether reward for
damages was appropriate. Lessons
learned: Particle identification by
microscopy can provide a useful tool in
the investigation of indoor
environmental quality concerns.
Specifically, microscopic analyses of
environmental samples can provide
information about the identity and
possible source of contaminants
PO 130-2
Secondhand Tobacco Smoke
Exposure in Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Bars and Casinos
D. Harrington, Louisiana State
University, New Orleans, LA; J. Klink,
Louisiana Public Health Institute, New
Orleans, LA.
Objective: The Louisiana Smoke-Free
Air Act (Act 815) was passed in 2006 and
went into effect on January 1, 2007. Act
815 prohibits smoking in most
workplaces and public spaces, but bars
and casinos are exempt from
compliance. We aimed to measure
employee exposure to secondhand
tobacco smoke in a sample of
establishments where smoking is still
permitted. Methods: Tobacco smoke is
comprised of a complex mixture of
gases and fine particulate matter, and
PM2.5 is a sensitive indicator for
environmental tobacco smoke. We
measured PM2.5 in a convenience
sample of twenty seven bars and one
casino in Baton Rouge, Louisiana in
April, 2010. Measurements were taken
using direct-reading TSI SidePak AM510
aerosol monitors. Results: The average
PM2.5 concentration in bars (n=27) was
237 μg/m3, ranging from a low of 16
μg/m3 to a high of 802 μg/m3. The
average PM2.5 concentration in the
casino was 85 μg/m3. Conclusions: After
the implementation of Act 815 smokefree restaurants in Louisiana were
found to have an average PM2.5
concentration of 17 μg/m3. Compared to
smoke-free restaurants, Baton Rouge
bars have average PM2.5 concentration
levels that are 13.9 times higher. There
are no occupational exposure standards
for secondhand tobacco smoke, but a
useful tool to contextualize secondhand
tobacco smoke levels is to use the
Environmental Protection Agency’s Air
Quality Index for PM2.5. Using these
categories, 85% of Baton Rouge bars had
unhealthy air quality levels or worse. If
bars and casinos were smoke-free,
employee exposure to PM2.5 would be
significantly reduced
PO 130-3
Evaluating a Residence Following a
Smoke Event and the Subsequent
Cleanup
S. Evans, MDE Inc, Seattle, WA.
Situation: A residence had become
damaged as a result of burned food on
the stove in the kitchen. The residents
complained of continued smoke odors
and respiratory distress allegedly from
cleaning products following “typical”
cleaning by a restoration company. I
was retained to determine if there were
residual issues from the smoke or the
cleanup. Resolution: After interviewing
the homeowner and the restoration
company to understand the scope of the
complaints, the source of the smoke,
and the nature and extent of the
cleaning, a sampling strategy was
developed. Sampling included surface
and air samples. Samples were collected
from outdoor (control) locations, and
strategic locations inside the house in
complaint and non-complaint portions
of the building. Surface samples were
collected for soot residue that, if
present, may indicate insufficient
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
cleaning. Air samples were collected for
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and
ozone, which are substances that may
have been introduced during the
cleaning work. Results: The wipe
samples for soot indicated that soot
concentrations inside the residence on
various surfaces were at or below soot
concentrations found in exterior
samples representing the ambient air.
Airborne ozone concentrations were
below the laboratory limit of detection.
Volatile organic compound
concentrations were slightly elevated.
Airing out of the house using forced air
fans was recommended. Lessons
learned: The study would have
benefitted from additional background
samples, especially for soot. There are
limited guidance documents for
“problematic” concentrations of volatile
organic compounds. Some focus on
TVOCs and others set target maximum
concentrations for classes of VOCs—
both need to be considered in
interpreting the results. Further,
different laboratories use different
methodologies to calculate TVOCs,
which can greatly affect the numerical
value of TVOCs reported
PO 130-4
Soot and Carbon Monoxide Source
Investigation at New York City
Apartment Building
M. Gillie, J. Gee, GeoTrans, Inc., King of
Prussia, PA.
A New York City resident reported a
situation/problem with settled black
particulates and carbon monoxide
detections in her apartment.
Inspections of the unit and other
building areas were conducted to
record the locations of black particulate
deposition, ventilation supply and
return ducts, and building
envelope/interior penetrations. Realtime measurements for carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide and ultrafine
particle counts were used to track
potential sources. Investigation results
showed higher carbon monoxide levels
in the apartment, hallway and parking
garage compared to the outdoors and
upper floors. Elevated carbon dioxide
concentrations were also detected in
the apartment. Ultrafine particle counts
increased from the apartment to the
hallway, stairwells, and basement boiler
room and parking garage. For soot
source resolution, bulk and wipe
samples were submitted for particle
size analysis by Transmission Electron
Microscopy, elemental composition by
71
energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry,
and chemical fingerprinting by Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and
Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry. The ultrafine (25-35
nanometers) particles contained 10%
black carbon and the residual
hydrocarbons showed the retention
time range between hydrocarbons C12
and C40 associated with fuel oil #2 and
fuel oil #6. Dust analysis also showed
the presence of nickel and vanadium
which are characteristic tracers of
residual oil fly ash. The investigation
findings indicate the basement boilers
that burn fuel oil #6 are the primary
source of the black soot particles; both
the boilers and parking garage vehicle
exhaust are potential sources of carbon
monoxide. Recommendations included
inspecting the chimney for evidence of
cracks/leaks and making prompt
repairs; inspecting the boiler to ensure
proper performance; evaluating the
building ventilation system; and
altering housekeeping methods to
reduce exposure. Lessons learned
include the discovery of an unlined
chimney in the 1960s-era building,
multiple boiler operation violations, and
the identification of potential
associated health effects including
respiratory and cardiovascular effects
and inflammation
PO 130-5
Evaluation and Control of Elevated
Naphthalene Levels in Residential
Indoor Air Emanating From Creosote
Soaked Timber
P. Beach, Harris & Lee Environmental
Sciences, LLC, San Francisco, CA.
The Problem: A military installation in
Northern California has over three
dozen officers’ homes built in the early
1940’s that have been occupied since
their construction and now have
“historic” status at the site. In the late
1990s and early 2000s families started
complaining about chemical odors in
these homes. After several
investigations, it was determined that
the homes were constructed with
creosote coated timber and had levels
of naphthalene well above health-based
residential levels. Resolution: An
engineering study was conducted to
evaluate options for remediation with
the desire that the homes be kept intact
because of their historic significance
and desirability among the military
personnel. Options for remediation
were identified as follows: a) positively
pressurizing the living spaces to force
72
contaminated air out of the structures;
b) exhausting air from key source areas
(attics and basements); c) encapsulation
of open source areas (timbers in attics
and basements); d) combinations of the
above. The military unit selected a
combination of a) and b) to be installed
and tested for effectiveness in two
unoccupied houses. A sampling plan
was generated and carried out that
evaluated naphthalene concentrations
by EPA TO-17 with both passive and
active sampling methods. Results: Initial
results indicated that positively
pressurizing the homes alone was not
sufficient to achieve a health-based
threshold of 0.7 ppbv of naphthalene in
the living spaces in the two floor plans
evaluated. The initial evaluation
identified that the attic did contribute
most significantly to the naphthalene
concentrations observed in the living
spaces. A second evaluation with the
addition of an exhaust fan in the attic is
under investigation with results
pending in late October 2010. Lessons
Learned: The speaker will share the final
conclusions of this case study, including
final results, the engineering challenges
and occupant perception issues
PO 130-6
IAQ Guidelines for Occupied
Buildings Under Construction
K. Grist, SMACNA, Kansas City, MO.
Situation: LEED building projects as
well as many other building renovation
projects reference the “ ” published by
the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors National Association, Inc.
(SMACNA). There is confusion about IAQ
requirements including when/where air
sampling is required. Resolution: This
presentation will review the SMACNA
standard. Specific topics include
associated air pollutants, control
measures, HVAC system issues, prerenovation evaluations, containment,
moisture and mold control,
communicating with occupants and
required air sampling. A model
specification and IAQ control plan will
be reviewed. Examples will include
minor office reconfiguration, roof
replacement, hospital and high school
renovation. Results: Attendees will have
a clear understanding of the IAQ
Guideline requirements of the SMACNA.
Lessons Learned: Contractors will be
able to avoid significant costs and
liabilities by following the standard
guidelines during construction projects
PO 130-7
Ethanol from Reed Diffusers and
Hand Sanitizers: Why Should I Care?
M. Spartz, Prism Analytical
Technologies, Inc., Mt. Pleasant, MI.
Objective: “Air freshening” and
sanitizer products for home use are
introduced regularly onto the consumer
market. These products use solvents
considered to be relatively safe, such as
ethanol. Most of these solvents,
however, are polar compounds which
can easily dissolve in water. If they
readily dissolve in water, they can
exchange to the blood very rapidly
when inhaled through regular
breathing. This presentation will show
how solvents from “air freshening” and
sanitizer products can diffuse into the
blood stream from common levels
found in the air. Methods: Ethanol is
probably the most studied compound
on how it partitions between the breath
and the blood. Most current DUI tests
performed are breath samples. The
“Partition Coefficient,” as it is known, is
the concentration ratio between the
blood and the breath. This ratio is used
to calculate the expected blood alcohol
level without taking a blood sample. A
study of chemicals emitted from
common household products along
with a detailed literature study of blood
to breath partition coefficients has
been performed to show which
chemicals would partition into the
blood at the highest levels. Results:
Reed diffusers and hand sanitizers
contain significant amounts of ethanol,
and isopropyl alcohol in the case of
hand sanitizers. The blood to breath
partition coefficient widely published in
the literature for ethanol is 2100 to 1.
This means that in equilibrium there is
2,100 times more ethanol in the blood
than in the respired breath. If someone
were breathing air saturated with
ethanol vapor, the blood level could
eventually be 2,100 times higher, if there
were no liver function. Conclusions: Air
fresheners and hand sanitizers that use
large concentrations of polar solvents
should be limited in use and exposure to
prevent these polar organic compounds
from diffusing into the blood stream
and potentially causing unsuspected
physiological effects.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Podium Session 131
Community Environmental Health
Thursday, May 19, 2011
8:00 a.m.–11:20 a.m.
Papers PO 131-1 – PO131-10
PO 131-1
Efficacy Of “Green” Cleaning
Products for Reducing Microbial
Loads on Household Surfaces
M. Shum, D. Fong, National
Collaborating Centre for Environmental
Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada; C.
Gaulin, Centre de santé publique de
Québec, Quebec, QC, Canada; M. Lê,
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
SK, Canada.
Objective: To determine the efficacy
of alternative cleaning products to
reduce microbial loads on household
surfaces. Methods: A literature review
was conducted in Medline (OVID) and
the EBSCO database collection to
determine the efficacy of popular
“green” cleaning products for reducing
microbial levels on household surfaces.
Search terms included disinfectant,
sanitizer, antimicrobial cloths or fibre,
copper and copper alloy material, silver,
botanical disinfectant/Benefect, citric
acid, Pursue/Amway, Activeion, tea tree
oil, and UV wands. Results: Electrolyzed
water and aqueous ozone are
efficacious for reducing common
household bacteria, but studies were
based on submersion of items. Tea tree
oil has only been tested for clinical uses
and not for surfaces. Vinegar reduced
Salmonella choleraeusuis and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa by about 6
logs in 30 seconds, but reduced
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
O157:H7, antibiotic-resistant strains of
bacteria (e.g., MRSA, VSE), and poliovirus
by less than 0.4 logs. Baking soda
reduced P. aeruginosa by 1.1 logs in 30
seconds, but was ineffective for other
microorganisms. Copper and silver
disinfectants have been reported to
reduce certain bacteria by 2-4 logs, but
other authors have criticized the silver
study. For the most part, studies
showed that damp microfibre cloths
reduced bacterial loads (up to >5 log
reduction), but also showed that
microorganisms can be transferred from
one surface to subsequently cleaned
surfaces. Conclusions: Alternative
“green” products showed variability in
the log reductions of microorganisms
depending on test microorganism,
contact time, and methodology. Some
products such as electrolysed water and
aqueous ozone appear efficacious but
require further testing on household
surfaces. Vinegar and baking soda have
shown variable results, while silver and
copper appear more effective. However,
simple mechanical removal of
microorganisms using microfiber cloths
appears effective for those surfaces
that can be scrubbed, indicating that
antimicrobial products may not be
necessary
metals including arsenic, cobalt,
chromium, lead, and phosphorous.
Conclusions: More than 97% of smoke
particles were too small to be visible by
the naked eye suggesting that “clean”
air is not really that clean. This absence
of visual cues may create a false sense
of safety that leads firefighters to
remove their SCBA protective
equipment thereby leaving them
vulnerable to inhalation of ultrafine
particles and other airborne toxicants
that have been linked to coronary heart
disease and cancers
PO 131-2
Firefighter Exposure to Smoke
PO 131-3
A Comprehensive Noise
Characterization in a High School
T. Fabian, J. Borgerson, P. Gandhi,
Underwriters Laboratories, Northbrook,
IL; C. Baxter, C. Ross, J. Lockey, University
of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; J. Dalton,
Chicago Fire Department, Chicago, IL.
Objective: Firefighters are at greater
risk of testicular and prostate cancer,
non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple
myeloma than the general population.
Fatal coronary heart events such as
sudden death, myocardial infarction,
and fatal arrhythmia are responsible for
45% of U.S. firefighter deaths while on
duty. During the course of normal
firefighting operations, firefighters are
exposed to gases and smoke particles
that may be inhaled or absorbed
directly through the skin at the fire
scene. There may also be subsequent
exposure to particulate contamination
on firefighting garments. An analysis
and understanding of the gases and
smoke particulates is needed to fully
understand the chemical make-up of
smoke to which firefighters are
exposed. Methods: Airborne combustion
products were characterized in a series
of laboratory room-scale fire tests and
during structural fire suppression
activity and search and rescue
operations in Chicago metropolitan
area fires. Results: Multiple asphyxiants,
irritants, allergens, and chemicals
carcinogenic for various tissues were
found in smoke during both suppression
and overhaul phases with
concentrations of several of these
toxicants exceeding OSHA regulatory
exposure limits and/or recommended
exposure limits from NIOSH or ACGIH.
More than 99% of smoke particles
collected during overhaul were less
than 1 micron in diameter and ultrafine
particles measuring less than 0.1 micron
in diameter accounted for
approximately 70%. Inorganic elemental
analysis of the collected smoke
particulates revealed multiple heavy
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
F. Akbar-Khanzadeh, C. Brown, S. Milz,
University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.
Objective: In recent years, the
prevalence of hearing loss among
school children has increased
considerably due to high intensity noise
exposure. Portable music players,
computer games, toys and concerts, as
well as many school activities including
sporting events, seem to be among the
main sources. This study characterized
the noise levels in a high school to
assess the exposure of students and
school personnel. Methods: Noise was
assessed during school hours by
measuring one-minute averages of dBA
for a few weeks by area sampling in
almost all functional spaces of the highschool using noise dosimeters (Larson
Davis SparkTM Model Number 705+).
Results: The highest level of noise was
observed during pep rally with the
levels ranging 59-101 dBA and a mean
(SD) and median of 88 (16) and 97 dBA,
respectively. The cafeteria serving area
showed noise levels ranging 60-85 dBA
with a mean (SD) and median of 71 (5)
and 70 dBA, respectively. The main gym
had a noise levels ranging 53-113 dBA
with a mean (SD) and median of 67 (10)
and 65 dBA. The noise levels in the
metals shop ranged 47-99 dBA with
mean (SD) and median of 69 (10) and 71
dBA, respectively. The noise levels in the
classrooms, hallways and other
locations were, on average, below 69
dBA. Overall, the levels of noise at
school ranged 47-113 dBA with a mean
(SD) and median of 65 (9) and 63 dBA,
respectively. The peak noise levels
ranged 105-153 dBC. Conclusions: The
noise levels at certain locations and
activities were relatively high
particularly the peak noise level
occasionally exceeded the World Health
Organization guideline of 120 dBC for
73
children. Noise exposure of school
personnel did not exceed OSHA criteria.
It is necessary to education children and
school personnel on harmful effects of
noise and methods of noise reduction
PO 131-4
Wood Dust Exposure Among
Community Service Volunteers
W. Ewing, E. Ewing, Compass
Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA; W.
Ewing, The Lovett School, Atlanta, GA.
Thousands of people perform
community service projects such as
constructing homes for the less
privileged, planting trees, or cleaning up
flood damaged buildings. These
volunteers include young and old with
little training and are not subject to
state or federal worker protection
standards. Woodworking is commonly
performed on such projects. Objective: A
study was designed to measure
exposure to wood dust using pine and
western red cedar (WRC) when
performing woodworking tasks. The
tasks included electric drilling (1 inch
wood bore), sawing (circular), electric
sanding, and electric sanding with local
exhaust. Methods: Personal and area
wood dust measurements were made
following NIOSH methods 0500 for total
dust and 0600 for respirable dust
exposures. Real-time area
measurements at four locations 3-10
feet from the activity were made with
TSI, Inc. DustTrak II aerosol monitors.
Ambient temperature, percent relative
humidity, airflow, and wood moisture
content were made with direct-reading
instruments. Results: Personal sampling
measurements were in a range of <1 - 3.2
mg/m3 for total wood dust and <1 - 1.8
mg/m3 for respirable wood dust.
Average area measurements at 3-10 feet
from the activity for pine were 0.09
mg/m3 when drilling; 0.17 mg/m3 when
sawing; 1.58 mg/m3 when sanding; and
0.61 mg/m3 when sanding with local
exhaust. The comparable results for
WRC were 0.09 mg/m3 when drilling; 0.22
mg/m3 when sawing; 3.22 mg/m3 when
sanding; and 1.62 mg/m3 when sanding
with local exhaust. Conclusions: The
drilling and sawing produced no
increased exposure due to the large
particles produced. Sanding without
local exhaust produced the highest
exposures for the tasks measured. The
use of a local exhausted sander reduced
exposures by approximately 50-60% in
this study. We recommend other
common volunteer activities be
evaluated, and industrial hygiene
74
volunteers prepare simple guidelines
that can be made available to
community service organizations
PO 131-5
Artificial Turf Crumb Rubber Field
Investigation in Connecticut
N. Simcox, University of Connecticut,
Farmington, CT; A. Bracker, Connecticut
OSHA, Weathersfield, CT; G. Ginsberg, B.
Toal, Connecticut Department of Public
Health, Hartford, CT; B. Golembiewski,
Connecticut Department of
Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT;
C. Hedman, Wisconsin State Lab of
Hygiene, Madison, WI.
Objective: The majority of the infill
material for synthetic turf fields is made
from recycled tires. Rubber is a mixture
of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs),
polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and other
rubber-related chemicals (e.g.
benzothiazole and nitrosamine). Some
chemicals have toxic and carcinogenic
properties. Health questions continue
to arise because exposures and risks to
playing on these fields have not been
fully characterized. The primary purpose
of this project was to characterize the
air concentrations of these chemicals at
crumb rubber turf fields in Connecticut.
Methods: Air sampling was conducted
on six fields: 4 outdoor turf fields, 1
indoor turf field, and 1 outdoor grass
area (community background site).
Personal air samples for VOCs,
nitrosamines and five rubber-related
chemicals were collected for two hours
on the fields during active field use.
Area samples for the same compounds
were collected on the field during active
play, and at upwind background sites.
The data were used to identify
chemicals possibly related to turf for
the Connecticut Department of Public
Health’s (CT DPH) risk assessment.
Results: A total of 27 chemicals of
potential concern were found to be
above background and possibly fieldrelated. Concentrations of
benzothiazole were higher on the turf
than in background locations at all
fields. The concentrations of
benzothiazole and BHT were an order of
magnitude lower at the outdoor turf
fields when compared to an indoor field,
ranging from <80-1200 ng/m3 and <80-130
ng/m3, respectively. Inter-player
variability of total VOC air
concentrations was notable across
fields with concentrations at one field
ranging from 28.99 to 240.51 μg/m3.
Conclusions: CT DPH conducted two
separate risk assessments for outdoor
and indoor fields based on these results
for children and adults. In summary, this
assessment did not find elevated health
risks at the outdoor or indoor artificial
turf fields tested
PO 131-6
Case Study in Reducing Pesticide
and Cockroach Infestation at a
Public Housing Complex
K. Cohn, City and County of San
Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
Situation/problem: A San Francisco
Housing Authority (SFHA) development
of 772 units receives 20 pest complaints
weekly. A licensed pest control operator
(PCO) responds two days/week, the
number of complaints never waivers,
especially for cockroach infestations.
Additionally, 3-5 vacancies/month are
treated prior to new occupancy. The
Asthma Task Force (SFATF) offered to
introduce integrated pest management
(IPM) methods that reduce reliance on
and human exposure to pesticides while
controlling infestation. As both
cockroach proteins and pesticides are
asthma triggers, improved pest control
methods would better protect
asthmatics. Resolution: 1) A non-profit
contracted by USHUD trained SFHA staff
on IPM techniques for use by
maintenance and tenants, and is now
providing year-long follow-up support
to SFHA, to include: 2) Announce IPM
campaign to residents to encourage
their buy-in and participation in early
reporting of pests and in housekeeping
behaviors that reduce pests; 3) Pilot test
IPM methods in a smaller senior
housing complex of 18 units run by the
same management team to illustrate
IPM effectiveness; 4) Create contract
specifications for integrated pest
management techniques to be used by a
contracted PCO. Results: Already, both
SFHA maintenance staff and current
PCO have increased use of IPM
techniques such as: sticky trap
monitoring, roach baits and gels, and
caulking of entry points. SFHA accepted
a peer outreach staff donated by an
involved city agency to promote IPM
with tenants. Evaluation of our results
will occur by the spring. Lessons
learned: Community health involves
relationship-building between
stakeholders as a foundation to all
other interventions. It is important to
put all participants’ perceptions of the
problem on the table at the front end, in
order to reach consensus about relevant
solutions. It is also crucial, once
solutions are proposed and accepted, to
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
have milestones to achieve, and an
evaluation mechanism to track progress
towards goals
perhaps the first of its kind, was
developed to target the census block
areas that require lead remediation
PO 131-7
Targeted Program in Lead Poisoning
for St. Louis, Missouri: A Pilot Model
to Predict Risk of Lead Exposure in
Housing with Cost of Remediation
PO 131-8
Nontraditional Land Uses and
Emergency Planning: Challenges
Associated with Developing Plans to
Mitigate Impacts from Potential
Toxic Gas Releases
K. Ong, B. Emo, R. Lewis, K. Gillespie,
M. Bloomfield, M. Elliot, Saint Louis
University, St. Louis, MO.
Background: GIS and regression
models have proven useful in both
academic and in some urban abatement
strategies to predict locations and
variables associated with elevated
blood leads in children; however, most
of these models do not have the spatial
fidelity to locate census blocks or
unique dwellings. Also past modeling
efforts have not combined risk of lead
exposure or elevated blood leads with
cost to remediate lead hazards.
Objectives: The primary aim of this
study was to develop and pilot a
statistical model that would establish
relative exposure indices for the City of
St. Louis to target properties for lead
remediation. The indices were
hypothesized to predict if a particular
block group or dwelling had a
comparatively high probability for lead
exposures that could result in elevated
blood leads in children. Methods: The
exposure indices were developed from
an aggregate database of childhood
blood lead concentrations and housing,
demographic, property assessment, and
other available data collected from city,
state, and federal sources. Cost
information from the City of St. Louis
Building Department was plotted with
exposure indices to arrive at cost
effectiveness matrix. Exposure indices
were built using a statistical model built
on linear and logistic-regression and
GIS. Results: Linear models established
statistically significant variables
affecting exposure but with minimal
correlation to blood lead
concentrations. Logistic regression
using a binary dependent variable, < 5
μg/dL and >5 μg/dL, demonstrated high
predictive power for low blood lead
concentrations but low predictive
power for high-blood lead
concentrations. Conclusions: The GIS
model using housing, demographic, and
socio-economic indicators was able to
discriminate between high and low risk
areas on a census block area compared
to use of zip-code prevalence
information. A cost-effectiveness index,
P. Harper, ENVIRON International
Corporation, Phoenix, AZ; D. Daugherty,
ENVIRON International Corporation,
Emeryville, CA; M. Posson, Exponent,
Oakland, CA.
Situation/problem: Lead agencies in
several San Francisco Bay Area cities
have been developing processes to
address redevelopment projects that
introduce the problem of siting
sensitive populations (e.g., children at
daycare centers) in areas not
traditionally conducive to such land
uses; including areas with heavy
industry utilizing acutely toxic
chemicals. The lead agencies are
requiring off-site consequence analyses
using methods such as the United
States Environmental Protection
Agency’s (USEPA) recommended risk
management plan (RMP)
methodologies. Resolution: Once a site
with sensitive populations has been
designated within a potential zone of
impact of a theoretical chemical release,
the lead agency is requiring the
development and implementation of a
site-specific emergency action plan as a
resolution or mitigation of the potential
impacts. Results: As a result, these plans
typically include both engineering and
administrative controls. Typical
engineering controls include toxic gas
alarm systems, heating ventilation and
air conditioning (HVAC) system shutoffs,
and public address systems. While
administrative controls include roles
and procedures for property occupants,
such as shelter-in-place procedures,
evacuation routes, and assignment of
responsible parties. Emergency action
plans can be designated to control for
other potential disasters, including
natural and anthropogenic
emergencies. Upon completion of the
emergency action plan, it is typically the
responsibility of the developer or
property owner to assure that the
contents of the plan are implemented
and maintained. Lessons learned:
Various challenges (e.g., assuring
engineering systems are protective,
adequate evacuation and shelter-inplace routes, assuring implementation)
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
are inherent to the planning process
and will be discussed. Project examples
will be provided to present realistic
scenarios in which these challenges
have presented themselves. Specific
issues within these examples will be
discussed to highlight the real-world
challenges and the lessons learned that
are inherent to the emergency action
plan development and implementation
for non-industrial sites
PO 131-9
Managing Odor Concerns in a
Petrochemical Complex
N. Mydin, Petronas, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
Situation/problem: Complaints of
unpleasant odor from public and
neighboring plants triggered the
detailed odor study for a multinational
oil company. The challenge is to identify
root causes and implement specific
controls in addressing the issues in a
petrochemical complex with multiple
plant operations. Resolution: The study
focused on the significance of odor and
its associated health impacts, rootcauses of the issues and mitigating
measures to control the exposure in the
complex. Some of the initiatives
undertaken were to understand the
processes that potentially emit
chemicals to the environment;
reviewing the chemical registers and
safety datasheets (SDS); and reviewing
health risk assessments, chemical
exposure monitoring and
environmental monitoring reports. The
team also reviewed the complaints
protocol, weather data, health records
and plume dispersion. One of the plants
was selected as the “pilot” for a detailed
odor study. Results: In the pilot study,
almost 40 samples from 12 locations
(including sludge, wastewater, product,
by-products, and airborne) were taken.
They were analysed for various
chemicals grouped as Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs), Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbon (PAHs), total nitrogen, and
total sulfur. The study was divided into
two phases—analysis of samples from
identified locations/sources and
ambient, airborne and headspace
samples. Relevant Permissible Exposure
Limits (PELs) and Odor Threshold (OT) for
compounds detected were determined
and compared to evaluate the
significance of chemicals on their
health. The review showed that
generally, the OT is much lower than the
PEL, and level of chemicals detected in
the air are below the PEL. The team has
75
proposed several recommendation to
further reduce exposure and hence the
odor complaints at specific locations.
Lessons learned: It is important to
adequately manage the activities that
can contribute to unpleasant odor,
which is linked to community health.
Efforts to manage this issue are
recognized by the stakeholders.
PO 131-10
Exposure Monitoring During the
Deepwater Horizon Response
F. Tremmel, BP, Naperville, IL; M. Chau,
C. Metzler, K. Murray-del Aguila, BP,
Houston, TX; J. Dobbie, BP, Sunbury,
United Kingdom; D. Dutton, DRD
Toxicology Services Inc., Lisle, IL; H.
Hewett, Exposure Assessment
Solutions, Inc., Morgantown, WV; K.
O’Shea, BP, Whiting, IN.
Situation/problem: Since the tragic
Deepwater Horizon Incident, BP, US
Coast Guard, OSHA, and NIOSH
(collectively referred to as the Unified
Area Command) have participated in a
major multi-agency effort to control the
release and mitigate effects of the oil
leak. Resolution: Unified Area Command
and over 200 hygienists and technicians
worked to characterize and mitigate
exposures, taking over 18,000 personal
breathing zone samples. The US Coast
Guard, OSHA, (working under a
Memorandum of Understanding), and
NIOSH, as part of a Health Hazard
Evaluation, collected thousands more
personal breathing zone samples.
Exposure Assessment Solutions, Inc. has
worked with BP and agencies to
combine monitoring results into a
single database. Results were classified
by job task and location. Results: The
vast majority of the results were either
non-detect or well below relevant
occupational exposure limits. Lessons
learned: Data from the monitoring and
exposure assessment will be used as
inputs to the long-term follow-up health
effect study being conducted by NIEHS
76
Podium Session 132
Aerosols
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
8:00 a.m.–12:20 p.m.
Papers PO 132-1 – PO132-10
PO 132-1
Use of Handheld Particle Counters
to Determine Nanoparticle
Concentrations
P. O’Shaughnessy, L. Schmoll, T. Peters,
University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
Objective: This research was
performed to determine whether
handheld instruments could be used to
accurately determine the count and size
distribution of nanoparticles (<100 nm)
in occupational settings. A technique,
referred to as “count-difference” was
tested to determine whether
information from the two portable
devices, a condensation particle counter
(CPC) and an optical particle counter
(OPC), could be combined to obtain
information in the nanoparticle range.
Methods: The count-difference method
applied to the CPC and OPC data gives a
direct determination of “very fine”
particles (<300 nm). This size bin of
particle counts was also combined with
the OPC bins extending to between 300
to > 15 micrometers. The additional
count bin was then used to determine
the aerosol size distribution, and hence
the counts <100 nm from the probability
of all counts <100 nm. Various
engineered nanoparticles were
evaluated because they have different
refractive indices and therefore may be
measured differently by the OPC.
Results: The count-difference method
was able to estimate very fine particle
number concentrations with an error
between -10.9 to 58.4%. In estimating
nanoparticle number concentrations
using the size-distribution method
percent error ranged from -42% to
1,023%. Percent error as low as the
instrument manufacturer’s indicated
level of accuracy was obtained when
the test aerosol refractive index was
similar to that used for OPC calibration
standards. Conclusion: The count
difference method was relatively
accurate for determining counts of
particles < 300 nm but not <100 nm.
When used to estimate counts <100nm,
the error increased considerably as the
refractive index differed from that of
the aerosol used to calibrate the OPC.
These data suggest that a portable
instrument that can size discriminate
down to 100 nm is still needed
PO 132-2
Wind Tunnel Performance
Evaluation for a Fungal Spore
Personal Sampler
W. Su, Y. Cheng, Lovelace Respiratory
Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM.
Objective: Airborne fungal spores in
indoor occupational settings may pose
adverse health effects to related
workers. Therefore, it is important to
employ suitable methods for accurately
monitoring fungal spore exposures in
the workplace to ensure a sanitary
occupational environment. Recently, a
personal sampler was developed for the
purpose of assessing personal fungal
spore exposures. In this research, a
series of wind tunnel tests was carried
out to evaluate the performance of this
newly developed personal sampler.
Methods: The experimental tests were
conducted in a large wind tunnel facility
with a 4.3m x 3.7m x 3.6m (L x W x H) test
room. The personal sampler was
mounted on the chest of a full size adult
mannequin. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and
2.0 m/s and three sampling orientations
(0, 90, and 180 degrees) with respect to
the wind direction were used to cover
the conditions of the general usage of
personal sampler in indoor and outdoor
working environments. Fluorescent
particles ranging from 0.5 to 15 μm were
employed as the test aerosols. The
performance of the sampler was
evaluated based on the aspiration
efficiency and the collection efficiency
obtained. Results: Test results showed
that the aspiration efficiency of this
newly developed fungal spore personal
sampler slightly overestimated the
ACGIH inhalable sampling convention.
The collection efficiency of this personal
sampler increased as the size of the test
aerosol increased. The collection
efficiency reached 90% for test aerosols
larger than 5 μm. Conclusions: This
research enabled us to assess the
efficiencies of this newly developed
fungal spore personal sampler under
practical sampling conditions, and the
test results acquired provided
important information to the designer
for necessary modifications in order to
achieve optimal performance for this
new sampler
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 132-3
An Update on Combining Optical /
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Analysis Methods for Forensic Dust
Analysis
PO 132-4
Application of ATP Bioluminescence
Method to Analyze Performance of
Traditional and Novel Bioaerosol
Collectors
D. Baxter, Environmental Analysis
Assoc., Inc., San Diego, CA.
Situation/Problem: Until recently,
comprehensive analysis of airborne or
surface dust required different
sampling media for optical or electron
microscopy analysis. Samples collected
and mounted in stains or refractive
index oils for optical light microscopy
analysis could not be directly reanalyzed by electron microscopy. As a
result, comprehensive dust analysis was
impractical and expensive. Resolution:
Extensive research has resulted in
development of suitable sampling
media for both optical and electron
microscopy. Incorporation into practical
field sampling devices, and two years of
field testing has proven their value.
Simplified preparation procedures allow
mold analysis (Bright Field Microscopy),
analysis of inorganic particles (Polarized
Light Microscopy), and particle
chemistry analysis using the SEM.
Results:
T. Han, G. Mainelis, Rutgers University,
New Brunswick, NJ.
Objective: Information about the
bioaerosol samplers’ collection
efficiency and internal losses can be
obtained using physical particles via
mass balance analysis; however, such
information is often difficult and laborintensive to obtain with actual
bioagents. In this project we
investigated the feasibility of applying
Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)
bioluminescence method to analyze
performance of bioaerosol collectors
challenged with actual bioagents.
Methods: The ATP of biological agents in
a sample reacts with specific enzymes
and produces luminescence, intensity of
which is proportional to the agents’
mass. By relating the Relative
Luminescence Units (RLU) with the
known concentrations of biological
agents, we built calibration curves for
two bacteria and three fungi. The curves
were then applied to characterize the
performance of BioSampler (SKC Inc.)
and the newly-developed Electrostatic
Precipitator with Superhydrophobic
Surface (EPSS) when sampling bacteria
and fungi at different operating
conditions. Results: The average
collection efficiency of BioSampler
when sampling P. fluorescens and B.
subtilis bacteria at different flow rates
was 69% and 54%, respectively. The
internal losses of the sampler were a
statistically significant function of
particle type, concentration, and
sampling time and in most cases were
less than 40%. The average collection
efficiencies of the EPSS operating at 10
L/min and collecting biological particles
into droplets as small as 40 μl were
approximately 60% for bacteria and
between 30 and 60% for fungi,
depending on the airborne
concentration of the latter. The results
obtained with the ATP method were
statistically not different from those
obtained using microscopy.
Conclusions: Our experiments indicate
that the ATP technique could be used
for rapid and detailed analysis of
performance characteristics of bioagent
collectors challenged with actual
airborne agents. The determination of
samplers’ internal losses would not
have been possible with traditional
performance analysis methods, such as
Suggested sampling and analysis
procedures have been developed to
simplify comprehensive microscopic
analysis (both optical and SEM). A flow
diagram will be presented that allows
identification and quantification of
biological and inorganic dust
constituents. The advantages and
limitations of combining these sampling
analytical methods to help identify
contamination sources will be
illustrated with real-world case
examples. Lessons Learned: When a
standardized media and a systematic
approach are employed for bioaerosol
and particle analysis, the ability to
identify and locate the source of
potential IAQ problems becomes more
practical. Although the diagnostic value
of this approach is significant, field and
laboratory training is required to
expand use industry wide. Currently,
different types of microscopy analysis
(i.e. microbiology, particle mineralogy,
or electron microscopy) are usually
performed by different individuals or in
entirely different labs. As a result,
coordinating this effort even within the
same laboratory is difficult and will
require additional effort, training, and
awareness by the laboratory staff.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
air-to-air particle measurements or
microscopy
PO 132-5
Applying the Right Tool for the Job:
Selecting the Appropriate Sampling
Stencil for HEPA Filter Leakage
Estimates
G. Hrbek, LANL, Los Alamos, NM.
Situation/Problem: The traditional
HEPA filter leakage estimate or “DOP
test” is predicated on being able to
demonstrate uniformity in the
upstream air stream velocity and
aerosol challenge concentration
profiles. These “testing prerequisites”
form the basis of all standard testing
protocols. However, is uniformity really
necessary? Can alternative methods be
employed to estimate filter leakage for
legacy HEPA-filtered ventilation systems
where uniformity either does not exist
or is difficult to demonstrate because of
high levels of contamination?
Resolution: As a first step in answering
these real world questions we have
performed an analytic study of how
deviations from uniformity in velocity
and aerosol challenge concentration
profiles affects HEPA filter leakage
estimates. We compared different
sampling probe stencils for a variety of
concentration profiles upstream and
pin-hole leaks downstream of the HEPA
filter plenum with a particular emphasis
on bounding the aerosol challenge
concentration estimates using
statistical analysis of individual probe
measurements. Results: We can
establish error bounds for both the
upstream and downstream aerosol
challenge concentrations and so
generate a reliable estimate the HEPA
filter leakage for a wide variety of real
world situations. Upstream
concentration can be bounded for fairly
wide deviations from uniformity (> +/50%). However, as expected pin-hole
leaks on the downstream side are
shown to require some natural or
artificial (i.e., Stairmand disk) diffusion
to obtain any type of meaningful
estimate. Lessons Learned: These
studies will allow us to obtain more
reliable leakage estimates for our legacy
HEPA-filtered ventilation systems
without resorting to costly and risky
modifications in order to obtain
traditional velocity and aerosol
concentration uniformity
77
PO 132-6
Particle Size Analysis for Mn in
Welding Fume Generated by Hybrid
Laser Arc Welding
PO 132-7
Ultrafine Particle (UFP) Exposures in
the Soderberg and Prebake
Processes of an Aluminum Smelter
PO 132-8
Potential Advanced Composite
Materials Exposure During Aircraft
Structural Maintenance Operations
D. Chute, Atrium EH&S Services, LLC,
Reston, VA; P. Blomquist, Applied
Thermal Sciences, Inc., Sanford, ME.
Situation/problem: Hybrid Laser Arc
Welding (HLAW) process offers
engineering advantages compared to
conventional welding processes in that
HLAW is highly automated, removing
the operator from close proximity to the
weld puddle, the amount of metal
melted is typically smaller, and the
process works much faster (reducing
total exposure time per weld joint).
Before this research was initiated, no
prior studies provided published
documentation of personal air
monitoring to validate the exposure
level of this process in comparison to
the more commonly used welding
processes. In 2009, the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH) proposed a change in
their Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for
“Respirable” Manganese (Mn) to 0.02
mg/m3 and “Inhalable” Manganese to
0.2 mg/m3 of air over an 8-hour period
(TWA). An evaluation was required to
determine conformance to the
proposed TLV for respirable or inhalable
Mn. Resolution: This research collected
side-by-side air samples to evaluate the
work area concentration of Manganese
(Mn) in the fume generated by Hybrid
Laser Arc Welding (HLAW) and plasma
cutting. Testing included a combination
of personal breathing zone and area
testing for total, inhalable and
respirable Mn. Results: A total of 36 air
sample results were generated during
this evaluation. Welding and cutting
was conducted in a shop environment
during the fabrication of ship
components using HSLA 80 steel. The
exposures for Mn measured during
HLAW and cutting were well below all
applicable limits during the monitoring
period. Lessons Learned: Under test
conditions, total, respirable and
inhalable Mn were demonstrated to be
below the proposed TLV and the OSHA
PEL. While the effectiveness of this
welding process in exposure control is
evident, the widely scattered results
within and between particle-size
categories is puzzling. Additional field
evaluation and validation may be
warranted to determine how particlesize fractions may be most effectively
measured
A. Dufresne, M. Debia, R. Tardif,
Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC,
Canada; S. Weichenthal, Health Canada,
Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Objective: Ultrafine particles (UFP) are
generated in many industrial settings.
The objectives of this work were to: 1)
describe UFP levels produced during
aluminum smelting in Soderberg and
“pre-bake” potrooms; 2) to estimate
workers’ UFP exposures; 3 ) to evaluate
the size distribution of the UFPs; and 4)
to characterize the chemical
composition of the smallest aerosol size
fractions. Methods: Particle
concentrations were monitored using PTrak 8525 UFP counters (TSI Inc.). Aerosol
particle size distributions were
monitored in real-time with an electrical
low pressure impactor (ELPI) of 12
impactor stages (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.).
Results: UFP concentrations measured
during the Soderberg process (143,878
particles/cm³) were on average twotimes greater (70,110 particles/cm³) than
in the “pre-bake” process. Number
concentrations monitored in
pressurized cabs on overhead bridge
cranes were significantly lower than
number concentrations monitored for
other job activities in both processes. In
the Soderberg process, the breaking
crust labour had the highest number
concentration (GM = 178,415
particles/cm³) followed by the
maintenance labour (GM = 113,193
particles/cm³) and labour adjusting steel
studs (97,346 particles/cm³). The average
aerodynamic diameter of aerosols
monitored during the prebake process
was less than 24 nm. Moreover, 92%
(average of the three samples) and 98%
of particles had aerodynamic diameters
less than 98 nm in the Soderberg and
“pre-bake” processes respectively.
Similar elements were found between
the two processes. Aluminum (Al),
Sodium (Na) and Fluorine (F) were
detected in rod like. Conclusions: UFPs
were generated by both the Soderberg
and “pre-bake” processes but in general
higher number concentrations were
observed for the Soderberg process.
Workers who conducted tasks in the
Soderberg cell environment were more
exposed to UFP than those who worked
in the “pre-bake”. Aerosol size
distributions indicate that particles
produced during the Soderberg process
are slightly larger in the “pre-bake.”
R. Yon, Air Force Institute of
Technology, Wright Patterson AFB, OH.
Objective: Due to their benefits of
light weight, high strength and
stiffness, and adaptable material
properties, Advanced Composite
Materials (ACM) are increasingly being
used as structural components on
aircraft, especially within the United
States Air Force: C-17 (8% by weight), B-2
(37%), F-22 (38%), and F-35 (39%). As a
result, the potential exists for
occupational exposures to employees
while fabricating aircraft components.
The objective of this research is to gain
understanding of the characteristics of
the ACM as it is aerosolized during
cutting and drilling operations.
Methods: In order to characterize
exposure, traditional integrated air
sampling (NIOSH Methods 0500, 0600,
7400 and 5040) and direct reading
instruments (DRIs) were positioned
together near an ACM panel as it was
cut with a core milling machine.
Gravimetric analyses and fiber counts
were conducted on the integrated
samples, whereas particle counts and
size distributions were analyzed using
the DRIs (optical and condensation
particle counters). Results: Results show
that gravimetric analyses for this area
sampling method did not prove to be
useful for exposure characterization in
the field because they performed poorly
at collecting sufficient particulate
matter for field analyses. Composite
fiber counts via NIOSH Method 7400
resulted in 0.26 fibers/cc. NIOSH Method
5040, used as an aerosol indicator,
confirmed the particulate matter
contained carbon. Data from the
particle counters proved to be more
useful than the integrated air sampling
in characterizing the composite
material size distribution. Conclusions:
The larger particles fell out quickly, but
the DRIs detected particles in the
nanometer range. The optical and
condensation particle counter data can
be combined to form one size
distribution curve and compared to the
inhalation curve. This research is
important in demonstrating the utility
of direct-reading instruments for
sampling and detecting carbon
composite aerosols in the field, for
immediate action in protecting worker
health
78
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 132-9
Flour Dust in Traditional Bakeries
S. Aubin, B. Roberge, Y. Cloutier, IRSST,
Montréal, QC, Canada.
Objective: The goal of this study was
to document the flour dust levels and
particle size distribution in the
workplace atmosphere of traditional
bakeries in the Montreal area (QC,
Canada). At this time, an OEL for flour
dust does not exist in the province of
Quebec as the OEL applied is 10 mg/m³
for PNOS (TWA, total dust). Methods:
Parallel sampling was performed in 11
bakeries in which at least two different
sampling locations (ambient) were
installed. Each sampling location
consisted of duplicates of three
different samplers: closed-face cassette
(T), cyclone for respirable fraction (R),
and IOM sampler for inhalable fraction
(I). The particle-size distribution was
obtained by using a cascade impactor.
Measurements by a direct-reading
instrument were also performed during
the work shift. Samples were analyzed
by a micro-balance in an AIHA
accredited laboratory. Results:
Concentrations ranged from <0.18 to 19
mg/m³ (I) at the mixer location and 0.18
to 9.2 mg/m³ (I) at the table. A mean
value of 1.6 was obtained (SD: 0.3) for
the ratio I/T. Direct-reading instrument
allowed high concentration peaks to be
associated with specific tasks. The
particle size distribution was consistent
within the 11 bakeries, showing a range
of MMAD of 18-23 μm. A good correlation
was observed between inhalable
sampler and impactor concentration
results. Conclusions: Direct comparison
with OEL was not possible since
personal sampling was not performed in
this study. However, peak
concentrations are likely to reach levels
above the excursion limits (PNOS). As
expected, the IOM sampler collects flour
dust more efficiently than the closedface cassette and an OEL expressed in
inhalable fraction would seem more
appropriate for that contaminant. The
consistency in the particle sizedistribution among the bakeries is
useful for hygienists whom assess the
flour dust exposure in this type of
workplace
PO 132-10
Particulate Characterization and
Control Evaluation for Carbon Fiber
Composite Aircraft Crash Recovery
Operations
M. Ferreri, J. Slagley, USAFSAM,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; D. Felker, D.
Smith, AFIT, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Objective: Within the United States
Air Force, Advanced Composite Material
(ACM) is gaining an increasing use in
military aircraft. With the number of
aircraft that have large amounts of ACM,
the probability of an incident with one
of these aircraft also rises. When such
an incident occurs the aircraft needs to
be disassembled and removed from the
crash site. This process is termed “Crash
Recovery Operations.” ACM is made of
various types of fibers, often woven,
and bound by polymers. Carbon fibers, a
component of some ACM, have been
shown to be hazardous to human health
and a pilot study raised the suspicion
that nanosized aerosol may be
generated during the cutting of ACM
panels. Method: A bench top study was
conducted to evaluate the effectiveness
of several fiber controls and to
determine the best means of measuring
composite fibers. Four potential
controls of water, wetted water,
aqueous film-forming foam, and a wax
solution were evaluated and compared
to a no control baseline when cutting
intact and burnt ACM tickets. A number
of direct-reading instruments and
traditional gravimetric sampling were
used to evaluate the differences
between the different controls. Results:
A statistically significant (F-value <
0.0001) shift toward larger particle sizes
in the idealized particle size distribution
was shown for both wetted water and
water controls when compared to a
baseline of no control when cutting
burnt ACM tickets. Conclusions: This
study showed a statistically significant
shift in the particle size distribution
when using water and wetted water
controls. Additionally, the wax control
showed some benefit for other metrics
during the cutting of burnt ACM
samples. While these controls do not
eliminate the need for respirators they
do shift the particle distribution toward
larger sizes which respirator filters will
more efficiently filter to protect
workers
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PO 132-11
Exposure and Risk Assessment due
to Fungal Bioaerosols in DrySausage Factories
X. Simon, P. Duquenne, V. Koehler, C.
Piernot, G. Greff, C. Coulais, Institut
National de Recherche et de Sécurité
(INRS), Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.
Objective: The use of fungi in food
industry may lead to the emission of
bioaerosols in workplace atmospheres.
The occupational exposure to fungal
aerosols may be associated to adverse
health effects (toxinic and allergic).
However, the interpretation of
measurements for biological agents is
still difficult due to the lack of both
occupational exposure limit values and
standardized sampling and analytical
methods. The study was aimed at
building and validating an improved
metrological approach for the
assessment of workers’ exposure levels
and associated biological risks in drysausage factories. Methods: Fungal
aerosols properties and concentrations
have been characterized for main
working tasks in two different drysausage factories. The metrological
approach includes argued
considerations on aerosol sampling
(choice of the samplers, sampling time,
particle size fraction, etc.), transport of
the samples and analytical methods
(culture, identification, etc.). It has been
elaborated in relation with scientific
published data and our own experience
in order to better interpret the results.
Results: Depending on the working area,
high concentrations were measured:
from 105 to 108 CFU.m-3 for cultivable
fungi (closed-face cassette / cyclone), 3
to 17 mg.m-3 for inhalable aerosol
fraction (CIP 10-I) and 0.7 to 3.4 mg.m-3
for respirable aerosol fraction (CIP 10-R).
The exposure assessment was improved
by identifying cultivable fungi
(allergenic Penicillium nalgiovense) and
associating peaks of concentrations
with working tasks (Grimm 1.109 realtime measurements). We observed that
the particle size distributions varied as
a function of working area or task
(Grimm 1.109, cascade impactors).
Individual and stationary samplings
were also compared. Conclusions: The
metrological approach we have
designed allowed a complete
characterization of fungal aerosols
generated during the process. Thus, the
exposure assessment, including the
quantification and identification of
airborne fungi, demonstrates an
immunological risk among workers.
79
Furthermore, the collected data can be
used to set up prevention measures
PO 132-12
Indoor/Outdoor Hexavalent
Chromium Air Concentration during
Stainless Steel Welding
M. Suen, B. Hodges, EORM, Oakland,
CA.
Objective: Air monitoring for
hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) was
performed during stainless steel
welding in indoor and outdoor
environments at a coke fired power
plant. The monitoring was intended to
provide an estimate of Cr(VI) air
concentrations at various distances
away from the welding operation. The
data collected was used to determine
safe welding zones for employees
working in the vicinity of stainless steel
welding at various locations at the
power plant. Methods: Air monitoring
for Cr(VI) was performed up to 20 feet
away from stainless steel welding, as
well as at the breathing zone of the
welder. Stainless steel welding was
performed continuously for
approximately 90 to 120 minutes inside
a garage setting and outdoors. Results:
The samples collected outdoors and
indoors revealed that Cr(VI) air
concentrations can exceed the OSHA
Action Limit of 0.0025 mg/m3 at
distances from welding 10 and 15 feet
away, respectively. Samples collected at
20 feet away from stainless steel
welding in both the indoor and outdoor
activity were below the OSHA Action
Limit. Conclusions: This study revealed
that Cr(VI) air concentrations can be
above established exposure limits at
significant distances away from
stainless steel welding. Although
welders wear appropriate personal
protective equipment (PPE) when
performing their duties, other
employees that may be in the vicinity of
this work usually are not equipped with
similar PPE. The data collected in this
investigation indicates that appropriate
welding/isolation zones should be
established or appropriate PPE should
be worn by nearby employees
regardless of whether stainless steel
welding is performed indoors or
outdoors.
80
Podium Session 133
Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology II:
Current Topics in
Bioaerosols and Agricultural Health and Safety
Thursday, May 19, 2011,
1:00 p.m.–3:20 p.m.
Papers PO 133-1 – PO133-6
PO 133-1
Air Sampling for Bioaerosols - What
is the Significance?
M. Larranaga, Oklahoma State
University, Stillwater, OK; H. Holder,
SWK LLC, Blanco, TX; E. Althouse, Air
Intellect LLC, Tallahassee, FL; E.
Karunasena, D. Straus, Texas Tech
University, Lubbock, TX.
Sampling for bioaerosols is commonly
used as a quantitative method for
evaluating the indoor environment and
developing opinions as to the quality of
the indoor air (e.g., acceptable or not
acceptable). These evaluations are often
based on air sampling results
comparing indoor to outdoor
concentrations. The problem is that
many professionals do not consider
either sampling error or the inherent
variability associated with air sampling
in their analyses, and therefore
interpret sampling results incorrectly.
The objective of this study was to
evaluate the effectiveness of air
sampling in detecting differences in
fungal and bacterial bioaerosols in a
building with environmental fungal and
bacterial contamination. The methods
included sampling for culturable
airborne bacteria and fungi for analysis
at two separate incubation
temperatures (25ºC and 37ºC) and total
fungi via spore trap sampling. Samples
were taken over multiple days during
two seasons with 2-stage Andersen
Impactors for culturable samples and
Allergenco spore trap samplers for nonculturable samples. A minimum of 6
replicate samples were taken at 8
indoor locations (6 ≤ n ≤ 48 samples per
location) and 2 outdoor locations (12 ≤ n
≤ 72 total outdoor reference samples per
indoor location). Analysis of variance
with SNK post-hoc grouping (p<0.05)
indicate that culturable air samples
detected significant differences
between indoor and outdoor
concentrations of fungal and bacterial
species where indoor concentrations
exceeded outdoor concentrations or
organisms identified indoors were not
found outdoors. However, in all cases,
spore trap samples did not detect the
same differences. In conclusion, these
results show that consideration of error
and sampling variability, identification
of genera at the species level, and at
least 6 replicate samples per location
are necessary to detect significant
differences in bioaerosol
concentrations and that spore trap
samples are not sufficient to detect
these differences regardless of the
number of samples taken
PO 133-2
Relative Effectiveness of Impactor
Sampling Among Six Airborne
Viruses
P. Raynor, J. Appert, T. Kuehn, Z. Zuo, S.
Ge, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN; S. Goyal, M. Abin, Y.
Chander, H. Guarino, University of
Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
Objective: Many workers are exposed
to viruses transmitted through air. This
research investigated the ability of
cascade impactors to obtain sizeselective samples for assessment of live
virus aerosols. Methods: Six viruses—
bacteriophage MS-2, human adenovirus,
H2N2 swine influenza virus, H9N9 avian
influenza virus, transmissible
gastroenteritis virus of pigs, and avian
pneumovirus—were aerosolized
separately into an apparatus from
suspensions using a nebulizer.
Suspending media included deionized
water, tryptic soy broth (TSB) for MS-2, a
cell culture maintenance medium for
the other viruses, and either TSB or
maintenance medium with 7.6%
glycerol added as a surrogate for mucus.
The samplers were an 8-stage Andersen
impactor with aluminum plates or
gelatin filters covering the plates and a
MOUDI impactor with aluminum
substrates. Collected material was
eluted from each impaction surface, and
the amounts of live virus present were
determined using standard virology
techniques. By comparing the amount
of live virus collected versus the
concentration in the nebulizer
suspension against the recovery of a
fluorescent dye versus its concentration
in the suspension, the relative recovery
(R) of live virus was measured, with R=1
equivalent to 100% recovery. Results:
Recovery varied widely by virus,
suspending fluid, and particle size. For
example, MS-2 yielded R close to 1 for all
particle sizes when the suspending
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
media was TSB, but lower values for the
other fluids. Relative recovery for
human adenovirus approached 1 for
deionized water at the smallest particle
sizes, but was lower for other fluids and
larger particles. Recovery of live swine
and avian influenza virus was poor
under all conditions. On average, the
Andersen impactor yielded higher
values of R than the MOUDI impactor.
Using gelatin filters did not improve
virus recovery. Conclusions: Impactors
can be used to sample live virus sizeselectively, but high recoveries are
possible for only some viruses
methods, filtration method was
significantly higher than two impaction
methods in bacterial and fungal
concentrations. Conclusion: We found
that bioaerosol results in feed industry
shows that the Indoor/Outdoor ratio of
microorganisms was larger than 1 and
respiratory fraction pattern of
microorganisms was more than 50%
which indicate that occupational
environment control for preventing
worker’s respiratory disease was
necessary.
PO 133-3
Microbial Exposure Patterns and
Concentrations in Feed Industry
PO 133-4
Culture-Independent
Characterization of Bacteria in
Poultry and Dairy Bioaerosols Using
Pyrosequencing: A New Approach
H. Park, H. Park, I. Lee, Korea
Occupational Safety and Health Agency,
Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Objective: The objective of this study
is (a) to investigate the distribution
patterns and exposure concentrations
of bioaerosols in livestock feed
industries and (b) to compare the
bioaerosol concentrations by two
impaction methods and one filtration
method. Methods: Airborne bacteria,
fungi, endotoxin and dust were
measured in 3 feed manufacturers.
Airborne bacteria and fungi were
measured with one stage impactor, six
stage cascade impactor and gelatin
filters. Endotoxin was collected with
polycarbonate filters and analyzed by
kinetic chromogenic LAL method.
Results: The geometric means of
airborne concentration of bacteria,
fungi, endotoxin and dust in raw
material process was 326 CFU/m3, 953
CFU/m3, 9.2 EU/m3, and 0.9 mg/m3. In
pelleting process, 861 CFU/m3, 428
CFU/m3, 18.4 EU/m3, and 0.63 mg/m3. In
packaging process, 545 CFU/m3, 491
CFU/m3, 19.8 EU/m3, and 0.4 mg/m3.. In
outdoor, 85.7 CFU/m3, 281 CFU/m3, 6.8
EU/m3, and 0.2 mg/m3. The results shows
that the bacteria and temperature at
pelleting process and the endotoxin and
humidity at raw material process were
significantly higher than the other
processes (p<0.05). The ratio of indoor to
outdoor concentration was 6.2, 1.9, 3.2
and 3.2 for bacteria, fungi, endotoxin
and dust. The respiratory fraction of
bacteria comprised 59.4, 72.0% and
57.7% and 77.3%, 89.5% and 83.7% for
fungi endotoxin and bacteria
concentration have strong correlation
with all culture based methods (single
stage, r=0.661, 6-stage r=0.623, filtration
r=0.612). Among the bioaerosol sampling
M. Nonnenmann, A. Hussain, K.
Gilmore, J. Levin, B. Bextine, University
of Texas, Tyler, TX; S. Dowd, Research
and Testing Laboratory, Lubbock, TX; W.
Ward, Stephen F. Austin State
University, Nacadoches, TX.
Introduction: Culture-based methods
are often used for characterization of
bioaerosols. Limitations exist with
culture-based methods as only
microorganisms which are viable and
able to grow on selected media can be
characterized. A need exists to develop
methodologies which are not subject to
the limitations of culture-based
characterization. Novel molecular
techniques such as bacterial tagencoded flexible (FLX) amplicon
pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) may be a
useful for the characterizing of
bioaerosols. Objective: Use bTEFAP to
characterizing and estimate
concentrations of bioaerosols in dairy
and poultry facilities. Methods: bTEFAP
was used to characterize inhalable
bioaerosols present in poultry and dairy
facilities over an eight-hour work shift.
Both personal and area samples were
collected using the IOM at 2 L/min and a
gelatin filter. The DNA present was
pyrosequenced targeting the 16S
bacterial genetic region. This genetic
region if often targeted for identifying
bacteria in environmental
microbiological studies. The relative
percentages of bacteria present in each
sample were reported. Results:
Preliminary results suggest large
distributions of bacteria among
inhalable samples collected in poultry
and dairy facilities. Of the bacteria
detected, 369 genera were identified.
The inhalable bacteria concentrations
were estimated to be 7503 cells/m3 and
7657 cells/m3 in poultry and dairy
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
facilities, respectively. Prevalent
bacteria identified in the dairy facility:
Papilibacter (83%), Clostridium (53%)
and Clostridium lituseburense (51%).
Bacteria identified in the poultry
facility: Staphylococcus cohnii (23%),
Staphylococcaceae (14%). Conclusions:
Bioaerosols were characterized;
however concentrations of bacteria
were lower than previously reported
and these bacteria may not be viable.
This is the first application of
pyrosequencing technology for the
characterization of bioaerosols.
Furthermore, the fast processing speed
of molecular techniques may
revolutionize the ability to identify the
phylogeny and concentration of
bioaerosols. The impact of this
technology has yet to be realized by the
scientific community dedicated to
evaluating occupational and
environmental bioaerosol exposure
PO 133-5
Inhalable and Respirable Organic
Dust Concentrations during Broiler
Production
M. Nonnenmann, A. Hussain, K.
Gilmore, J. Levin, University of Texas,
Tyler, TX; W. Ward, J. Bray, S. Jerez,
Stephen F. Austin State University,
Nacadoches, TX.
Introduction: Organic dust is often a
complex mixture of bedding, feces, skin,
as well as various microorganisms and
endotoxins. Little information is
available about characteristics of
organic dust and concentrations in
broiler production. Exposure to organic
dust has been associated with
pulmonary symptoms and declines in
the pulmonary function. Objectives: The
objective of this study was to assess
organic dust concentrations during the
seven-week growth period in a broiler
production building and provide
respiratory protection
recommendations to broiler producers.
Methods: Dust concentrations were
measured in a broiler production facility
which housed approximately 27,000
birds. Inhalable and respirable dusts
were measured gravimetrically using
and IOM and aluminum cyclone at 2.0
and 2.5 L/min, respectively. Samplers
were attached to a mannequin of the
broiler production building which
rotated 90° every 30 minutes for 12
hours. Samples were collected once per
week over the seven week broiler
growth period. Results: The lowest
inhalable dust concentration was
measured at 0.5 mg/m3 during the first
81
week of the growth period. The highest
inhalable dust concentration was
measured the last week of broiler
growth at 13.4 mg/m3. Respirable dust
concentrations were at the limit of
detection until week four of the growth
period with the maximum
concentration observed being 0.7
mg/m3. The inhalable and respirable
dust concentrations were significantly
correlated with week of growth at r = .86
(p = .01) and r = .76 (p = .05), respectively.
Conclusion: The highest concentration
of inhalable dust measured was 13.36
mg/m3, which was greater than the
recommended guidelines. These results
suggest that workers in broiler
production may be exposed to high
concentrations of organic dusts. These
results must be generalized with
caution as the area sampling
methodology may not represent
occupational exposure. Respirator use is
recommended, particularly in the later
stages of the broiler growth period
Tinopal OB in applicator breathing area
were 51.68 ng/m3 in a tractor with cab
and 10,555.77 ng/m3 in a tractor without
cab. Of the two exposure control
measures investigated, application
using a tractor with cab and highervolume spray demonstrated lower
overall OB concentrations than the cabless tractor application and low-volume
spray, respectively. Conclusions:
Quantifying pesticide exposure in field
applications using OBs is an effective
means of monitoring exposure potential
via air and surface deposition and
assessing exposure intervention
strategies. These results suggest that OB
application using the enclosed cab was
the most effective strategy for reducing
overall applicator exposure. This was an
exploratory study, and provides
motivation for further investigation to
correlate OB concentrations to pesticide
concentrations during airblast spraying.
PO 133-6
Quantitative Spectrofluorometric
Analysis of Pesticide Exposure and
Exposure Control Measures
Podium Session 134
Ergonomics: Upper Extremity Considerations
and Methodological Approaches
H. Zetlen, R. Fenske, K. Galvin,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Objective: Optical brighteners (OBs)
have been demonstrated to be safe and
effective surrogates for quantifying
pesticide exposure when applied in
agricultural settings. This study aimed
to develop and validate field and
laboratory methods to quantify
inhalation exposures and surface
contamination and evaluate handler
exposure control measures during
pesticide application in tree fruit
orchards using the optical brightener
Tinopal OB©. Methods: Tinopal OB was
applied to a cherry orchard block at an
agricultural research station in Eastern
Washington using an air blast sprayer at
an application rate of 400 gal H2O/acre.
Using the optimal mass of OB
determined by field testing, two
exposure control measures—tractor
with a cab for the applicator and a lower
application volume of 200 gal
H2O/acre—were compared to the
standard application procedures. Air
and surface deposition samples were
collected and analyzed using a Turner
430 spectrofluorometer. Results: The
optimal mass of OB for each application
was determined to be 2500g Tinopal OB
per acre. Exposure potential varied
according sample type and intervention
strategy. Average air concentrations of
82
Thursday, May 19, 2011,
1:00 p.m.–3:20 p.m.
Papers PO 134-1 – PO134-7
PO 134-1
Evaluation of Fatigue Resulting
from Intensive Computer Mouse
Use with VDTlog
Y. Hwang, F. Chang, H. Liang, National
Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: The aim of this study was
to evaluate the possibility of using
VDTlog monitoring system to assess the
upper-extremity muscle fatigue with
continuously intensive computer mouse
use. Methods: Thirty males having no
musculoskeletal disorders in upper
extremity in the past year were
recruited and asked to play a computer
game continuously with a mouse for
two hours. The VDTlog monitoring
system software was applied to monitor
the activities of the computer mouse.
Meanwhile, at the beginning, the end of
the first hour, and the end of the second
hour of game playing, subjects were
asked to assess the upper-extremity
muscles fatigue by a self-report
questionnaire. Results: It is shown that
the extent of self-report fatigue of all
parts of upper-extremity increased
along with time, especially for the
shoulder, neck and eyes, with average
scores of 3.7, 3.5 and 4.4, respectively, in
5-point scale. Based on the records of
VDTlog monitoring, mouse movement
accounted for the most of mouse
activities, i.e., 48% of all mouse actions.
Average velocities of mouse movement
in the first and the second hours of the
computer game playing were 0.72
pixel/ms and 0.71 pixel/ms, respectively,
while the 99%-tile acceleration were
0.130 pixel/ms2 and 0.125 pixel/ms2,
respectively. The decreasing trends of
average velocity and maximum
acceleration of the mouse movement
along with time implied the possibility
of their uses as performance indicators
for human’s performance with the
computer mouse. Conclusions: VDTlog
monitoring system has the potential for
assessing the computer user’s fatigue
with these two parameters derived from
the VDTlog monitoring. Since the VDTlog
monitoring system won’t interfere with
the on-going computer works and is
easy to operate, this monitoring
program is anticipated to be used in
large scale epidemiological study to
help computer work loading assessment
by providing exposure information at
individual level
PO 134-2
Interventions for Overhead Drilling
into Concrete
D. Rempel, M. Robbins, A. Barr, D. Star,
I. Janowitz, University of California, San
Francisco, Richmond, CA.
Objective: The purpose of this 5-year
study was to develop and evaluate
interventions for overhead drilling to
reduce the arm and shoulder loads.
Seven different interventions were
developed and tested; results from the
final design are presented. Method:
During their usual work, 23 commercial
construction workers used the usual
method and the intervention design for
overhead drilling—each for 3 hours—
order randomized. Afterwards, subjects
rated fatigue in 5 body regions and
usability on 12 items. The work was
videotaped for productivity (N=19) and
inclinometers measured shoulder
posture and head inclination (N=16).
Hand forces were measured for three
subjects. Results: The intervention
device was rated superior to the usual
method on the usability measures of
drilling/vibration, stability, and
feel/handling. Perceived fatigue ratings
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
were significantly lower in all 5 body
regions for the intervention device
compared with the usual method. There
was no significant difference in total
time per hole between the usual
method and the intervention device (p =
0.61). The shoulder was flexed or
abducted to over 60 degrees for 40% of
the time while drilling with the usual
method compared with 21% with the
intervention (p = 0.007). The percentage
of time that the head was in extension
of more than 0 degrees was greater for
the usual method than the intervention
(p = 0.005). The mean applied hand force
during drilling with the usual method
was 245 (±11) N, and 26.3 (±3.3) N for the
intervention. Discussion: An
intervention device, compared to the
usual method for overhead drilling, was
associated with reduced upper
extremity fatigue. This improvement
was supported by reductions in
objective risk factors of applied force
and percent time in non-neutral
shoulder posture. Repeated field-testing
by experienced construction workers
and their feedback on design was vital
to the development of this new
intervention device
PO 134-3
Ergonomic Design and Radiologic
Exposure Assessment of a Nuclear
Pharmacy Workstation
S. Cole, J. McGlothlin, K. Weatherman,
H. Nie, J. Poulson, Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN; M. Green, Indiana
University Purdue, Indianapolis, IN.
Situation: Currently, nuclear
pharmacists are exposed to radioactive
materials as they perform repetitive
tasks. Shielding is recommended to
keep the radiation exposure below the
National Commission on Radiation
Protection’s recommended equivalent
dose limit of 500 mSv/year. However,
shielding and work practices can cause
musculoskeletal stresses on the upper
limbs of these nuclear pharmacists.
Resolution: A new radiation exposure
device has been developed that
integrates assessment of real-time
radiation exposure including peak and
cumulative doses. Simultaneously, an
ergonomics evaluation of 13 nuclear
pharmacists was performed while they
worked. This was documented by using
two cameras (one focused on the hands,
the other focused on the back) and a
real-time extremity dosimeter (worn on
the back of the fingertips) allowed tasks
to be correlated to the radiation
exposure and the musculoskeletal
stresses to the body. The most common
job performed was the simulated
radiopharmaceutical compounding
task. Video was viewed to determine
upper limbs scores using the Rapid
Upper Limbs Assessment (RULA) tool for
task elements and to correlate peak
radiation exposures with the task
performed. Results: On a scale of 1-7,
ergonomic assessment of upper limbs
scores for the 13 subjects drawing Tc99m into syringe showed the dominant
side with an average of 5.7 and the nondominant side, with an average of 5.9.
Possible factors for upper limb scores
are non-adjustable L-block lead shield
causing awkward postures, awkward
hand positions, repetitive tasks, and
static loading on the neck and upper
extremities. Peak radiation exposures
occurred during 15% of the work cycle
resulting in nearly 100% of cumulative
exposures. Lessons Learned: The
integration of ergonomic design of
these workstations with real-time
assessment of radiation exposure may
help reduce both musculoskeletal
disorders and radiation, particularly to
the hands
PO 134-4
Pre- and Post- MSD (Musculoskeletal
Disorders) Symptom after the
Implementation of Korean
Traditional Mask Dance (KTMD) to
Cosmetic Manufacturing Production
Workers
S. Ham, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea; W. Eoh,
Hankook Cosmetics, Seoul, Republic of
Korea; W. Ham, Occupational Safety and
Health Training Institute, Korea
Occupational Safety and Health Agency,
Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Situation/problem: MSD
(Musculoskeletal Disorders) are caused
by intensity of workload, repetitiveness
of the work, duration of the work, and
static posture in cosmetic production
industry. To reduce MSD, the workers
need to have the time to take a rest. We
applied the Korean Traditional Mask
Dance (KTMD) which is protected by
Korean government as national
treasure to workers. Characteristics of
the KTMD are: (1) relaxation of muscle
(2) aerobic exercise (3) balanced
performance (4) strengthen muscles in
power house (abdominal, erector
muscle of spine). Purpose of this
practice is to provide the healthy life for
workers through the prevention of MSD
and increasing the level of cultural life
and reducing the industrial accident by
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
MSD simultaneously. Resolution: The
subjects were 137 workers. Survey of
pain was investigated and KTMD was
performed. The pain index was
categorized by 5 levels (no pain, [light,
moderate, severe, very severe] pain).
Some participants were excluded
because they had experience of lumbar
herniated intervertebral disk. They
produced 800,000 bottles of cosmetics
per month. There are no changes in
production rate for 6 years. They
performed mask dance for 9 months (15
minutes/day). Results: The result was
considered sex, age, career. Very severe
pain of back and shoulder was
eliminated with KTMD after 9 month in
all workers. The workers that felt severe
pain were reduced from 25 to 2 workers
for back pain and 15 to zero workers for
shoulder. Light pain was increased
because workers had severe and very
severe pain answered as light.
Compensation insurance rate was
reduced as 56 (in 2000) to 20 (in 2009)
thousand dollars. Lessons learned:
Opposite patterns of movement of
KTMD can help to reduce the pain of
workers. Not only could KTMD reduce
MSDs when it is performed regularly in
the workplace but also workers can
increase their quality of life
PO 134-5
Review of Physiological Changes
and Ergonomic Design
Considerations for the Aging
Populations
B. McGowan, Humantech, Inc., Ann
Arbor, MI.
Objective: This paper examines the
physiological changes that occur as we
age, identifies the most important
issues, and provides ergonomic design
guidelines to mitigate these changes.
Methods: Research was reviewed for
citations related to the physiological
changes that occur as we age. The aging
population is considered 45 years of age
or older. Topics of interest included
visual perception, sensory/motor
perception and control, strength,
movement control, information
procession, memory, and cardiovascular
capacity. Results: Research shows that
non-fatal occupational injury rates (e.g.,
sprains and strains) are higher for
younger workers (≤ 25 years old)
compared to the aging population
(Jackson, 2001; Salminen, 2004). The two
most important issues to consider as
the workforce ages are 1) decreases in
production performance—older
workers often require increased task
83
completion time, which leads to
decreases in production performance
(Rahman et al., 2002), and 2) increases in
quality errors—many older workers
experience reduced hand sensitivity,
which results in reduced tactile
sensation and more product assembly
errors (Ranganathan et al., 2001).
Ergonomic design guidelines are
increasingly important as we age since
significant physiological changes occur
that exacerbate the potential for
decreased production and quality
errors. These physiological changes
include, but are not limited to:
movement speed slows during grasping
(Carnahan et al., 1993) and reaching
(Seidler-Dobrin and Stelmach, 1998);
movement precision (deceleration)
decreases (Walker et al., 1997); range of
motion is reduced (Chaparro et al., 2000);
muscle strength (grip, push, pull)
decreases (Ketchum and Stelmach,
2001); force control decreases, as adults
grip twice as hard to compensate (Cole,
1991); force perception decreases (Cole
et al., 1991); and muscle endurance
decreases. Conclusions: Ergonomic
design guidelines are needed to be
applied to address decreases in
production performance and increases
in quality errors as we age
PO 134-6
A Case Study of Proposed
Enhancements to the AIHA
Ergonomic Toolkit
T. Blackwell, R. Thomas, A. Pierce, A.
Snider, R. Sesek, Auburn University,
Auburn, AL; S. Gibson, Ergonomics
Applications, Salem, SC.
Situation/Problem: The AIHA
Ergonomics Toolkit was promulgated in
2008 and provides a suite of ergonomic
assessment tools and information on
ergonomic analysis for the general
public. Research by novices (students)
presented at AIHce 2010 noted the
present Toolkit poses significant
usability issues to inexperienced users.
Accordingly, enhancements to the
Toolkit have been proposed including: A
selection tool selection guide to help
novice users determine which tools are
most appropriate in light of the task
characteristics; results interpretation
guides for each tool; clearer
descriptions of the types of jobs for
which each tool is appropriate and
electronic (internet) locations for all
tools. In an effort to evaluate these
proposed revisions, the same set of
prerecorded (videotaped) tasks used in
the 2010 study have again been studied
84
by a different group of novice users
(students). Their findings have been
compared with the results of the
previous (2010) study as well as with the
efforts of an experienced ergonomist.
Student users were provided the Toolkit
with enhancements, while the
experienced ergonomist used the
original Toolkit. Resolution: Novice
users selected the ergonomic
assessment tools, from the proposedenhanced Toolkit, that they believed to
be most appropriate. They performed
several ergonomic analyses collectively
and individually. Results: Both (the 2010
and 2011) student groups findings are
compared to the efforts of an
experienced user using the original
Toolkit. Usability is considered from the
novice perspective including
understandability of the assessment
forms, limitations of the tools, and
advantages and disadvantages of each
tool used. A summary of overall
experience using the AIHA tool kit is
provided from the novice users. Lessons
Learned: Each of the proposed
enhancements was very helpful to
novice users. Present (2011) novices,
using the proposed enhancements,
were able to complete assessments
faster, with greater accuracy and with
less confusion that their 2010
predecessors
and for all assessment items, the
percentage agreements were reached
close to or above 60% and 70%
respectively. The Kappa analyses and
percentage agreements for all action
levels were above 0.60 and higher than
75% respectively. Conclusions: Interobserver and intra-observer reliabilities
and validity tests’ agreement levels
were obtained “acceptable” according
to Landis and Koch and Baty et al.
classifications and CEI’s applicability
was obtained significantly widespread.
The proposed exposure index can be
used for classifying tasks in four
determined action levels, discriminating
between safe and hazardous tasks and
redesigning repetitive tasks by
submitting engineering designing
solutions and corrections. By increasing
experience and training about
assessment items, the Cohen’s Kappa
analysis factors, percentage agreement,
assessment reliability, validity and
exposure index applicability will
improve. The model is sensitive for
assessing the interventions and
changes in exposure and assessment
items before and after an ergonomic
intervention. The model is highly
reliable, valid and applicable for a vast
range of tasks and jobs. The studies
have been performed in different
branches and fields.
PO 134-7
Development of a Novel Model for
Ergonomic Risk Assessment
Poster Session 401
Aerosols
S. Moussavi Najarkola, NIOC Health
Organisation, Tehran, Islamic Republic
of Iran.
Objective: UEMSDs is a significant
problem for health with associated
costs; so in order to protect workers
from such, the comprehensive exposure
index has been proposed for the
assessment of risk factors of workrelated UEMSDs. Methods: The CEI is
based on revised NIOSH equation of
calculating MMH index. The CEI is
utilized by considering ten variables for
repetitive tasks. Results: Single and
total percentage agreement for any
item was obtained higher than 60% and
all kappa analysis factors for strength of
agreements were gained above 0.20.
With emphasis on percentage
agreement, most items were either
close to or above 60%. All kappa
statistical analysis factors for all
assessment items gained higher than
0.60 and the test-retest agreements
were all statistically significant. In
laboratory and field studies, for all tasks
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 401-1 – 401-5
PS 401-1
The Study of Surviving of Bacteria
on Charcoal Filters under Nutrient,
Moisture Regain and Water Content
Conditions
C. Lai, C. Chen, H. Wen, Chung Shan
Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; P.
Hung, C. Chang, Institute of
Occupational Safety and Health, Taipei,
Taiwan.
Objective: When the SARS or H1N1
virus attacked human beings all over
the world, some people in Taiwan wore
activated carbon masks to prevent
inhalation of hazardous bioaerosols.
However, activated carbon masks are
designed to adsorb gaseous
contaminates, but not to use for
filtrating of aerosols. The activated
charcoal may provide better space for
the survival of bacteria, and indirectly
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
hurt the human body for reentrainment
of bacteria. Methods: The study used a
Collison nebulizer (Refluxing 6-jet
modified MRE-type short-form Collison
nebulizer, Model NSF CN-31/1) to
generate Bacillus subtilis endospores or
Escherichia coli as challenge aerosols.
The sampling (or loading) flow rate of
activated charcoal filters, and activated
charcoal canisters were set as 30 L/min
in order to simulate the light working
burden. The charcoal filters, were
loaded inoculums by using a pipette.
After that, the filters were added
different nutrients (included sterile
water, artificial saliva and artificial
perspiration), placed in constant
temperature and humidity incubators
(model: HONG-YU, HRM-80, Taichung,
Taiwan), and stored in different
conditions. The moisture regain of
activated charcoal were included in the
experimental parameters. Results: The
Bacillus subtilis loaded in the six type
activated charcoals had obviously
growth-and-decline succession under
95% relative humidity and 25 °C
conditions. Moreover, the similar
survival results occurred in Bacillus
subtilis loaded in the surgical charcoal
filters. However, Escherichia coli could
not survive in the six type activated
charcoals last for 24 hours, except in
columnar activated charcoal under
adding artificial saliva or artificial
perspiration. Conclusions: The six type
activated charcoals and surgical
charcoal mask had high moisture regain
and water content at 95% relative
humidity. This phenomenon could help
Bacillus subtilis survive in the six type
activated charcoals
exposed to different regions of the
respiratory tracts. Method: Four RH (=
57.3, 65.5, 79.8 and 89.8%) were selected
to simulate the moisture conditions of
the test chamber. Particle size
segregating samplings were conducted
at the converging part of the air outlet
section of the test chamber using a
Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor
and followed by Nano Micro-Orifice
Uniform Deposit Impactor for collecting
HClp. Beside HClp, HClg and Cl2 samples
were collected per NIOSH method 7903
and 6011, respectively. Results: For all
selected RH conditions, HClp was the
most dominant by-product, followed by
the HClg and Cl2 during the TCS burning
process accounting for 1.30×105-1.46×105,
9.03×103-11.4×103, and 1.91×103-2.18×103
mg/m3 of total chloride emissions,
respectively. We also found that HClp
fell to the particle size range of the
accumulation mode (0.808-1.04 μm).
Fractions of emitted HClp exposed to
the alveolar region were consistently
higher than both the tracheobronchial
region and head region under the four
selected RH conditions accounting for
85.8-88.8, 6.53-8.80, and 4.67-5.40% of
total HClp emissions, respectively. The
ratios of theoretical chloride emitted
concentrations to the measured values
fell to the range of 90.1 to 91.0% mostly
because of wall losses during the
experimental campaigns. Conclusion: In
conclusion, high HClp, HClg and Cl2
emitted concentrations during the TCS
combustion process suggests that a fullfacepiece air-purifying respirator with
composite functions for the removal of
HClp, HClg and Cl2 should be used for
TCS emergency responders
PS 401-2
Characteristics of Acid Gas and Acid
Aerosol Emissions from
Trichlorosilane Burning Processes
under Various Humidity Conditions
PS 401-3
Ultrafine Particle (UFP) Exposures
During Different Welding Processes
in a Welding Training School
J. Soo, P. Tsai, S. Li, W. Lee, National
Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan;
J. Chen, National Kaohsiung First
University of Science & Technology,
Kaohsiung, Taiwan; C. Chang, Y. Ho,
Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health, Taipei County, Taiwan.
Objective: This study was set out first
to investigate the emission
characteristics of hydrogen chloride, in
both particle form (HClp) and gaseous
form (HClg), and chlorine (Cl2) during the
trichlorosilane (TCS) burning process
under various humidity (RH) conditions.
Then, the emitted HClp was used to
estimate fractions of acid aerosols
M. Debia, R. Tardif, A. Dufresne,
University of Montreal, Montreal, QC,
Canada; S. Weichenthal, Health Canada,
Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Objective: Welding processes
generate high levels of metal fumes,
which are composed primarily of
ultrafine particles (UFPs). UFP exposures
may have an important impact on
respiratory and/or cardiovascular
health as they are often produced in
large numbers during combustion
processes. The objectives of this work
were to: 1) describe UFP levels produced
during different welding processes; 2)
evaluate the size distribution of UFPs
produced during welding; and 3)
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
examine potential determinants of
exposure. Methods: Gas metal arc
welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc
welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW) and oxygen cutting
processes were studied in a welding
training school of Québec (Canada). UFP
concentrations were monitored using PTrak 8525 UFP counters (TSI Inc.) and
aerosol particle size distributions were
monitored with an electrical low
pressure impactor (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.).
Measurements were performed within
the welding cabs. For SMAW, monitoring
of aerosol particle size distribution was
made at the source (20 cm of the
welding process) and in the general
environment (2 meters of the welding
process). Results: Average UFP
concentrations were 300,000
(particles/cm³) for oxygen cutting,
160,000 for GMAW aluminum, 117,000 for
GTAW aluminum, 94,000 for GTAW
stainless steel, 89,000 for GMAW steel
and 64,000 for SMAW. The median
aerodynamic diameters of the aerosol
were lower than 100 nm for all
processes: between 30 nm and 50 nm for
GTAW and oxygen cutting and between
50 nm and 98 nm for GMAW and SMAW.
However, the median aerodynamic
diameter of the SMAW aerosol was
lower at the source (between 30 nm and
50 nm). Conclusions: Apprentice welders
are exposed to high levels of UFPs.
Potential determinants of exposure and
particle size distributions include the
type of welding process, the type of
metal being welded, and the distance of
the worker from the welding source
PS 401-4
Portable Aerosol Spectrometer for
Nanoparticle Monitoring
A. Ghimire, J. Gromala, Particle
Measuring Systems, Boulder, CO.
Situation/problem: An understanding
of the environmental and health effects
of atmospheric and engineeredparticles is essential for the responsible
development of evidence-based policies
and guidelines for health risk
assessment and contamination control.
This need to evaluate particulate
materials has primarily motivated the
development of a new portable
instrument for nanoparticle monitoring
in potentially occupationally hazard
areas. Resolution: In this study, we
present a portable nanoparticle
spectrometer based on the principle of
differential electrical mobility
classification. The instrument is
designed to yield particle size
85
distribution over a size range of 5500nm. Aerosols are first electrically
charged to a pre-determined level of
charge distribution by a Corona-based
Particle Charger (CbPC), and are next
mobility-classified by a Differential
Electrical Mobility Classifier (DEMC) of
parallel-plate geometry before being
detected by a novel miniature
Condensation Particle Counter (mCPC)
at a sampling rate of 0.2 lpm. Results:
Experiments are performed to
determine the accuracy of size
measurements within 2%. Data will be
presented comparing the performance
with a number of commercially
available SMPS instruments. Particle
sampling for assessment of
occupational risk at different settings of
several workplaces is also presented
and compared. Lessons learned: The
device is suitable for laboratory use;
however, it has been purpose-built to
enable field studies and in-situ research
by providing a number of truly
innovative features. The unit weighs
less than 10kg, is robust, and about 31 x
33 x 26cm in size and easy to operate.
Consumables are non-hazardous and
have a high flash point so that the
instrument can be transported easily
without any strict handling or safety
requirements. The instrument includes
a touch screen user interface and an onboard computer that controls operation
and stores and processes data. It is
capable of operating continuously and
untended
than background levels measured
before and after experiments. In a
laboratory where thermal chemical
vapor deposition (CVD) was not
contained, the surface area
concentration, number concentration
and mass (PM1) concentration of
airborne nanoparticles were 1.5 to 3.5
times higher than those in the other
laboratory where CVD was contained.
The ratio of PM1 concentration to total
suspended particles (TSP) in the
laboratory with the non-contained CVD
was about 4 times higher than that in
the other laboratory with the contained
one. This indicates that CVD is a major
source of airborne nanoparticles in the
CNTs-growth laboratories. Conclusions:
In conclusion, researchers performing
CNTs-growth experiments in the
laboratories were exposed to airborne
nanoparticles levels higher than
background levels, and their exposures
in a laboratory with the non-contained
CVD were higher than those in the other
laboratory with the contained CVD.
PS 401-5
Monitoring and Comparison of
Airborne Nanoparticle
Concentrations in Two Carbon
Nanotubes-Growth Laboratories
PS 401-6
Respirable Crystalline Silica
Measurement in Coal Mine Dust
with High Flow Rate Samplers
J. Ha, Y. Shin, S. Lee, Inje University,
Gimhae, Republic of Korea.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to investigate laboratory
researchers’ exposures to airborne
nanoparticles and compare the workers’
exposure concentrations from two
laboratories conducting carbon
nanotubes (CNTs)-growth experiments.
Methods: Airborne nanoparticle
concentrations in three metrics (surface
area concentration, particle number
concentration, and mass
concentrations) were measured using
three direct reading instruments.
Workers’ exposure concentrations to
airborne nanoparticles were measured
at personal breathing zones. Results:
Airborne nanoparticle concentrations
during the experiments were higher
86
Poster Session 401
Air Sampling Instrument
Performance
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 401-6 – PS-401-7
T. Lee, E. Lee, S. Kim, W. Chisholm, M.
Harper, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV.
Objective: To compare high and low
flow rate samplers in collection and
measurement of respirable crystalline
silica (RCS). Methods: Higgins-Dewell
(HD) (2.0 l min-1) and 10 mm nylon (1.7 l
min-1) low flow rate samplers and CIP10R (10.0 l min-1), GK2.69(4.4 l min-1), and
FSP10 (11.2 l min-1) high flow rate
samplers were employed to collect coal
dust (mass median aerodynamic
diameter: 4.5 μm) aerosolized by a
fluidized bed aerosol generator
supplying a calm air chamber. The
samples were analyzed by NIOSH
method 7603 (Quartz in coal mine dust),
by IR (redeposition), ashed using either
a low-temperature plasma or a muffle
furnace. Spiked samples were prepared
with 15 or 45 μg of respirable alpha
quartz (NIST Standard Reference
Material 1878a) followed by spiking with
one of seven masses of kaolin for each
ashing method. Results: The ratio of
mass concentration determined from
the high flow rate samplers to that
determined from the 10-mm nylon
cyclones ranged from 1 to 1.2 and the
ratio from high flow rate samplers
compared to that from the HD cyclone
ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. The FSP10, CIP10R, and GK2.69 cyclones collected 8, 6,
and 3 times more coal dust than the 10
mm nylon cyclone and 5, 4, and 2 time
more coal dust than the HD cyclone,
respectively. The quartz content in the
coal dust was measured as 6.8 and 6.2 %
for low-temperature and muffle furnace
ashing methods, respectively. The errors
(%) of the spiked samples were 0.6 and
0.2 % for 15 and 45 μg of alpha quartz in
the low-temperature ashing method
and errors for the muffle furnace ashing
method were 7 and 2 % respectively.
Conclusions: The high flow rate
samplers effectively sample low
concentrations of RCS containing
aerosols for analysis by NIOSH Method
7603 using either ashing method
PS 401-7
Using a Tracer Gas to Determine Air
Exchange Rate: A Side-by-Side
Comparison of Instrumentation
J. Lang, J. Persky, C. Simmons, R. Jones,
ENVIRON International Corp., Chicago,
IL.
Problem: Do two different directreading instruments with differing
theories of operation measure tracer
gas dilution concentrations
equivalently for determining air
exchange rates in a single zone?
Resolution: Measurements of the air
exchange rates were conducted by
following ASTM Method E741 - 00,
“Standard Test Method for Determining
Air Change in a Single Zone by Means of
a Tracer Gas Dilution.” The
Concentration Decay Test Method (§8)
was used calculate air exchange rates.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was used as
the tracer gas for this study.
Two independent measurement
instruments, an INNOVA 1412 PhotoAcoustic gas monitor, and a Thermo
Scientific MIRAN-SapphIRe XL gas
analyzer, were used to measure tracer
gas concentrations. Both instruments
offer ultra low detection limits for SF6
in the parts per billion (ppb) range,
although they function on different
scientific principles. The INNOVA has a
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
wider validated range of detection
(0.006ppm-60ppm) than the MIRANSapphIRe (0.01-4ppm). A total of six tests
were performed with each instrument
over two days and air exchange rates
were calculated for each test. Results:
For day 1, the mean ACH was 1.3 for the
INNOVA and 1.0 for the MIRAN-SapphIRe.
On day 2, the mean ACH was 1.4 for the
INNOVA and 1.376 for the MIRANSapphIRe. Results from a two-way
ANOVA analysis, using instrument and
SF6 concentration as categorical
variables did not provide statistical
evidence to support that the
performance of the two instruments
differed. Lessons Learned: Based upon
the results of side-by-side comparisons,
using the MIRAN-SapphIRe will give you,
on average, the same air change rate as
measured by the INNOVA, even if the
SF6 concentration is outside the
specified performance range.
Poster Session 401
Biosafety and Environmental Microbiology
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 401-8 – PS-401-9
PS 401-8
Exposure Assessment of Legionella
pneumophila in Nursing Homes of
Taiwan
C. Chang, N. Chen, Y. Wu, K. Ming,
National Taiwan University, Taipei,
Taiwan.
Objective: An investigation was
conducted to assess the exposure risk
to Legionella pneumophila in eight
nursing homes of Taiwan. Methods: Hot
water (HW) and swab samples were
taken from the faucets and shower
heads. As for cooling tower (CT) samples,
cooling water (CW), floating-biofilm (FB)
at the interface between air and water
and substrate-biofilm (SB) from the
basin were collected. There were totally
176 samples analyzed by quantitative
PCR and culture assays to quantify total
and culturable L. pneumophila,
respectively. The physical and chemical
parameters and the concentrations of
heterotrophic plate counts (HPC),
Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella
vermiformis (two natural hosts for L.
pneumophila) in CW and HW were also
determined. Results: The highest
positive rate for total L. pneumophila
was found in CW (74%), followed by SB
(53%), FB (48%), HW (32%) and swab
(27%), with the mean respective
concentrations at 5.29 log cells/L, 5.56
log cells/g, 2.93 log cells/cm2, 4.15 log
cells/L and 3.08 cells/cm2. Culturable L.
pneumophila was detected in 7-23% of
CT samples, and the respective
concentrations were 5.2 log cfu/L, 0.8 log
cfu/cm2, 4.7 log cfu/g and 2.4 log cfu/L
for CW, FB, SB, and HW. Comparable pH
(7.8 vs 7.4) and residual free chlorine (0.8
vs 0.2 mg/L) were found between CW
and HW. However, the levels of HPC,
Acanthamoeba, H. vermiformis,
dissolved organic carbon, total
suspended solids and conductivity were
all greater in CW than in HW, indicating
that CT provided more nutrients and
natural hosts than HW, in favor of
Legionella colonization and
proliferation. This accords with our
finding that a greater L. pneumophila
contamination in CW. Conclusions: High
positive rates and abundances of L.
pneumophila were revealed in nursing
homes, which concentrations exceeded
the action level (1 cell/100 mL)
suggested by the WHO for Legionella.
Cleaning and disinfection should be
performed
PS 401-9
Dispersion of Bioaerosols in the
Negative Pressure Isolation Rooms
T. Lin, F. Lin, J. Liu, H. Chang, China
Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; P.
Hung, C. Chang, Institute of
Occupational Safety and Health, CLA,
Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: The negative pressure
isolation rooms (NPIRs) are important
measures during the emergency of
epidemic situation or containing TB
patients in Taiwan. This study spread
non-infectious bacterials in the empty
NPIRs to evaluate the dispersion of
emitted bioaerosols from patients in
NPIRs. Methods: Spores of Bacillus
subtilis were prepared and spread into
the NPIRs by a nebulizer from the ward
to simulate the bioaerosols generated
by the patients. Bioaerosols were
collected by the MAS 100 bioaerosol
samplers and settling plates located
inside and outside the NPIRs, including
the exhaust vent and ward in the NPIR,
bathroom, and anterior room. The
characteristics of NPIRs were measured
including air change rate, negative
pressure between ward and anterior
room, the directional airflow, which was
conducted by the smoke tube. Results:
The air change rates were in the range
of 6 to 12 per hour. The negative
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
pressure was in the range of 6 to 20 Pa.
Some of the airborne spores of Bacillus
subtilis were still recovered from the
samples near the ward and in the
bathroom when the directional airflow
was regarded as normal, which flowed
from the ward to the exhaust vent.
When the smoke did not flow toward to
the exhaust vent immediately, the
bioaerosols could be also found in the
NPIRs, including the bathroom.
However, there was not any colony
found at the anterior room and the
corridor, whatever the pattern of the
flow of smoke. Conclusions: When the
NPIRs were regarded as normal through
three standard tests, including negative
pressure, air change rate, and the flow
pattern, the bioaerosols emitted from
the ward still seemed to have
opportunity to be recovered from the
sampling site away from the ward. The
use of flow pattern methods by smoke
tube might be more careful.
Poster Session 401
Indoor Environmental
Quality
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Paper PS 401-10
PS 401-10
Assessment of Exposure to Airborne
Fungal Fragments Using (1 3)- -Dglucan Measurement: an Office
Building Study
J. Park, J. Cox-Ganser, NIOSH,
Morgantown, WV.
Objective: Airborne sub-micrometer
fungal fragments can occur in high
numbers in mold-contaminated indoor
environments and may contribute to
respiratory illness. During the summers
of 2008 and 2009, we conducted
investigations in New England to
examine exposure to fungal fragments
at a 5-story office building over 100
years old with a history of water
damage. Methods: We collected side-byside airborne submicrometer and total
particulates from 89 indoor and 2
outdoor sampling locations. We
sampled submicrometer particulates for
7-8 hours at a flow rate of 3.5
liter/minute on a back-end
polycarbonate filter (pore size=0.8 μm)
in a two-stage size-selective sampler. We
collected total particulates on a
87
polycarbonate filter for 7-8 hours at a
flow rate of 5.0 liter/minute using a 37
mm two-piece closed-face cassette. For
total and submicrometer particulates,
we used (1->3)- -D-glucan (assayed with
Limulus amoebocyte lysate) as a
measure of total fungi and fungal
fragments, respectively. We quantified
both total fungi and fungal fragments in
55 indoor and 5 outdoor samples in 2008,
and 89 indoor and 10 outdoor samples in
2009. Results: Geometric means (GMs) of
total (1->3)- -D-glucan indoors (1,520
pg/m3 in 2008 and 329 pg/m3 in 2009)
were lower than outdoors (2,800 pg/m3
and 1,500 pg/m3), yet GMs of fungal
fragment (1->3)- -D-glucan indoors (93
pg/m3 and 70 pg/m3) were higher than
outdoors (38 pg/m3 and 45 pg/m3). The
percent of total indoor fungal (1->3)- -Dglucan that was due to fungal
fragments was very variable (0.1%-97%).
Indoor means of 17% in 2008 and 21% in
2009 were higher than outdoor means of
2% and 5% (p=0.16 and 0.01).
Conclusions: Our findings indicate the
complexity of fungal exposures, and
support including assessment of fungal
fragments in epidemiological studies to
provide a better understanding
between exposure to indoor fungi and
health effects.
Poster Session 401
Industrial Hygiene General Practice
the development of direct-to-consumer
(DTC) genetic testing. This testing is
done for various reasons, generally
without any guidance from a health
care professional, and produces a
significant amount of information in
just weeks for as little as $49. Testing
can be problematic for occupational
health professionals (OHP) because
some laboratories report “risk profiles”
for occupational diseases such as
silicosis or TDI-induced asthma. After
testing, a worker may worry about their
health or fear job loss if a genetic
susceptibility is discovered; they might
even ask you to explain the relevance of
their results. Resolution: Although there
are issues related to test quality, ethics
and biological significance, DTC genetic
testing is expected to increase. The
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination
Act of 2008 (GINA) addresses workplace
genetic testing but not DTC testing.
Results: With laboratories reporting
occupational disease risk profiles that
may intersect a worker’s exposures or
findings of chemical sensitivity due to a
person’s genome (e.g., CYP 450s), it is
imperative OHPs be prepared to address
this growing technology. Lessons
learned: The use of genetic testing is
increasing and will involve OHPs,
making an understanding of its
technology and issues an important skill
set that should be developed. The
technology of DTC genetic testing, its
role in assessing chemical sensitivity
and in the development of risk profiles
will be among the topics discussed.
Monday, May 16, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Paper PS 401-11 – PS 401-16
PS 401-11
US Army Vehicle Tailpipe Local
Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) System
Requirements
PS 401-11
Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing:
What Occupational Health
Professionals Should Know
G. Berckman, C. Harrison, US Army,
Fort George G. Meade, MD.
Situation/problem: Until recently, US
military vehicle tailpipe local exhaust
ventilation (LEV) systems have been
designed using either US Army Corps of
Engineers standards or the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists’ (ACGIH) traditional
applicable guidance found in older
editions of Industrial Ventilation: A
Manual of Recommended Practice. More
recently, the guidance first published in
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of
Recommended Practice for Design, 26th
Edition, 2007, was applied to historically
generated exhaust volume data found
in various technical manuals, resulting
in many of these facilities being “overventilated” and likely creating the
T. Morris, Morris Innovative IH&S
Solutions, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: The Human
Genome Project was a 13-year, $3.8
billion endeavor that revolutionized
genetics and advanced DNA sequencing
technology while significantly reducing
its cost. It is now possible to test for
genetic predisposition to diseases or
response to some drugs and, in
occupational health, testing has been
used to determine toxicant sensitivity
and for toxic tort and workers’
compensation litigation. Low cost and
expanding knowledge have prompted
88
potential for unnecessarily high costs to
facility managers.
Resolution: A selected set of large and
commonly-used military vehicles were
evaluated under real-world conditions
to determine actual ventilation
requirements for tailpipe exhaust
systems. Collected data were
statistically analyzed to establish new
LEV requirements, create a method and
consistency in evaluation technique,
and potentially reduce costs. Results:
Applying the new ACGIH vehicle tailpipe
LEV criteria under typical operating
conditions demonstrates reduced
requirement for air flow. Lessons
learned: Using the current ACGIH
protocol and historical vehicle exhaust
data is the most protective to the
workers but is likely creating
unnecessarily high costs to facility
managers. Using this modern ACGIH
criteria and recent field data (collected
under typical operating conditions) for
facility design, workers can be
adequately protected while capital
construction and operating costs are
reduced
PS 401-13
A Proposal for Calculating
Occupational Exposure Limits for
Organic Compounds on the Basis of
Their Physicochemical Properties
M. Jakubowski, Institute of
Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland.
Objective: About 70% of Threshold
Limit Values proposed by ACGIH are
based on sensory irritation and
disturbances in the liver or CNS
functions. Linear free energy relation
(LFER) equations make possible to
calculate the transfer of organic
compounds to different organs and
tissues. Last year we applied LFER
equation for prediction of TLVs for
compounds which act locally as sensory
irritants. The aim of our study is to
investigate whether the LFER equations
could be also used for calculating
LOAELs for compounds which are
responsible for systemic effects (liver,
CNS). Methods: The relationships
between the distribution coefficients
Kliver from the air to the liver and
Kbrain from the air to the brain and
LOAEL values were analysed. The
distribution coefficients were
calculated by means of the LFER
equations. LOAEL values were obtained
from the literature data. Results: The
Log Kliver and the corresponding LOAEL
values have been obtained for 54
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
compounds. They were divided into two
groups: a/ non-reactive compounds
(alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers,
aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons,
amides; n = 26) and b/ reactive
compounds (aldehydes, allyl
compounds, aliphatic amines, benzyl
halides, carboxylic acids, acrylates,
mercaptanes; n=24). The correlation
coefficient between log-log K and log
LOAEL for nonreactive and reactive
compounds were very high (r = 0.897 and
r = 0.892 respectively). The Log Kbrain
and the corresponding LOAEL values
have been obtained for 25 compounds.
The correlation coefficient (r ) between
log Kbrain and log LOAEL amounted to
0.91. Conclusions: After analysis of a
larger data-base the obtained
regression equations could be used for
calculating LOAELs, constituting the
point of departure for setting
occupational exposure limit values
PS 401-14
Comparison of Collection
Efficiencies Between Filter and
Impinger for Evaluation of
Occupational Exposure to Toluene
Diisocyanates (TDIs) in Spray
Painting and Drying Process
J. Roh, H. Park, J. Won, C. Kim, Yonsei
University College of Medicine, Seoul,
Republic of Korea.
Objective: The aim of this study is to
compare collection efficiency of the
airborne toluene diisocyanates (TDIs)
between treated filter sampler and
impinger in spray painting and drying
process of musical instrument
manufacture plant and furniture
manufacture plant. Methods: Two
subjects of musical instrument
manufacture plants and furniture
manufacture plants treating TDIs were
selected among workplaces located at
Incheon, Korea. The treated filter
sampler (OSHA method 42) and impinger
(NIOSH Manual 5522) were used as
sampling media. Air sampling methods
applied in this study were full-period
single sampling method and full-period
consecutive method. Each sample was
collected simultaneously in same
location of spray painting and drying
process to compare collection efficiency
of two sampling methods. Results:
Greater amounts of 2,6-TDI than 2,4-TDI
were detected in all the samples
collected by the treated filter sampler
and impinger. Concentrations of 2,4-TDI
and 2,6-TDI collected by full-period
consecutive sampling method were
significantly higher than those collected
by full-period single sampling method
(p<0.05). In spray painting process,
concentration of TDIs collected by
impinger was significantly higher than
concentration of TDIs collected by the
treated filter sampler (p<0.05). However,
there was no difference of TDIs
concentration between impinger and
treated filter sampler in drying process
(p>0.05). Conclusions: Based on results
obtained by this study, the full-period
consecutive sampling method is more
efficient for sampling airborne TDIs. The
impinger method (NIOSH Manual 5522)
showed higher concentration than the
treated filter method (OSHA method 42)
in spray painting process. Key words:
2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI, air sampling, NIOSH
Manual 5522, OSHA method 42
PS 401-15
Analysis of Peracetic Acid Based
Sterilizers
D. Duffy, ESIS Health, Safety and
Environmental, Chicago, IL; J. Kenny,
ESIS Environmental Health Lab,
Cromwell, CT.
Situation/problem: Peracetic acid
(PAA) is an organic compound with the
formula CH3CO3H. It is highly corrosive
and irritating upon inhalation. Peracetic
acid is produced by the reaction of
acetic acid (AA) with hydrogen peroxide
(HP). Peracetic acid is always sold in
solution with acetic acid and hydrogen
peroxide to maintain the stability of the
chemical. A typical concentration makeup for Sterilization- In-Place (SIP) is 31%
AA, 15% PAA and 12% HP. In response to
employee symptoms of irritation during
an SIP operation, the following issues
were presented; 1) Whether PAA, AA or
HP or a combination thereof, were
causing eye and upper respiratory
irritation and 2) How employees’
exposures could be quantitated in light
of potential positive inferences
between HP and PAA, both strong
oxidizers. Quantitation of each was
necessary for purposes of respiratory
protection and for the selection of a
continuous air monitoring device.
Resolution: An air monitoring strategy
was developed for the quantitation of
each component of the sterilant.
Impingers containing titanium
oxysulfate for HP and distilled water for
PAA were used and analysis performed
colorimetrically. Advantages and
limitations of existing methods will be
presented. Results: The use of impinger
and filter methods were used to collect
PAA and HP. The impinger methods
resulted in the best correlation with
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
employee complaints. There is a positive
interference between the two sampling
and analytical methods. Dose-response
relationships will be discussed. Lessons
learned: Passive monitors for hydrogen
peroxide should not be used when
PAA/HP aerosols are present. The use of
impinger methods for PAA and HP offer
the best quantitation of exposures.
Employee’s complaints of irritation are
likely due to the PAA component;
however, since both are strong oxidizers
with the same target organs, their
effects from inhalation must be
considered additive
PS 401-16
Work Practices and Attitudes
Towards Safety in Small Collision
Repair Shops
A. Bejan, D. Parker, M. Skan, Park
Nicollet Institute, Minneapolis, MN; L.
Brosseau, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN.
Objective: The purpose of this project
was to gather information about safety
practices and attitudes to inform the
development of intervention activities
prior to a study of their effectiveness in
small auto collision repair shops.
Methods: Confidential and anonymous
surveys were administered at baseline
to shop owners and shop employees.
Employees were asked to identify the
type and quantify the use of personal
protective equipment, and to identify
work practices for select operations. All
respondents were asked to answer
questions measuring seven dimensions
of the safety climate: management
commitment, communication, priority
of safety, safety rules and procedures,
supportive environment, involvement
and work environment.
Results: One hundred and thirty-nine
surveys were completed by 32 body
technicians (BT), 21 painters (P), 55
“combo” technicians (BT&P) and 31
owners (O). Safety glasses and hearing
protection were reported to be worn
more frequently by BT than BT&P. Body
technicians reported the lowest use of
lacquer thinner for hand cleaning (28%)
as compared to BT&P (42%) and P (38%).
Even though 95% of BT&P and 76% P
reported using tight-fitting half face
respirators, only 33% of both groups
reported being clean shaven every time
they wear the respirator. The range of
possible safety climate scores was from
2 to 10. The higher the score, the better
the performance. The lowest recorded
scores for all groups were on the “safety
89
rules and procedures” dimension of the
safety climate, ranging between 4.3 and
6.3. The scores for all other dimensions
were between 7.1 and 9.3. Conclusions:
Both workers and owners need
additional information regarding the
proper selection and use of personal
protective equipment, especially gloves
and respirators. Intervention activities
will also focus on assisting owners with
creating and enforcing safety rules and
procedures in their shops.
PS 402
Communication and
Training
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m.
Paper PS 402-1
PS 402-1
Self-paced Acquisition of Business
Acumen to Manage HSE
J. Hinton, Baker Hughes, Houston, TX.
Situation/Problem: Many HSE
Professionals fail in the management of
HSE because they only apply technical
skillsets to solve managerial problems.
This failure many times is at the root as
to why workplace safety or health or
environmental measures do not get
effectively addressed or funded.
Projects may be technically sound and
even needed, but if they are not “sold”
as to why they are fundamental with
the company’s business plan they will
not get funded. Resolution: A unique
linkage of leadership competencies and
management techniques, combined
with HSE technical skills has been
blended into a self-paced learning
series. The self-paced study allows the
simultaneous acquisition of all three
essentials for effective HSE: leadership
characteristics, management
techniques, and technical skills. This
unique focus on all three dimensions
allows the HSE professional to become
more “well rounded” in their approach
to solving an HSE challenge. Results: Use
of the “Effective Essentials of HSE” selfpaced study series has led to HSE
professionals having and retaining their
seats at the business table, and
therefore leveraged their technical
skills to assist the company in making
better informed business decisions.
During a recent business adjustment
due to an economic downturn, HSE
90
professionals who had taken and
applied the Essentials of Effective HSE
self-paced study series were less
impacted by needed budget cuts. On
average, students of the series had their
budgets and headcounts 50% less
affected than the budgets/headcounts
of those not completing the series.
Lessons Learned: The structured process
guides the HSE professional to consider
all three dimensions of effective HSE. It
creates a common platform to engage
business leadership. It forces business
fundamental considerations and yields
a better business plan. This is the right
thing to do when times are good, but
critical to HSE when economic times are
not.
PS 402
Community Environmental Health
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m.
Paper PS 402-2 - PS 402-4
PS 402-2
Data Available on the
Environmental and Occupational
Burden of Disease in Canada
P. Williams, E Risk Sciences, LLP,
Boulder, CO; K. von Stackelberg, E Risk
Sciences, LLP, Boston, MA.
Objective: Environmental and
occupational exposures can make a
significant contribution to the
population burden of disease. In this
presentation, we assess the
environmental burden of disease (EBD)
in Canada and elsewhere. This
information may help facilitate future
region-specific EBD studies and ensure
the design of optimal public health
intervention strategies. Methods:
Systematic search of the peer-reviewed
and gray/white literature to identify
relevant publications on
methodological approaches for
estimating EBD and country-specific
estimates. Results: Available studies
suggest the EBD for developed
countries may range from as low as 1-5%
to as high as 15-22%, depending on how
EBD is calculated and defined. The wide
disparity in estimates is due to the use
of different methodologies, data sets,
assumptions, and units of analysis as
well as the inclusion of different disease
categories and environmental risk
factors (e.g., occupational vs. nonoccupational). Most EBD studies have
also relied heavily on expert judgment
to estimate the environmentally
attributable fraction (EAF). For Canada,
the World Health Organization
estimates that 13% of the current
disease burden is attributable to the
environment (includes lifestyle and
occupational risk factors). Others have
estimated EAFs ranging from 10-30% for
COPD, 26-53% for asthma, 7.5-15% for
cardiovascular disease, 5-15% for cancer,
and 2-10% for congenital afflictions in
Canada. Some more focused studies
provide good examples of how to link a
specific environmental risk factor (e.g.,
air pollution) to specific health
outcomes (e.g., mortality) using relevant
population exposure and dose-response
data. Conclusions: Important data gaps
include: (1) lack of well-defined or
relevant environmental risk factors; (2)
inadequate data on population-level
exposures; (3) limited data on causation
and dose-response relationships; (4) lack
of longitudinal studies and
environmental surveillance programs;
(5) limited attempts to address
uncertainty; (6) extensive use of expert
judgment; and (7) need for improved
methodologies that address complex
issues (e.g., multiple exposures).
PS 402-3
Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and
Diabetes Among Residents Nearby
to an Industrial Complex: SihwaBanwol Industry, Korea
K. Yi, C. Yoon, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Objective: In recent years, increasing
concerns were placed on the low level
exposure to cadmium and adverse
health effects in general population.
One of hypotheses is that cadmium may
affect on the development and progress
of diabetic nephropathy and diabetes.
The purpose of this study is to assess
the association between urinary
cadmium excretion and the prevalence
of diabetes in the residents nearby
industrial complex, Sihwa-Banwol
industry, Korea. In addition, this study
will examine if there are gender
differences in the relationship between
urinary cadmium level and diabetes
prevalence. Methods: This crosssectional analysis used the health
examination data on 950 adults (>30
years of age, Male 417, Female 533) from
Banwol area performed in 2006 and
Shiwa area in 2007. General Linear
Model (GLM) analysis was utilized to
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
test the difference of means of U-Cd
levels. Results: Urinary cadmium levels
were not significantly different
between diabetic and normal group
(diabetic group 0.99±2.62, normal group
0.83±2.22, p=0.78). However, urinary
cadmium levels for women were
significantly higher in diabetic group
than in normal group (female diabetic
group 1.82±2.12, female normal group
0.94±2.20, p=0.02) after adjusting age,
smoking habits, obesity levels and
hypertension status. On the other hand,
urinary cadmium levels in men were not
different between diabetic and normal
(male diabetic group 0.62±2.33, male
normal group 0.70±2.16, p=0.38).
Conclusions: This cross-sectional study
found the elevated urinary cadmium
level in female diabetic group
comparing to normal group. This finding
indicates that gender differences may
exist in development of diabetes due to
cadmium exposures. In next,
prospective studies are required to
identify a causal- relationship between
cadmium exposures and diabetes and
why gender differences occur in
development of diabetes.
direction were also measured at each
station. Results: From the air samples
that were taken prior to permit required
demolition, it was determined that 43 of
92 samples exceeded the reporting limit
and 10 exceeded the mandatory stop
work notice (range: 1,600 to 49,800 s/m3).
The average detectable background
asbestos concentration from these
stations was 11,692 s/m3; the median for
the 43 samples was 10,900 s/m3. Lessons
learned: Because these sampling events
took place when the work activities at
the site did not result in NOA discharge
into the air, the measured
concentrations during this period are
considered an appropriate data set for
determining background NOA. Sitespecific pre-demolition data is
necessary to demonstrate to
compliance entities the potential for
background NOA in ambient air.
PS 402-4
In Search of Background Asbestos in
Ambient Air
Monday, May 16, 2011
2:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m.
Papers PS 402-5 - PS 402-18
J. Kegebein, Kegebein Consulting,
Oakland, CA.
Situation/problem: Prior to the
demolition of a 140-acre corporate
research campus, air samples were
collected to determine the extent of
asbestos concentrations in ambient air.
The demolition work would include
roads, parking lots, sidewalks, buildings
and building pads that contained a 4foot fill of imported naturally occurring
asbestos (NOA) that was to be removed,
store onsite temporarily and
subsequently transported to an
approved disposal site. The Bay Area Air
Quality Management District (BAAQMD)
required perimeter air sample reports at
or above 1,600 structures per cubic
meter (s/m3) and mandatory job shut
down at 16,000 s/m3. Resolution: The
purpose of this evaluation was to
determine local background NOA
concentrations in ambient air using
monitoring data collected at the site.
Ninety-two air samples were collected
from four monitoring stations over a
one-month period when pre-permit
required work activity was conducted.
The time span for collecting each daily
sample was approximately seven hours
(from 7 am to 2 pm). Wind speed and
PS 402
Exposure Assessment
Strategies
PS 402-5
Exposure Assessment of Exhaust
Related Agents During Sub Sea Road
Tunnel Rehabilitation Work
S. Føreland, Norwegian University of
Science and Technology, Trondheim,
Norway; M. Buhagen, University
Hospital of Trondheim, Trondheim,
Norway.
Objective: A 5 km long sub sea road
tunnel on the west coast of Norway has
been rehabilitated due to leakage of sea
water into the tunnel. The work was
performed at night time while traffic
passed in columns. The objective was to
assess the workers exposure to exhaust
related agents. These results and results
from exposure assessment of dust will
later be used in combination with
information on changes in lung function
and inflammatory markers in the
workers during the rehabilitation
period. Methods: Personal and static
measurements of the agents were
collected during the whole 18 months
tunnel rehabilitation period (August
2009-December 2010). Carbon monoxide
and nitrogen dioxide were measured
with direct-reading electrochemical
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
sensors. Elemental carbon was collected
and analyzed according to NIOSH
method 5040. Oil vapor was collected on
charcoal and oil mist on glass fiber
filters and analyzed with infrared
spectroscopy and gas chromatography.
Results (preliminary): 48 measurements
of elemental carbon have been analyzed
and the geometric mean (GM) exposure
was 18 μg/m3. The highest exposed task
(71 μg/m3) was high-pressure cleaning of
tunnel walls. 16 measurements of oil
mist and oil vapor have been analyzed
and the exposure varied from <0.02 to
0.09 mg/m3 (oil mist) and <0.3 to 0.54
mg/m3 (oil vapor). The tasks with the
highest exposures were shotcreat
spraying and drilling. The GM exposure
was 0.04 and 0.4 mg/m3 for oil mist and
oil vapor. 162 samples of CO and NO2
have been analyzed and the shift-long
GM exposures were 0.18 ppm and 0.05
ppm respectively; however the highest
peak values (one minute) were 575 ppm
and 10 ppm respectively. Conclusions:
The exposure to exhaust related agents
in tunnel rehabilitation work was
relatively low compared to the national
occupational exposure limits. However,
high peak values of nitrogen dioxide
and carbon monoxide have been
observed
PS 402-6
Exposure Assessment of Dust and
Quartz During Sub Sea Road Tunnel
Rehabilitation Work
M. Buhagen, University Hospital of
Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway; S.
Føreland, Norwegian University of
Science and Technology, Trondheim,
Norway.
Objective: A 5 km long sub-sea road
tunnel has been rehabilitated due to
leakage of water into the tunnel. The
work was performed at night time while
traffic passed in columns. The objective
was to assess the workers’ exposure to
inhalable and respirable dust and
respirable quartz. The results and
results from exposure assessment of
exhaust related compounds will later be
used in combination with information
on changes in lung function and
inflammatory markers in the workers
during the rehabilitation period.
Methods: Personal and stationary whole
shift samples of dust were collected
during the 18 months tunnel
rehabilitation period (August 2009December 2010). Inhalable dust was
collected with an IOM inhalable sampler
and respirable dust with a SKC
respirable dust aluminum cyclone. The
91
respirable dust fraction was analyzed
for quartz content by x-ray diffraction.
Results: Inhalable dust: 63 samples have
been analyzed. Geometric mean (GM)
exposure was 0.9 mg/m3. Two samples
collected from a shotcreting rig
operator and a piton fitter on the same
day showed by far the highest
exposures (12 and 11 mg/m3
respectively). 75% of the other
measurements were below 2.0 mg/m3.
Respirable dust: 61 samples have been
analyzed. Exposure was below limit of
detection (0.1 mg/m3) for 37% of the
personal samples and 71% of the
stationary samples. GM for the
measurements above limit of detection
was 0.18 mg/m3. Respirable quartz:
Exposure was below limit of detection
(5.4 μg/m3) for 34% of the
measurements. The GM for the
measurements above limit of detection
was 7.5 μg/m3. Conclusions: Most of the
samples showed low dust
concentrations. However some tasks
lead to exposure levels above national
occupational exposure limits (OEL). The
exposure to respirable quartz was
generally low compared to the national
OEL
PS 402-7
Application of Targeted Risk
Assessment in the Workplace to
Exposure Assessment
S. Czerczak, M. Kupczewska Dobecka,
The Nofer Institute of Occupational
Medicine, £ódŸ, Poland.
Objective: The aim of this work is to
describe the operation principle of the
TRA ECETOC targeted assessment model
developed using the descriptor system,
and the utilization of that model for
assessment of exposures to different
organic solvents for selected process
categories identifying a given
application. Methods: Validation of the
TRA ECETOC by estimation of exposure
level and comparing it with measured
data from workplace has been done.
Measurement results were available for
three organic solvents: toluene, ethyl
acetate and acetone in workplace
atmosphere. Based on the description of
job position, character of workplace,
process type, job performed and
working timetable process categories
have been postulated. Results:
Comparison of calculated exposure to
toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone with
data measured at workplaces showed
that model predictions are comparable
to measurements results. The selected
categories do not precisely describe the
92
studied applications. Very high
concentration values were measured in
the shoe factory at the shoe assembly
workplaces (mean 1053.4 mg/m3). The
concentration obtained with the aid of
the model is underestimated, ranging
from 60.6 to 605 mg/m3, for the case with
and without activation of the local
exhaust ventilation, respectively.
Conclusions: Model TRA can be easily
used to assess inhalation exposure at
workplace. It has numerous advantages,
its structure is clear, it requires few
data, and it is available free of charge.
The model is based on EU technological
guidelines, and it has been approved
throughout the whole EU. Parameter
associated with process category is
used as the basis of the assessment,
while process time is also taken into
account. Some process categories seem
to overlap, the choice of categories is
not always clear and the number of the
categories seems to be insufficient to
cover every assessment
PS 402-8
Exposure to Chemical Agents of
Motorways’ Workers
D. Cottica, E. Grignani, Fondazione
Salvatore Maugeri, Padova, Italy.
Situation: The combustion’s products
emitted by vehicles on motorways
contribute to the exposure to chemicals
agents of some workers like “toll
collectors” and “maintenance men.”
Resolution: To control the workers’
exposure the motorways management
worked out a risk assessment of their
exposure to Aromatic Hydrocarbons
(benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl
benzene = BTXE), Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs), Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons (PAH), inhalable
particulate matter, asbestos fibers, lead,
aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen oxides,
sulphur dioxides, and carbon monoxide
during the workshift. Environmental
and personal monitoring has been
worked out. Materials and Methods:
many sampling periods have been
worked out for each working situation
looking to traffic intensity and kind of
traffic (cars and/or trucks =
gasoline/and/or diesel), the sampling
time covered quite all the workshift. The
potential chemical risks measured and
the Methods: BTXE and VOCs, ASTM D
6196; PAH, NIOSH 5515; inhalable
particulate matter, NIOSH 0500;
asbestos fibers, ASTM D 5755; lead, OSHA
ID 125G; aldehydes, NIOSH 2016; ozone,
OSHA ID 214; nitrogen oxides, NIOSH
6014; sulphur dioxides, NIOSH 6004;
carbon monoxide direct reading
instrument. Results: We worked out
sampling results for about 100 toll
collectors and 10 maintenance men. The
environmental concentrations in the
respiratory zone of the two Similar
Exposure Groups (SEG), “toll collectors”
and “maintenance men” are very low
against the ACGIH TLV. The exposure of
the “maintenance men” resulted higher
during assistance in case of cars/trucks
accidents. Conclusions - the exposure of
the toll collectors to chemical agents is
much lower than the respective TLV
proposed by ACGIH and of that of the
maintenance men that, during
assistance in case of accidents
especially with fuel’s spreading, may be
significant: SOV 29 mg/m3 and benzene
3.426 μg/m3 (TLV-TWA 1.600 μg/m3)
PS 402-9
Exposure Assessments: Are we
Properly Accounting for all
Contaminants?
T. Morris, Morris Innovative IH&S
Solutions, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: Exposure
assessments (EA) typically include a
chemical inventory from raw materials
and intermediates to wastes. These
materials are prioritized based on
physicochemical properties, OSHA
standards, toxicity and the process’s
“primary” contaminants. Quantity of
material is considered from listing on an
MSDS to the process itself with
professional judgment, arbitrary
cutoffs, etc., used to determine if a
material will be included in the EA.
Materials at low percentages (<1%) tend
to be dismissed because it’s believed
there isn’t enough to produce an
overexposure or toxicity. Resolution:
The 0.1/1% HAZCOM hazard thresholds
are used by many as de facto cutoffs for
further evaluation but some substancespecific OSHA standards and the
HAZCOM standard require all toxicant
levels be considered if their release
could result in exposures >PEL/TLV.
Regardless of the basis, these decisions
commonly result in the exclusion of lowlevel toxicants from further
consideration. Results: Case studies
from industries as divergent as
foundries and pharmaceuticals
featuring formaldehyde, cadmium,
beryllium, lead and an active
pharmaceutical ingredient (API)
demonstrate how seemingly low-level
materials can produce significant
exposures. Formaldehyde at 0.1-0.3 %
produced exposures > TLV-C and PEL.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Cadmium as low as 0.0004 % resulted in
exposures >AL/PEL. TIG welding
galvanized steel washers (0.007-0.4 % Pb)
produced a 12.2 ug/m3 Pb exposure;
plasma cutting 304 stainless steel
(<0.001 % Pb) resulted in a 75.1 ug/m3
exposure. A Be exposure >TLV occurred
while handling scrap and dross at a
magnesium alloy recycling operation
(0.007 % Be). Milling an API that was 0.09
% of the batch produced exposures of
28X its STEL and 1.2X the TWA. Lessons
learned: These case studies
demonstrate failure to account for and
properly evaluate the exposure
potential of all materials can result in
significant occupational exposures and
toxicity.
protected from exposure on the hands
for isocyanates and solvents; no
isocyanate color change was detected,
and a 7% color detection was observed
for solvents. Preliminary quantitative
solvent data demonstrate a 23 to 72%
detection of solvents. All workers used
Nitrile gloves of varying thicknesses.
Conclusion: Further analyses of the data
will demonstrate the performance of
Nitrile gloves while accounting for
sampling time, painting time, amount
and type of paint applied, glove
thickness, glove changing practices, and
paint booth ventilation conditions.
Results will help determine the most
protective gloves and practices for
workers in this industry
PS 402-10
Solvent and Isocyanate PPE
Breakthrough using PERMEA-TEC
Sensors During Spray Painting in
Auto Body Repair Centers
PS 402-11
Application of Bayesian Decision
Analysis to Determine the Modified
Exposure Profile and the Priority of
High Health-risk Industries
D. Zanarini, D. Ceballos, M. Yost,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Objective: Isocyanate mixtures are
used in the auto body repair industry
during spray painting of vehicle parts.
Exposures to isocyanate-containing
paints may sensitize individuals leading
to occupational asthma. Evidence
suggests that dermal exposure to
isocyanates may contribute
significantly to new cases. Solventcontaining mixtures may be the vehicle
for isocyanate permeability through
personnel protective equipment.
Methods: An exposure assessment of
spray painters in the automotive repair
industry in Washington was conducted.
PERMEA-TEC sensors (Colormetric Labs
INC) were used underneath the gloves of
painters to determine breakthrough of
organic solvents and isocyanates during
spray painting. The PERMEA-TEC for
solvents consists of a charcoal cloth
with a reactive strip that changes color
when permeation occurs. The charcoal
cloth was analyzed quantitatively for
organic solvents using NIOSH method
1501. The PERMEA-TEC for isocyanates
consists of an impregnated cloth that
changes color from yellow to red when
permeation occurs, and was quantified
using red, green and blue color
histograms of scanned images of the
sensors. Results: Fifteen spray painters
were sampled twice during spray
painting tasks in a work shift. PERMEATEC sensors were collected after
painting tasks. Qualitative color
assessment was recorded on site.
Preliminary data indicate workers were
S. Wang, P. Tsai, National Cheng Kung
University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Objective: Using the semi-quantified
exposure rating model and the Bayesian
statistical technique to modify the
exposure profile for various industries
and to determine the priority of high
health-risk industries. Methods: A semiquantified exposure rating model was
developed, base on the concept of
control banding, to determine the
exposure risk rating of chemicals
exposure in various industries. The
priority of high health-risk industries
were determined by the exposure rating
firstly and then the toxicity priority of
hazardous chemicals in an industry
were determined by the hazard rating.
In addition, the Bayesian decision
analysis was used to modify the
exposure profile for various industries
by combining the exposure risk rating,
as the prior, and the monitoring data, as
the likelihood. Results: The exposure
ratings for the top three high health-risk
industries were similar (range: 2.45-2.51),
which indicates that the exposure time,
management and control strategies
among these industries were similar.
The results of hazard rating indicate
that toluene, ethylene glycol ethers, and
dichloromethane with the highest
toxicity priority for plywood, printing
circuit board, and synthetic resin
manufacturing industries respectively.
The posterior probability distribution
shown that about 68.3% to 99.9%
probability distribute in the category 3
for the top three high health-risk
industries. However, for the plywood
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
manufacturing industries, the top one
high health-risk industry, about 15.7%
and 7.4% probability distribute in the
category 4 and category 5 respectively.
Conclusions: This study presents a
practical application of semi-quantified
exposure rating model and Bayesian
decision analysis to prioritize the high
health-risk industries. This information
is useful for industrial hygienist or the
government to judgment the control
program
PS 402-12
Random Airspeed Variability Within
a Room and its Implications for
Exposure Modeling
C. Keil, K. Musgrave, Bowling Green
State University, Bowling Green, OH.
Objective: Mathematical modeling of
worker exposures is highly dependent
on an understanding of the ventilation
conditions within a room. Near zone
modeling and diffusion modeling are
particularly sensitive to the local
airflow patterns that produce
exposures. There is limited data on how
local airflow varies within a room. This
study characterizes the temporal,
spatial and general ventilation rate (Q)
dependent local airspeeds within a
room. Methods: Over a period of four
months a hotwire anemometer was
used to determine the X, Y and Z axis
components of random local airspeed.
Four locations within the room were
evaluated. Seventy-one 15-minute tests
were carried out. Airspeed data was
collected every two seconds. The
variability of airspeed over time at each
location and between locations was
evaluated. Two general ventilation
conditions were included in the tests.
Results: The overall mean random
airspeed for the room was 0.052 m/sec.
Data was skewed to the right. The
overall geometric mean (GM) and
geometric standard deviation were
0.024 m/sec and 3.8 respectively.
Variation at each location varied less
than 20% on a given day. However, dayto-day variations at each location and
within the room were sometimes
greater than two-fold. A higher Q
increased the overall GM by 10%. The
degree to which general ventilation
affected airspeeds varied between
locations. In general the difference
between locations was lower at a higher
Q. Conclusions: When selecting a local
airspeed for modeling exposure,
consideration must be paid to within
and between locations in a workplace.
Even with airspeed data for a specific
93
room, modeled exposures may vary
twofold due to within room variability.
Local airspeed seems to be somewhat
dependent on Q. The effect of Q relative
to room volume and the configuration
of the room ventilation may affect
patterns of local airspeeds and needs
investigation.
PS 402-13
Successful Coordination of
Industrial Hygiene and Operations
Staff in Evaluation of Beryllium
Activities
D. Siegel, B. Duran, Los Alamos
National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.
Situation/Problem: Beryllium
activities for open-air shots were
modified to allow for use of vessels on
the firing point at the Dual Axis
Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test
Facility at Los Alamos National
Laboratory. Cleanout of these vessels
took place on an outdoor firing point.
Much cleanup had been completed on
that firing point, and there was a need
to ensure that further beryllium
contamination did not occur.
Resolution: A building used to prepare
vessels for shots was updated to include
engineering controls for both beryllium
and radiation. Operational staff and
industrial hygiene staff worked
together on an engineering controlcentered approach to worker
protection, which included local
exhaust, general exhaust, and personal
protective equipment. Results: A formal
exposure assessment of normal
activities associated with vessel
cleanout included qualitative analysis
and sampling. Sampling included
breathing zone sampling, area
sampling, and swipe sampling for
beryllium. Swipe sampling for beryllium
included both AIHA-accredited
laboratory analysis and fluorometric
analysis. Initial personal monitoring
results for normal activities were below
Occupational Exposure Limits set by the
Department of Energy. Swipe results
were acceptable after decontamination
of the vessel preparation facility.
Further sampling of continuing
activities resulted in a breathing zone
result that was over the DOE action
level, although respiratory protection
prevented actual exposure for the
individual. Lessons Learned: Work-rest
regimens to be implemented to prevent
heat stress as a result of the PPE worn
are expected to help achieve acceptable
breathing zone monitoring results.
Additional breathing zone monitoring
94
during all possible activities in needed
to further characterize the activity
PS 402-14
Design and Conduct of an Industrial
Hygiene Field Site Monitoring
Strategy for Offshore Production
Operations to Document the
Potential for Occupational
Exposures to Chemical and Physical
Hazards as well as Platform Surveys
for Asbestos and Lead
J. Koehn, Jan Koehn, Inc., Houston, TX;
H. McCutcheon, Devon Energy, Houston,
TX.
Situation/Problem: An offshore
production platform survey effort and
also workplace exposure assessment
project was initiated for prioritized Gulf
of Mexico areas for an oil and gas
company located in Houston, Texas
during 2009 with continuing work
through 2010. Due to company liability
issues and the need to document the
potential for personnel exposures to
various chemical and physical hazards,
corporate safety and health personnel
managing these crude oil and gas
locations requested professional
consulting assistance to perform
current baseline surveys including
outlined industrial hygiene monitoring.
Resolution: The project scope of work
involved the following: occupational
exposure monitoring for full shift
hydrocarbon exposures; short-term
work task monitoring for benzene
and/or hydrocarbons; personal noise
dosimetry; and field site surveys for the
presence of asbestos-containing
materials (ACM), lead-based paint, and
sound pressure levels for selected
offshore production platforms.
Representative personal monitoring by
job position including foreman,
operators, mechanics, I & E technicians,
lease operators, etc. was conducted.
Corporate safety personnel identified
specific field locations to be assessed
based on assigned priorities. A certified
industrial hygienist (CIH) and a licensed
asbestos inspector completed the
scheduled survey site visits. The
sampling strategy was appropriately
revised and implemented at each
location and all personal samples
including bulk lead paint samples were
analyzed by an AIHA accredited
laboratory. Asbestos bulk samples were
delivered to another accredited
laboratory. Digital photographs were
documented of “suspect” materials
and/or site locations to assist with
hazard condition assessment. Results:
Site location survey reports were
prepared summarizing the laboratory
analytical data. Separate tables for each
type of chemical and/or physical hazard
were documented for each production
platform location. Lessons Learned: A
summary report was also presented
including the collected project data
with both general and specific
recommendations. Strategy
implementation may continue in the
future based on communications with
the client’s representatives
PS 402-15
Sampling Strategy Design of
Potential Benzene and Hydrogen
Sulfide Personal Breathing Zone
Exposures for Field Technicians
Associated with Gas Pipeline
Operations Located in New Mexico
Including Industrial Hygiene
Monitoring and Assessment Results
J. Koehn, Jan Koehn, Inc., Houston, TX;
R. Acker, Ackcellent Consultant,
Monument, CO; C. Newman, HIH
Laboratory, Inc., Webster, TX.
Situation/Problem: Industrial hygiene
consulting services were required in
response to requested field site
assessment of natural gas pipelines and
also processing plants in New Mexico
during August 2010. The increased
potential for occupational breathing
zone exposures to benzene and also
hydrogen sulfide was anticipated
associated with pipeline technician
work operations. Resolution: Design of a
project field site sampling strategy was
addressed based on information
provided by the client. Additional
information related to standard
technician work activities was
requested for extensive pipeline as well
as processing plant locations involving
operations personnel. A two-week
focused sampling effort was planned
and performed to insure collection of
representative exposure data collection
based on normal field site activities.
Sample analysis was properly addressed
by an AIHA-accredited laboratory in
Houston, Texas. Personal monitoring
was undertaken for both full work shift
and short-term tasks by two CIHs.
Extensive site documentation was
prepared to record shift work activities
at identified field locations and/or
plants. Collection of short-term work
task samples for various job positions
was completed with direct observations
and recordkeeping to assist with
subsequent exposure data
interpretation. Results: Monitoring
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
results were reviewed upon receipt and
proper data interpretation was
undertaken. Additional follow-up with
field site personnel was conducted by
local HSE personnel to assist with
proper assessment. Direct use of
monitoring data was incorporated into
the specific need for development and
subsequent implementation of written
workplace exposure assessment
programs for the chemical substances
of interest. Lessons Learned:
Coordination was appropriately
addressed and communications
between project monitoring, HSE
personnel, field site supervisors, and
also technicians and plant personnel
was vital. Formal final report
documentation was provided along
with professional recommendations
related to the need for regulatory
programs addressing potential benzene
exposures and/or the specific
requirements for provision and use of
respiratory protection
PS 402-16
Dust Exposure and Respiratory
Symptoms among Workers in
Southern Tanzania Softwood
Sawmill Industries
L. Rongo, Muhas, Dar es Salaam,
United Republic of Tanzania.
Objective: The objective of this study
was to assess dust exposure and
respiratory symptoms among workers
in softwood industries in southern
Tanzania in order to create policy
addressing exposure standards to wood
dust in Tanzania. Methods: We
interviewed 300 workers exposed to
wood dust and 150 control subjects
using a respiratory health
questionnaire. Inhalable dust
measurements were collected for 106
workers. Results: More than half of the
workers were exposed to less than
3mg/m3 of softwood dust. This value is
less than 5 mg/m3 recommended by
American Conference of Government
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms
(cough, cough with phlegm and
shortness of breath), in the previous 12
months were significantly higher in the
exposed group compared with the nonexposed office workers. Exposure to
wood preserving like chromated copper
arsenate (CCA) was more serious in
small-scale wood industry workers
compared to the workers in medium
industry. Conclusion: We conclude that
working in softwood industry in
Tanzania is associated with an
increased prevalence of respiratory
symptoms
PS 402-17
An Evaluation of Noise Exposure
Among Pipeline Construction
Workers Using a Task-Based
Methodology
L. Southgate, SNC-Lavalin Inc.,
Montreal, QC, Canada.
Situation/problem: In a review of the
published literature, no studies were
found relating to noise exposure and
the potential risk of developing
occupational hearing loss for workers in
the oilfield pipeline construction
industry. Resolution: This field study
characterized task-based activities and
evaluated noise source exposures for
various trade groups involved in the
construction of an oilfield pipeline. A
Type-2 sound-level meter was used to
measure noise levels at the workers ear
for specific noise sources and the
distance from the noise source was
recorded for various tasks. Noise
measurements were also taken of
engine loading during heavy equipment
operations, and the shielding effect of
doors and windows of closed operator
cabs. Worker and supervisor interviews
were used to determine the length of
time a worker who performed a certain
task was exposed to a noise source,
which was then used to calculate the
average daily noise exposure for each
trade group. Results: Operators of
bulldozers and side-booms with no cab
were found to have the highest noise
exposures of heavy equipment
operators with an Lex8hr between 99102 dBA. The noise exposure range for
welders was calculated to be Lex8hr 9093 dBA and their helpers had a range of
Lex8hr 91-94 dBA. Over fifty percent of
the laborers tasks had an Lex8hr
between 79-89 dBA. Pipe-fitters were
assessed to have an of Lex8hr 89-93 dBA.
Lessons learned: The task-based
exposure methodology used in this
study had a total calculated error of +/- 3
dBA and it provided excellent detail in
the sources and determinants of noise
exposure to workers during pipeline
construction. This study found that
heavy equipment operators, pipe-fitters,
welders and their helpers, and laborers
were exposed to noise levels which
could significantly increase their risk of
permanent hearing loss if hearing
conservation efforts are not taken.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PS 402-18
Analysis of Historical Industrial
Hygiene Data: A Case Study
Involving Benzene Exposures at a
Petrochemical Manufacturing
Facility (1974-1999)
J. Sahmel, K. Devlin, T. Ferracini, M.
Ground, ChemRisk, Inc., Boulder, CO; A.
Burns, ChemRisk, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; D.
Paustenbach, ChemRisk, Inc., San
Francisco, CA.
Objective: Benzene is commonly-used
as a raw material for organic chemicals,
and may be a byproduct of chemical
processes at manufacturing facilities.
The facility under evaluation used
petroleum-based raw materials to
produce chemicals such as polyethylene
and polypropylene, waxes and
adhesives, and alcohols and aldehydes.
The purpose of the present analysis was
to describe typical benzene air
concentrations from the 1970s to the
1990s during routine operations at the
facility. The analysis also included an
exposure reconstruction with
quantitative estimates of personal
benzene exposure by division,
department, and job title. Methods: A
total of 3,607 benzene samples were
available. Normalized 8-hour TWA
personal exposure samples (n=2359) for
benzene were collected between 1974
and 1999. Eight-hour TWA data were
classified by division, department, and
job title and were analyzed by time
periods demined by changes in the OEL
for benzene and key process changes
that likely influenced employee
exposures at the facility. Results: The
mean benzene concentration of all
normalized 8-hour TWA personal
samples was 0.54 ppm. The mean
benzene concentrations found in all
divisions were below the
contemporaneous OELs for benzene (10
ppm for the period from 1974 to 1986
and 1.0 ppm for the period from 1987 to
1999). There were also decreases in
mean benzene concentrations when the
data were evaluated according to key
process changes (1974 to 1983, 1984 to
1991, and 1992 to 1999). Conclusions: The
results confirmed a high quality
industrial hygiene program at the
facility, which included full shift routine
monitoring for benzene across all
relevant divisions beginning in the mid
1970s. The robust nature of this dataset
provides quantitative exposure values
which are likely to be useful for
estimating benzene exposures at
similar facilities.
95
PS 403
Agricultural Health and
Safety
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers 403-1 – 403-3
PS 403-1
Skid Loader Noise Exposure
Assessment in a Confinement Dairy
Barn
S. Milz, E. Smith, F. Akbar-Khanzadeh,
S. Khuder, University of Toledo, Toledo,
OH.
Objective: Over the last 40 years dairy
farms have decreased greatly in
numbers, but have at the same time
increased herd size 6.5 times, leading to
fewer cows on pasture and more cows
in confinement. This change has
increased the use of noisy equipment. In
order to evaluate this change, a noise
assessment was conducted in a
confinement dairy barn focusing on the
noise generated by the skid loader.
Methods: Noise was assessed for three
separate weeks, once each during cold,
mild, and hot weather. Area sampling
was conducted in the barn and skid
loader at a height approximating the
hearing zone, using noise dosimeters
(Larson Davis Spark 705+) and a sound
level meter with octave band analyzer
(Quest 2700). Results: In the hearing
zone of the skid loader operator, the 8hour TWA noise levels ranged from 81–
90 dBA, with the maximum up to 117 dBA
and the peak levels reaching 150 dBC.
Similar noise levels were observed
throughout the dairy barn. Assuming
the area samples were indicative of
personal samples, noise from the skid
loader did not exceed the OSHA-PEL
during the study. However, the OSHA
ceiling was exceeded 35% of the days
monitored and the ACGIH peak level was
exceeded 80% of the days monitored. No
workers in the barn reported or were
observed wearing hearing protection.
Conclusions: Noise exposures in the
barn could potentially have exceeded
the allowable limits and
recommendations set by OSHA and
ACGIH/NIOSH. The workers in this
confinement dairy barn have the
potential for experiencing noise
induced hearing loss
96
PS 403-2
Inflammatory Constituents in
Agricultural Dusts
S. Kirychuk, W. Dawicki, G. Katselis, D.
Schneberger, N. Ovsenek, Z. Belak, N.
Just, J. Gordon, University of
Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Working in intensive animal housing
operations has been associated with
respiratory outcomes. Understanding
the inflammatory capability of dust
constituents would assist in
determining appropriate control
strategies. Objective: To characterize
constituents (i.e. chemical and protein)
in dusts from animal operations and the
associated cellular inflammatory
responses. Methods: Settled dust
samples were collected from a poultry
operation, three swine barn rooms
(nursery, gestation and farrowing) and a
farm home. Aqueous dust extracts were
generated in saline and aliquoted. ICPMS and inorganic chemistry were
undertaken. FPLC was done on an
aliquot of each sample and peaks were
collected. Individual FPLC peaks were
run on 1-dimensional reducing SDSPAGE gels and visualized bands were
excised and processed by LC-MS for
identification. A549 human airway
epithelial cell culture supernatants
(from extracts of the total dusts and
FPLC fractions) were assessed for IL-8, IL1b, IL-6, and CXCL8/IL-8 levels. Results:
Organic carbon levels were similar
between the animal confinement dusts,
while poultry and grain dusts had
greater inorganic carbon (5.41 & 5.56%)
as compared to the swine dusts (4.27 &
4.99%). pH was highest in the swine
dusts (7.74 and 8.20) as compared to the
poultry and grain dusts (6.33 & 6.39).
Total nitrogen and sulphur were lower
in the grain dust (1.74% & 0.19%) as
compared to the poultry and swine
dusts. Chemical elements tended to be
higher in the swine dusts. The highest
protein and endotoxin levels were
found in the swine dust (6586 and 8380
μg/ml; and 267 and 74 EU/mg,
respectively). There were differences
between the dusts in the size and
number of FPLC peaks, as well as in the
epithelial cellular responses.
Conclusions: Dust constituents differed
by animal housing operations and these
constituents produced differential
epithelial cellular responses. Reducing
specific constituents in animal
operations may assist in reducing
respiratory responses in workers
PS 403-3
Evaluation of Exposures to
Pesticides and Parasitic Vectors
during Inspection of Imported
Plants.
S. Durgam, C. Aristeguieta, NIOSH,
Cincinnati, OH.
Situation: Over 5 billion plants were
imported into the United States in 2008.
The United States Department of
Agriculture, Animal Plant Health
Inspection Service has 17 Plant
Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
inspection stations to ensure that
imported fruits, vegetables, cut flowers,
and live plants (dry land and aquatic)
are free of disease and infestation. PPQ
inspectors vigorously shake the plants
over examination tables to dislodge
insects and snails, an activity possibly
placing them at risk from parasitic
infections and exposure to residual
pesticides. Resolution: NIOSH
investigators evaluated PPQ inspectors’
exposures during plant inspections at a
representative station. We collected
personal breathing zone and area air
samples and surface wipe samples for
pesticides. Since it was not known what
types of pesticides were applied, we
analyzed the samples for 20 common
pesticides using the EPA TO-10A method,
which includes common
organochlorines and DDT isomers. We
observed plant inspections, interviewed
a convenience sample of inspectors
about work-related health problems
and pesticide use, and reviewed their
safety and health manual. Results: None
of the 20 pesticides we tested for were
detected and no health problems were
reported. PPQ inspectors wore
disposable nitrile gloves during plant
inspection and some smelled plants for
pesticide residue. Respirators were not
required during routine plant
inspections. Inspectors are not
medically monitored for pesticide
exposure. Lessons learned: None of the
20 pesticides we tested for were
detected and no health problems were
reported. PPQ inspectors wore
disposable nitrile gloves during plant
inspection and some smelled plants for
pesticide residue. Respirators were not
required during routine plant
inspections. Inspectors are not
medically monitored for pesticide
exposure.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PS 403
Ergonomics
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-4 - PS 403-5
PS 403-4
Ergonomic Intervention by
Industrial Hygiene at a Large
Government Facility
A. Lee, D. Kauffman, US Army,
Aberdeen, MD.
Situation/problem: An evaluation of
the past three years of Workers’
Compensation (WC) claims was
analyzed to establish a trend in
ergonomic injuries, in relation to their
job tasks, and costs. There was a trend
of increasing ergonomic claims being
filed from 2008 to present. Resolution:
Analyzed the local Workers’
Compensation claims database from
2008 to present. The data showed a clear
potential for early industrial hygiene
(IH) intervention, where IH can identify
and target ergonomic high risk factors
(e.g. awkward postures) to reverse the
trend. This also aligns with our business
mission of quality operation and
support services through involvement
and commitment of strong, robust
employees. Results: The number of
identified ergonomic cases was 19 (year
2008), but increased to 28 (year 2010).
The percentage of ergonomic related
claims relative to all claims increased
from 15% (year 2008) to 19% (year 2010).
The ergonomic claims costs was
$140,753 (year 2008), and estimated to be
greater than $120000 (year 2010). Lesson
Learned: Clearly, there is great potential
for early industrial hygiene
intervention, to reduce the ergonomic
claims. This provided a stimulus for both
the IH office and the safety office to
revamp the current local ergonomic
regulation. This new initiative would
involve: a) providing training to both
industrial hygiene and safety personnel
to identify all work-related
musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk
factors (an updated IH ergonomic
assessment report has been completed
and used); b) targeting the work tasks,
to identify risk factors due to
ergonomics (e.g., awkward postures)
through cross-functional teams to
stimulate our ergonomic mitigation
process; and c) involving all
stakeholders (supervisors to employees)
on our facility to perform the
ergonomics survey and provide
feedback. Based on an average injury
cost of $20,000/injury, the business
opportunity for reducing annual injury
and illness cost is at least $100,000/year
(estimated for 5 claims).
interventions like worktable redesign,
tilted-surface high chair, etc. were
provided to improve the health and
safety for the metal manufacturing
workers.
PS 403-5
Ergonomic Practices in a Taiwan
Metal Manufacturing Factory for
the Prevention of Work Related
Musculoskeletal Disorders
PS 403
Health Care Industries
P. Sung, C. Lee, H. Chen, Chaoyang
University of Technology, Taichung
County, Taiwan.
Situation/problem: Metal
manufacturing industry is one of the
ten high hazard industries in Taiwan
with high risk of developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders
(WMSDs). Currently, no articles were
found assessing the work-related
musculoskeletal disorders associated
with Taiwan’s metal manufacturing
industry. There is a need to identify the
risk factors (e.g. awkward posture, high
force-exertion, repetition, etc) to
improve the safety and health in the
work environment. Resolution: The aims
of this study were to: (1) identify the
tasks with awkward posture, high forceexertion, and high repetition, and (2)
recommend modifications to lower the
risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The
posture based observational techniques
(OWAS, RULA, and REBA), JACK
biomechanical analysis software, and
Key Indicator Method (KIM) were used
to assess the operational workloads for
five workstations in a Taiwan metal
manufacturing factory. The intra- and
inter- observer reliability was also
determined among the three posture
based observational techniques using
SPSS statistical software. Results: The
results show that 25.4% and 21.7% of the
working postures of two workstations
were classified into OWAS AC4 and RULA
AL4. In addition, 12.7%~100% of the
working postures of all five
workstations were classified into OWAS
AC3 and RULA AL3. For the REBA analysis
of poor postures, 64.6% and 90.4% of the
working postures of two workstations
fit into AL3. The KIM risk scores for two
of five workstations were determined
between 25 and 50 (risk range 3),
indicating highly increased load
situation where redesign of the
workplace is recommended. The load on
the L4/L5 disc ranged from 642.0 N to
1435.2 N and the torque on the shoulder
joint ranged from 67.0 Nm to 83.0 Nm.
Lessons learned: Based upon the
evaluation, simple lower-budget
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-6 - 403-9
PS 403-6
Evaluation of Potential Noise
Exposures in Hospital Operating
Rooms
L. Chen, S. Brueck, NIOSH, Cincinnati,
OH.
Situation/problem: Operating room
(OR) staff can be exposed to significant
noise levels during surgeries from
medical devices such as drills and saws.
Several studies have shown that these
devices can generate noise levels
exceeding 90 dBA. Procedures that use
these instruments, such as craniotomies
and orthopedic surgeries, can last many
hours, potentially exposing surgical
staff to long periods of noise. In
addition, ORs typically have nonsoundabsorbent walls, ceilings, and floors.
Resolution: NIOSH investigators
performed a health hazard evaluation in
a teaching hospital’s operating rooms in
response to management concerns that
the surgical staff was exposed to noise
levels that could cause hearing loss.
Nine employees contributed 12 full-shift
noise dosimetry measurements over 2
days. In addition, sound level and
octave band measurements were taken
when loud instruments were used
during craniotomies and orthopedic
surgeries. Results: None of the personal
measurements exceeded the OSHA or
NIOSH noise exposure limits. However,
some surgical activities generated
sound levels exceeding 90 dBA. Noisegenerating activities include drilling,
surgery preparation, and clean up.
Results from the octave band analysis
indicated that noise levels in the OR
were higher than levels recommended
in the American National Standards
Institute and Acoustical Society of
America balanced noise criterion for
occupied rooms and may cause speech
interference for employees. Lessons
learned: Reducing noise exposures in an
OR can be challenging because some
sounds are required during surgery (e.g.,
97
vital sign monitors, alarms, and
employee communication) whereas
other sounds, especially from drilling
and sawing instruments, could be
reduced. Using quieter powered surgical
instruments would be the most
effective way to reduce noise exposures
in ORs and to minimize speech
interference and risk of noise induced
hearing loss.
PS 403-7
Development of a Web-based Health
and Safety Practices Survey of
Healthcare Workers: Findings of
Cognitive and Pilot Testing
J. Boiano, A. Steege, M. Haring
Sweeney, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH; M.
Stapleton, J. Newsome, M. Popovic,
Westat, Rockville, MD.
NIOSH recently developed a web
survey to characterize health and safety
practices of healthcare workers who use
or come in contact with chemical
agents, including antineoplastic agents,
anesthetic gases, high level
disinfectants, chemical sterilants,
aerosolized medications and surgical
smoke. Individual modules were
developed to address each of these
hazards, and a core module addressing
other pervasive healthcare hazards. To
minimize potential sources of response
error, survey development methods
included cognitive testing of the
instrument and pilot testing of the web
survey. Cognitive interviews gathered
feedback on whether respondents
understood survey questions
consistently and as intended by the
development team. Interviews were
conducted in two rounds; comments
from round 1 (n=24 respondents)
necessitated changes in the survey
instrument which was reevaluated in
round 2 (n=16 respondents). Results
addressed need to: reword questions for
clarity; include photos for selected
questions; and include a dynamic
calendar with questions asking about
specific time periods (e.g., past 7
calendar days). Following cognitive
testing, the survey was programmed
into a web instrument and internally
evaluated by the development team
prior to pilot testing. Pilot test
interviews were conducted by
telephone and via an internet
conference hosting service which
permitted observation of respondents
(n=28) during survey completion. The
primary objective of the pilot test was
to evaluate the entire survey process,
including directions for entering/re-
98
entering and navigating through the
survey, accuracy of programmed
functions (e.g., skip patterns,
presentation of appropriate hazard
modules based on screening questions)
and overall appearance of the web
survey. Respondents provided
suggestions including streamlining the
opening web pages to provide a more
intuitive entry into the survey, and
modifying the appearance of web page
navigation buttons, as well as others.
Conclusion: Fully developing a web
survey using qualitative methods can
improve the content and flow of the
survey leading to better data quality
PS 403-8
Evaluation of Ultraviolet Light
Blocking Properties of Personal
Protective Equipment for Use in
Orthopedic Operating Rooms
R. Kirwan, N. Greeson, G. Tencer, Duke
University, Durham, NC.
Situation/problem: A nurse working
under ultraviolet (UV) lights in the
operating room and wearing prescribed
personal protective equipment (PPE)
exhibited signs of UV exposure. This
incident prompted an evaluation of the
UV blocking properties of the available
PPE. During orthopedic surgery at Duke
University Hospital, UV-C (254 nm) lights
are used as a means of infection control
during highly invasive procedures.
Healthcare employees working in UV
orthopedic operating rooms are
exposed to high levels of UV-C, which
can harm the outer layer of the skin and
eyes; therefore, they are required to
wear personal protective equipment
(PPE). Resolution: A radiometer/
photometer was used to measure the
UV intensity through a single (or double)
layer of PPE directly under the UV lights.
Disposable and reusable PPE was
evaluated, including surgical gowns,
towels, visitor head coverings (single
and doubled), visors, and surgical
masks. Calculations of % UV Blocked
were used to determine PPE suitability.
Results: The measured irradiance
directly under the lights was 44.50
μW/cm2, 222 times the recommended
ACGIH TLV for 254 nm radiation of 0.006
J/cm2 (~ 0.2 μW/cm2) for an 8-hour
exposure. Based on the UV radiation
transmission data collected, some PPE
clearly affords better UV protection
than others. The reusable surgical
gowns, towel, surgical mask with shield
and visors provide the best protection
by blocking >98% of UV light. The visitor
bonnet with hood (doubled) provides
good protection by blocking 95-98% of
the UV light. Other visitor headgear,
visitor bunny suits, and other surgical
masks provide poor UV blockage at
<85%. Lessons learned: The method
employed was suitable for evaluating
PPE efficacy. The data was used to revise
the PPE requirements for UV protection
in the operating rooms and re-educate
employees on its use
PS 403-9
A Review of the Occupational
Hazards Related to Medical Lasers
J. Pierce, ChemRisk, Chicago, IL; S.
Lacey, R. Lopez, J. Lippert, M. Colvard,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, IL.
Objective: The clinical use of lasers in
surgery began in the early 1970s with
applications of the carbon dioxide laser
in otolaryngology, and since then the
use of lasers has become commonplace
in many medical and surgical
specialties. However, the use of medical
lasers may present unforeseen
occupational hazards to operators and
ancillary personnel. The purpose of this
analysis is to summarize and present all
of the seminal published literature
pertaining to medical laser hazards and
their control in order to understand the
types and extent to which these
hazards exist, to inform the medical
community about these hazards, and to
prioritize future areas of occupational
health and safety research. Methods: A
literature search was performed using
PubMed, and all papers relevant to
beam and non-beam medical laser
hazards were reviewed. The Rockwell
Laser Industries Laser Accident
Database was also searched for medical
laser injuries and related incident
reports were abstracted. Results: Eye
injuries, skin burns, and injuries related
to the onset of fires, and electric shock
have been reported in relation to
medical laser use. In addition, it is
probable that both acute and chronic
health effects have been experienced by
medical personnel as the result of
exposure to laser generated air
contaminants, which to date is largely
not quantified, not regulated by OSHA,
and oftentimes lacking of adequate
control mechanisms. Conclusions:
Despite their known occurrence, there
is a paucity of literature describing
these hazards and others, such as the
resulting noise exposure, and their
associated health outcomes. Due to the
clinical benefits that laser technologies
provide, it is expected that the number
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
of applications in which lasers are used
will continue to grow, which is
anticipated to result in an increase in
the number and type of personnel with
future exposure to laser hazards.
PS 403
Laboratory Health and
Safety
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-10 – PS 403- 11
PS 403-10
Exposures to a Methylmethacrylate
During Componential Analysis of
Methylmethacrylate
Y. Cho, Korea Occupational Safety and
Health Agency, Yeosu City, Republic of
Korea.
Situation/problem: ACGIH TLVs for
methylmethacrylate is 50ppm and
Immediately Dangerous to Life or
Health concentration is 1,000 ppm and
in the case of human date for
methylmethacrylate, workers have
experienced irritation, but tolerated 200
ppm without complaint. The present
exposure of workers was evaluated in
many laboratories. Knowing the
reliability and limits of the measuring
methods was then of primary
importance. This study was conducted
to evaluate worker exposure in
laboratories in methylmethacrylate.
OSHA methods were used to assess
exposure when samples were gathered
from both workers and work areas.
Resolution: For the TWA,
methylmethacrylate was collected on
XAD-2(400/200mg) solid sorbent tube, at
a flow of 0.05L/min. the analysis was
done gas chromatography. More than 30
samples were collected both in the
workers breathing zone and ambient
air, for periods of 6 hours. Eight-hour
TWAs showed that exposure of
methylmethacrylate for workers who
worked with methylmethacrylate was
1~2ppm, and workers who had ne direct
contact with methylmethacrylate was
0.04~0.06 ppm. Results: It was found that
the concentration of methylmetacrylate
is higher from workers who worked with
methylmethacrylate than the others.
Lessons learned: In order to reduce
methylmetacrylate exposure, the
proper training was provided for
handling a methylmetacrylate. Also
personal protective equipment was
provided to the workers
PS 403
Lead
PS 403-11
Controlling Formaldehyde
Emissions in an Academic Gross
Anatomy Laboratory: A Success
Story
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-12 - PS 403-13
C. King, P. Castagna, R. Klein, Yale
University, New Haven, CT.
Situation: The opportunity to design a
new gross anatomy laboratory arose
during the planning of a new laboratory
building on our campus. Formaldehyde
exposures during embalmed cadaver
dissection in the existing laboratory had
been a concern for years, heightening
the need for the new laboratory to
effectively minimize exposures to this
carcinogen. Resolution: We worked
together with the anatomy, project
management, and facilities engineering
departments to determine the best way
to us effectively control exposures at
the source using limited exhaust and
make-up air as well as with restrictions
on the orientation of the ductwork that
the project had already established.
Since none of the commerciallyavailable ventilated tables at the time
met our requirements, we conducted
numerous exposure assessments and
helped design a table that worked
within our design limitations and still
met user requirements. These
assessments included the construction
of a mock laboratory in which we
modified prototypes of tables and
simulated exposures under varying
exhaust configurations and air volumes.
Results: The new laboratory has been
operating for 8 years and formaldehyde
exposures remain consistently 10-fold
lower than those found in the previous
laboratory. We attribute these
reductions not only to the table exhaust
and room design, but also to
improvements such as ventilated
lockers, large open laboratory areas,
and training. Lessons learned: Despite
the success in controlling formaldehyde
exposures, there are some things we
would do differently if the opportunity
were to arise again. Key among these
would be the installation of individual
table exhaust ventilation controllers,
tying into ceiling ductwork branches
rather than below-floor ducting, and
using quick-connect/disconnect drain
fittings for fluid collection. Along with
the original table design features, these
lessons learned will help others
planning to build or renovate a similar
space for anatomical dissection.
PS 403-12
Air Lead Concentrations in Smelting
and Litharge Factories
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
B. Lee, Soonchunhyang University,
Cheonan, Republic of Korea.
Objective: To provide a summary of
historical data from air lead monitoring
in smelting and litharge factories in
Korea in order to guide future
environmental monitoring decisions.
Methods: Air lead concentrations in four
lead factories (a primary smelting, two
secondary smelting and a litharge
factory) were analyzed using data from
environmental monitoring
measurements taken between 1994 and
2007. The geometric mean and SD of air
lead concentrations were compared by
year, type of factory and type of process
within the factory. Results: The mean air
lead concentration of the lead industry
overall between 1994 and 2007 was 70.7
μg/m3 (n=1140). From 1994 until 2001, the
mean was above permissible exposure
levels (PEL); after 2001, the mean
dropped to ½ of the PEL. The overall
mean air lead concentration of the
primary smelting, secondary smelting
and litharge factories during the same
period was 21.7 μg/m3 (n=353), 82.5μg/m3
(n= 357) and 164.2 μg/m3 (n=430),
respectively. In the primary smelting
factory, the secondary smelting process
had the highest mean (35.4 μg/m3),
followed by the casting process (24.9
μg/m3) and the melting process (14.9
μg/m3). In the secondary smelting
factories, the melting process had the
highest mean (125.4μg/m3), followed by
the casting process (90.5μg/m3) and the
pre-treatment process (43.4μg/m3). In
the litharge factory, there was no
significant difference in mean air
concentrations between the litharge
and the stabilizer processes. The mean
air lead concentration was greatest
above PEL in the litharge factory
(50μg/m3) followed by the secondary
smelting factories. A reduction above
the PEL was seen throughout the time
period. Conclusions: Since the year 2000,
a significant reduction in the mean air
lead concentration was seen due to
improvements in environmental
engineering and in manufacturing
processes. Stricter government
99
enforcement of occupational safety
laws and decreased exposure time are
other factors that influenced the
reduction.
PS 403-13
Handheld XRF for Immediate, OnSite Determinations of the Presence
of Lead (Pb)
K. Russell, Olympus Innov-X, Woburn,
MA.
The problem of potential health
hazards associated with lead (Pb) in pre1978 structures and their immediate
environs, as well as buildings or
recreational areas in the vicinity of Pbproducing activity, such as heavy traffic,
land fills, munitions sites, or industries
that use and/or emit Pb, is well
established. The presence of
bioavailable Pb in flaking paint, dust,
and the nearby soil of buildings
occupied by young children is of utmost
concern. Legally regulated limits of Pb
on these sites vary from country to
country, city to city, district to district.
Laboratories are well equipped with
wet chemical and advanced
instrumentation to detect Pb at PPM, %
by weight or mg/cm2 levels to confirm
legal regulatory compliance. However,
the efficacy of highly accurate and
precise lab results is limited by the
optimal “sampling” of the site.
Additionally, lab analyses are not
immediate and tend to be expensive
and time-consuming. Consequently,
there is a need for immediate
determinations of potentially
dangerous levels of Pb as well as for
rapid, optimal sampling for
supplementary lab analyses. A
resolution to this challenge is the use of
Handheld XRF, a field tool that can
immediately detect Pb, as well as Hg, As,
Cd, Cr and other hazardous metals, at
PPM, % weight or mg/cm2 levels on site
without damaging or compromising the
property. Should supplementary lab
analysis be required, Handheld XRF can
be use to optimize the sampling of paint
chips, dust and soils at the property.
Worldwide examples showing the
results of Handheld XRF for immediate,
on-site determinations of the presence
of dangerous levels of Pb and optimal
sampling for subsequent lab analyses
will be presented. Additionally, lessons
learned on the benefits and limitations
of this technique will be discussed.
100
PS 403
Mold
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-14 - PS 403-16
PS 403-14
Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen
Screen: A New Method for Rapid
Assessment of Mould-affected
Medical Facilities
J. Scott, R. Summerbell, M. Saleh,
Sporometrics, Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada.
Situation/problem: Medical facilities
may experience significant moisture
problems. Indoor mould species
growing in affected sites may be
opportunistic pathogens affecting
immunocompromised patients but
normally harmless to
immunocompetent persons. Circa 40
well-documented opportunistic
pathogen species may grow in such
sites, including Aspergillus, Rhizopus,
and Fusarium species. After affected
rooms have been remediated, they must
be formally cleared as being free of
airborne propagules of opportunistic
fungi. Room availability for patients is
limited, and prompt clearance is
desirable. Culturing for opportunists
traditionally requires 5-10 d. Resolution:
Preliminary studies suggested that all
significant opportunistic mould fungi
are detectable, and almost all are
identifiable, after 48-hr growth at 37 C
on Sabouraud glucose agar (SAB). This
observation was supported by stock
culture trials for 8 different opportunist
species. Subsequently, 248 fieldcollected samples were tested. They
consisted of SAB plates exposed 7 min in
a 1-stage Anderson air sampler in a wide
range of pre- or post-remediation waterdamaged rooms in medical facilities.
Plates were examined after 48 hr at 37 C
and cultures were identified; plates
were then further incubated 5 days to
ensure complete outgrowth and
cultures were again identified. Results:
The field samples yielded 47 plates rated
as true positive (opportunistic fungi
present and correctly identified at 48 h),
197 rated as true negative (no fungi
grown) and 4 rated as false negative
(opportunists present, not identified at
48 h). The false-negative tests involved
slow-growing Paecilomyces colonies.
Sensitivity of the test was 92%;
specificity was 100%; positive predictive
value was 91%. No negative plates later
grew an opportunist. Lessons learned:
All negatives and over 90% of positives
are definitively declared by the 48 h
opportunistic fungal pathogen screen.
One low-priority group of weak
opportunists, Paecilomyces, required
longer incubation. The rapid test greatly
facilitates prompt room clearance
decisions.
PS 403-15
Fungal Habitat and Physiology. A
Focused Approach to the
Investigation of a Strange Fungal
Contamination: Herpotrichiellaceae
in a Production Process
K. White, Sporometrics, Toronto, ON,
Canada; R. Summerbell, University of
Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Situation/Problem: Members of the
fungal family Herpotrichiellaceae
Exophiala, Cladophialophora,
Phialophora were identified through
DNA analysis in a contaminated
consumer product. Some
Herpotrichiellaceae are medically
important. Rapid identification of the
source of contamination was required. A
site visit and air sampling were
requested by the client.
Resolution: Knowledge of the habitat
and physiology of these fungi was key in
designing a sampling program
appropriate for locating them. First,
more often than any other fungal group,
members of the Herpotrichiellaceae
have been reported from environments
that are rich in aromatic compounds or
alkanes. Secondly, members of the
Herpotrichiellaceae are not common
airborne fungi and their presence
generally does not signal air
sedimentation or dust exposure. Based
on this knowledge, prior to possible use
of air sampling, swab samples were
collected in areas where
Herpotrichiellaceae were most likely to
proliferate, with emphasis on areas
exhibiting evidence of hydrocarbons
conducive to growth (e.g., grease,
lubricating oils). Numerous colonies
grown from swabs were
morphologically compatible with the
Herpotrichiellaceae in gross and
microscopic examination. These were
sequenced at the ribosomal internal
transcribed spacer DNA region. Colonies
from a cooling water sample collected
from the production line were similarly
analysed. Results: Herpotrichiellaceous
species were confirmed in DNA
sequences of the cooling water fungi
and of fungi from two swab samples
collected in places where evidence of
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
hydrocarbons was observed on the
water-cooling equipment. An ideal
habitat for growth of
Herpotrichiellaceous fungi was
produced in and around the cooling
water. Review of the production process
confirmed a pathway of contamination
from this water to the end product.
Lessons Learned: Knowledge of the
habitat and physiology of the fungi of
concern enabled the design of a focused
sampling program to locate the fungal
amplification; air sampling was
considered unnecessary.
mitigated based on the results of postremediation verification testing prior to
re-occupancy. Lessons learned: By the
use of an effective mold assessment and
remediation design along with
remediation phase oversight and the
diligent review of laboratory results, the
public health hazards were
expeditiously eliminated.
PS 403-16
Mold Assessment and Remediation
in a Public Housing Complex in New
Haven, Connecticut
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon
Papers PS 403-17 – PS 403-21
L. Cannon, N. Santore, I. Nambiar, B.
Silverman, EnviroMed Services, Inc.,
Meriden, CT.
Situation/problem: EnviroMed
Services, Inc. was retained by the
Housing Authority of the City of New
Haven, Connecticut (HANH) to resolve
an issue with mold growth that was
posing a health risk to occupants of
Ribicoff Cottages, a housing complex for
the elderly. In August, 2009, inspection
work began in the housing units to
determine the extent of the fungal
growth and the health risks to the
residents. Twenty-one different fungal
genera were detected through air and
surface lift sampling. It was determined
that 41 housing units would need
remediation and that residents would
need to be relocated during this
process. Resolution: By October 2009,
enough data had been compiled to
generate a full remediation
specification. This specification defined
the standard of cleanliness for reoccupancy and detailed the steps
necessary to successfully rectify the
health risks and fully remediate the
units to prevent future mold
contamination. After remediation, air
testing and surface sampling were
conducted to detect the presence and
extent of any remaining fungal spores.
Detection of toxigenic fungi or the
amplified presence of any particular
genus indicated that further
remediation work should be performed.
Results: Remediation work began in
April 2010. Working with HANH and the
mold remediation contractor that had
been retained, EnviroMed oversaw the
remediation process and enforced
remediation steps outlined in the
specification. The health hazard in the
housing units was successfully
PS 403
Sampling and Analysis
PS 403-17
Sampling and Analysis of Airborne
Trichloramine in Indoor Swimming
Pools
T. Chu, S. Tsai, National Taiwan
University, Taipei, Taiwan; S. Cheng,
Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan,
Taipei, Taiwan.
Objective: In swimming pools, visitors
can contribute various kinds of organic
nitrogen, such as sweat, or skin
particles, which would react with
chlorine to form trichloramine. It has
been observed that the exposures of
highly-volatile trichloramine might
cause acute and chronic health effects
in both children and adults. In this
research, the concentrations of
trichloramine in indoor swimming pools
in Taipei were determined, while the
respiratory irritation symptoms among
pool workers were also investigated.
Methods: The air sampler for
trichloramine was composed with a 6
mL cartridge tube and a 37mm cassette.
Silica gel coated with sulfamic acid in
the cartridge tube was functioned to
trap interferences, including chlorine,
hypochlorite, monochloramine and
dichloramine. To measure trichloramine,
two quartz fiber filters coated with
diarsenic trioxide and sodium
carbonate were placed in the cassette.
During sampling, the air flow rate was
1L/min. After sampling, the silica gel
was desorbed by sulfamic acid, acetate
buffer and potassium iodide, and the
resulted total chlorine concentration
was determined by the pocket
colorimeter. Besides, the quartz filters
were desorbed by twice-distilled water,
and the chloride ion reduced from
trichloramine was analyzed by ion
chromatography. Pool workers were
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
asked to complete a questionnaire
concerning workplace information as
well as work-related symptoms. Results:
The concentrations of trichloramine
found in this study ranged from
0.019~0.06 mg/m3, while the
concentration of total chlorine in air
ranged from .005~0.18mg/m3. Irritation
symptoms were observed among pool
workers with the prevalence of 21% for
eye irritation, 16 % for cough, and 26%
for sore throat. Conclusions: Compared
with other published data, the
concentrations of trichloramine in this
study were relatively low. However,
work-related irritation symptoms still
occurred. A ventilation system which
can provide adequate air movement is
crucial to maintain the air quality in
indoor swimming pool
PS 403-18
Analytical Methods for
Determination of Compliance with
OEL Values Established in Poland in
2009-10
J. Gromiec, S. Brzeznicki, W.
Wesolowski, M. Kucharska, Nofer
Institute of Occupational Medicine,
Lodz, Poland.
Objective: In Poland occupational
exposure limits are called maximum
admissible concentrations (MAC) and
are published by the Minister of Labour
and Social Policy (based on documented
proposals from the Interdepartmental
Commission for MACs for Agents
Harmful to Health in the Work
Environment) and are legally binding.
There is a practice that no MAC values
are published unless the appropriate
analytical method is available enabling
determination of compliance. The
objective of the project was to develop
analytical methods for benzoyl chloride,
1,2-dibromoethane, o-toluidine, bis(2methoxyethyl) ether, and butynediol,
introduced to the MAC list or revised in
2009-2010. Methods: Parameters of air
sample collection (selection of proper
collecting media, air volume, sampling
rate, desorption efficiency) and
analytical conditions were investigated.
Validation parameters, required
according to the European standard EN
482:2006 such as limit of detection,
analytical range, precision, specificity
and expanded uncertainty were also
determined. Gas chromatography was
used in analysis of benzoyl chloride, 1,2dibromoethane, and bis(2methoxyethyl) ether. o-Toluidine and
butynediol were analyzed by high
performance liquid chromatography
101
(HPLC). Results: Five analytical methods,
meeting the criteria of EN 482:2006 were
elaborated. The limits of determination
are, in mg/m3, 0.1 for benzoyl chloride,
0.01for dibromoethane, 1 for bis(2methoxyethyl) ether, 0.04 for o-toluidine
and 0.1 for butynediol; expanded
uncertainty of the developed methods
is much better than ± 30%. Conclusions:
The developed methods were presented
in the form of analytical procedures
meeting the requirements of the Polish
Standardization Committee for the
national standards. The methods, as
specific and selective in presence of
other substances expected in the same
work environment enable evaluation of
occupational exposure to the
compounds newly introduced to the
MAC list
PS 403-19
The Discrimination of Asbestos
Fibers from Other Fibers on
Collected Air Filters
L. Monteith, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA.
Objective: The NIOSH 7400 Analytical
Method for Asbestos and Other Fibers
has been modified to provide a
procedure for distinguishing and
estimating the quantity of asbestos
fibers from the other types of fibers.
Method: The NIOSH method collects air
samples on filters, mounts and clarifies
wedge sections of the filters on
microscope slides and counts the fibers
by phase contrast microscopy. The
method reports all counted fibers with
no differentiation for fiber type. This
modified method differentiates fiber
types by electrostatic properties of
asbestos fibers. The cut filter wedges
are clarified with the acetone vapors
while an electrical potential is applied
to electrodes attached to opposite ends
of the wedge on the microscope slide.
Most electrostatic asbestos fibers,
except for fibers that are embedded too
deeply into the filter, will align
themselves with the electrical field and
are then sealed in place. During the
counting, two counts are recorded per
graticle field: one count for the fibers
predominantly aligned with the
electrical field and one count for fibers
not aligned. In addition, two similar
wedges per filter were mounted: one
using the electrode field and the other
not. The total counts for each mount
were compared. Results: Wedges from
filters from AIHA-PAT rounds were
mounted by the two methods. The
count data showed that the majority of
102
the fibers did align with the electric
field and their counts were much higher
for the aligned fibers; whereas, wedges
by the unmodified method gave nearly
equal counts. The total counts for the
differently mounted wedges were
similar and within PAT limits.
Conclusion: The modified method helps
to evaluate the asbestos fiber
concentration in air in the presence of
non-electrostatic fibers. Comparing the
aligned fiber count and the total count
estimates the relative amounts of
asbestos fibers to the total fibers
PS 403-20
The Stability of Sulfur Compounds,
Low Molecular Weight Gases and
VOCs in Four Air Sample Bag
Materials
C. Kuhlman, L. Coyne, SKC, Inc., Eighty
Four, PA.
Air sampling bags are used for health
and safety applications including
emission testing, indoor air studies, and
soil gas sampling. Bags are a costeffective tool for collection and storage
of single or multiple-component air
samples. It is critical, however, to
choose a bag material that offers low
backgrounds and acceptable storage
stability for target compounds. Tedlar®
film bags have been the industry
standard for years. However, in March
2009, DuPont announced a plan to
“phase out support” for Tedlar® film in
this market. The objective of this paper
is to investigate the suitability of new
bag materials for the collection and
storage of target compounds. Bags
made of four different films were
compared: FluoroFilm, SamplePro®
FlexFilm, FlexFoil®, and Kynar®. Sulfur
compounds, VOCs, methane, carbon
monoxide, and carbon dioxide were
studied. In the study method, the
background levels of the bags were
tested by filling the bags with clean air
and then analyzing the contents by gas
chromatography with mass
spectrometry. Storage stability for each
bag material was studied by generating
a known concentration and analyzing
each bag by a suitable analytical
method daily for three days. Results
from this study show FlexFoil® is a
superior material for sampling sulfur
compounds with > 80% recovery after
two days for 16 out of 20 sulfur
compounds evaluated. When sampling
VOCs or low molecular weight
compounds, FlexFilm and Kynar®
performed well with recoveries > 85%
after two days for most compounds. In
conclusion, this study shows that new
bag materials are commercially
available that provide overall
performance equivalent to or better
than the previous industry standard of
Tedlar®. Low background and storage
stability of ≥ 3 days for many chemicals
were documented in these new films.
Users will need to closely review
available data to choose the best bag
material for specific applications
PS 403-21
The Development and Validation of
a Diffusive Sample with a Variable
Sampling Rate for Long-term
Sampling of VOCs
L. Coyne, C. Kuhlman, SKC, Inc., Eighty
Four, PA.
For vapor intrusion studies, U.S. EPA
has advised that samples of several
days or longer will help to reduce
temporal variability and improve risk
estimates. Passive diffusive samplers
provide a simple option for this
application. Studies have indicated,
however, that reverse diffusion effects
can be a significant source of error. The
objective of this study was to
investigate the effectiveness of a
variable sampling rate diffusive sampler
for long-term sampling of VOCs. The
variable rate sampler employs a snap-on
diffusion cap placed over a
commercially available diffusive badge.
This system reduces reverse diffusion
effects by lowering the overall sampling
rate. The study method involved
exposing the diffusive samplers
containing solid sorbents Carbograph
5TD and Anasorb GCB1 to target VOCs
for 1 to 7 days at test levels from 30 to
120 ppb. The compounds studied were
benzene, trichloroethylene, methylene
chloride, and perchloroethylene. The
diffusion cap lowered the average
sampling rates for benzene,
trichloroethylene, methylene chloride
and perchloroethylene to 0.78, 0.56, 0.9
ml/min and 0.55 mL/min, respectively.
The diffusive sampler employed thermal
desorption which provided low
detection limits even at these lower
sampling rates. The results indicate that
the snap-on diffuser cap did allow for
longer sampling times by reducing the
effects of reverse diffusion. Past studies
for methylene chloride with diffusive
samplers evidenced significant reverse
diffusion effects at 3 days. With the 12hole diffuser cap in place, however,
methylene chloride could be effectively
collected for at least 7 days. Results
were similar for the other compounds
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
studied. In conclusion, a diffusive
sampler with a variable sampling rate
has been developed for exposure
measurements of VOCs. This sampler
has been shown to reduce reverse
diffusion effects when sampling VOCs
over long-term periods up to 7 days.
Poster Session 404
Engineering and Control
Technology
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Papers PS 404-1 - PS 404-5
PS 404-1
Characterizing Ventilation in
Collision Repair Spray Painting
Booths
K. Broadwater, M. Yost, D. Ceballos,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA;
C. Whitaker, Washington State
Department of Labor and Industries,
Olympia, WA.
Objective: Exposure to isocyanates, a
component in automotive paints,
causes sensitization and occupational
asthma in spray painters. The first line
of preventing exposure is the use of
engineering controls, such as adequate
booth ventilation. The objective of this
project is to assess spray booth
ventilation in local collision repair
shops. Methods: Nineteen booths were
evaluated at eleven auto body shops,
including eleven downdraft booths and
eight semi-downdraft booths. A rotating
vane anemometer was used to measure
EFV (exhaust face velocity) as well as
breathing zone velocities, which were
taken at waist-level. Instrument error
was ±20 lfm (linear feet per minute).
Results: Semi-downdrafts had a
significantly (p=0.004) higher mean EVF,
201 lfm, than downdraft booths, 105 lfm.
This is due to smaller exhaust faces in
semi-downdraft booths; the average
exhaust area was 34 ft2 for semidowndraft and 150 ft2 for downdraft
booths. One hundred percent of semidowndraft and 45% downdraft booths
met the NIOSH recommended mean 100
lfm EFV. The mean ACM (air exchanges
per minute) for downdrafts was 3.6,
which is significantly higher (p=0.01)
than that of the semi-downdrafts at 2.3
ACM. The average reported filter age
was 18.5 days for all booths. An average
of 2.5% of semi-downdraft and 26% of
downdraft EFV measurements were
zero lfm. Only one booth, a semidowndraft, met the NIOSH breathing
zone recommendation of 80 lfm. On
average, 38% semi-downdraft and 58%
downdraft breathing zone
measurements were zero lfm.
Conclusions: These data suggest that
while most booths met ventilation
government recommendations, there
are multiple measures that must be
considered to support advice for
improvements or additional
maintenance. Painters should be aware
of dead zones in their booths (zero lfm)
to assure protection while spray
painting. More investigation is needed
to determine the relationship between
maintenance, booth age, filter age and
velocity
PS 404-2
Local Exhaust Ventilation: Excellent
for the Effective Reduction and
Control of Combustible Dust
K. Housman, Liberty Mutual Group,
Birmingham, AL.
Situation/Problem: A quantitative IH
assessment was completed to
determine employee 8-hr TWA
exposures to total particulate during
routine grass seed mixing and bagging
activities. The initial survey determined
employee exposures that were
approximately 2.4 times the OSHA PEL.
However from a risk assessment
standpoint, the accumulation of a
combustible dust on the surrounding
surfaces was considered to be of greater
concern. Resolution: The accumulation
of a combustible dust meant that the
total particulate exposures had to be
reduced through engineering controls.
Management decided to pursue the IH’s
recommendation of installing local
exhaust ventilation (LEV) so to capture
the particulate at the sources as it was
generated; thus reducing employee
exposure, while also reducing the
accumulation of the combustible dust.
In-house staff installed the LEV. The
$9,000 cost included slot ventilation at
the seed dumping area, two back-draft
hoods at the bagging stations, a
cyclone, and all duct work. Results:
Follow-up air monitoring documented
an 80 times reduction in the highest 8-hr
TWA employee exposure. The installed
LEV also adequately reduced the
accumulation of combustible dust in
the area. Lesson Learned: The NCCI
estimates that the average cost of an
occupational disease injury claim is
$58,422 (in direct and indirect costs);
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
thus the cost savings and return on the
investment for implementation of these
controls would already be significant. If
we examine both the direct and indirect
costs associated with just one claim, a
company would have to generate an
additional $1,162,640 in sales to recover
these costs. However the cost
associated with a combustible dust
explosion, not even considering the
possibility of the lost of life, would be
even greater. Based on this information,
it is easy to see the value in the
installation of LEV as a control method
in this specific case and for the
associated employee exposures
PS 404-3
Resolution of Halovision Cases by
Substitution of Reactive Amines in a
Poly Urethane Foaming Industry
J. Jang, J. Shin, OSHTI for KOSHA,
Incheon, Republic of Korea; N. Lee, H.
Park, J. Kwoon, K. Chung, OSHRI for
KOSHA, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Situation/problem: There happened
eye-related complaints in a urethane
forming industry during a summer
season. Symptoms included blurred
eyes, narrow sight, dry eyes, eye
redness, difficulty in eye focusing.
Nearly 80% of workers in a newly
expanded process with a mezzanine to
remove burs and to fill up crack holes
for foam products suffered from the eye
disturbance. The employer introduced a
new local ventilation system with little
effect. Resolution: One NIOSH HHE
report pointed out organic amines for
halovision suspects. Several catalyst
amines were detected in a raw chemical
named Polyol then. The air
concentrations of triethylamine (TEA),
triethylenediamine (TEDA), tetramethyl
hexanediamine (TMHDA), TDI, MDI,
formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,
propionaldehyde were ND, 0.060 ppm,
0.070 ppm, 0.024 ppm, 0.011 ppm,
0.0016ppm, 0.209 ppb and ND for 2 days
consecutive area monitoring,
respectively. The TLV for TEA, TDI, MDI,
formaldehyde acetaldehyde are 2 ppm,
5 ppb, 5 ppb, 0.5 ppm and 50 ppm
respectively. TEDA, TMHDE and
propionaldehyde do not have TLV yet.
Results: As the concentrations of
isocyanates and aldehydes were low
compare to TLVs, TEA and MDI were not
detected, and TEDA and TMHDE has no
OELs, we just could not recommend to
renovate the local ventilation system.
Polyol chemical supplier and employer
discussed the issue for months and
decided to change amines from non-
103
reactive to reactive ones. Reactive
amines combine to PU during chemical
reaction of TDI/MDI with Polyol. After
the substitution of old Polyol, the areas
were monitored again. The
concentrations of amines and
aldehydes were reduced by 60-85%. Next
summer halovsion among workers
reduced to less than 20%. Lessons
learned: Organic amines could cause eye
disturbance at low concentrations.
Aldehydes and TDI may generate
synergistic effects on eyes. OELs for
TEDA and TMHDA might be less than 50
ppb to preventing halovision among PU
forming workers
PS 404-4
Crystalline Silica Exposure During
Trenching Activities
S. Al Rawahi, Petroluem Development
Oman, Muscat, Oman.
Situation/problem: Full assessment
was undertaken to assess the exposure
of the inhalable dust, respirable dust
and crystalline silica concentration.
Resolution: Ten inhalable dust samples
and eighteen respirable dust samples
were taking by personal air monitoring
using GLA 5000 PVC filters. Crystalline
silica content was measured in eight of
the collected respirable dust samples in
the filters by using XRD to examine the
potential heath hazard from the silica.
Results: The result showed average
exposure was below the Occupation
Exposure limit (OEL) for crystalline
silica. However, exposure to inhalable
and respirable dust are above the OEL.
Lessons learned: The study
recommended that the conveyor belt
design should be covered and lowered
downward to decrease the generation
of the dust
PS 404-5
Unexpected Cadmium and
Beryllium Dust Exposures from
Hand Grinding on Aircraft Parts - A
Case Study
D. Weber, Liberty Mutual Insurance,
Glastonbury, CT.
Situation/Problem: Certain aviation
parts require the removal of serial
numbers to eliminate identifiable or
distinguishing characteristics before
the parts are sent for scrap metal
processing. Because the aviation parts
are “scrap” from a variety of sources,
MSDSs are not readily available. Manual
grinding of serial numbers off aviation
parts was employed to accomplish this
task. In the grinding process one manual
grinder operator and the grinding
104
helper were exposed to excessively high
airborne concentrations of cadmium
and beryllium. Excessive cadmium
exposure has been linked to kidney
damage. Excessive beryllium exposure
has been linked to sensitization and
berylliosis. Sampling revealed
exposures that could represent acute as
well as chronic health hazards. The
grinder operator’s cadmium exposure
was 100 times the OSHA PEL and the
beryllium exposure was 50 times the
OSHA PEL. The helper’s cadmium
exposure was 4 times the PEL with the
beryllium exposure approximating the
PEL. Worker protection was limited to
Tyvek® suits, gloves, eye protection and
NIOSH approved N95 filtering
facepieces. Industrial hygiene
recommendations emphasized the need
for management to act expeditiously to
reduce/eliminate these exposures
following the hierarchy of control
methods. Resolution: Management
actions included ceasing all grinding
operations until decisions were made
regarding the feasibility of continuing
the grinding operation with appropriate
engineering and personal protective
equipment and comprehensive program
controls. Simultaneously, management
investigated suitable alternative means
of disguising the serial numbers
without the use of abrasive grinding. An
acceptable means of covering the serial
numbers with a masking compound was
identified and adopted, eliminating the
grinding operation. Results: Cadmium
and beryllium exposures were
eliminated. Lessons Learned: In the
absence of MSDSs, efforts should be
made to test aviation parts to
determine their composition prior to
grinding. As grinding produces
significant airborne dust, alternative
means of disfiguring distinguishing
characteristics such as serial numbers
should be explored.
PS 404
Nanotechnology
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Papers PS 404-6 - PS 404-11
PS 404-6
Safe Practices for Working with
Engineered Nanomaterials in
Research Laboratories
Ellenbecker, University of
Massachusetts, Lowell, MA.
Situation/Problem: The past decade
has shown an intense increase in the
incorporation of nanotechnology in
various industries. While nanomaterials
present seemingly limitless
possibilities, they bring challenges to
understanding, predicting, and
managing potential safety and health
risks to workers. As with any new
technology, the earliest exposures will
be to workers conducting research in
laboratories and pilot plants.
Resolution: A guidance document to
provide the best available information
on engineering controls and safe work
practices is being created. The
document is for working with
engineered nanomaterials in research
laboratories, and contains
recommendations for risk management
and exposure control of nanomaterials,
a description of engineering controls
used in research laboratories, and
guidance on developing a control
scheme. Results: Potential exposures to
engineered nanomaterials can be
controlled in research laboratories
though the use of a risk management
program that includes education,
standard handling procedures,
engineering and administrative
controls, and the use of personal
protective equipment. Although
standard safe practices for research
laboratories should be utilized, due to
the unique properties of nanomaterials,
such as the high surface to volume ratio
and ease of dispersion or
agglomeration, additional precautions
should be incorporated. Lessons
Learned: Working with nanomaterial
powders in fume hoods pose
complications due to the nature of the
material. Total containment of the
material, in devices such as a glove box,
has proven efficiency against
nanomaterial exposure. However, not
all research processes can be carried out
in such devices. When comparing the
efficiency of the conventional/constantflow fume hood, laboratory by-pass
hood, and the constant-velocity hood,
researchers at UMass Lowell
determined nanoparticle release was
greatest when using the constant-flow
hood. Considerable research is being
dedicated by UML to lower flow fume
hoods and powder handling enclosures
which may offer improved performance
when handling nanomaterials
C. Beaucham, C. Geraci, L. Hodson,
NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH; S. Tsai, M.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PS 404-7
Integration and Analysis of Existing
Information Available for Building
REACH-Compatible Exposure
Scenarios for Nanomaterials
K. Clark, M. Riediker, Institute for
Work and Health, Lausanne,
Switzerland; M. Van Tongeren, Institute
of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh,
United Kingdom; &. NANEX Consortium,
EU FP7 Project, European Union,
Belgium.
Objective: The goal of the NANEX
project was to develop a catalog of
generic and specific REACH-compatible
exposure scenarios covering the life
cycle of nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, and carbon
nanotubes. Methods: Leading scientists
from eleven partner institutions in
Europe compiled exposure information
from a variety of sources (published
literature, internal occupational
hygiene studies, exposure estimation
models and data collected by industry
partners) to develop exposure scenarios
in a format required by the European
REACH regulations for certain
substances. The information used was
evaluated for completeness, quality,
and relevance to building exposure
scenarios using a systematic approach,
and the process of building the
exposure scenarios and the utility of the
exposure scenarios themselves were
evaluated. Results: Over 75% of the
literature studies reviewed contained
quantitative exposure information
associated with primary manufacture of
nanomaterials, and very little exposure
information was found on downstream
users of nanomaterials. In addition,
significantly more information was
available on laboratory scale processes
than industrial scale processes.
Ultimately, over 60 occupational
exposure scenarios were developed,
including over 10 from industry, 34 from
sampling campaigns in Europe, and 23
from publicly available information.
Each was highly specific, as it was not
possible to build generic exposure
scenarios. Conclusions: There are
several challenges to building exposure
scenarios for nanomaterials in a REACHcompatible format, primarily due to
poor understanding of the information
required in the exposure scenarios, the
current inability to generalize data from
one situation to another, challenges in
interpreting nanomaterial exposure
data, and the lack of information on
exposure to nanomaterials in a variety
of settings
PS 404-8
Engineering Control
Recommendations for
Nanomaterials
J. McKernan, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH;
C. Geraci, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH; M.
Ellenbecker, K. Dunn, S. Tsai, University
of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA.
Situation/problem: Nanomaterials are
intentionally produced materials with a
minimum of one dimension between 1
and 100 nanometers. Nanomaterials
may exhibit unique physical and
chemical properties, and impart
products that contain them with
specific characteristics. As the safety
and health community attempts to
manage the potential risks associated
with nanomaterials, significant
challenges exist. There is a growing
body of evidence that have raised
concern over potential health effects of
nanomaterials. Until the results from
additional biological studies
quantitatively characterize the effects
from nanomaterial exposures,
precautionary measures are warranted.
Since there are no occupational
exposure limits established by OSHA,
NIOSH, or ACGIH it is important to
investigate engineering control
techniques that can mitigate exposure
and potential effects. Resolution: Given
the issues surrounding the toxicology of
nanomaterials, several agencies and
private entities are recommending
proactive and protective precautionary
measures be implemented to manage
potential risks. The hierarchy of controls
should be the foundation of a
precautionary approach to
nanomaterials. If substitution is not
feasible for nanomaterials, it has been
shown that ventilation controls can
effectively control airborne releases.
However, such systems must be
selected with care, and used with
tailored administrative controls to be
successful. Results: A control banding
technique is recommended to select
ventilation controls for nanomaterials.
This technique is based on knowledge of
both engineering and administrative
controls, and provides a decision logic
for selecting from six types of
applicable controls. Lessons learned:
Best practice engineering controls, such
as those recommended by NIOSH and
professional organizations such as
ACGIH, AIHA, ASHRAE, and those from
private entities should be developed
and tailored for processes. Control
techniques recommended by
government, professional
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
organizations, and industry that are
applicable to nanomaterials will be
discussed, and a control banding
technique providing decision logic for
selecting from six different types of
controls will be provided
PS 404-9
Assessment of Nanoparticles and
Worker Hazards: ChemicalMechanical Planarization in
Semiconductor Wafer Production
M. Shepard, H. Morgan, S. Brenner,
University at Albany, Albany, NY.
Situation/problem: Use of engineered
nanoparticles in the “chemicalmechanical planarization” (CMP)
process for semiconductor wafer
production is widespread in
semiconductor research, development,
and manufacturing. CMP is utilized
multiple times in the integrated chip
fabrication process to planarize the
interconnection lines used to ‘wire’ the
hundreds of millions of transistors on a
modern ‘chip’. Currently, there are no
published occupational health and
safety evaluations of potential worker
exposure to engineered nanoparticles
during, or resulting from, CMP tool
operation and/or maintenance.
Additional data is necessary on the
hazards of the CMP process, controls
currently in use, and best practices.
Resolution: Potential worker exposure
to engineered nanoparticles and other
hazards during CMP operations and tool
maintenance was assessed during
research and development activities
conducted at a nanotech complex
cohabited by university researchers and
nanoelectronic chip manufacturers. This
project used a phased approach to
evaluate the CMP process and potential
sources of worker exposures, construct
similar exposure groups, conduct job
hazard analyses, and characterize
particle physiochemical parameters
(shape, size, surface characteristics, etc.)
and airborne concentrations. This
collaborative project involved an
interdisciplinary team of academic
researchers, site EHS, chip
manufacturers, waste handlers,
companies that manufacture, operate
or maintain CMP equipment and
materials, and NIOSH. Results: This
study identified exposure categories
and job tasks where workers may be
exposed to engineered nanoparticles
during the slurry mixing and
distribution process, CMP tool
operation, and equipment maintenance
tasks, and provided additional data on
105
particle characteristics. Lessons
Learned: These results were applied
locally in selecting and implementing
control measures, and more generally in
determining best practices for reducing
nanoparticle exposures during the CMP
process
PS 404-10
A Critical Evaluation of Past and
Present Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDSs) for Engineered
Nanomaterials
C. Crawford, L. Hodson, C. Geraci,
NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.
Situation/problem: Materials Safety
Data Sheets (MSDSs) provide employers,
employees, emergency responders, and
the general public with basic
information about the hazards
associated with chemicals that are used
in the workplace. They are a primary
information resource used by health,
safety, and environmental professionals
in communicating the hazards of
chemicals and in making risk
management decisions. Engineered
nanomaterials represent a growing
class of materials being manufactured
and introduced into multiple business
sectors. Current research and
toxicological evidence suggests that
engineered nanomaterials behave
differently than the micro scale version
of the same material. Despite the recent
flood of information conveying the
difference in hazard potential between
micro and nanomaterial, manufacturers
are still failing to communicate this
concern to the users. Resolution: NIOSH
previously compared 60 MSDSs from 33
manufacturers in 2007-8 and concluded
that the overwhelming majority of
MSDSs were inadequate in conveying
the potential hazards of the engineered
nanomaterial. NIOSH obtained 2010
copies of these MSDSs to compare and
determine if manufacturers have made
improvements to the information listed
in the MSDSs. Results: Although there
was some improvement by a few
manufacturers, the majority of the
updated MSDSs remained unchanged. A
small number of manufacturers did
include updated toxicological
information, notations that the
characteristics of nanoparticles may be
different from those of the larger
particles, and updated PPE
recommendations. Lessons learned:
Although currently there are no
occupational exposure limits specific to
engineered nanomaterials, there have
been several toxicological studies of
106
nanomaterials published in the last 3
years suggesting that nanomaterials
may be more toxic than the micro scale
version of the same material. Current
research suggests that the
characteristics of nanoparticles are
often different from those of the larger
particles with the same chemical
composition, and it is of paramount
importance that this is effectively
communicated by manufacturers on the
MSDS
PS 404-11
Dustiness of Nanomaterials
D. Evans, L. Turkevich, NIOSH,
Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: Global nanomaterial
production is significantly increasing.
Inhalation exposure poses potential
adverse health effects. High volume
production increases the exposure risk
for workers that handle these materials.
Dustiness can be a major determinant
of worker exposure to powdered
materials. Methods: A novel dustiness
tester, originally developed for the
pharmaceutical industry, was applied to
testing of a range of fine and nanoscale
powdered materials. Dispersed powders
were evaluated according to total and
respirable mass using a closed face
cassette and respirable cyclone within
the fully enclosed chamber. Results:
Materials tested included carbon
nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon
blacks, metal oxides and silicas.
Dustiness values, in terms of both total
and respirable mass, spanned
approximately two orders of
magnitude. A high respirable mass
content was found for many of the
powders studied. Conclusions: With
dustiness a major determinant of
exposure, the potential for workplace
exposure may range by two orders of
magnitude from least dusty to most
dusty material. The significant
respirable content of these powders
highlights that care should be exercised
in the handling and transfer of these
materials in the workplace. Exposure
control strategies should be most
focused on those materials that may be
easily aerosolized.
PS 404
Occupational
Epidemiology
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Paper PS 404-12
PS 404-12
Study on Work-related Fatigue and
Stress of University Faculties- A
Private Technological University
C. Tsai, M. Chen, J. Shieh, Chung Hwa
University of Medical Technology,
Tainan County, Taiwan; I. Mao, Chung
Shan Medical University, Taichung City,
Taiwan.
Objective: The purposes of this study
are to explore the university faculties’
self-report fatigue symptoms, eye
muscle fatigue symptoms, work stress
and physical fatigue loading conditions.
Methods: This research randomly
selected 90 faculties from a private
technological university in southern
Taiwan, including 30 working as
“teacher with administrative position,”
30 as “teacher only,” and 30 as
“administrative staff only,” respectively.
Tests were given before and after work,
including the physiological
measurement and questionnaires.
Questionnaires included “self-report
fatigue symptoms,” “eye muscle fatigue
symptoms” and “work stress survey”;
physiological measurement included
“heart rate,” “blood pressure,” “critical
flicker fusion,” “reaction bar” and “pinch
strength.” Results: The self-report
symptoms in “teacher with
administrative position” and
“administrative staff only” indicated the
incidence of the “eye fatigue” as the
highest after work (both 40.0%),
“teacher only” indicated “thirsty” as the
highest after work (26.7%), both fatigue
types belonging to “general work type”;
eye muscle fatigue symptom after work
had the highest incidence rate in “dry
eyes” (26.7%~33.3%). In work pressure,
the three groups all get the scores
higher than the standard of 2.5 in all
items of the mental load, which could
be the potential work pressure source.
Physiological measurement showed
that the three groups after work, except
that “blood pressure” was upper; other
physiological measurements showed
negative values; the values of “critical
flicker fusion,” “reaction bar” and “pinch
strength” after work were significantly
worse (P< 0.05), with “teacher with
administrative position” the most
obvious. Conclusions: University faculty
work is clearly causing eye fatigue,
shoulder stiffness and dry mouth
symptoms, the main reason being the
prolonged computer operation and
instruction. The work pressure was
mainly from the mental load. Fatigue
after work is most obvious in the
“teacher with administrative position.”
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
PS 404
Personal Protective
Clothing and Equipment
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Paper PS 404-13
PS 404-13
Use of a Robotic Sprayer and
Permeation Panel to Evaluate Glove
Efficacy Against Isocyanates
D. Ceballos, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH; M.
Yost, K. Broadwater, R. Crampton,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA;
M. Millbauer, Green River Community
College, Auburn, WA.
Introduction: A robotic sprayer and
permeation panel set up is an
alternative method developed to
measure permeation of protective
materials under spray-painting
conditions -sprayed gloves represent
worst-case exposure scenario. There is
insufficient hexamethylene
diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone
diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer and
oligomer permeation data to choose
appropriate gloves. Methods: Each
panel is made of eight modified
permeation cells that measure
permeation through gloves using 1-(2pyridyl)-piperazine (PPZ) coated glassfiber filters analyzed by method OSHA
42/PV2034 (modified to measure both
monomer and oligomers), and six Teflon
filters that assess homogeneity of the
dry paint loading across the panel by
gravimetric analysis. Total isocyanate
permeation rate (PR) and breakthrough
time (BT) were measured at 70F within 3
hr using clear coat and gloves that are
common in the automotive repair
industry including: thin latex (5mil), thin
nitrile brand A and B (5mil), thin
nitrile/latex (5mil), medium nitrile (6mil),
thick latex (14mil). Results: The panels
had an average loading of 20.4mg of dry
clear coat per 1-inch diameter circle,
with a homogeneity of 1.1-12.6% CV with
a mean of 5.8% CV. Thin latex resulted in
1.41E-4 ug/cm^2-min PR and immediate
BT, thin Nitrile A resulted in 2.69E-6
ug/cm^2-min PR and 48 min BT, thin
nitrile B resulted in 3.33E-5 ug/cm^2-min
PR and 36 min BT, thin latex/nitrile
resulted in 1.89E-5 ug/cm^2-min PR and
immediate BT, medium nitrile had no
permeation, and thick latex resulted in
3.45E-5 ug/cm^2-min PR with immediate
BT. Conclusions: Using the robotic
sprayer provides better homogeneity
(5.8%CV) of the panels coating than
manual spraying (13% CV). Popular thin
(5mil) and thick (14mil) latex gloves used
in the collision repair industry are not
protecting workers by allowing
immediate permeation upon contact
with clear coatings. We recommend
using medium to thick nitrile (6-8mil) to
ensure protection.
PS 404
Respiratory Protection
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Papers PS 404-14 - PS 404-15
PS 404-14
Evaluation of the Benefit of the User
Seal Check on N95 Filtering
Facepiece Respirator Fit: A Pilot
Study
D. Viscusi, Z. Zhuang, R. Shaffer,
NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA; M. Bergman, URS
Corp., Pittsburgh, PA.
Objective: The objective of this study
was to better understand the benefit of
the user seal check (USC) step in the N95
filtering facepiece respirator (FFR)
donning process. Methods: To qualify
for the study, test subjects were
required to pass a standard quantitative
OSHA fit test on at least one of the three
NIOSH-certified N95 FFR models used:
3M 1860 (cup), 3M 1870 (flat-fold), and KC
PFR95-270 (duckbill). Eleven experienced
subjects were enrolled and performed a
series of abbreviated, quantitative fit
tests where they were randomly asked
to either perform or not perform the
USC for 20 different FFR samples of each
qualified model. Results: Arithmetic
mean and geometric mean (GM) fit
factors (FF) and fit test passing rate (%
of times a FF ≥ 100 was achieved for a
donning) were compared for each
subject with and without the USC step
across all models and for each model.
Higher mean FFs and smaller standard
deviation FFs across all models tested
were achieved for 91% of the subjects
when performing a USC compared to
not performing a USC. GM FFs of 148,
184, and 156 compared to 126, 187, and
115 respectively were obtained for the
3M 1860, 3M 1870, and KC PFR95-270
models when the USC was performed
versus not performed. The higher GM
FFs for the 3M 1860 and KC PFR95-270
models reached statistical significance
(p < 0.05) for a two-way analysis of
variance test. Conclusions: These data
suggest there is some benefit to
performing the USC step during the FFR
donning process for workers who have
previously passed a fit test for that
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
respirator model. Additional research is
needed with more diverse groups of
subjects and respirator models / types
to more fully understand the benefit
and limitations of the USC step in the
FFR donning process.
PS 404-15
Physiological Evaluation of Air-Fed
Ensembles During Exercise
N. Turner, J. Powell, D. Novak, E.
Sinkule, A. Shepherd, NIOSH, Pittsburgh,
PA.
The plan for NIOSH certification of airfed ensembles has been proposed;
however, research on the physiologic
burden of wearing air-fed ensembles is
scarce. Objective: The goal of this study
was to evaluate the respiratory and
metabolic stresses of air-fed ensemble
use in wearers during rest, low-, and
moderate-intensity treadmill exercise.
Methods: To date, three male subjects
completed baseline testing to
determine the speed and grade required
to elicit oxygen consumption levels of
1.0 (LOW) and 2.0 L/min (MOD). Subjects
then wore two different air-fed
ensembles (A and B) and one two-piece
air-supplied suit (C) at rest and while
walking for six minutes at each
treadmill setting. Inhaled O2, CO2,
pressure and temperature were
measured continuously breath-bybreath, and tests were to be terminated
if maximum inhaled O2 fell below 19%
or minimum inhaled CO2 rose above 2%.
Results: During rest, maximum inhaled
O2 concentrations were 20.8%, 20.6%,
and 20.6%; minimum inhaled CO2
concentrations were 0.0%, 0.2%, and
0.1%; maximum inhalation pressures
were 1.0 cmH2O, 0.3 cmH2O, and 0.0
cmH2O; and inhalation temperatures
were 25.2°C, 25.1°C, and 23.0°C for
ensemble A, B, and C, respectively.
During LOW, maximum inhaled O2
concentrations were 20.8%, 19.5%, and
19.8%; minimum inhaled CO2
concentrations were 0.4%, 1.0%, and
0.7%; maximum inhalation pressures
were 0.9 cmH2O, 0.0 cmH2O, and -0.2
cmH2O; and inhalation temperatures
were 26.4°C, 26.2°C, and 23.0°C for
ensemble A, B, and C, respectively.
During MOD, maximum inhaled O2
concentrations were 20.3%, 19.5%, and
19.6%; minimum inhaled CO2
concentrations were 0.6%, 1.1%, and
1.0%; maximum inhalation pressures
were 0.5 cmH2O, 0.0 cmH2O, and -0.2
cmH2O; and inhalation temperatures
were 26.7°C, 26.4°C, and 23.4°C for
ensemble A, B, and C, respectively.
107
Conclusions: Preliminary results show
that inhaled O2 is deceased and inhaled
CO2 is elevated in air-fed ensembles
during low- and moderate-intensity
treadmill walking.
PS 404
Risk Assessment
(Management)
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Papers PS 404-16 – PS 404-17
PS 404-16
An Attempt to Assign the Skin
Notation of Chemicals According to
Their Molecular Structure
S. Czerczak, M. Kupczewska Dobecka,
The Nofer Institute of Occupational
Medicine, £ódŸ, Poland.
Objective: Our objectives included
calculating the permeability coefficient
and dermal penetration rates (flux
value) for 112 chemicals with
occupational exposure limits (OELs)
according to the LFER (linear freeenergy relationship) model developed
using published methods. We also
attempted to assign skin notations
based on each chemical’s molecular
structure. Methods: The LFER model is
based on the solvation equation, which
contains five main descriptors predicted
from chemical structure: solute excess
molar refractivity,
dipolarity/polarisability, summation
hydrogen bond acidity and basicity, and
the McGowan characteristic volume.
Descriptor values, available for about
5000 compounds in the Pharma
Algorithms Database were used to
calculate permeability coefficients.
Dermal penetration rate was estimated
as a ratio of permeability coefficient
and concentration of chemical in
saturated aqueous solution. Finally,
estimated dermal penetration rates
were used to assign the skin notation to
chemicals. Defined critical fluxes
defined from the literature were
recommended as reference values for
skin notation. Results: It is feasible to
predict skin notation on the basis of the
LFER and other published models; from
among 112 chemicals 94 (84%) should
have the skin notation in the OEL list
based on the LFER calculations. The skin
notation had been estimated by other
published models for almost 94% of the
chemicals. Twenty-nine (25.8%)
chemicals were identified to have
significant absorption and 65 (58%) the
108
potential for dermal toxicity.
Conclusions: It seems reasonable to
conclude that skin should not be
characterised as a simple lipophilic
barrier alone. Both lipophilic and polar
pathways of permeation exist across
the stratum corneum. We found major
differences between alternative
published analytical models and their
ability to determine whether particular
chemicals were potentially dermotoxic
PS 404-17
Application of an Updated
Methodology for Deriving
Immediately Dangerous to Life or
Health (IDLH) Values
A. Parker, A. Maier, Toxicology
Excellence for Risk Assessment,
Cincinnati, OH; S. Dotson, NIOSH,
Cincinnati, OH.
Objective: NIOSH is updating the
methods used in deriving Immediately
Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)
values. This presentation provides an
analysis of proposed IDLH values
resulting from the application of the
methodology update. Challenging
issues in health effects data
interpretation are highlighted using a
case study approach. Methods: The
analyses presented were performed
through systematic data evaluation
using revised weight of evidence
procedures that are incorporated into
the proposed changes to the IDLH
methods. Key aspects of the method
include more rigorous documentation
of the evaluation of key studies to
identify a point of departure,
application of duration adjustment
procedures, and updated considerations
for uncertainty factor application.
Results: We applied the proposed
methodology to data sets for over 40
chemicals of diverse nature. Thus, a
rigorous testing of the range of issues
likely to be encountered in data
evaluation was conducted. We found
that the methods provide for concise
presentation of conclusions, while
allowing for a transparent approach to
address diverse data sets. For example,
the methods ably address a wide range
of endpoints ranging in severity from
lethality to escape-impairing irritation.
The methods provide clarity in
interpreting the relevance of different
toxicological effects. Data sets from
human experience or animal toxicology
by different routes of exposure are well
accommodated. An updated and
transparent approach is included in the
method to describe the impacts of
uncertainties in extrapolation from
different data sets. Conclusions: The
revised methodology is likely to
generate significant improvements in
the interpretation and robust
application of the IDLH values.
PS 404
Toxicology
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
1:00 p.m.–3:00 p.m.
Paper PS 404-18
PS 404-18
Dose-dependent Responses of
Human Skin to Industrial Solvent
and Mixed Hydrocarbon Exposures
C. Richard, Medical Science Affiliates,
Columbia, MD; P. Lehman, T. Franz,
Cetero Research, Fargo, ND.
Objective: Dermal exposures to
industrial solvents and mixed
hydrocarbons can contribute to total
workplace and environmental
exposures through direct contact with
liquids or vapors. Efforts to determine
the contribution of dermal exposure to
total dose have lead to the development
of various exposure models and
exposure scenarios. Initially, the goal
was to evaluate the contribution of
dermal exposures to total dose.
However, in an effort to be protective
and conservative in these estimates,
some exposure scenarios placed
workers’ hands in contact with
degreasers and other solvent-based
products for eight (8) or more hours
daily. Prior to determining the dermal
contribution to total dose, it was
necessary to address the following
challenges: (1) determine how realistic
were these scenarios, and (2) determine,
if possible, responses of human skin
based on concentration and duration of
exposures. Methods: Reports in the
medical literature (1880s to 2010), OSHA
dockets, and other governmental data
sources were collected, critiqued and
analyzed. Examples were detailed from
the literature. Results: Dose-dependent
human skin responses (in vivo and in
vitro) to several organic solvent
mixtures were defined. Conclusions:
Combining human dose-response data
with information from detailed case
reports and examples from the
literature, provides a foundation for the
development of realistic and upper
bound/conservative exposure
scenarios.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
2nd International
Symposium on Wood Dust
Abstracts: Podium and Poster
WD 501
2nd International
Symposium on Wood
Dust: Health Effects and
Exposure Studies
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
10:00 a.m.–Noon.
Papers WD 501-1 – WD 501-7
WD 501-1
Estimation of Wood Dust Exposure
in Small and Medium-Sized
Companies in Germany
J. Schulze, Berufsgenossenschaft Holz
und Metall, Bielefeld, Germany.
Situation/problem: To estimate the exposure of wood workers in their working areas the Holz-Berufsgenossenschaft (the German woodworking industry’s institution for statutory accident
insurance) is carrying out a wood dust
measurement project in small and
medium-sized companies. Resolution: In
the current German Technical Regulation for Hazardous Substances (TRGS)
553 “wood dust,“ the former substanceand procedure-specific criteria to permanently safeguard compliance with
the OEL were implemented as recommendations. Participating companies
have to comply with the latest and best
technology according to these recommendations in the TRGS 553. Measurements are carried out according to the
European Standard 481 (sampling the inhalable fraction) during a half-shift period. Results: On average, the exposure
of workers in their working areas is
about or just below 2mg/m³. It depends
on whether they are doing all work form
cutting to completion using stationary
and hand-held wood working machinery
with relatively short machine running
times on one hand, or working for instance with a hand-held orbital sander
for some more hours per shift on the
other hand. In the first case wood dust
concentrations were just below 2 mg/m³
in the second concentrations raised
above 2 mg/m³. Long machine running
times for instance at horizontal beam
panel saws, computer numerically controlled routers, hand-held belt or orbital
sanders resulted in a rise of wood dust
concentration in the working area. Lessons learned: The results indicate that
the limit of what technically can be
done has already been reached. The
final option is the reduction of machine
running times by job rotation or the use
of personal protective equipment. In
summary, it can be stated that at the
moment a realistic wood dust concentration (OEL) of 2 mg/m³ for both hardand softwood wood dusts is realizable
in Germany.
WD 501-2
Longitudinal Investigation of
Respiratory Health of Workers
Exposed to Components of
Industrial Wood Processing Dust
R. Rando, L. Freyder, J. Lefante, R.
Jones, H. Glindmeyer, Tulane University,
New Orleans, LA.
Objective: Nonmalignant respiratory effects were examined longitudinally in
industrial workers exposed to wood processing dust. Methods: Ten plants, variously producing lumber, plywood,
millwork, cabinetry, or furniture, provided 1,164 workers for longitudinal investigation. Annual testing over 5 years
included spirometry and respiratory
health/symptom survey. Personal exposures to size fractionated dust were determined with 3,488 Respicon samples
analyzed gravimetrically and the dust
dichotomized into wood solids (WS) and
residual particulate matter (Rp.m.) by infrared spectroscopy. Individual TWA exposures for WS and Rp.m. in each of the
three size fractions were estimated
from job history. Stepwise forward selection multiple linear regression evaluated the effects of the six indices of
exposure on lung function after adjusting for known confounders. Symptom
prevalence was evaluated using 2 test.
Results: WS exposures up to 6.97, 2.65
and 1.16 mg/m3, extrathoracic, tracheo-
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
bronchial and respirable fractions respectively, showed no statistically significant adverse effects on lung
function. Extrathoracic and tracheobronchial Rp.m. also did not adversely
affect lung function; respirable Rp.m. exposure had statistically significant but
different effects in 2 plants. The milling
facility workers exhibited an obstructive effect related to Rp.m. but not to
smoking: mean exposures of 0.147
mg/m3 predicted ΔFEV1, ΔFEV1/FVC, and
ΔFEF25-75 of -32 ml/yr, -0.48%, and -0.11
l/s/yr. This bronchial effect is consistent
with smoking, and may be due to underreporting of smoking. Workers in the
sawmill-planing-plywood facility
showed a restrictive effect: mean exposures of 0.255 mg/m3 predicted ΔFEV1
and ΔFVC of -59 and -103 ml/yr. Additionally, mean baseline FEV1 (90.1% predicted) and FVC (91.8% predicted) were
reduced and pneumonia was significantly more prevalent in this facility.
These findings correlated with observation of extensive microbial overgrowth
on plywood veneers. Conclusions: Exposure to WS in wood processing dust did
not impact respiratory health but respirable Rp.m. was statistically associated with adverse outcomes in 2 of 10
plants.
WD 501-3
Cross-shift Airway Responses and
Long-term Decline in FEV1 Among
Wood Dust Exposed Workers
G. Jacobsen, Herning Hospital,
Herning, Denmark; T. Sigsgaard, V.
Schlünssen, Aarhus University, Aarhus,
Denmark; I. Schaumburg, Aarhus
University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Objective: Acute airway response
among workers exposed to wood dust
may be associated to subsequent
chronic loss of lung function. In six-year
follow-up study of Danish woodworkers
we investigated the relation between
baseline cross-shift change in FEV1 and
longitudinal decline in lung function.
Methods: Pulmonary function was
measured pre- and post-shift at baseline
and at follow-up along with height and
weight in 818 woodworkers and 136
109
controls. ΔFEV1 /workday were
calculated as post-shift minus pre-shift,
ΔFEV1/year as follow-up minus baseline
divided by years. Wood dust exposure
was assessed from 3,572 personal dust
measurements at baseline and followup. Cumulative wood dust exposure was
assessed using a study specific job
exposure matrix (JEM) and exposure
time. Linear regression models were
used to examine the association
between cross-shift change in FEV1 and
annualized change in FEV1 adjusting for
smoking, sex, age, height , change in
weight and baseline or cumulative
wood dust exposure. Results: The
inhalable dust level at baseline GM
(GSD) was 0.93 mg/m3 (2.0). The median
(range) of cumulative wood dust
exposure was 3.8 (0-7.1) mg year/m3.
Mean (SD) ΔFEV1/workday was -0.7 (216)
ml, +15.5 (201) ml for smokers and -11.8
(219) ml for non-smokers. Mean (SD)
ΔFEV1/year was -29.4 (42.4) ml, -35.7 (44)
ml for smokers and -24.3 (210) ml for nonsmokers. Linear regression models
adjusting for smoking, sex, age, height
and changes in weight showed no
association between annualized and
cross shift change in lung function
among woodworkers or controls.
Including baseline or cumulative wood
dust exposure did not change results,
nor did stratifying regression analyses
on sex or smoking or repeating of
analyses using relative changes in lung
function. Conclusion: This study among
workers exposed to low levels of wood
dust does not support an association
between acute and chronic decline in
lung function.
WD 501-4
Cross Shift Lung Function Among
Operators in Wood Pellets
Production
E. Andersson, Sahlgrenska University
Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; H.
Arvidsson, I. Bryngelsson, K. Hagström,
Örebro University Hospital, Örebro,
Sweden; K. Eriksson, University Hospital
of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
Objective: Production of wood pellets
from sawdust of pine and spruce are
increasing. Concern about exposure and
health effects has been raised. The aim
of this study was to study a possible
effect on lung function during a work
shift. Methods: Lung function was
performed with spirometry before and
after a work shift on 41 workers from
four pellet-producing plants in Sweden.
The European Respiratory Society
reference values were used. The cross
110
shift difference has previously been
reported to be significant for forced
vital capacity (FVC, from 108.1% to
106.7%) but not for forced expiratory
volume in 1 second (FEV1, from 104.1%
to 103.6%). The cross shift difference
was related to exposure to inhalable
dust, total dust, diesel exhaust
(nitrogen dioxide was used as a marker)
or resin acids with linear regression. In
addition, the number of peaks above 0.4
and 2.0 mg/m3 for inhalable dust
respectively, time in minutes/hour
above 0.4 and 2.0 mg/m3 respectively. A
peak was defined as the mean exposure
during a 20 second period, and was
measured with a data-logging real-time
aerosol diffusive monitor (DataRa.m.).
Results: There was a statistical
significant (p<0.1) decrease in FVC
associated with the number of peaks
above 2.0 mg/m3 of inhalable dust
during a work shift. Conclusions:
Exposure to peaks above 2.0 mg/m3 of
inhalable dust during a work shift may
cause a decrease in FVC. The wood dust
exposure for operators in wood pellets
production should be reduced,
especially peak exposures for example
during cleaning operations.
WD 501-5
Cumulative Soft Tissue Paper Dust
Exposure and Lung Function Among
Workers.
E. Andersson, G. Sallsten, S. Lohman, F.
Taube, K. Torén, Sahlgrenska University
Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Objective: More dust is generated in the
production of soft tissue paper than in
production of other paper products. Earlier studies on paper dust exposure and
lung function have been inconclusive.
The aim was to study if soft tissue paper
dust is negatively affecting the airways
especially the lung function. Methods:
In a cohort of soft tissue paper mill
workers, 124 male and 74 female current
workers (198/205) at one mill were investigated with lung function, atopy
screening and a questionnaire. Their
paper dust exposure has been assessed
from measurements and historical information about job task, department and
production. A cumulative measure of
total dust as well as whether the worker
had had high exposure (defined as >5
mg/ m3 total dust for >1 year) or not
were used when analyzing lung function (in percentage of predicted values,
European Respiratory Society). Multiple
linear and logistic (for FEV1/FVC<0.70) regression models adjusting for gender,
pack years of smoking, atopy and BMI in
the linear models and current and former smoking and atopy in the logistic
model. 95% confidence intervals (CI)
were used. Results: Lung function
among current soft tissue paper mill
workers was associated with cumulative exposure to total dust. Fifty-seven
workers had high exposure. There was a
significant association between high exposure to soft tissue paper dust and loss
of FEV1 (-7.4%, 95% CI -12.0 to -2.9) and
loss of FVC (-5.4%, 95% CI -9.5 to -1.3).
There was also an increased prevalence
of the ratio FEV1/FVC<0.70 among the
high exposure workers compared to
others (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 12.0).
Conclusions: Cumulative exposure to
soft tissue paper dust as well as work in
high exposure was associated with lung
function impairment. Workers with high
exposure to paper dust had increased
prevalence of obstruction
(FEV1/FVC<0.70). Dust levels should be
reduced.
WD 501-6
Ige-mediated Sensitization to Pine
and Beech Wood Dust in Relation to
Dust Exposure Levels and
Respiratory Symptoms—The Impact
of Cross-reactive Carbohydrate
Determinants (CODs)
V. Schlünssen, G. Jacobsen, T. Sigsgaard,
Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; S.
Kespohl, M. Raulf-Heimsoth, S. Meurer,
U. Meurer, T. Brüning, Institute of the
Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; I. Schaumburg, Aarhus University
Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
Objective: Wood dust exposure may
cause IgE-mediated allergic diseases.
Our objectives were to estimate pine
and beech dust specific (s)IgE sensitization rates among woodworkers; to explore the association between exposure
and sensitization, and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms; and
to investigate the impact of proteinogenic sIgE-epitopes on respiratory symptoms. Methods: In a Danish study
among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories the workers’ health status was evaluated by questionnaires
and blood samples were collected from
1506 woodworkers and 195 references.
Workers with asthma symptoms (n=298),
a random study sample (n=399) and a
random rhinitis sample (n=100) were
evaluated for wood sensitization by
using tailored ImmunoCAPs for pine and
beech dust specific IgE determination.
Workers sensitized to wood were tested
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
for CCDs. IgE binding was specified for
glycogenic versus proteinogenic epitopes by inhibition tests. Results: The
prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was
1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found
between woodworkers and references,
but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated to the current level of wood dust.
No relation was observed between
wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Specifying IgE-epitopes demonstrated that sera of
workers reporting allergic symptoms
recognized both proteinogenic and
glycogenic IgE-epitopes on wood allergens, whereas workers without allergic
symptoms bound primarily to IgE-epitopes on glycogenic structures. Non significant increased ORs for sIgE based on
proteinogenic epitopes to beech and
respiratory symptoms were found. Conclusion: Sensitization rates to pine and
beech wood are equal for woodworkers
and references, but dependent on the
current wood dust level. The importance
of beech and pine wood sensitization is
limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers. We recommend
implementation of CCD-tools into the diagnostic procedure to assess the relevance of individual wood sensitization.
WD 501-7
Work-Related Asthma due to Wood
Dust - California 1993-Present
J. Weinberg, E. Martysh, C. Espineli, California Department of Public
Health/Public Health Institute, Richmond, CA; J. Flattery, R. Harrison, California Department of Public Health,
Richmond, CA.
The California Department of Public
Health Work-Related Asthma Prevention
Program (WRAPP) has tracked work-related asthma (WRA) cases since 1993
under a cooperative agreement with the
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health. WRAPP recognized in
the 1990s that California workers in industries exposed to wood dust had high
rates of WRA. Objective: To examine surveillance data to characterize wood
dust exposure associated with WRA
among California workers. Methods:
Eighteen years of WRA surveillance data
collected through physician reporting,
workers’ compensation records, medical
record review, and follow-up telephone
interview were analyzed. Results: Although the number of WRA cases attributed to wood dust exposure is a small
proportion of total cases (2%), industries with exposures to wood dust have
high rates of WRA, comprising three of
the top ten. The rate in logging is
10/100,000 workers, wood product manufacturing 6.6, and heavy and civil construction 3.9. For comparison, the rate
for all workers is 1.9/100,000. Among
WRA wood dust cases the types of occupations affected are wide-ranging, including office workers and
administrators as well as machine operators in lumber or woodworking industries (20%), carpenters (9.2%), and
groundskeepers and gardeners (5%). By
industry type, sawmills had the most
wood dust cases (26%), followed by
wood product manufacturing (12%) and
specialty trade contractors (6.6%). In
only 32% of cases were workers aware
of what type of wood contributed to
their asthma. Limitations to the data
will be discussed. Conclusions: A variety
of workers in many industries attribute
their WRA to wood dust exposure. This
proposes challenges for WRA prevention. Since many types of wood dusts
are recognized respiratory sensitizers,
the use of engineering controls wherever possible and appropriate levels of
respiratory protection are warranted. In
addition, workers who routinely work
around wood dust should receive specific training about the sensitizing properties of wood.
WD 502
2nd International
Symposium on Wood
Dust: Health Effects and
Limit Values
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
2:00 p.m.–5:00 p.m.
Papers WD 502-1 - WD 502-8
WD 502-1
Airway Reactivity and Healthrelated Quality of Life in Western
Red Cedar Asthmatics Removed
from Exposure
J. He, M. Chan-Yeung, C. Carlsten, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC,
Canada.
Objective: Western red cedar asthma
(WRCA) is the most common type of occupational asthma in British Columbia,
Canada and in the northwest United
States. The majority of those with WRCA
continue to have respiratory symptoms
even several years after cessation of ex-
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
posure. Consequently, health-related
quality of life (HRQL) is impaired. Airway
hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a cardinal
feature of asthma, yet in previous studies, the relationship of AHR with HRQL is
inconsistent. The objective of this study
is to evaluate the relationship between
various measures of non-specific airway
reactivity and HQRL in those recovering
from WRCA. Methods: HRQL was determined by the short form 36 (SF36) in 46
male, non-smoking subjects previously
diagnosed with WRCA and removed
from exposure to WRC, on average, 15
year earlier. The relationships between
SF36 (total score and each of its six domains [physical functioning, social functioning, bodily pain, mental health,
vitality and general health perceptions])
and methacholine-stimulated airway reactivity (PD20, dose-response slope
[DRS], continuous index of responsiveness [CIR] and bronchial reactivity index
[BRI]) were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression.
Results: BRI and CIR were each correlated significantly with the SF36 total
score and its three domains of physical
functioning, bodily pain and general
health (for BRI, r = -0.364, -0.290, -0.323, 0.390 [p = 0.013, 0.05, 0.028, 0.007] respectively; for CIR, r = -0.332, -0.327, -0.335,
-0.361 [p = 0.024, 0.027, 0.023, 0.014] respectively). After adjusting for age,
years since diagnosis, years since last
exposure and inhaled corticosteroid
usage, all correlations remained significant except for that between BRI and
physical functioning. SF36 was not significantly associated with DRS and
PD20. Conclusions: In subjects with
WRCA, long removed from exposure,
measures of non-specific airway reactivity (BRI and CIR) are associated with
HRQL.
WD 502-2
WITHDRAWN: Inflammatory and
DNA Damaging Effects of Dusts
From Different Species of Wood
H. Wallin, J. Bornholt, U. Vogel, National
Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; J.
Perez Escuredo, Hospital Universitario
Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain; M.
Hermsen, Hospital Universitario Central
de Asturias, Ovied0, Spain; J. Määtta, K.
Husgafvel-Pursiainen, H. Alenius, K.
Savolainen, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
111
WD 502-3
Molecular Mechanisms in Wooddust Related Sinonasal Cancer: TP53
Mutations
K. Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki,
Finland.
Research carried out on exposure, biological mechanisms, and health effects
of wood dust in a research consortium
(WOOD-RISK, EU 5th FP), especially the
part focused on sinonasal cancer (SNC),
is summarized. Objectives: Our collaborative multi-center study investigated
TP53 tumor suppressor gene mutations
in over 350 cases of SNCs collected in
France, Denmark and Finland.1 We also
studied COX-2 expression by IHC as a
marker of inflammation. Industrial hygienists in each participating center
carefully assessed occupational exposure of cases. Results: The study demonstrated that TP53 mutations are
common in SNC, with over 70% of the
cases positive for mutation1. Our study
further showed that TP53 mutations
were associated with work-related
wood-dust exposure, and the risk of mutation significantly increased along
with a long duration of exposure. Smoking was not observed to be significantly
associated with TP53 mutations.1 We
also investigated the mutation profile
of SNC.2 We found that COX-2 expression
was associated with adenocarcinoma
histology and wood dust exposure, but
not with smoking.3 Conclusions: Findings of our multi-center study suggest
that both mutational and inflammationrelated mechanisms are likely involved
in wood dust-related sinonasal carcinogenesis in humans. Such mechanistic
data are needed for risk assessment and
prevention. Published work cited: 1.
Holmila R, Bornholdt J, Heikkilä P, Suitiala T, Févotte J, Cyr D, Hansen J, Snellman SM, Dictor M, Steiniche T,
Schlünssen V, Schneider T, Pukkala E,
Savolainen K, Wolff H, Wallin H, Luce D,
Husgafvel-Pursiainen K. Int J Cancer
2010; 127:578. 2. Holmila R, Bornholdt J,
Suitiala T, Cyr D, Dictor M, Steiniche T,
Wolff H, Wallin H, Luce D, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K. Mutation Res 2010; 686:9. 3.
Holmila R, Cyr D, Luce D, Heikkilä P, Dictor M, Steiniche T, Stjernvall T, Bornholdt
J, Wallin H, Wolff H, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K. Int J Cancer 2008; 122:2154.
WD 502-4
IARC’s Most Recent Evaluation of
Wood Dust
P. Demers, Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario,
Toronto, ON, Canada.
Objective: Although an increased risk of
sinonasal cancer among wood workers
was first identified in the 1960s, wood
dust was only classified as a human carcinogen by IARC in 1994. In 2009 wood
dust was reviewed again as part of the
IARC Monograph 100 series, which focused primarily on identifying cancer
sites and mechanisms. This presentation will provide a summary of the data
reviewed and the evaluation and identify questions remaining regarding the
carcinogenicity of wood dust. Methods:
During the period between the two
meetings, a large number of relevant
case series and epidemiologic studies
were published. Only two experimental
animal studies were published during
that period. A number of in vitro and
other studies relevant to assessing the
mechanism were also reviewed. Results:
The large number of human studies reviewed confirmed the strong association with sinonasal cancer, particularly
adenocarcinoma. The results for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were also considered consistent enough to conclude a
causal relationship. Although there was
some evidence of an excess risk for
other pharyngeal sites, laryngeal, and
lung cancers, it was much weaker. Few
studies provided information relevant
to tree species. Those that did would indicate a smaller excess risk of sinonasal
cancer associated with softwoods, with
a potential association with squamous
cell carcinomas. Almost no studies collected information on levels of exposure. All 11 animal studies reviewed
were negative. Although the experimental evidence may be compatible with an
indirect, inflammatory mechanism, the
committee concluded that there was insufficient evidence from which to draw
a conclusion. Conclusions: The evaluation concluded that both sinonasal and
nasopharyngeal cancer were related to
wood dust exposure. Essential questions regarding the degree of carcinogenicity of specific species and the level
of exposure necessary to cause cancer
remain unanswered, although hints
may be gleaned from the literature.
WD 502-5
Risk Assessment for Occupational
Wood Dust Exposure: Evaluation by
the Scientific Committee for
Occupational Exposure Limits
(SCOEL) of the European Union
H. Bolt, Leibniz Research Centre for
Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund, Germany.
The Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) of the European Union was asked to evaluate
wood dust for inclusion in the Carcinogen Directive, if appropriate. It appeared difficult to distinguish clearly
the different types of wood in the mechanism of tumour induction. Another
issue was the sensitizing potential of
some woods. A draft Recommendation
was issued in 2001 for “public consultation.” Comments were received from a
number of industry, unions and national
bodies, mostly regarding problems of
measurement. In the re-discussion, it
was not considered realistic to suggest
different limit values according to particle size. As regards the risk of sino-nasal
cancer, it seemed that hardwood dusts
are particularly dangerous with respect
to adenocarcinomas. In general, the
available data suggested that a numerical value of an Occupational Exposure
Limit expressed as “inhalable dust” may
be set at approximately twice the numerical value for the corresponding
limit value for “total dust.” There was no
adequate information for setting a
health-based limit value for the protection of workers exposed to wood dust.
Taking into account the uncertainties
and limitations of the available studies,
it was stated that exposures above 0.5
mg/m3 may induce pulmonary effects
and should be avoided. Exposure levels
lower than 0.5 mg/m3 were associated
with the induction of bronchial asthma
only when the exposure was to Western
red cedar dust. These levels of 0.5 mg/m3
(total dust) and 1 mg/m3 (inhalable dust)
were considered to be probably below
the levels to which cases of sino-nasal
cancers had been exposed.
WD 502-6
The ACGIH Threshold Limit Value for
Wood Dust
L. Brosseau, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN.
Situation/problem: The ACGIH Threshold
Limit Values for Chemical Substances
(TLV-CS) Committee first identified a TLV
for wood dust in 1972 which was up-
112
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
dated in 1981. Following new research
and new aerosol sampling conventions,
the committee adopted a new set TLVs
in 2005. Resolution: This presentation
will address several issues encountered
during the development of new TLVs for
wood dust. These included using “total”
particulate measurements for estimating inhalable aerosol levels, determining an appropriate level for allergenic
woods, and identifying likely cancer outcomes for a broad range of species. Results: The current TLVs for wood dust
rely entirely on human epidemiology
studies. Although Western Red Cedar is
a well-known allergen, limited data
were available concerning the dust levels that lead to asthma; most studies reported only total dust levels. Low or no
asthma was observed to occur at total
dust levels below 0.1-0.5 mg/m3. Since
side-by-side sampling indicates that inhalable dust levels are generally higher
than total dust levels in woodworking
operations, an inhalable level 0.5 mg/m3
was proposed to ensure exposures
below the total dust levels associated
with asthma. Decreased lung function
and other pulmonary health outcomes
were found in many studies to be associated with exposure to a broad range of
wood species in a variety of workplace
settings. While there were inconsistencies among studies in the specific nature of health effects, a TLV-TWA of 1
mg/m3 inhalable particulate was recommended to prevent adverse respiratory
health outcomes. Lessons learned: Developing a new TLV for wood dust involved a complicated set of issues
requiring expertise in human epidemiology, occupational medicine, carcinogenicity, respiratory disease and aerosol
sampling. The ACGIH TLV-CS Committee’s
approach to decision-making ensured
that all of these issues were addressed
by a scientific group encompassing the
full range of necessary expertise.
WD 502-7
The Cal/OSHA PEL for Wood Dust
and How it May Change
S. Smith, OSHA, Sacramento, CA.
How Cal/OSHA, regulates wood dust in
California and how its permissible exposure limit (PEL) may change will be discussed. California is one of the few state
OSHA programs that actively develop its
own regulations which are more stringent than federal OSHA standards including periodically updating its PEL for
wood dusts and other airborne contaminants. Cal/OSHA currently has a PEL for
wood dust at 5 mg/m3 and is considering
lowering that level. In developing a revision to the wood dust PEL, California
used an advisory process to evaluate
the latest health data along with feasibility issues.
WD 503
2nd International Symposium on Wood Dust: Monitoring and Control
WD 502-8
Occupational Exposure to Wood
Dust in France: Current Situation
and Planned Actions
Wednesday, May 18, 2011
9:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m.
Papers WD 503-1 - WD 503-9
R. Vincent, INRS, Vandoeuvre les Nancy
Cedex, France; F. Teze, D. Lamy, O. Calvez,
Direction générale du travail, Paris,
France.
Despite a drastic reduction in levels of
exposure to wood dust since the end of
the 1980s, nasal-sinusial cancers still
represent the second cause of occupational cancer in France. Since 2000,
processes emitting wood dust have
been classed carcinogenic and the
statutory occupational exposure limit
value (OEL-8h) has been fixed at 1 mg/m3
since July 1, 2005. Different measurements taken during the 2008-2010 period
by both accredited and CARSAT (regional
health insurance fund) laboratories reveal that the OELV is frequently surpassed: approximately 50% of results
exceed 1 mg/m3. In 2008, a national inspection campaign conducted at 3,105
facilities operating in various activity
sectors revealed a lack of consideration
for wood dust carcinogenic risk, absence of, or improper, usage of breathing equipment, deficient inspection of
ventilation systems and with respect to
the OELV. This situation is all the more
crucial at establishment with less than
10 employees. In cooperation with other
bodies, INRS has developed technical solutions and has studied the performance characteristics of hand-held tools
to assist companies in reducing exposure levels. At national level, the French
Labour Ministry is drawing up an action
plan, based on information, training and
technical advice, in cooperation with
different partners. Designed for several
years, this plan should allow exposure
to be reduced, especially at small companies. It would also seem necessary to
harmonise measuring methods and
OELVs in Europe. Standardisation work
is required right from design stage to
take into account collection and suction
of wood dust emitted by hand-held
tools.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 503-1
Sampling Efficiency of Inhalable
Wood Dust Samplers
P. Görner, X. Simon, R. Wrobel, INRS, Vandoeuvre, France.
Objective: Wood dust is an important
pollutant currently found in many industrial atmospheres. Its carcinogenic
character makes the regulation authority repeatedly decrease the allowed
work place exposure limits. Personal inhalable aerosol samplers are suitable to
measure the work place wood dust concentrations provided their sampling efficiency complies with the
CEN-ISO-ACGIH inhalable aerosol sampling convention. Methods: Sampling efficiency of selected inhalable aerosol
samplers (IOM sampler, CIP 10-I, Button
sampler, 37 mm Closed Face Cassette,
AccuCap capsule) was measured in laboratory wind tunnels as a function of particle aerodynamic diameter. Spherical
polydisperse aerosol was generated as a
test dust (glass microspheres, =2.46
g.cm-3). Two external air flow conditions
were experimented: moving air (1m.s-1)
and calm air. In the case of moving air
conditions, the samplers were attached
to a rotating bluff body to simulate personal sampling. Results: The Closed Face
Cassette does not comply with the required sampling efficiency. It dramatically undersamples the inhalable
aerosol. The IOM sampler and the CIP 10I show a fair sampling efficiency in comparison with the CEN-ISO-ACGIH
inhalable sampling criteria. The Button
sampler work well in some special conditions. The AccuCap capsule is used in
the 37 mm Closed Face Cassette to recover the wall losses. This partly enhances the cassette overall sampling
efficiency in the particle size range
where its aspiration efficiency is correct
(i.e. fine particles). Conclusion: The
choice of suitable sampler is essential
to achieve correct personal wood dust
sampling. Because of the presence of
relatively high amount of coarse particles in wood dust, samplers which have
low efficiency for large particles (under-
113
sampling) or which are sensible to particle projection (risk of oversampling) are
not suitable to wood dust measurement. The position of the sampler on
workers chest in connection with orientation of its aspirating orifice can considerably influence the sampling
efficiency.
WD 503-2
Workplace Wood Dust Sampling
with Close-face Cassette and with
Selected Inhalable Aerosol Samplers
E. Kauffer, R. Wrobel, X. Simon, P. Gorner,
C. Rott, M. Grzebyk, O. Witschger, Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité
(INRS), Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.
Objective: In France, the exposure limit
value for wood dust (unrestricted wood
types) is 1 mg.m-3. Sampling is performed
using a close-face cassette (CFC) and the
wood dust concentration is calculated
from the mass of particles collected on
the filter. Particles deposited on the internal walls of the cassette are not
taken into account. This study was done
in order to anticipate possible developments in French regulations resulting
from the European requirement for sampling the inhalable convention for wood
dust. The main objective was to compare the wood dust concentrations
measured using both a CFC and a selected inhalable aerosol sampler. Different samplers were tested: IOM, CIP 10-I,
ACCU-CAPTM and Button. The influence of
CFC flow rate and orientation on measured concentration was also investigated. Methods: Two hundred thirty-five
samples pairs of “tested sampler / CFC”
were obtained at six wood industry
companies. More than 50 comparative
data, including both individual and
static sampling, were used to establish
correlations between given sampler
concentrations (Y) and CFC concentrations (X). A model, using a statistical
analysis based on Bayesian methods,
was implemented for data processing to
determine the regression lines between
Y and X. Results: All the studied samplers measured higher dust concentrations than the CFC: 2.02 times more for
IOM, 1.84 for CIP 10-I, 1.68 for ACCU-CAPTM
and 1.46 for Button. Each sampler’s correlations are statistically similar for
static and personal sampling. The difference in CFC’s flow rate (1 or 2 L.min-1) has
no effect on the measured concentration. A 45° downward inclined CFC collects, on average, only 0.74 of the
concentration of a CFC with its inlet orifice positioned horizontally. Conclu-
114
sions: This work provides relationships
between workplace concentrations
measured with the CFC and selected inhalable aerosol samplers in six wood
processing plants. CFC measurements
systematically under-sample the inhalable dust concentrations.
WD 503-3
Comparison of Personal Samplers
for Wood Dust Sampling
T. Lee, M. Harper, J. Slaven, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV.
Objective: To compare wood dust personal sampling with five different
aerosol samplers in the field by evaluating differences between them, and possibly to inform decisions about the most
appropriate sampler and sampling
method for wood dust collection. Methods: Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS,
KY, AL, and WV) participated in this
study. The products included hardwood
flooring, engineered hardwood flooring,
door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers
selected were 37mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAPTM, Button, CIP10-I,
GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM). Approximately 30 of each
possible pair-wise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample
sets. Results: The total valid sample
number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The
mass concentration of wood dust
ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m-3. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation)
and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m-3
(3.06) and 2.12 mg m-3 (7.74), respectively.
One percent of the samples exceeded 15
mg m-3, 6 % exceeded 5 mg m-3, and 48%
exceeded 1 mg m-3. The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to
detect a 35% difference when outliers
(negative mass loadings) are removed.
Statistical evaluation of the non-similar
sampler pair results produced a finding
of no significant difference between any
pairing of sampler type. Conclusions: A
practical consideration for sampling in
the USA is that the ACCU-CAPTM is similar
to the sampler currently used by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for purposes of
demonstrating compliance with its Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for wood
dust, which is the same as for Particles
Not Otherwise Regulated, also known as
inert dust or nuisance dust (Method
PV2121).
WD 503-4
Use of Mid-Infrared Diffuse
Reflection for Estimation of Wood
Dust Exposure
M. Chirila, M. Harper, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV.
Objective: While ACGIH recognizes wood
dust as a “confirmed” human carcinogen and recommends a limit of 1 mg/m3
for hardwoods and 5 mg/m3 for softwoods, OSHA regulates wood dust as a
nuisance dust, and current NIOSH
method for estimating wood dust is
gravimetric which can overestimate the
exposure in case of other contaminants.
Since the gravimetric analysis is nonspecific and the limit values are lower
than previously recommended, there is
interest in measuring only the wood
component. Methods: In this study, diffuse reflection measured from wood
dust directly on a filter was employed to
determine the wood dust mass. This
method is non-destructive and requires
minimal sample preparation. An original
diffuse reflection unit was modified by
replacing the sample cup with a motorized stage to accommodate a typical 37
or 25 mm filter with wood dust. The use
of silver metal membrane filter as background and support for wood dust allowed identification of specific
absorption bands due to cellulose and
lignin. Two absorption bands attributed
to lignin in the wood infrared spectrum
were used to differentiate between softwood and hardwood and to construct
calibration curves. Results: Calibration
curves from standard extrathoracic red
oak and yellow pine showed departure
from expected linear dependence on
the wood mass. Validation of the
method with field samples collected
using a GSP sampler gave very good
agreement (slope = 0.9) for samples
where activities such as sawing and
sanding were employed and poor agreement (slope = 0.5) for samples where debarking and cutting were the main
activities. Conclusions: The use of silver
metal filter is essential for a correct assessment of lignin and cellulose bands
from wood dust. Contributing factors to
poor validation of the method are nonwood particles, contribution of large
particles (100 micron), and variations in
the wood dust structure.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 503-5
Peak Exposure to Wood Dust at
Production of Wood Pellets—How
Much Do They Contribute to the
Exposure?
K. Hagström, H. Arvidsson, I. Bryngelsson, Department of Occupational and
Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden; E. Andersson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine,
Göteborg, Sweden; K. Eriksson, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
Objective: The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable
sources such as wood pellets. Wood pellets are produced from sawdust from
pine and spruce. The aim of this study
was to mathematically calculate how
much peak exposures of wood dust contribute to the average exposure during a
work shift. Methods: Real-time measurements and pumped sampling for inhalable wood dust (IOM sampler) were
done in parallel during 63 occasions (1-3
repeated measurements on 44 workers).
A personal data-logging real-time
aerosol diffusive monitor (DataRa.m.)
was used to estimate peak exposures.
We defined a peak exposure as the
mean exposure exceeding a threshold of
0.4 (TH0.4) or 2.0 mg/m3 (TH2.0) during a
20 second period. In a mathematical
model the sum of the levels from all 20second recordings were used to calculate how much levels exceeding the
thresholds contributed to the exposure.
Results and conclusions: The mean exposure was 0.16 mg/m3 (<0.001-100
mg/m3) estimated with DataRa.m. and
2.5 mg/m3 (<0.60-12 mg/m3) for inhalable
dust with 24 of the measurements exceeding the Swedish OEL of 2 mg/m3.
The level measured with DataRa.m. was
on average 8.6% (0.1 - 44%) of the inhalable dust levels. Exposure over TH0.4 accounted for 27 % (0-90 %) of the total
exposure and the exposure exceeded
the threshold 5.0 % (0-47 %) of the workday. The exposure exceeded the TH2.0
during 0.97 % (0-9.4 %) of the workday
but it accounted for 13 % (0-83 %) of the
total exposure. If the exposures over
TH0.4 or TH2.0 were removed from the
calculations the mean inhalable dust exposure was 1.5 mg/m3 (<0.60-7.5 mg/m3;
11 measurements over OEL) and 1.9
mg/m3 (<0.60-8.8 mg/m3; 21 measurements over OEL), respectively, indicating
that the exposure is still unacceptable
compared with the Swedish OEL.
WD 503-6
Wood Dust and Formaldehyde
H. Gill, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Situation/Problem: Carpenters in the
Film Construction shops in Vancouver,
BC complained about irritation of eyes
and upper respiratory tract in a questionnaire based survey. Construction
shops use large amounts of Medium
Density Fiberboard (MDF) for making
smooth and shining sets for TV/Film science fictions featuring space-ships and
high-tech offices. MDF wood dust has
higher urea-formaldehyde resin content
than normal particle board and is a potential source of formaldehyde exposure that may come from inhalable
wood dust deposited anywhere in the
respiratory tract or gaseous formaldehyde released by board cutting or woodworking. It was suspected that
combined internal and external
formaldehyde exposures act synergistically with the wood dust and cause
upper respiratory tract (URT) irritation
and possible long-term chronic effects.
Resolution: Personal samples for inhalable wood dust were collected for carpenters in the construction shop. Wood
dust samples were analyzed for
formaldehyde using NIOSH method 5700
which simulates the release of
formaldehyde from dust inside the respiratory tract under similar conditions.
Area sampling for free-air-formaldehyde
in the construction shops was accomplished following NIOSH method 2016.
Results: Total formaldehyde levels were
under the ACGIH threshold limit value
(TLV) and WorksafeBC occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.3 ppm. However,
75% of the samples contained total
formaldehyde concentrations over the
NIOSH recommended exposure limit
(REL) of 0.016 ppm. Wood dust levels in
44% of the samples were above the
ACGIH TLV of 1 mg/m3 (inhalable fraction). Lessons learned: exposure levels
measured in the construction shops are
capable of causing acute or chronic respiratory tract problems in carpenters. A
comprehensive sampling of film construction shops is needed to cover exposure variability among various work
days.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 503-7
Dust Collection Performance
Evaluation of Portable
Woodworking Machines
J. Fontaine, INRS, Vandoeuvre, France.
Objective: Widely used in small-scale enterprises, portable woodworking machines are among the most polluting in
terms of dust. This study concerns three
types of machine (circular saws, routers
and orbital sanders), for which equipment supplied by four manufacturers
was compared. Method: Based on laboratory tests, the study allowed us to
identify the highest performance machines, amongst those offered by major
manufacturers, in terms of wood dust
exposure and decontamination index
(European standard EN 1093-11). Tests
were also performed at companies to
assess the occupational exposure of employees using the most efficient equipment identified during the laboratory
phase of the study. Personal samples
were taken from 22 employees at 13
building joinery shops, in compliance
with French Standard NF X 43-257. Results: Out of eight machines tested, only
one circular saw, fitted with a plunge
saw blade, had very good dust collection performance characteristics. Small
routers displayed good collection performance characteristics on the whole.
However, even at high suction rates,
three large routers out of four generated excessive dust emission levels.
Three orbital sanders out of four featured satisfactory dust collection systems. Results from tests conducted at
companies showed that, in situations in
which good professional practices were
implemented (frequent workshop cleaning using a centralised vacuum system,
use of only suction tools), the measured
occupational exposure varied between
0.4 and 1.3 times the occupational exposure limit (OEL = 1mg/m3 in France) . Conclusions: Guidelines for improvement
were identified for each machine type
and were communicated to equipment
manufacturer representatives. This
study confirms that the new OEL for
wood dust can be met as long as rigorous working practices are observed and
the highest performance equipment
currently available is used.
115
WD 503-8
The Vertical Panel Saw: Machine
Decontamination Index and
Operator Wood Dust Exposure.
F. Keller, F. Henry, INRS, Vandoeuvre les
Nancy, France.
Objective: The objective of this study is
to characterize a method in order to
identify the dust level generated from a
vertical panel saw and to relate it to the
operator exposure. Method: A machine
located in the INRS laboratory was selected to perform the measurements.
This machine is equipped with a primary
aspiration fixed on the engine casing
and a secondary aspiration located in
the back panel. Several samplers (CIP10,
ACCU- CAP TM) coupled with a particle
counter (Grimm) and 4 photometers
(DataRam) were placed around the saw.
Two types of operation (horizontal and
vertical cuts) were selected, and two
ventilation modes (with and without aspiration) were tested. Ninety minutes
working time was adopted for horizontal and vertical cuts when the saw aspiration was ON and twenty minutes
working time was chosen when the saw
aspiration was OFF. Each measure was
repeated 3 times. The different results
were compared in order to analyze the
sensors sensitivity and variability. Results and conclusion: From the photometers results it was possible to
calculate the decontamination index.
This index was analyzed and compared
with dust concentration levels measured with the CIP10 and with the ACCUCAP TM. The Grimm particle counter gives
size distribution and was used to determine the number of inhalable particles.
For horizontal cuts, the measured mean
decontamination index was 0.985,
whereas for the same operations CIP10
concentration levels were varying between 0.56 mg/m3 and 1.74 mg/m3 and
ACCU- CAP TM concentration levels were
lying between 0.27 mg/m3 and 0.75
mg/m3. All the results were compared
and analyzed with the French occupational exposure limit value of 1 mg/m3.
WD 503-9
Construction Solutions Database
J. Le, J. Platner, CPWR - The Center for
Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring, MD.
CPWR - the Center for Construction Research and Training, is a non-profit organization created by the Building and
Construction Trades Department, AFLCIO. One of the missions is to encourage
116
the elimination or reduction of conditions constituting hazards to the safety
or health of workers through research
funding by NIOSH. Problem: Although
knowledge of the wood dust hazard
alone is necessary, it is insufficient to
drive the implementation of control options on the work site. One significant
barrier to employer decision-making for
interventions lies with the contractor’s
inability to identify specific appropriate
control options and where to buy them.
Resolution/Results: CPWR has been developing and expanding Construction
Solutions (http://www.cpwrconstructionsolutions.org), a web database that
provides—on a monthly basis—about
8,000 owners, contractors and workers
an online interface to search for hazards found on their construction jobsites and provide possible solutions for
those hazards. This free web-tool is organized by work activities (construction
trades) each with different types of associated tasks and specific peer-reviewed hazard analyses associated with
these tasks. Each hazard analysis, in
turn, contains links to one or more solutions that can reduce or eliminate the
risk associated with the hazard. For example, “Inhalation of wood dust” would
be the hazard analysis title which entails a comprehensive description of the
disease and information on the level of
risk (total dust PEL, occupational hazard
statistics, etc.) as well as risk assessment information. Lessons learned: Construction Solutions uniquely fills this
void by consolidating potential wood
dust control options, each offering information on what the solution is, how
risk is reduced, the effects on productivity and its availability. Also incorporated
within each solution is a link to a Return-on-Investment Calculator that help
users calculate the costs and savings
when introducing that safety equipment, material or work process related
to wood dust operations.
WD 504
Wood Dust Posters
Tuesday, May 17, 2011
Noon–1:00 p.m.
Papers WD 504-1
WD 504-1
Wood Dust Toxicology: Links
Between Toxic Intensity, Chemical
Polyphenol Analysis and Infrared
Spectra
L. Drissi Bakhkhat, LSTB, Rabat, Morocco
& LERMAB, Nancy, France; A. Donnot, M.
Rigo, D. Perrin, A. Merlin, LERMAB,
Nancy, France; A. Hakam, LSTB, Rabat,
Morocco.
In this study, we are interested on water
soluble wood extract because they are
presumed to be responsible of the wood
toxicity. Some authors search wood toxicity from the molecular composition of
the wood extracts. This way, which is
very long doesn’t take into account the
possible cross effect of the molecules
and then doesn’t seem more pertinent
than a global consideration. In this
work, we show that a link exists between certain spectral bands obtained
with infra red spectra of wood dry extracts and their toxic effects on the skin,
for asthma phenomenon appearance or
ethmoïd bone cancer appearance. We
look globally the extracts by two different ways, a chemical dosage method determining globally the amount of
polyphenol into wood dust extracts and
a spectroscopic IR determination of
major bonds present into wood extract
mixture. In the second part, we determine by a bibliographical analysis, the
degree of toxicity of near by ten species
of woods, softwoods, hardwoods or exotic woods, specially used in Morocco
wood industry. The results shows that
the bands at 1415 cm-1 (organic acids)
and 1771 cm-1 (organic anhydrides) are
correlated to the three studied toxic effects, the band 1415 cm-1 (organic acids)
is correlated to the onset of asthma or
ethmoïd bone carcinoma appearance
while the 1635 cm-1 (aliphatic benzene)
band is linked only to the ethmoïd bone
carcinoma appearance. In despite of a
positive correlation with the presence
of aliphatic benzene bands, the human
damage examined are not related to the
polyphenol content of our studied
woods. These studies help to identify responsible bonds present in the molecules issued from woods extracts and
their toxic potential.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 504-2
Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wood
Dust
WD 504-3
Determinants of Monoterpene
Exposure in the Danish Furniture
Industry
K. Huynh, E. Dansiman, P. Schupfer, B.
Danuser, Institute for Work and Health,
Lausanne, Switzerland.
K. Hagström, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro, Sweden; G. Jacobsen, T. Sigsgaard, V.
Schlünssen, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus,
Denmark; I. Schaumburg, Neuro Centre,
Aarhus, Denmark; M. Erlandsen, Department of Biostatistics, Aarhus, Denmark.
Objectives: Malignant naso-sinusal cavity (NSC) tumors represent approximately 3% of Otolaryngology cancers. It
is estimated that wood workers are subjected to a 50-100 times higher risk for
NSC adenocarcinoma than the general
population. Suggested causes are tannin in hardwood or formaldehyde in plywood. We hypothesized that during the
cutting and processing of wood, it overheats and PAHs are emitted with the
wood dust particles. Methods: In a 10 m3
experimental chamber, the typical work
processes like sawing, planning or sanding were analyzed. The size distribution
of the wood dust particles was evaluated by microcopies analysis. The level
of PAHs was measured by Gas Chromatography Mass spectrometry. The
woods selected were: rough fir tree,
beech, medium density fiberboard
(MDF) particle board, poplar veneer cutter, sipo, oak, and impregnated
polyurethane (PU) oak. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection was used to monitor
urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite
of PAHs. The level of genetic damage
due to wood dust exposure was determined by comet assay in peripheral
blood lymphocytes by micronucleus
assay in nasal and buccal epithelial. Results: The particles aerodynamic median
diameters were very similar independent on the nature of the wood for three
types of operations (sawing, planning
and sanding); 11 μm and a standard deviation of 2 μm. Total PAH concentrations in wood dust ranged from 0.2 to
192 μg g-1; depending on the nature of
the wood and processing tools used.
This is the first time that PAHs are identified in the wood dust. Conclusions: In
conclusion, the findings of this study
support that PAHs was found in wood
dust at the levels of 0.2 to 192 ppm, in relation to operations performed on different wood species and can explain the
increased risk of occupational SNC
among wood workers.
Objectives: Individuals who work with
pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, which may
cause dermatitis and harm the respiratory system. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to
monoterpenes and to identify possible
determinants of monoterpene exposure
in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Methods: Passive measurements
of the levels of monoterpenes ( -pinene,
-pinene and Δ3-carene) were performed
on 161 subjects (one sample each) from
17 pine furniture factories in Viborg
County, Denmark. Additionally, wood
dust samples were collected from 145
workers. Data on potential determinants of exposure were acquired and
could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to
univariate analyses, a mixed model was
used to account for imbalances within
the data and random variation with
each of the hierarchically-ordered levels. Results: The geometric mean (GM)
monoterpene was 6.8 mg/m3 (GSD: 2.8);
the GM for wood dust was 0.58 mg/m3
(GSD: 1.49). In the univariate analyses
half of the determinants tested were
found to be significant; the multivariate
model indicated that only three of the
potential determinants were significant. These were the recirculation of air
in rooms used for the processing of
wood, the presence of a supplementary
cold air intake, and the operation of a
glue press. In contrast to the situation
with wood dust, we found a majority of
the variation (60%) was attributable to
factory level, with little being due to the
departmental (19%) and machine (2%)
levels. The fixed terms in the model accounted for 26.5% of the total variance.
Conclusion: The determinants of
monoterpenes are not the same as
those for wood dust exposure; this has
implications for the implementation of
preventative measures in factories.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 504-4
Preliminary Tests on a Modification
to the IOM Sampler to Prevent
Collection of Ultra-large Particles in
Wood Dust Samplings
G. Gori, M. Carrieri, F. Salamon, M.
Scapellato, G. Bartolucci, University of
Padua, Padova, Italy; L. Cornacchia, F.
Tidei, ASL Civitavecchia, Rome, Italy.
Objective: The potential presence of
ultra-large particles with aerodynamic
diameters >100 μm is one of the main
problems encountered when sampling
wood dust. Produced by cutting tools,
these particles are propelled at high
speed into the environment, and may
easily be trapped by commonly used
samplers with wide frontal openings. In
order to prevent this, we tested a simple
modification of the IOM sampler. Methods: A stainless steel mesh (with squares
measuring 209 μm) was positioned on
the opening of an IOM sampler. Two IOM
samplers -one standard and the other
modified with the mesh- were placed
next to each other in the workers’ respiratory area. Measurements were taken
in three different locations: a) small
wood mills (with stationary machines
and no vacuum systems); b) joineries
and wood flooring manufacturing facilities (with enclosed, well-vacuumed machines); c) wine barrel manufacturing
facilities (which use manual tools). In
some samplings, the granulometric distribution of dust was revealed by optical microscopy. Results: The 10 short
sampling sessions (15 min) carried out in
group a) showed that mean dust concentration was 52.4 mg/m3 (range 18-86
mg/m3) with the standard IOM, and 13.9
mg/m3 (range 7-26 mg/m3) with the
meshed IOM. In group b), 38 sampling
sessions (2-4 h) revealed mean values of
0.80 mg/m3 (0.17-1.85 mg/m3) with the
standard IOM, and 0.74 mg/m3 (0.17-1.51
mg/m3) with the meshed IOM. As regards
group c), 39 samplings (2-4 h) issued
mean values of 2.09 mg/m3 (0.18-10.9
mg/m3) with the standard IOM, and 1.69
mg/m3 (0.18-7.17 mg/m3) with the
meshed IOM. Conclusions: These preliminary data show that the protective
mesh is recommended in workplaces
equipped with old machinery and inadequate vacuum systems. The mesh is unnecessary if machines are enclosed and
efficiently vacuumed. Finally, it has limited effects if manual tools are used.
117
WD 504-5
Gallic Acid Used as a Chemical
Marker in Assessing Oak Dust
Exposure
G. Bartolucci, P. Maestrelli, V. Lodde, M.
Carrieri, M. Scapellato, F. Salamon, G.
Gori, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
Objective: The ACGIH has classified oak
as one of the hardwoods carcinogenic
to humans. We deem it useful to identify specific exposure indicators for this
type of wood. Analysis of extracts derived from several wood types commonly used in industrial production
revealed that gallic acid (GA) is only
found in oak. We verified the importance of GA as an indicator of oak dust
exposure by carrying out research at a
wine barrel manufacturing facility
which exclusively uses European oak.
Methods: Personal samples from 18
workers were collected with PVC filters
and IOM samplers on different working
days to assess their exposure to oak
dust. Identification of GA in the collected dust and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) both before and after the first
weekly shift and at the end of the week
was carried out by HPLC-UV method. Results: Levels of oak dust exposure in the
manufacturing barrels workers ranged
between 0.04 and 8.11 mg/m3. The highest concentrations were found in workers sanding manually, and lower
concentrations in those cutting staves.
GA in the collected dust ranged between
1.2 and 556.4 ng, and a high significant
correlation was found between the dust
collected on the filters and its GA content (Spearman’s Rank correlation
=0.83, p<0.0005). GA concentrations in
EBC at the end of the first weekly shift
were statistically correlated with personal exposure to dust (Spearman’s
Rank correlation =0.63, p<0.05) and its
GA content (Spearman’s Rank correlation =0.58, p<0.05). No correlation was
found with the GA content of the EBC
collected at the end of the week. Conclusions: GA was found to be a promising
marker of oak dust exposure as its dose
amount in dust is well correlated with
airborne dust concentrations. However,
its use as a biological marker contained
in EBC must be confirmed by further experimentation.
118
WD 504-6
A New HPLC/MS Method Compared
with an Established GC/FID (MDHS
83/2) Method for Analysis of
Allergenic Resin Acids in Wood Dust
S. Axelsson, Örebro University Hospital,
Örebro, Sweden; K. Eriksson, The University Hospital of Northern Sweden,
Umea, Sweden; U. Nilsson, Stockholm
University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Objective: Comparison of our HPLC/MS
method with a GC/FID method for determination of abietic acid (AA), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) and
7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO) in
wood dust. Methods: Twenty-five air
samples were collected on PVC-membrane filters at wood pellet production
plants in Sweden. The filter was cut into
subsamples prior to analysis. HPLC/MS:
The subsample was extracted with
methanol with dehydraboetic acid-6,6d2 as internal standard, filtered (0.22
μm) and analyzed. The LC/MS analysis
was run in SIM-mode. Quantification
was done using reference substances in
methanol. GC/FID: The subsample was
extracted with diethyl ether. A part of
the solution was evaporated to dryness
and methylated in methanol at 75°C
prior to analysis. Standard compounds
in diethyl ether were used for quantification and they were treated as a wood
dust sample was. Results: The dust loading on the air filters was <0.1 - 16 mg. The
two methods agreed for DHAA. Due to
interference by an unknown compound
during analysis using the GC/FID
method only two samples could be used
to compare two methods regarding AA.
The correlation for 7-OXO between the
methods was 0.862 (r2). On average the
amount of 7-OXO, estimated in a wood
dust sample using our LC/MS method
was 50% of the amount determined
using the GC/FID method. Conclusions:
The difference in 7-OXO determination
between the LC/MS and the GC/FID
method is probably due to differences
in extraction conditions. The LC/MS
method is suggested as a more accurate
method than the MDHS 3/3 method is
for determination of allergenic resin
acids in wood dust that are available for
interaction with the human body.
WD 504-7
Wood Solid Exposure Analysis in
Dust from Industrial Wood
Processing Facilities by Diffuse
Reflectance Infrared Fourier
Transform Spectroscopy
C. Kwon, R. Rando, Tulane University,
New Orleans, LA.
Objective: Size-fractionated dust samples from wood processing industry
were analyzed for wood solids [WS] by
DRIFTS and differences in WS content
were evaluated by plant type, wood
type, and job activity. Methods: Five
hundred twenty-one size-fractionated
dust sample sets were collected over 5
years from 10 wood processing plants
with personal Respicon samplers using
37mm glass fiber filters. Samples were
first analyzed gravimetrically, and then
the heterogeneous dust cakes were uniformly re-deposited after suspension in
ethyl acetate and refiltration. WS were
then determined by DRIFTS analysis
with quantitation at 1251cm-1(softwood)
and 1291cm-1(hardwood or both) against
Radiata pine standards. Kruskal-Wallis
ANOVA examined differences in sizefractionated WS% across the determinants of plant type, wood type, and job
activity. Mann-Whitney test determined
the significance of differences between
pairings within each of the determinants. Results: The average percentage
of WS in gravimetric dust from all plants
was 13.8% (Respirable), 60.2% (Thoracic),
and 42.6% (Inhalable). By plant type, cabinet plants showed the highest WS%:
30.5% (R), 86.0% (T), and 63.5% (I), and
sawmill-planing-plywood plants the
lowest: 2.2% (R), 6.1% (T), and 5.9% (I).
WS% in the furniture vs. secondary millwork was not significantly different. By
wood type, mixed wood showed 26.5%
(R), 89.5% (T), and 63.6% (I), and plywood
2.2% (R), 6.4% (T), and 5.2% (I). WS% for
hardwood vs. engineered wood was not
significantly different. By job activity,
sanding showed 21.5% (R), 83.3% (T), and
59.0% (I), and debarking/log yard 1.5%
(R), 2.1% (T), and 6.0% (I). There were no
significant differences between most
other job activities including sawing,
milling, and finishing. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were
observed in WS content from various
sources of size-fractionated dust in
wood processing industry. Differences
were primarily relatable to the processing of green wood vs. kiln dried wood,
and plywood vs. milled wood products.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
WD 504-8
Evaluation of the Haz-Dust IV (EDC)
Real-Time Dust Monitor for Thoracic
Sampling of Wood and Other
Construction Dusts
S. Srimeechai, R. Rando, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Objective: The Haz-Dust IV and its supplied sampling inlets were calibrated
with SAE fine dust and its performance
in sampling other dust types has not
been evaluated. This study examined
performance of the Haz-Dust IV for thoracic sampling of wood and drywall
dusts. Methods: The Haz-Dust IV with
manufacturer’s thoracic sampling inlet
was loaded with 37-mm polyvinylchloride filters and used to sample thoracic
dust in a dust-fall chamber. Wood dust
(MMAD=10.5um) and drywall dust
(MMAD=3.0um) were generated in the
chamber by the Wright dust feeder (BGI
Inc.). GK 2.69 Cyclones (BGI Inc.) were
used as reference thoracic samplers.
Dust concentrations from the Haz-Dust
IV and GK 2.69 cyclones were measured
according to NIOSH method 0600. Based
on initial findings of biased sampling,
the Haz-Dust IV was modified by replacing its thoracic sampling inlet with the
GK 2.69 cyclone adapter. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: Overall dust concentrations in the
chamber were 0.70 - 5.12 mg/m3 (x=3.64,
SD=1.46, n=9) for wood dust and 0.59 4.66 mg/m3 (x=2.15, SD=1.51, n=6) for drywall dust. There was no significant difference in drywall dust concentration
between the Haz-Dust IV and the GK 2.69
cyclone and the concentrations from
the Haz-Dust IV were found to be linearly correlated with the cyclones. In
contrast, the Haz-Dust IV oversampled
wood dust about 2.6 times in comparison to GK 2.69 cyclone and the differences were statistically significant.
After modification with a GK 2.69 cyclone inlet, the Haz-Dust IV properly
sampled thoracic wood dust in the
chamber for concentrations ranging
from 2.01-6.23 mg/m3 (x=4.44, SD=1.13,
n=10) and there was no statistical difference compared to the reference samplers. Conclusion: The Haz-Dust IV and
its thoracic sampling inlet can be properly used for sampling fine dust but
should be modified for unbiased sampling of thoracic wood dust.
WD 504-9
Occupational Exposure to Wood
Dust in Cutting Process
R. Patel, Safe Workplace Inc., Anand, Gujrat, India.
Situation/problem: The primary purpose
of the study is to evaluate the effect of
wood dust on workers in process of
woodcutting. The study was carried out
in a woodcutting unit situated in the
Anand district of Gujarat stated in the
western part of India. Specific aims
were to investigate the exposure of contaminant and suggest the safe work
practices. Resolution: A qualitative and
quantitative exposure assessment was
conducted for generated wood dust.
The gravimetric analysis carried out by
using microbalance in analytical laboratory. Result of the study was obtained
through biological monitoring of the
workers engaged in woodcutting. The
total twenty personal samples were collected near breathing zone without
safety equipment and proper training.
Results: During medical surveillance, adverse symptoms of health were found
such as breathlessness, coughing along
with occupational asthma. It was found
that most of workers involved in woodcutting activity could die within five to
twenty years of exposure. The study revealed that the average exposure of
wood dust was higher than recommended level during activity. The proper
particulate respirator and other personal protective equipments were provided to control immediate exposure of
above contaminants. The training programme was conducted in local language to workers. The efficacy of the
local exhaust installed near cutting machine. Lessons learned: It is expected
that improved work practices, appropriate engineering controls, and usage of
PPE, along with effective training to the
workers, can reduce the exposure significantly.
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
119
Author Index
Abin, M. C. .........................................PO 133-2
Acker, R. ...........................................PS 402-15
Adams, R. C. .....................................PO 101-1,
PO 125-6, PO 126-2
Adams, W. O. .....................................PO 118-4
Adhikari, A. .......................................PO 124-3
Agrawal, A. ........................................PO 127-8
Akbar-Khanzadeh, F. ....PO 131-3, PS 403-1
Al Rawahi, S. S. .................................PS 404-4
Alexander, B. ..................PO 110-1, PO 126-3
Althouse, E. .......................................PO 133-1
Andrew, M. S. .................PO 103-2, PO 130-1
Appert, J. C. .......................................PO 133-2
Aristeguieta, C. ................................PS 403-3
Armstrong, J. ....................................PO 106-1
Ashley, K. ...........................................PO 127-8
Astrakianakis, G. PO 109-9
Aubin, S. .............................................PO 132-9
Aviles, R. ............................................PO 107-7
Bain, C. ..............................................PO 125-3
Baker, J. ..............................................PO 129-6
Balakrishnan, K. ..............................PO 123-7
Balanay, J. Goot. ..............................PO 116-4
Barker, D. J. ........................................PO 124-5
Barnea, N. .........................................PO 123-5
Baron, D. ............................................PO 119-4
Barr, A. ...............................................PO 134-2
Barrett, W. ......................PO 101-3, PO 101-6
Barton, T. ...........................................PO 125-2
Baxter, C. ...........................................PO 131-2
Baxter, D. M. .....................................PO 132-3
Beach, P. ............................................PO 130-5
Beasley, D. ......................PO 117-5, PO 123-2
Beaucham, C. C. ................................PS 404-6
Beaudet, N. .......................................PO 112-6
Bejan, A. .........................PO 118-7, PS 401-16
Belak, Z. ..............................................PS 403-2
Berckman, G. ..................................PS 401-12
Bergman, M. .................PO 116-2, PS 404-14
Berman, W. .......................................PO 120-6
Beurskens, P. ....................................PO 110-2
Bextine, B. .........................................PO 133-4
Bidassie, B. ........................................PO 102-1
Biddle, J. ..........................................PO 118-12
Bilenki, A. M. .....................................PO 123-6
Billups, R. A. ......................................PO 106-4
Black, J. ............................PO 107-1, PO 127-1
Blackwell, T. A. .................................PO 134-6
Block, D. .............................................PO 106-1
Blomquist, P. ....................................PO 132-6
Blood, R. P. ........................................PO 102-3
Bloomfield, M. .................................PO 131-7
Bochmann, F. .................PO 126-5, PO 126-6
Boelter, F. ......PO 101-5, PO 103-3, PO 109-2
Bogen, K. ...........................................PO 120-6
Boiano, J. M. ......................................PS 403-7
Borgerson, J. .....................................PO 131-2
Borud, K. D. .......................................PO 107-2
Bourbonnais, R. ..............................PO 114-6
Bowen, R. B. ......................................PO 128-1
Bozek, P. ..........................................PO 118-11
Bracker, A. .........................................PO 131-5
120
Braselman, J. ....................................PO 115-7
Bray, J. ................................................PO 133-5
Braybrooke, G. .................................PO 107-5
Brenner, S. .........................................PS 404-9
Briggs, C. ............................................PO 115-3
Brisson, M. J. .....................................PO 127-8
Britten, T. ...........................................PO 110-6
Broadwater, K. .............PS 404-1, PS 404-13
Brorby, G. ..........................................PO 120-6
Brosseau, L. M. .............PO 118-7, PS 401-16
Brown, C. ...........................................PO 131-3
Brown, G. ...........................................PO 122-7
Brown, J. ............................................PO 108-6
Brown, T. L. ........................................PO 124-1
Brueck, S. E. .......................................PS 403-6
Brzeznicki, S. ..................................PS 403-18
Buckalew, M. ....................................PO 121-6
Buhagen, M. ....................PS 402-5, PS 402-6
Bunker, K. ..........................................PO 129-5
Burns, A. ...........................................PS 402-18
Burrelli, L. .......................PO 123-6, PO 127-7
Byeon, S. ..........................................PO 118-10
Cali, S. .................................................PO 121-3
Cannell, C. .........................................PO 125-1
Cannon, L. J. ....................................PS 403-16
Capicik, L. ..........................................PO 108-5
Caporali-Filho, S. A. PO 104-2, PO 107-7
Cardin, D. B. ......................................PO 127-5
Caskey, L. C PO 105-6
Castagna, P. ....................................PS 403-11
Casuccio, G. ......................................PO 129-5
Ceballos, D. PS 402-10, PS 404-1, PS 404-13
Chander, Y. ........................................PO 133-2
Chang, C.-P.......................PO 125-5, PS 401-1,
PS 401-2, PS 401-9
Chang, C.-W. .......................................PS 401-8
Chang, F.-H.........................................PO 134-1
Chang, H.-I. .........................................PS 401-9
Chang, W. R. ......................................PO 108-2
Chapman, M. D. ...............................PO 106-1
Chappel, J. .........................................PO 110-3
Chau, M. T. .......................................PO 131-10
Chen, C. ..............................................PO 107-3
Chen, C.-C......PO 114-3, PO 116-7, PO 125-5
Chen, C.-W. ....PO 116-7, PO 125-5, PS 401-1
Chen, H.-C. ..........................................PS 403-5
Chen, J. ...............................................PO 126-5
Chen, J.-R.............................................PS 401-2
Chen, L. ...............................................PS 403-6
Chen, M.-C. .......................................PS 404-12
Chen, N.-T. ...........................................PS 401-8
Chen, P.-C............................................PO 116-7
Chen, R. ..............................................PO 128-4
Chen, T. ...............................................PO 103-2
Chen, W. ........PO 126-5, PO 126-6, PO 126-7
Chen, Y.-C............................................PO 126-3
Chen, Y.-H. ..........................................PO 127-3
Cheng, S.-F. .......................................PS 403-17
Cheng, Y. ............................................PO 132-2
Chervak, S. G. ...................................PO 102-2
Chisholm, W. P. .................................PS 401-6
Cho, K. ..............................PO 116-1, PO 124-3
Cho, Y. ...............................................PS 403-10
Choi, H. ............................................PO 118-10
Choi, Y.-E.............................................PO 105-4
Chollot, A. .........................................PO 114-6
Chu, T.-S.............................................PS 403-17
Chu, W. ...............................................PO 109-9
Chua, P. ............................PO 109-9, PO 112-4
Chung, E. Kyo ................................PO 120-2
Chung, K.-J. .........................................PS 404-3
Chute, D. O. .......................................PO 132-6
Ciconte, R. .........................................PO 112-2
Ciou, J. ................................................PO 107-3
Clark, K. ..............................................PS 404-7
Clark, N. .............................................PO 108-1
Cloutier, Y. .........................................PO 132-9
Coffey, C. C. .......................................PO 111-5
Cohn, K. L. .........................................PO 131-6
Cole, S. S. ...........................................PO 134-3
Collier, D. ...........................................PO 101-3
Colligan, S. ........................................PO 125-4
Colvard, M. D. ...................................PS 403-9
Cooper, C. ..........................................PO 127-1
Cortes, B. R. ......................................PO 106-5
Cottica, D. ..........................................PS 402-8
Coulais, C. .......................................PO 132-11
Courtney, T. K. ..................................PO 108-2
Cox-Ganser, J. M. ............................PS 401-10
Coyne, K. M. ......................................PO 124-5
Coyne, L. .......................PS 403-20, PS 403-21
Crampton, R. ...................................PS 404-13
Crawford, C. M. ..............................PS 404-10
Crawford, S. A. .................................PO 117-8
Curtis, R. A. .....................PO 119-5, PO 119-6
Cyrs, W. D. .........................................PO 128-6
Czerczak, S. ....................PS 402-7, PS 404-16
Dalton, J. ............................................PO 131-2
Das, D. ................................................PO 121-3
Daugherty, D. ...................................PO 131-8
Dave, M. .............................................PO 109-6
Davies, H. W. .....................................PO 110-5
Dawicki, W. ........................................PS 403-2
Debia, M. .........................PO 132-7, PS 401-3
deLaski, L. .........................................PO 108-7
Dell, L. D. ............................................PO 126-2
Dement, J. M. ....................................PO 126-8
Demers, P. A. .....................................PO 110-5
D`emokritou P. ...............................PO 129-2
Desai, G. .............................................PO 120-5
Devlin, K. .....PO 109-8, PO 126-4, PS 402-18
Dipper, J. ............................................PO 110-3
Doane, A. K. ......................................PO 107-2
Dobbie, J. M. ...................................PO 131-10
Donovan, E. D. .................................PO 109-8
Dopart, P. J. .......................................PO 109-8
Dorevitch, S. .....................................PO 121-3
Dotson, S. ........................................PS 404-17
Dowd, S. .............................................PO 133-4
Downs, D. E. ......................................PO 110-8
Driscoll, J. N. .....................................PO 111-1
Drolet, D. .........................PO 103-5, PO 114-6
Duane, A. ...........................................PO 109-5
Duden, D. P. ......................................PO 108-8
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Duffy, D. ...........................................PS 401-15
Dufresne, A. ....................PO 132-7, PS 401-3
Dunn, K. ...........................PO 129-3, PS 404-8
Duquenne, P. ..................................PO 132-11
Duran, B. ..........................................PS 402-13
Durgam, S. .........................................PS 403-3
Dutton, D. R. ...................................PO 131-10
Dwivedi, A. ........................................PO 124-3
Echevarria-vega, M. E. ...................PO 129-2
Efird, T. ...............................................PO 110-4
Eimer, B. C. ........................................PO 105-5
Ellenbecker, M. ............PO 129-2, PO 129-3,
PS 404-6, PS 404-8
Elliot, M. ............................................PO 131-7
Elmore, B. ..........................................PO 124-5
Emo, B. .............................PO 106-3, PO 131-7
Eoh, W. ...............................................PO 134-4
Erikson, E. .........................................PO 123-0
Evans, D. ..........................................PS 404-11
Evans, S. .............................................PO 130-3
Ewing, E. M. ......................................PO 131-4
Ewing, W. M. .....................................PO 131-4
Fabian, T. ...........................................PO 131-2
Fahim, M. ...........................................PO 105-1
Farahat, F. .........................................PO 122-2
Felker, D. .........................................PO 132-10
Fenske, R. A. ...................PO 122-2, PO 133-6
Fent, K. W. .........................................PO 109-1
Fernando, S. .....................................PO 127-6
Ferracini, T. ......................................PS 402-18
Ferreri, M. .......................................PO 132-10
Filep, S. ..............................................PO 106-1
Filiaggi, A. .........................................PO 108-2
Finley, B. L. ........................................PO 121-2
Fong, D. ..............................................PO 131-1
Føreland, S. ......................PS 402-5, PS 402-6
Fransman, W. ...................................PO 103-6
Franz, T. J. .........................................PS 404-18
Freier, S. .............................................PO 102-4
Gaffney, S. ......................PO 109-3, PO 126-4
Galbraith, D. A. ................................PO 121-2
Galvin, K. .........................PO 122-2, PO 133-6
Gandhi, P. ..........................................PO 131-2
Gao, P. ..............................PO 114-4, PO 115-6
Gaulin, C. ...........................................PO 131-1
Gaultney, B. ......................................PO 118-3
Ge, S. ...................................................PO 133-2
Gee, J. R. .............................................PO 130-4
Geraci, C. .......PS 404-6, PS 404-8, PS 404-10
Ghimire, A. .........................................PS 401-4
Gibson, S. L. ......................................PO 134-6
Gillespie, K. .......................................PO 131-7
Gillie, M. F. .........................................PO 130-4
Gilmore, K. ......................PO 133-4, PO 133-5
Ginsberg, G. ......................................PO 131-5
Goldberg, I. J. ....................................PO 125-2
Golembiewski, B. ............................PO 131-5
Gordon, J. ...........................................PS 403-2
Goyal, S. M. .......................................PO 133-2
Gran, T. E. ...........................................PO 127-9
Green, M. A. ......................................PO 134-3
Greenley, P. .......................................PO 105-3
Greeson, N. H. ...................................PS 403-8
Greff, G. ............................................PO 132-11
Grignani, E. ........................................PS 402-8
Grinshpun, S. A. .............PO 116-1, PO 124-3
Grissom, K. H. ...................................PO 113-1
Grist, K. J. ...........................................PO 130-6
Gromala, J. .........................................PS 401-4
Gromiec, J. P. ...................................PS 403-18
Ground, M. ......................................PS 402-18
Groves, W. .......................PO 111-4, PO 124-4
Guarino, H. ........................................PO 133-2
Guffey, E. ...........................................PO 105-3
Ha, J. ....................................................PS 401-5
Ha, K. ...................................................PO 129-1
Haas, P. E. ........................PO 106-6, PO 108-4
Hall, A. L. ............................................PO 110-5
Hall, D. ............................PO 109-4, PO 120-3
Hall, D. R. ...........................................PO 120-1
Ham, S. .............................PO 129-1, PO 134-4
Ham, W. ..............................................PO 134-4
Han, T. .................................................PO 132-4
Hansen, C. M. ...................................PO 114-6
Hanson, E. .........................................PO 116-5
Haring Sweeney, M. ........................PS 403-7
Harper, M. .....PO 111-4, PO 128-1, PS 401-6
Harper, P. ...........................................PO 131-8
Harrington, D. ..................................PO 130-2
Harrison, C. .....................................PS 401-12
Hartline Weems, L. .........................PO 123-4
Hayes, H. ...........................................PO 127-4
Hayman, K. L. ...................................PO 101-2
Hearl, F. J. ...........................................PO 126-5
Hedman, C. .......................................PO 131-5
Herrick, R. A. .....................................PO 117-2
Heussen, H. .......................................PO 103-6
Hewett, H. ......................................PO 131-10
Hide, C. ...............................................PO 106-3
Hillman, V. .........................................PO 113-4
Hinrichs, S. H. ...................................PO 124-1
Hinton, J. J. .......................PO 118-2, PS 402-1
Hnizdo, E. ..........................................PO 126-5
Ho, Y.-F. ................................................PS 401-2
Hodges, B. .......................................PO 132-12
Hodgson, B. L. ..................................PO 118-9
Hodson, L. ......................PS 404-10, PS 404-6
Hohn, T. ..............................................PO 108-8
Holden, V. ..........................................PO 117-3
Holder, C. ...........................................PO 107-1
Holder, H. W. .....................................PO 133-1
Hollander, A. ....................................PO 103-6
Hollins, D. ......PO 109-8, PO 121-2,PO 126-4
Holm, S. ..............................................PO 120-6
Holton, M. .......................PO 101-1, PO 125-6
Hon, C.-Y..............................................PO 109-9
Hopf, N. ..............................................PO 118-1
Hopke, P. K. .......................................PO 114-4
Housman, K. C. .................................PS 404-2
Hrbek, G. M. ......................................PO 132-5
Huang, C. .........................PO 129-2, PO 129-3
Huang, S.-H. ..PO 114-3, PO 116-7, PO 125-5
Huang, Y.-H. .......................................PO 108-2
Huang, Y.-S.........................................PO 114-3
Hung, P.-C. .........................PS 401-1, PS 401-9
Hussain, A. ......................PO 133-4, PO 133-5
Hutchison, M. C. ..............................PO 120-4
Hwang, Y.-H. ......................................PO 134-1
Jaggassar, K. .....................................PO 115-3
Jakubowski, M. ..............................PS 401-13
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Janah, Y. .............................................PO 119-3
Jang, J.-K. .............................................PS 404-3
Janowitz, I. ........................................PO 134-2
Jaques, P. A. .......................................PO 114-4
Jauhiainen, T. .................................PO 117-10
Jerez, S. ..............................................PO 133-5
Jing, X. ................................................PO 107-8
Johnson, E. W. ..................................PO 116-6
Johnson, P. W. ...................................PO 102-3
Johnson, R. H. ...................................PO 119-2
Jones, G. .............................................PO 124-3
Jones, R. ...........................PO 103-3, PS 401-7
Jones, S. .............................................PO 124-3
Jung, E. ...............................................PO 129-1
Just, N. ................................................PS 403-2
Kalil, A. ...............................................PO 105-3
Kalliokoski, P. ................................PO 117-10
Karunasena, E. ................................PO 133-1
Katselis, G. .........................................PS 403-2
Kauffman, D. .....................................PS 403-4
Kawamura, M. D. .............................PO 117-4
Kawar, K. H. ......................................PO 122-1
Kegebein, J. .......................................PS 402-4
Keil, C. ...............................................PS 402-12
Kelly, R. ..............................................PO 129-4
Kelman, B. J. ......................................PO 101-2
Kennedy, J. ........................................PO 106-3
Kenny, J. ...........................................PS 401-15
Kephart, M. .......................................PO 115-2
Kerr, K. ...............................................PO 121-7
Khuder, S. ...........................................PS 403-1
Kiefer, M. ...........................................PO 122-3
Kim, C. ...............................................PS 401-14
Kim, S. ...............................PO 103-1, PS 401-6
Kincannon, H. ..................................PO 108-6
King, C. M. ........................................PS 403-11
King, E. M. .........................................PO 106-1
King, W. P. ..........................................PO 124-6
Kirkeleit, J. ........................................PO 118-1
Kirwan, R. W. .....................................PS 403-8
Kirychuk, S. .......................................PS 403-2
Klein, R. ............................................PS 403-11
Klink, J. ...............................................PO 130-2
Kneten, L. ........................PO 107-5, PO 118-6
Knutsen, J. ......................PO 109-3, PO 128-2
Koehler, V. .......................................PO 132-11
Koehn, J. .......................PS 402-14, PS 402-15
Koerner, J. F. ......................................PO 125-7
Kolbash, C. ........................................PO 105-6
Kominsky, J. .PO 101-3, PO 101-6, PO 118-8
Konz, J. .............................PO 101-3, PO 101-6
Korchevskiy, A. .............PO 109-4, PO 109-5,
PO 110-9, PO 120-3, PO 128-3
Krageschmidt, D. A. .....PO 112-1, PO 112-5
Krause, K. J. .......................................PO 128-6
Krause, M. ....PO 101-2, PO 112-3, PO 117-7
Kretchman, K. ..................................PO 105-1
Krishnamoorthy, K. .......................PO 103-4
Kucharska, M. ................................PS 403-18
Kuehn, T. H. .......................................PO 133-2
Kuhlman, C. .................PS 403-20, PS 403-21
Kuo, Y.-M. .........................PO 114-3, PO 125-5
Kupczewska Dobecka, M. M. PS 402-7,
PS 404-16
Kwoon, J.-W. .......................................PS 404-3
121
Lacey, S. E. .........................................PS 403-9
Lai, C.-Y.................................................PS 401-1
laingen, E. .........................................PO 124-2
Lamba, A. ..........................................PO 113-2
Lamm, S. H. .......................................PO 128-4
Lang, J. D. ...........................................PS 401-7
Lara, J. ................................................PO 114-6
Larranaga, M. D. ............PO 108-6, PO 133-1
Larson, D. ..........................................PO 120-3
Larson, R. R. ......................................PO 111-6
Lê, M.-L................................................PO 131-1
Lebouf, R. F. ......................................PO 111-5
Lee, A. C. .............................................PS 403-4
Lee, B.-K. ...........................................PS 403-12
Lee, C.-L. ..............................................PS 403-5
Lee, E. ............PO 111-4, PO 128-1, PO 129-1,
PS 401-6
Lee, I. ..................................................PO 133-3
Lee, J. ..............................PO 116-6, PO 118-10
Lee, K. ..........PO 118-10, PO 129-1, PO 129-1
Lee, N. .................................................PS 404-3
Lee, S. ................................PO 116-6, PS 401-5
Lee, T. ..................................................PS 401-6
Lee, W.-J. ..............................................PS 401-2
Lehman, P. A. ..................................PS 404-18
Lehnert, R. ........................................PO 108-6
Lenczuk, W. .......................................PO 108-3
Levin, J. ............................PO 133-4, PO 133-5
Levitsky, M. .......................................PO 109-6
Lewis, R. ..........................PO 106-3, PO 131-7
Li, K. W. ...............................................PO 108-2
Li, S.-R. .................................................PS 401-2
Liang, H.-W.........................................PO 134-1
Lin, F.-C. ...............................................PS 401-9
Lin, T.-H. ...............................................PS 401-9
Lin, W.-C. .............................................PO 114-3
Lin, W. .................................................PO 125-5
Lippert, J. F. ........................................PS 403-9
Liu, J.-C. ................................................PS 401-9
Liu, X. ..................................................PO 122-4
Liu, Y. ................................PO 126-5, PO 126-7
Lockey, J. ............................................PO 131-2
Lopez, R. ..........................PO 121-3, PS 403-9
Lore, M. ..............................................PO 124-1
Lu, J. ....................................................PO 128-4
Lucas, T. A. .........................................PO 117-9
Lungu, C. .........................PO 116-4, PO 117-8
Madl, A. K. .........................................PO 109-8
Maier, A. ...........................................PS 404-17
Maier, L. .............................................PO 126-1
Mainelis, G. .......................................PO 132-4
Malik, O. P. .........................................PO 109-6
Mandel, J. H. .....................................PO 126-3
Manning, C. R. ..................................PO 124-7
Mao, I.-F.............................................PS 404-12
Marklin, R. .........................................PO 102-4
Marpoe, B. .........................................PO 111-4
Martinelli, J. ......................................PO 125-1
Martyny, J. ...PO 106-2, PO 123-1, PO 126-1
Mathew, T. .........................................PO 103-4
Mathews, A. R. .................................PO 114-1
Matilainen, M. J. ..............................PO 106-7
Maypole, C. M. ...............PO 117-5, PO 123-2
McCarry, B. E. ...................................PO 127-6
McCullough, M. ...............................PO 113-6
122
McCullough, N. V. ............................PO 124-1
McCutcheon, H. .............................PS 402-14
McGlothlin, J. D. ............PO 102-1, PO 134-3
McGowan, B. ..................PO 102-6, PO 134-5
McInnis-Serrano, K. .......................PO 123-1
McIntyre, A. ......................................PO 128-6
McKay, R. ........................PO 116-1, PO 124-3
McKernan, J. L. .................................PS 404-8
Mehta, M. .....PO 104-5, PO 107-8, PO 120-5
Mehta, T. ............................................PO 107-8
Metzler, C. A. ..................................PO 131-10
Millbauer, M. ..................................PS 404-13
Miller, R. ............................................PO 104-1
Miller-Klein, E. .................................PO 104-6
Millette, J. R. .....................................PO 118-8
Mills, W. J. ..........................................PO 117-6
Milz, S. A. ..........................PO 131-3, PS 403-1
Ming, K.-W. .........................................PS 401-8
Mirer, F. E. ..........................................PO 128-5
Molenda, W. K. .................................PO 109-7
Monteith, L. E. ................................PS 403-19
Moon, H. ..........................................PO 118-10
Moon, R. M. .......................................PO 118-4
Morgan, H. .........................................PS 404-9
Morris, T. ........................PO 121-1, PO 121-5,
PS 401-11, PS 402-9
Mott, T. ...............................................PO 107-5
Moussavi Najarkola, S. PO 134-7, PO 134-7
Mowat, F. ...........................................PO 101-4
Mroz, M. .............................................PO 126-1
Mukhopadhyay, K. .........................PO 123-7
Mundt, K. A. ......................................PO 126-2
Murray-del Aguila, K. A. ..............PO 131-10
Musgrave, K. ...................................PS 402-12
Mydin, N. ...........................................PO 131-9
Naik, R. ...............................................PO 104-5
Nambiar, I. .......................................PS 403-16
Ndiritu, S. ..........................................PO 117-1
Nesbitt, J. C. ....................PO 112-1, PO 112-5
Newman, C. .....................................PS 402-15
Newsome, J. ......................................PS 403-7
Nicol, A. ..............................................PO 110-5
Nie, H. .................................................PO 134-3
Niemeier, T. T. ...................................PO 122-3
Nonnenmann, M. W. ....PO 133-4, PO 133-5
Norford, L. .........................................PO 105-3
Novak, D. ..........................................PS 404-15
Numoto, P. ........................................PO 125-4
O’Shaughnessy, P. ...........................PO 132-1
O’Shea, K. J. ....................................PO 131-10
Ogle, R. ...............................................PO 129-5
Olsen, R. ........PO 109-4, PO 120-3, PO 128-3
Ong, K. .............................PO 106-3, PO 131-7
Ornstein, A. G. ..................................PO 115-2
Ovsenek, N. .......................................PS 403-2
Owens, P. ...........................................PO 115-4
Pahler, L. F. ........................................PO 111-6
Palcic, J. D. .........................................PO 116-9
Papinchak, H. L. ...............................PO 129-4
Parham, M. L. ...................................PO 116-8
Park, D. ...............................................PO 129-1
Park, H. ...........................PO 133-3, PS 401-14
Park, H.-H. ...........................................PS 404-3
Park, J. ................................................PO 105-4
Park, J.-H............................................PS 401-10
Parker, A. ..........................................PS 404-17
Parker, D. .......................PO 118-7, PS 401-16
Parker, J. A. ........................................PO 116-9
Parker-Monk, S. ...............................PO 115-1
Paustenbach, D. ...........PO 109-3, PO 126-4,
PS 402-18
Payson, J. ...........................................PO 115-8
Pearce, T. A. .......................................PO 111-5
Perron, G. ..........................................PO 114-6
Persky, J. ...........................PO 109-2, PS 401-7
Peters, C. E. .......................................PO 110-5
Peters, S. ............................................PO 118-3
Peters, T. ............................................PO 132-1
Phalen, R. N. .....................................PO 114-5
Phillips, M. L. ....................................PO 119-3
Piatek, J. .............................................PO 121-3
Pierce, A. H. .......................................PO 134-6
Pierce, J. S. .......................PO 121-2, PS 403-9
Piernot, C. .......................................PO 132-11
Plisko, M. J. ........................................PO 111-3
Pompeii, L. ......................PO 117-5, PO 123-2
Popovic, M. ........................................PS 403-7
Posson, M. .........................................PO 131-8
Poulson, J. .........................................PO 134-3
Powell, J. ..........................................PS 404-15
Pullampally, B. .................................PO 124-4
Que Hee, S. S. .................PO 114-1, PO 114-2
Quiring, A. E. .....................................PO 116-3
Rahkonen, T. ...................................PO 117-10
Ramachandran, G. ..........................PO 126-3
Ramalingam, A. ...............................PO 123-7
Randolph, R. .....................................PO 104-3
Rantio, T. .........................................PO 117-10
Rasmuson, E. ................PO 109-4, PO 109-5,
PO 110-9, PO 120-1, PO 120-3, PO 128-3
Rasmuson, J. ..................PO 109-4, PO 110-9
Ratliff, J. C. ........................................PO 104-4
Rautiala, S. .....................................PO 117-10
Raynor, P. C. ......................................PO 133-2
Reeder, A. J. .......................................PO 116-9
Reeves, T. ...........................................PO 118-4
Reif, R. H. ...........................................PO 119-1
Rempel, D. .........................................PO 134-2
Rengasamy, S. ..................................PO 105-5
Reponen, T. .....................PO 116-1, PO 124-3
Reynolds, S. ......................................PO 126-1
Rice, C. H. ...........................................PO 110-1
Rice, T. V. ............................................PO 124-5
Richard, C. .......................................PS 404-18
Richardson, I. ...................................PO 107-5
Rickabaugh, K. P. ............................PO 129-5
Ridder, A. ...........................................PO 106-2
Riediker, M. .......................................PS 404-7
Ringen, K. ..........................................PO 126-8
Rinker, J. ............................................PO 107-1
Robbins, C. A. .................PO 101-2, PO 117-7
Robbins, M. .......................................PO 134-2
Robbins, S. ........................................PO 128-4
Roberge, B. .......................................PO 132-9
Robinson, T. X. .................................PO 127-5
Rogers, R. ........................PO 107-5, PO 118-6
Roh, J. ................................................PS 401-14
Romine, J. D. .....................................PO 118-5
Rongo, L. M. ....................................PS 402-16
Rose, C. ..............................................PO 106-2
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Ross, C. S.. ..........................................PO 131-2
Russell, K. ........................................PS 403-13
Ruttenber, M. ...................................PO 126-1
Rynell, P. W. ......................................PO 102-3
Saginus, K. ........................................PO 102-4
Sahmel, J. .....PO 109-3, PO 126-4, PO 128-2,
PS 402-18
Saleh, M. ........................PO 127-2, PS 403-14
Sall, C. .................................................PO 122-6
Sambandam, S. ................................PO 123-7
Santore, N. B. ..................................PS 403-16
Scheff, P. A. .......................................PO 121-3
Schmerber, K. R. ..............................PO 107-2
Schmoll, L. ........................................PO 132-1
Schneberger, D. ................................PS 403-2
Schulz, T. Y. ........................................PO 104-1
Scott, J. A. .........................................PS 403-14
Scott, P. K. .........................................PO 109-8
Sebastian, J. M. ..............PO 124-1, PO 124-2
Sedlar, S. ............................................PO 108-1
Seeley, P. ............................................PO 102-4
Seguin, L. ...........................................PO 122-5
Serach, M. .........................................PO 116-5
Sesek, R. ..........................PO 102-5, PO 134-6
Shaffer, R. E. ....................................PS 404-14
Shamberger, E. A. ............................PO 123-3
Sharp, G. P. ........................................PO 105-2
Shaw, C. .............................................PO 115-5
Shaw, D. .............................................PO 127-6
Shaw, L. ..............................................PO 127-6
Sheaffer, A. .......................................PO 110-7
Sheehan, P. .....................PO 101-4, PO 120-6
Shepard, M. N. ..................................PS 404-9
Shepherd, A. ...................................PS 404-15
Shieh, J.-Y. .........................................PS 404-12
Shin, J.-A. .............................................PS 404-3
Shin, Y. ................................................PS 401-5
Shorter, C. .........................................PO 106-3
Shu, C. ................................................PO 116-2
Shukla, R. ..........................................PO 124-3
Shulman, S. A. ..................................PO 103-1
Shum, M. ...........................................PO 131-1
Siegel, D. M. .....................................PS 402-13
Silveira, L. .........................................PO 126-1
Silverman, B. L. ..............................PS 403-16
Simcox, N. J. ......................................PO 131-5
Simmons, C. ..PO 101-5, PO 103-3, PS 401-7
Simon, X. .........................................PO 132-11
Singh, U. ............................................PO 124-3
Sinkule, E. ........................................PS 404-15
Sirianni, G. ........................................PO 114-7
Skan, M. .........................PO 118-7, PS 401-16
Slagley, J. ....PO 107-1, PO 127-1, PO 132-10
Slaven, J. ..........................PO 111-4, PO 128-1
Smedbold, H. ....................................PO 113-5
Smith, B. ............................................PO 106-1
Smith, D. ..........................................PO 132-10
Smith, E. N. ........................................PS 403-1
Smith, P. ........PO 108-6, PO 111-1, PO 111-2
Snider, A. L. .......................................PO 134-6
Soo, J.-C................................................PS 401-2
Sotiriou, G. ........................................PO 129-2
Southgate, L. M. ............................PS 402-17
Spartz, M. L. ......................................PO 130-7
Spencer, J. ......................PO 111-3, PO 113-1,
PO 123-6, PO 127-7, PO 128-2
Stanch, P. M. .....................................PO 109-7
Stapleton, M. ....................................PS 403-7
Star, D. ................................................PO 134-2
Steege, A. L. .......................................PS 403-7
Steenland, K. ....................................PO 126-7
Stepanova, N. ..................................PO 124-2
Steven, P. ...........................................PO 115-1
Stock, T. H. ......................PO 117-5, PO 123-2
Straus, D. C. .......................................PO 133-1
Strode, C. D. .PO 109-5, PO 107-4, PO 120-1
Strode, R. ......PO 107-4, PO 109-4, PO 120-3
Sturchio, G. M. .................................PO 112-1
Su, W.-C. ..............................................PO 132-2
Succop, P. ..........................................PO 118-1
Suen, M. ...........................................PO 132-12
Summerbell, R............ PS 403-15, PS 403-14
Sun, Y. ...............................PO 126-5, PO 126-6
Sung, P.-C. ...........................................PS 403-5
Sussell, A. ..........................................PO 121-4
Swenson, L. J. .................PO 112-3, PO 117-7
Szalajda, J. V. ....................................PO 124-6
Talaska, G. .......................PO 118-1, PO 118-3
Tang, R. ..............................................PO 102-5
Tardif, R. ...........................PO 132-7, PS 401-3
ten Berg, W. ......................................PO 103-5
Tencer, G. M. ......................................PS 403-8
Teschke, K. ........................................PO 109-9
Thom, J. ..............................................PO 117-7
Thomas, R. E. ....................................PO 134-6
Thornburg, J. ..................PO 101-3, PO 101-6
Tibaldi, R. S. ......................................PO 103-5
Toal, B. ................................................PO 131-5
Torres, C. .........................PO 121-6, PO 126-2
Tremmel, F. .....................................PO 131-10
Tsai, C.-J. ............................................PS 404-12
Tsai, P.-J. ...........................PS 401-2, PS 402-11
Tsai, S.-J. .........PO 129-2, PO 129-3, PS 404-6,
PS 404-8
Tsai, S.-W.........................PO 127-3, PS 403-17
Turkevich, L. ....................................PS 404-11
Turner, N. L. .....................................PS 404-15
Van Dyke, M. PO 106-2, PO 123-1, PO 126-1
Van Hoven, K. G ...............................PO 112-5
van Niftrik, M. ..................................PO 103-6
Van Tongeren, M. .............................PS 404-7
Verbist, K. .......................PO 103-6, PO 110-2
Verma, S. ...........................................PO 108-2
Vermeulen, R. ..................................PO 118-3
Viner, A. .........PO 116-6, PO 124-1, PO 124-2
Virji .....................................................PO 103-1
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Viscusi, D. J. .....................................PS 404-14
von Stackelberg, K. .........................PS 402-2
Walsh, D. .......PO 107-6, PO 111-1, PO 113-3
Wambach, P. .....................................PO 121-7
Wang, H. ............................................PO 126-5
Wang, I.-T............................................PO 127-3
Wang, Q. ............................................PO 108-6
Wang, S. .............................................PO 107-3
Wang, S.-M. ......................................PS 402-11
Ward, W. ..........................PO 133-4, PO 133-5
Warren, H. S. .....................................PO 108-5
Waters, M. A. ....................................PO 103-1
Weatherman, K. D. .........................PO 134-3
Webb, P. .............................................PO 115-3
Weber, D. A. .......................................PS 404-5
Weichenthal, S. ..............PO 132-7, PS 401-3
Weitzman, D. J. ................................PO 121-7
Welch, L. ............................................PO 126-8
Wen, H.-J..............................................PS 401-1
Weng, S. .............................................PO 126-5
Wenger, E. .........................................PO 121-7
Wesolowski, W. ..............................PS 403-18
Whitaker, C. .......................................PS 404-1
White, K. ........................PO 127-8, PS 403-15
Whitehead, L. W. ...........PO 117-5, PO 123-2
Willems, J. .........................................PO 110-2
Williams, P. R. .................PO 128-2, PS 402-2
Winkes, A. .......................PO 103-6, PO 110-2
Wisniewski, K. .................................PO 115-1
Won, J. ...............................................PS 401-14
Wong, W. .........................PO 105-3, PO 114-5
Word, W. W. .......................................PO 127-9
Wu, T. ..................................................PO 126-5
Wu, Y.-C................................................PS 401-8
Wyckoff, J. .........................................PO 121-7
Xi, P. ....................................................PO 116-2
Yasalonis, J. ....................PO 110-7, PO 115-2
Yi, K. .....................................................PS 402-3
Ylitalo, C. M. .....................................PO 124-2
Yon, R. ..............................PO 107-1, PO 132-8
Yoon, C. ..........PO 116-6, PO 129-1, PS 402-3
Yost, M. .......PS 402-10, PS 404-1, PS 404-13
Youmans-McDonald, L. D. ............PO 127-8
Young, W. M. .....................................PO 109-7
Yu, A. ...................................................PO 112-2
Zanarini, D. .....................................PS 402-10
Zavala, J. A. .......................................PO 114-2
Zetlen, H. L. .......................................PO 133-6
Zhang, X. ...........................................PO 126-5
Zho, H. ................................................PO 116-6
Zhuang, Z. .....................PO 116-2, PS 404-14
Zier, D. ................................................PO 107-2
Zimmermann, F. ..............................PO 114-6
Zuniga, E. ..........................................PO 105-3
Zuo, Z. ................................................PO 133-2
Zybert, P. ...........................................PO 113-4
123
2nd International
Symposium on Wood Dust
Author Index
Andersson, E. .............WD 501-4, WD 501-5,
WD 503-5
Arvidsson, H. ...............WD 501-4, WD 503-5
Axelsson, S. .....................................WD 504-6
Bartolucci, G. ..............WD 504-4, WD 504-5
Bolt, H. M. ........................................WD 502-5
Brosseau, L. M. ...............................WD 502-6
Brüning, T. .......................................WD 501-6
Bryngelsson, I.-L. ........WD 501-4, WD 503-5
Calvez, O. .........................................WD 502-8
Carlsten, C. ......................................WD 502-1
Carrieri, M. ...................WD 504-4, WD 504-5
Chan-Yeung, M. ..............................WD 502-1
Chirila, M. M. ..................................WD 503-4
Cornacchia, L. ................................WD 504-4
Dansiman, E. ...................................WD 504-2
Danuser, B. ......................................WD 504-2
Demers, P. ........................................WD 502-4
Donnot, A. .......................................WD 504-1
Drissi Bakhkhat, L. ........................WD 504-1
Eriksson, K. .................WD 501-4, WD 503-5,
WD 504-6
Erlandsen, M. .................................WD 504-3
Espineli, C. .......................................WD 501-7
Flattery, J. ........................................WD 501-7
Fontaine, J.-R. ..................................WD 503-7
Freyder, L. ........................................WD 501-2
Gill, H. S. ...........................................WD 503-6
Glindmeyer, H. W. ..........................WD 501-2
Gori, G. ..........................WD 504-4, WD 504-5
Görner, P. .....................WD 503-1, WD 503-2
124
Grzebyk, M. .....................................WD 503-2
Hagström, K. ..............WD 501-4, WD 503-5,
WD 504-3
Hakam, A. ........................................WD 504-1
Harper, M. ...................WD 503-3, WD 503-4,
WD 504-10
Harrison, R. .....................................WD 501-7
He, J.-Q. ..............................................WD 502-1
Henry, F. ...........................................WD 503-8
Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K. ........... WD 502-3
Huynh, K. C. .....................................WD 504-2
Jacobsen, G. ...............WD 501-3, WD 501-6,
WD 504-3
Jones, R. N. ......................................WD 501-2
Kauffer, E. ........................................WD 503-2
Keller, F.-X.........................................WD 503-8
Kespohl, S. .......................................WD 501-6
Kwon, C.-W. ......................................WD 504-7
Lamy, D. ............................................WD 502-8
Le, J. ..................................................WD 503-9
Lee, T. ................................................WD 503-3
Lefante, J. J. .....................................WD 501-2
Lodde, V. ...........................................WD 504-5
Lohman, S. .......................................WD 501-5
Maestrelli, P. ...................................WD 504-5
Martysh, E. ......................................WD 501-7
Merlin, A. .........................................WD 504-1
Meurer, S. ........................................WD 501-6
Meurer, U. ........................................WD 501-6
Nilsson, U. .......................................WD 504-6
Patel, R. S. ........................................WD 504-9
Perrin, D. ..........................................WD 504-1
Platner, J. W. ....................................WD 503-9
Rando, R. J. .................WD 501-2, WD 504-7,
WD 504-8
Raulf-Heimsoth, M. ......................WD 501-6
Rigo, M.-O. ........................................WD 504-1
Rott, C. ..............................................WD 503-2
Salamon, F. ..................WD 504-4, WD 504-5
Sallsten, G. ......................................WD 501-5
Scapellato, M. .............WD 504-4, WD 504-5
Schaumburg, I. ..........WD 501-3, WD 501-6,
WD 504-3
Schlünssen, V. ............WD 501-3, WD 501-6,
WD 504-3
Schulze, J. ........................................WD 501-1
Schupfer, P. .....................................WD 504-2
Sigsgaard, T. ...............WD 501-3, WD 501-6,
WD 504-3
Simon, X. ......................WD 503-1, WD 503-2
Slaven, J. ...........................................WD 503-3
Smith, S. ...........................................WD 502-7
Srimeechai, S. .................................WD 504-8
Taube, F. ...........................................WD 501-5
Teze, F. .............................................WD 502-8
Tidei, F. .............................................WD 504-4
Torén, K. ...........................................WD 501-5
Vincent, R. .......................................WD 502-8
Weinberg, J. L. ................................WD 501-7
Witschger, O. ..................................WD 503-2
Wrobel, R. ....................WD 503-1, WD 503-2
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
Keywords
1, 6-Hexamethylene
Diisocyanate ..............................PS 404-13
abatement......................................PO 118-11
activated carbon...........PO 116-4, PS 401-1
acute poisonings ........PO 109-3, PS 404-17
adsorption ........................................PO 116-4
aerosol .........PO 101-6, PO 111-6, PO 114-4,
PO 116-7, PO 125-5, PO 127-1, PO 132-10,
PO 132-3, PO 133-2
aerosol generation.........................PO 125-5
aerosol monitoringPO 101-3, PO 132-2,
PO 132-8, PS 401-5
aerosol process emissions ..........PO 132-6
aging.................................PO 108-8, PO 134-5
agriculture.....................PO 133-5, PO 133-6,
PS 403-1, PS 403-2
air analysis....................PO 127-4, PS 403-18
air change rate ................................ PS 401-7
air lead concentration.................PS 403-12
air monitoring PO 106-5, PO 107-6,
PO 109-7, PO 117-10, PO 130-7, PO 131-5,
PS 402-8, PS 403-10, PS 403-20
air quality .......................PO 123-2, PO 130-6
air sampling PO 111-3, PO 117-6, PO 127-1,
PO 127-3, PO 133-1, PS 402-9, PS 403-7,
PS 403-21
airborne ..........................PO 105-5, PO 121-7
airborne contaminationPO 113-3, PO
130-3
airborne fungi or moldPO 127-2, PO 1331, PS 401-10
allergen..............................................PO 106-2
aluminum..........................................PO 132-7
Amines, halovision..........................PS 404-3
analytical methodPO 127-6, PO 127-7, PS
403-18
anesthetic gases.............................PO 112-3
animal waste ...................................PO 113-6
anthropometry ............ PO 102-4, PO 102-5
antimicrobial.................PO 124-2, PO 131-1
antineoplastic drugs .....................PO 109-9
area sampling ................................. PO 133-5
armory .............................................. PO 107-4
arsenic.....................................
PO 128-4
asbestos.......PO 101-1, PO 101-2, PO 101-5,
PO 101-6, PO 109-8, PO 118-11, PO 118-8,
PO 123-6, PS 402-4, PS 403-19
Aspergillus........................................PO 125-2
assessments.....................................PO 118-2
asthma .....................................
PO 121-1
ATP bioluminescence ................... PO 132-4
auto industry ...................................PO 121-4
back injury......................PO 102-1, PO 102-3
bacteria .............................................PO 121-3
bag sampling..................................PS 403-20
Bayesian......PO 103-1, PO 103-2, PS 402-11
bench-scale chamber ....................PO 120-6
benzene .......PO 111-1, PO 118-1, PO 120-2,
PO 128-2, PS 402-15, PS 402-18
beryllium .....PO 121-7, PO 126-1, PO 127-8,
PO 127-9, PS 402-13, PS 404-5
bioaerosol .....................PO 124-2, PO 124-3,
PO 133-3, PO 133-4, PS 401-1, PS 401-9
bioaerosol sampling.....................PO 127-2,
PO 132-11, PO 132-4, PO 133-3
biological monitoring ...................PO 118-3
biomarker ..........................................PS 402-3
boiler ..................................................PO 130-4
brominated flame retardants ....PO 121-6
building materials..........................PO 108-4
business acumen.............................PS 402-1
cadmium ..........................PS 402-3, PS 404-5
carbon monoxide ...........................PO 109-3
carbon nanofibers..........................PO 129-6
carbon nanotubes...........................PS 401-5
carcinogen........................................PO 110-5
cardiovascular diseases ...............PO 126-7
carpet .................................................PO 106-3
cause of death ...............................PO 126-5
CBRNE.................................................PO 125-7
chemical exposure......PO 105-4, PO 130-7,
PO 131-5, PO 131-9, PS 402-16, PS 403-10
chemical management ...............PO 103-6,
PO 115-7, PO 122-1
chemical worker .............................PO 126-3
chemicals ..........................................PO 113-2
childhood lead poisoning............PO 120-3
China ................................PO 122-4, PO 126-5
clandestine meth lab ....................PO 123-1
clearance...........................................PO 121-7
coal ......................................................PS 401-6
coal mining accident.....................PO 122-4
collision shop...............PO 118-7, PS 401-16
combustible dust ............................PS 404-2
combustion ......................................PO 131-2
community .......................................PO 123-3
community exposure ....................PO 131-6
compliance ..................PO 122-5, PS 403-18
composite....................PO 117-8, PO 132-10,
PO 132-8
Comprehensive Exposure Index,
Repetitive task............................PO 134-7
comprehensive plan......................PO 122-6
computational fluid
dynamics ....................PO 107-4, PO 120-1
computer...........................................PO 134-1
computer applications ................PO 115-4,
PO 115-5
construction .................PO 107-7, PO 108-1,
PO 108-5, PO 117-3, PO 130-6
construction dust...........................PO 126-8
consumer genetic testing ..........PS 401-11
containment................PO 118-11, PO 120-5
control ..............................................PO 107-1
control banding.............PO 128-1, PS 404-8
COPD...................................................PO 126-8
corporate culture ...........................PO 108-7
corporate ethics .............................PO 122-7
crystalline silica...............................PS 404-4
databases .......................PO 115-1, PO 115-3
decontamination............................PO 114-7
Deepwater......................................PO 131-10
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
dermal ....... PO 114-5, PO 114-6, PS 404-18
dermal absorption.......PO 118-1, PO 128-2
dermal vapor protection..............PO 124-4
dermatitis .........................................PO 121-4
design ..............................PO 125-3, PO 134-5
detection limit.................................PO 103-4
diabetes .............................................PS 402-3
diacetyl ..............................................PO 121-2
direct-reading instrument..........PO 111-3,
PO 111-5, PO 111-6, PO 129-1
disinfectants....................................PO 131-1
disposable nitrile gloves..............PO 114-2
distinguishing................................PS 403-19
DOE Reservation.............................PO 118-5
drinking water.................................PO 128-4
dust ...............PO 103-3, PO 106-4, PO 126-5,
PO 133-5, PO 134-2, PS 404-11
dust exposures PS 402-16, PS 402-6,
PS 404-11, PS 404-4
dust mite...........................................PO 106-3
emergency preparedness/
response ....................PO 123-4, PO 123-5,
PO 125-7, PO 131-8
emission characterization ..........PO 129-5
end of service life indicator ........PO 116-8
engineered nanoparticles ..........PO 105-6,
PO 129-2
engineering ..................PO 108-6, PS 402-13
engineering controls....................PO 102-6,
PO 107-2, PO 107-4, PO 129-2, PO 129-3,
PO 134-2, PS 404-8
environment.................PO 115-8, PO 123-2,
environmental
contamination ............................PO 109-9
environmental risk .......PS 402-2, PS 402-4
EPA ......................................................PO 113-2
ergonomic .....................PO 102-6, PO 125-3,
PO 134-5, PO 134-6, PS 403-4
ergonomic risk factors
assessmentPO 102-2, PO 134-1, PO 1343, PO 134-6, PO 134-7
evaluation ....PO 110-7, PO 121-5, PO 123-3
exhaust...........................PS 401-12, PS 402-5
exhaust dispersion ........................PO 112-4
exposure......PO 109-8, PO 120-6, PO 122-2,
PO 123-7, PO 132-7, PO 132-11, PS 402-9
exposure assessment...................PO 101-1,
PO 101-2, PO 101-3, PO 101-4, PO 101-5,
PO 101-6, PO 103-1, PO 103-2, PO 104-2,
PO 107-8, PO 112-5, PO 115-3, PO 115-6,
PO 118-5, PO 118-6, PO 118-9, PO 120-1,
PO 121-4, PO 121-6, PO 123-6, PO 126-3,
PO 129-4, PO 133-6, PO 134-3, PS 401-10,
PS 401-3, PS 401-8, PS 402-11, PS 402-13,
PS 402-14, PS 402-15, PS 402-5, PS 402-6,
PS 402-8, PS 402-9
exposure limits..............................PS 404-17
exposure methodology ................PO 129-6
exposure model...........PO 103-5, PO 103-6,
PS 402-12
125
exposure monitoring ...................PO 112-2,
PO 112-3, PO 131-4, PS 402-8
exposure reconstruction ............PO 109-2,
PO 126-2, PO 126-4, PS 402-18
exposure scenario.......PS 404-7, PS 404-18
face seal.............................................PO 116-2
fall prevention.................................PO 108-1
fatalites .............................................PO 108-1
feed industry ...................................PO 133-3
field detection ...............................PS 403-13
field portable gc..............................PO 111-2
filtration............................................PO 116-7
filtration efficiency .....PO 107-6, PO 129-2
firefighter.....PO 109-1, PO 116-9, PO 127-6
fit test ...........PO 116-1, PO 116-3, PO 116-5,
PO 124-6, PO 125-4
flavor manufacturing....................PO 121-2
flooded buildings ...........................PO 106-6
flour ....................................................PO 132-9
fluoride ..............................................PO 109-2
forensics............................................PO 130-1
formaldehyde ................................PS 403-11
front-end loader .............................PO 102-3
FTIR ......................................................PS 401-6
fuel oil #6...........................................PO 130-4
fume hood ........................................PO 105-3
fungal contamination.................PO 132-11
fungal fragments ..........................PS 401-10
fungal spores ...................................PO 132-2
Gallium Arsenide ............................PO 128-6
gas chromatography .....................PO 111-1
gases & vapors.............PO 111-4, PS 403-20
gaskets and packing....PO 101-5, PO 109-8
genetics............................................PS 401-11
geographical information
system ...........................................PO 131-7
GHS .................PO 110-3, PO 115-7, PO 122-5
globalization....................................PO 122-7
gloves ...........PO 114-1, PO 114-6, PS 402-10
green ..................................................PO 131-1
green building...............PO 117-3, PO 117-4
grinding..............................................PS 404-5
hazard assessment .....PO 118-4, PS 403-9,
PS 404-9
hazard communication ...............PO 110-3,
PO 119-2
hazard identification ....................PO 113-6
hazardous waste ............................PO 113-6
health and safety survey .............PO 118-7
health care industry .....................PO 112-4,
PO 125-1, PS 403-7
health care workers......PS 403-7, PS 403-8
health complaints..........................PO 131-9
healthy homes ................................PO 117-4
healthy lifestyle..............................PO 102-1
hearing conservation program . PO 104-4
hearing protection.........................PO 131-3
heat stress ........................................PO 109-6
HEPA .................................PO 107-6, PO 132-5
hexanols............................................PO 117-7
hexavalent chromium..................PO 107-7,
PO 132-12
hospital..........PO 109-9, PO 125-2, PS 403-6
HS&E management.........................PS 402-1
126
human factors, management of
change ...........................................PO 108-6
human health effects....................PO 128-5
humidity ............................................PS 401-2
hydrochloric acid ............................PS 401-2
IAQ Management Plan ..................PO 106-7
ICS........................................................PO 123-4
IDLH values .....................................PS 404-17
IEUBK model .................PO 120-3, PO 128-3
IH monitoring ..................................PO 127-5
impactor............................................PO 133-2
indoor air......PO 117-8, PO 127-4, PO 130-1
indoor air quality PO 106-7, PO 117-2,
PO 117-5, PO 117-7, PO 117-9, PO 127-5,
PS 403-16
indoor environment quality ......PO 106-7,
PO 117-1, PO 130-5, PO 133-1
indoor swimming pools .............PO 117-10
industrial hygiene practice........PO 125-6,
PS 403-4
industrial hygiene value .............PO 115-3,
PO 118-4
influenza ...........................................PO 124-1
inhalable sampling ........................PO 132-9
inhalation .........................................PO 125-5
instrumentation .............................PO 119-4
international .................PO 103-2, PO 109-4
isocyanates ...................PS 402-10, PS 404-1
Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) ...........PO 126-2
Korean Traditional Mask Dance PO 134-4
laboratory analysis........................PO 132-3
laboratory health & safety .........PO 105-1,
PO 105-2, PO 105-6, PS 404-6
laser...................................PO 119-1, PS 403-9
lead.................PO 109-5, PO 112-1, PO 131-7
lead exposure...............PO 112-1, PO 120-3,
PO 128-3, PS 403-12
lead inspection and risk
assessment ..............PO 109-5, PS 403-13
lead paint..........................................PO 109-4
LEED .................................PO 117-1, PO 117-2
legionella ...........................................PS 401-8
life safety ..........................................PO 122-3
litharge & lead smelting
industries....................................PS 403-12
local exhaust ventilation............PO 107-7,
PO 129-3, PS 404-2
low back pain...................................PO 102-5
low sampling rate for diffusive
sampler........................................PS 403-21
management ................PO 110-7, PO 115-8,
PO 118-5, PO 122-1, PO 122-6, PO 125-3,
PS 402-1
mass spectrometry for exposure
assessment ..................................PO 111-2
material safety data sheets .......PO 110-3,
PS 404-10
MDI......................................................PO 120-4
medical.............................................PS 403-14
medical school...............................PS 403-11
medical surveillance .....................PO 115-1
mercury ...........................PO 107-8, PO 112-5
metal manufacturing industry,
WMSDs...........................................PS 403-5
metalworking fluid ........................PO 128-5
Methamphetamine........................PO 123-1
microscopy.....................PO 114-4, PO 132-3
mineral fibers ..................................PO 101-2
modeling .....PO 103-3, PO 120-1, PS 404-18
mold ..............PO 106-2, PO 112-5, PO 122-3,
PS 403-15, PS 403-16
mold analysis/assessment .........PO 117-9,
PS 403-14
mold remediation.......PO 117-9, PS 403-16
mortality ...........................................PO 126-7
MSDS-Labels.....................................PO 122-5
musculoskeletal disorder............PO 134-4
N95 respirator..................................PO 125-4
nanomaterials ................PS 404-7, PS 404-8
nanoparticle .................PO 129-1, PO 129-3,
PO 129-4, PO 132-1, PS 401-5, PS 404-9
nanotechnology.........PO 129-5, PS 404-10,
PS 404-6, PS 404-9
nebulizer............................................PS 401-9
negative pressure isolation
room................................................PS 401-9
NIOSH .................................................PO 116-9
nitrous oxide....................................PO 105-3
noise..............PO 104-4, PO 104-5, PO 107-1,
PO 131-3, PS 402-17, PS 403-1
noise attenuation ........PO 104-2, PO 104-6
noise insertion loss........................PO 104-2
noise monitoring.............................PS 403-6
noise reduction...............................PO 104-6
noise sampling technique, noise
dosimeter setup .........................PO 104-4
noise-induced hearing loss .........PO 104-3
non-ionizing..................PO 119-1, PO 119-4,
PO 119-5, PO 119-6
nutrient ..............................................PS 401-1
occupational....................................PO 112-6
occupational epidemiology ........PO 126-6
occupational exposure PO 117-10,
PO 118-12, PO 118-2, PO 120-2, PO 1256, PO 126-4, PO 127-9, PO 132-1, PS 403-2
occupational health ......................PO 115-1
occupational health and safety
management.............PO 102-1, PO 110-9
odor ..................................PO 123-3, PO 131-9
off-shore ..........................................PS 402-14
OHSAS 18001.....................................PO 110-9
oil, gas, and petrochemical .........PO 102-6
organic vapors................................ PO 111-5
PAH......................................................PO 118-1
painter............................................. PS 402-10
particle ..............................................PO 130-1
particulate contol/
samplingPO 108-3, PO 118-12, PO 118-9,
PO 127-7
passive samplers ............................PO 117-5
peracetic acid.................................PS 401-15
permeation ....................PO 114-1, PO 114-2
personal protective
equipmentPO 114-2, PO 114-4, PO 1147, PS 403-8, PS 404-13
personal sampler............................PO 132-2
pesticide........PO 122-2, PO 131-6, PS 403-3
pharmaceutical ............PO 107-2, PO 120-5
photoionization detector............PO 111-1
photovoltaic industry...................PO 128-6
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
physiology.......................................PS 404-15
PID.......................................................PO 111-4
pipeline ............................................PS 402-15
plant inspections ............................PS 403-3
PM 2.5 .................................................PO 130-2
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(PCB) ............................PO 109-7, PO 117-6
polycyclic aromatic
ydrocarbons.................................PO 118-3
portable particle counters ..........PO 132-1
PPE ....................................PO 114-6, PO 120-4
prevention ........................................PO 113-5
protective clothing ........................PO 105-1
protective gloves............................PO 114-5
protective requirements..............PO 112-2
pump-powered nebulizer ............PO 125-4
pyrophoric ........................................PO 105-1
pyrosequencing ..............................PO 133-4
QPCR..................................................PS 403-15
QRA......................................................PO 113-4
radiation .........................PO 112-2, PO 119-2
radiofrequency .............PO 119-5, PO 119-6
REACH .................................................PS 404-7
real-time monitoring....................PO 108-3,
PO 111-2, PO 111-4
recognition systems......................PO 110-4
recreation .........................................PO 121-3
recreational vehicle.......................PO 109-3
regulations .......................................PO 113-1
remediation ..................PO 106-3, PO 123-1,
PO 128-3
research activity.............................PO 105-4
residential construction ..............PO 130-5
respirable dust .............PO 126-6, PO 126-7
respirable particulate ...................PO 127-7
respirator.......................PO 116-1, PO 116-5,
PO 116-6, PO 124-3, PS 404-15
respirator selection .......................PO 124-7
respirator test ...............PO 116-5, PO 124-6
respiratory........................................PO 126-8
respiratory protection.................PO 105-5,
PO 124-1, PO 124-4, PO 124-5, PO 124-7
respiratory symptoms.................PS 402-16
response..........................................PO 131-10
retrospective .................PO 101-1, PO 126-3
retrospective exposure ................PO 126-1
risk assessment ...........PO 103-5, PO 109-1,
PO 109-4, PO 113-1, PO 113-3, PO 115-4,
PO 125-1, PO 126-6, PO 128-1, PO 128-4,
PO 128-5, PO 128-6, PS 403-4
risk communication.......................PO 110-2
risk factors ....................PO 108-8, PO 134-7,
PS 402-2
risk management ........PO 104-5, PO 109-6,
PO 113-4, PO 123-7, PO 125-7, PO 128-1
risk prevention................................PO 123-7
safety ............PO 108-6, PO 110-1, PO 118-7,
PS 401-16
safety management ....PO 108-7, PO 115-2
Safety Officer...................................PO 123-4
sample size.......................................PO 115-6
sampling .........................PO 105-6, PO 115-6
sampling and analysis ................ PO 121-6,
PO 127-8, PS 403-19, PS 403-21
sampling instruments/
methods ....................PO 132-4, PS 401-14
SCBA....................................................PO 116-9
Schlieren Photography.................PO 107-3
school children................................PO 131-3
school indoor environment .......PO 106-5,
PO 117-7
sensitization ....................................PO 121-5
service life.........................................PO 124-7
SF6........................................................PS 401-7
shape analysis .................................PO 116-2
shielding............................................PO 112-1
silica................PO 108-5, PO 118-9, PS 401-6
skin exposure ...............PO 103-5, PO 121-1,
PO 121-3, PO 121-5
smoke ............PO 130-2, PO 130-3, PO 131-2
software applications...................PO 115-8
soot .....................................................PO 130-4
spill response...................................PO 123-5
SPME...................................................PO 127-3
spore trap..........................................PO 106-4
standards........................PO 113-5, PO 124-5
statistics .........................PO 103-4, PO 132-5
strategic planning..........................PO 110-8
stress ................................................PS 404-12
sun.......................................................PO 119-3
supply chain management..........PO 122-7
surface monitoring ........................PO 127-9
surface sampling ............................PO 118-8
surrogate monitoring ...................PO 120-5
surveillance....................PO 110-5, PO 132-5
sustainability...................................PO 105-2
task-based exposure
methodology .............................PS 402-17
technology........................................PO 122-1
test requirements ..........................PO 116-7
AIHce 2011 Abstracts | Portland, Oregon | May 14–19, 2011
testing ...........PO 101-4, PO 119-4, PO 120-6
threeparty cooperation................PO 113-5
toluene ..............................................PO 116-4
total inward leakage .....................PO 116-3
tracer gas ......PO 105-3, PO 107-5, PS 401-7
training ........PO 104-3, PO 110-1, PO 110-9,
PO 116-3, PO 119-2, PO 134-4
trenching ...........................................PS 404-4
trichloramine, indoor swimming
pools, air sampling...................PS 403-17
trichlorosilane .................................PS 401-2
triethanolamine .............................PO 114-1
tunnel rehabilitation ...PS 402-5, PS 402-6
UFP ....................................PO 132-7, PS 401-3
ultraviolet radiation ....PO 119-3, PS 403-8
university faculties, .....................PS 404-12
urinalysis...........................................PO 109-2
utilities ..............................................PO 102-4
validation..........................................PO 110-6
VDTlog................................................PO 134-1
vehicles ...........................PO 102-4, PO 110-6
ventilation.....................PO 107-3, PO 107-5,
PS 401-12, PS 402-12, PS 404-1
vibration .......PO 102-2, PO 102-3, PO 134-2
video exposure monitoring.........PO 110-2
virus ....................................................PO 133-2
visual performance........................PO 124-5
VOC modeling ..................................PO 117-8
volatile organic compounds ......PO 105-4,
PO 107-3
VPP ......................................................PO 118-4
weathered product........................PO 101-4
weatherization ...............................PO 117-4
web-based.........................................PO 115-5
welding .........................PO 132-12, PO 132-6
welding fumes .............. PO 116-6, PS 401-3
wipe sampling ................................ PO 118-8
wood dust.........................................PO 131-4
work practices ..............................PS 401-16
workers exposures.........................PO 120-4
workers’ compensation................PO 112-6
workplace control..........................PO 118-2
WPF.....................................................PO 124-4
zero-background ............................PO 129-4
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