C B t N

C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 1
Citi Bike Takes New York
Lily Gordon-Koven & Nolan Levenson
Rudin Center for Transportation Management and Policy
NYU Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service
March 2014
Rudin Center for Transportation
295 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012
Web: nyurudincenter.com
Twitter: @nyurudin
Facebook: facebook.com/NYURudinCenter
Email: [email protected]
Thanks to Stephanie Levinsky from NYCDOT, Justin Ginsburgh from NYC Bike Share LLC,
and Justin Tyndall from the Rudin Center.
Editor: Sarah M. Kaufman
All photos by Nolan Levenson
All maps created and designed by Lily Gordon-Koven
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 3
Contents
Citi Bike Takes New York
5
Cycling in New York City
5
Citi Bike Launches
7
Expanding the Network
8
Connecting to Transit
11
Shortening the Last Mile
16
Activity Hubs
21
Rebalancing
27
A New, Flexible Mode
29
Figures and Tables
30
References
31
4 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Executive Summary
New York City implemented its bikeshare system, Citi Bike, in May
2013. With more than 6.5 million trips taken by the end of February 2014,
the system is well-used. Its daily ridership is equivalent to one of the city’s
most popular bus routes. Rather than serve as just a recreational mode, Citi
Bike has become an integral part of New York City’s transportation network.
This report analyzes key aspects of Citi Bike:
Citi Bike is built on station density, with almost 20 stations per square mile.
Citi Bike provides a “last mile” solution for many transit commuters -almost 3/4 of all Citi Bike stations are within 1/4 mile of a subway station.
The most used stations are near major transportation hubs,
including Grand Central, Penn Station, and the World Trade Center.
The system’s greatest challenge is its success-- it has so much use
that it struggles to rebalance bikes at high-demand stations.
Our analysis focuses on the relationship between Citi Bike and New York
City’s subway system. It is the first analysis based on current Citi Bike station
locations and their activity levels, with data from NYCDOT, and the connection
to the subway network. We found that Citi Bike complements New York City’s
dense street grid and expansive subway system. Seventy-four percent of Citi Bike
stations are within a five minute (quarter mile) walk of a subway station entrance.
The average distance between Citi Bike station and subway entrance is 934 feet.
Citi Bike’s density and connections to transit are compared with
two other bikeshare systems: Capital Bike Share in Washington, DC and
Divvy Bikes in Chicago. While Citi Bike has 19.7 bike share stations per
square mile, Capital Bike Share has 4.37 stations per square mile and Divvy
has 6.8 stations per square mile. The differences in station density and
connection to transit suggest that Citi Bike promotes short, last-mile trips.
As Citi Bike grows, more New Yorkers will be able to access the new
network, expanding the capacity and accessibility of the transportation
system. Communities across the city, from Harlem to Greenpoint, are
requesting stations in their neighborhoods. The system’s expansion can
serve more New Yorkers by increasing their daily mode choices. New Yorkers
will benefit from improved mobility and additional transportation options.
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 5
Citi Bike Takes New York
Citi Bike has become a vital element of the city’s transportation network,
providing a new flexible mode for many New Yorkers. Trips that were once
20-minute walks are now 5-minute bike rides, and places previously inaccessible by public transit are now linked to the network.
In its first six months of operation, Citi Bike riders took
more than 6 million trips, and by early January, nearly
100,000 riders spent $95 to become annual members.
Cycling in New York City
Cycling in New York City is not a new phenomenon. Bicycle messengers
and delivery people have been staples of New York City for decades. Before the
advent of the automobile, bicycles were a common mode of transportation.
During the early 1900’s, women who were prohibited from driving used bicycles
to travel - famous suffragist Susan B. Anthony once said that the bicycle had
“done more to emancipate women then anything else in the world.”
Some of New York City’s first bike lanes were implemented in midtown
Manhattan in 1980 by Mayor Ed Koch. The lanes garnered public backlash and
were removed after one month. Cyclists were banned from Midtown. This situation remained largely unchanged for more than two decades.
Today, the bicycle network has flourished. Led by former New York
City Transportation Commissioner Janette Sadik-Khan and the Department of
Transportation, the city expanded its bicycle facilities to nearly 600 miles by
the end of the Bloomberg administration.
Bicycling recently reached one percent modeshare in New York City.
Attention to bicycle-automobile and bicycle-pedestrian collisions from the
police and legal sectors continues to grow. Recent cases have yet to create a
clear legal precedent.
Nolan Levenson
Attention from other industries grows as more New Yorkers choose to
bicycle. Hotels are creating their own bike share programs and lending bicycles
Nolan Levenson
to guests. Meanwhile, web and smartphone application developers are using
data from the Department of Transportation to build apps and websites that
make biking in New York City easier. These apps include NYC Bike Map 2013,
Ride the City, and New York Bike, which help riders find the bike routes and
bike shops.
6 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
As a result of the new lanes and tools to navigate them, bicycle
commuting doubled between 2007 and 2011. Likewise, screenline counts
of riders at bridge crossings increased 186 percent between 2000 and 2013.
The bike lane expansion has received criticism from some local residents,
however, a 2012 New York Times poll showed that sixty-six percent of New
Yorkers think bike lanes are a good idea. The Prospect Park West bicycle
lane created large public debate and a lawsuit, despite evidence showing
improved traffic safety.
As part of the expanding bike infrastructure, the New York City
Department of City Planning conducted a bike share feasibility study in 2009.
The city issued a request for proposals in November 2010 and ultimately
selected NYC Bike Share, a newly formed subsidiary of Alta Bicycle Share,
in September 2011. With funding from Citigroup and underwriting from
Goldman Sachs Urban Investment Group, outreach and planning began.
New York City Department of Transportation staff conducted 159
multilingual outreach meetings and more than 200 additional stakeholder
meetings to engage residents and community groups in the planning
process. Using a new online tool called “Shareabouts,” the city solicited
more than 10,000 station location suggestions and 60,000 comments
(pictured below).
Shareabouts
Citibike Station
Suggestion Map
Source:
Open Plans
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 7
Citi Bike Launches
After several delays, including one related to equipment damage caused
by Superstorm Sandy, Citi Bike launched in May 2013 with 330 stations and
5,000 bikes in the lower half of Manhattan and pockets of Brooklyn, including
Williamsburg and downtown Brooklyn. By launch day, 16,000 people already
signed up as annual members.
Annual Citi Bike memberships cost $95 and provide members an
unlimited number of 45 minute rides. Rides longer than 45 minutes result in
overage charges ranging from $2.50 for an additional 25 minutes to over $9.00
for additional time. Seven day passes are available for $25 and 24-hour passes
are available for $9.95. NYCHA residents and credit union members qualify for
discounted $60 annual memberships. Prior to launch day, DOT and NYC Bike
Share staff held events to introduce New Yorkers to the system.
Despite the uptake in the system, there were serious criticisms of Citi
Bike. Residents in Fort Greene, Brooklyn, for example, expressed concerns over
the loss of on-street parking and the degradation of the historic aesthetic of
their neighborhood caused by the blue bikes. Neighborhood groups objected
to the locations of bikeshare stations, and some were relocated.
Author Delia Ephron wrote in the New York Times that the color of the
bicycles disrupted the natural palate of New York City. Still, Citi Bike has an
average of almost 30,000 trips per day, a statistic comparable to the ridership
of the busiest local New York City Transit bus routes.
Geographically, the system covers some of the city’s major commercial
business districts and residential areas, allowing riders to travel short distances
from work to home or between meetings.
8 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Expanding the Network
Why does Citi Bike work? New York’s densely populated center
already encourages residents, workers, and tourists to walk or take transit
to get around the city. New York City, famed for its density and walkability,
lends itself well to a tightly knit web of bike share stations. The density
of bikeshare stations that helps riders find and return bikes is the main
element in the system’s success.
For a fuller understanding of the system’s success, we looked at the
geographic relationship to New York City’s subways. Serving 5.4 million
riders every weekday with over 700 miles of track, the subway extends far
beyond Citi Bike’s geographic reach. However, the subway carries millions
each day, many of whom use Citi Bike to cut down on travel time by biking,
rather than walking or taking a bus or taxi, the “last mile” to their destination. In analyzing the busiest stations, we found a strong connection
between existing transit infrastructure and hubs and Citi Bike’s use.
Citi Bike presents a quick alternative to walking,
taking a cab, or waiting for a crosstown bus.
Subway lines primarily run North-South along the center of Manhattan
on Lexington Avenue, Broadway, 6th Avenue, 7th Avenue, and 8th Avenue,
leaving the far east and west sides without immediate subway access.
Meanwhile, Citi Bike stations blanket the southern half of the island from
east to west and 59th Street to Battery Park. This enables multidirectional
travel; for crosstown travellers, Citi Bike presents a quick and relatively
inexpensive alternative to walking, taking a cab, or a crosstown bus. New
York City’s buses are the slowest in the nation; a mile-long bus trip across
34th Street could take more than 20 minutes but a Citi Bike cuts the same
trip down to 10 minutes or less, depending on the rider.
This solution to the last mile problem is only made possible by
the ease of access between bike and public transit. Seventy-two percent
of Citi Bike stations, 237 of 330, are within ¼ mile or a five minute walk of
a subway station centerpoint; twenty-five percent are within 500 feet;
eight percent are within 200 feet; and three percent are within 100 feet.
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 9
Figure 1. Citi BikeCiti
Stations
and Hubs
Bike Takes
New York
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1 0 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
A close analysis of subway station entrances highlights Citi Bike
station locations. Seventy-four percent all Citi Bike stations, 243 of 330,
are within ¼ mile of a subway station entrance (vs. centerpoint); thirtyeight percent are within 500 feet; sixteen percent are within 200 feet; and
ten percent are within 100 feet. In other words, the stations within a five
minute walk of a subway entrance have the capacity to hold approximately
8,500 Citi Bikes (more bikes than the system currently has).
Within the geographic extent of Citi Bike stations there are 158
subway stations, roughly 2.1 Citi Bike stations for every subway station.
The proximity of Citi Bike stations to subway entrances encourages short
trips and enables multimodal trips without the hassle of securing a private
bicycle, time spent walking, money spent on a taxi or car service, and with
the added benefit of providing exercise.
Figure 2. Citi Bike Stations within
1/4 Mile of a Subway Entrance
Citi Bike Stations within1/4 Mile of Subway Entrances
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¯
Through our spatial analysis, we examined both subway station centerpoints and subway station entrances. Subway station entrances provide a
more accurate analysis by showing where people walk into the stations; however, entrance information was not available for Chicago or Washington,
DC’s rail systems. For true comparisons, we used station centerpoints as well as station entrances.
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 1 1
Connecting to Transit
To put the system’s density in perspective, we examined the density
and relationship to transit of two comparable bikeshare programs, Divvy
in Chicago and Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC. Chicago’s Divvy bike
share also launched in spring 2013 and is operated by Alta Bicycle Share.
The system includes 300 stations and 3,000 bikes and is owned by the
Chicago Department of Transportation. The geographic extent of Divvy
stations currently overlaps with 85 “El” train stations; there are 3.5 Divvy
stations for every El station.
While Chicago’s system has also been very successful and plans
to extend to 475 stations to become the largest system in the country, it
does not have the same relationship to transit that Citi Bike does. While
seventy-two percent of all Citi Bike stations are within a five minute walk
of a subway station, forty-one percent of all Divvy stations are within ¼
mile of an El station. Twenty percent are within 500 feet of an El station;
nine percent are within 200 feet; and two percent are within 100 feet.
Total Citibike Stations:
Average Station Distance
to Subway Entrance :
331
Average Distance between Bus Stops
Typical New York City Block
750 feet
200 feet
934 feet
(MTA NYCT)
Rudin Center for Transportation
4%
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1/2
Percentage of Total
Citibike Stations
Citi Bike and Subway Station Entrances
Distance to Subway Entrance
Pinterest / John Wisniewski
1 2 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Figure 3. Citi Bike Stations within 200 and 500 Feet
of Subway Entrance
Citi Bike Stations within 200 and 500 Feet of Subway Entrances
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C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 1 3
Percentage of bike share stations within a 5 minute
walk of a heavy rail (subway or El) station centerpoint
New York City
Citi Bike
28%
72%
Chicago
Divvy
Washington, DC
Capital Bikeshare
41%
36%
Rudin Center for Transportation
Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC opened in 2010 and has been
heralded as one of the country’s most successful systems. The system is also
operated by Alta Bicycle Share and was the largest bike share program in the
country before Citi Bike opened. The system includes 308 stations and roughly
2,500 bikes spread through the District; Montgomery County, Maryland;
Arlington County, Virginia; and Alexandria, Virginia. The geographic extent
of Capital Bikeshare overlaps with 59 WMATA metro stations; there are 5.2
bike share stations for every one Metro station.
Capital Bikeshare’s expansion in 2012 and 2013 into adjacent counties
allows the system to cover more ground, but diminishes the capacity of riders to
connect to transit. A map of Capital Bikeshare, Divvy, and Citi Bike at the same
scale shown on page 15 shows the diverging densities of the three systems.
In Washington, 111 of 308 Capital Bikeshare stations, thirty-six percent, are
within quarter-mile walk from a Metro station. Eleven percent of all stations
are within 500 feet of a Metro station; one percent of stations are within 200
feet of a Metro station; and only one Capital Bikeshare station, less than 0.01
percent of all stations, is within 100 feet of a Metro station.
1 4 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Bike Share Systems: A Comparison
Proximity to Transit
80
Percentage of All Stations
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
100 Feet
200 Feet
500 Feet
1/4 Mile (1320 Feet)
Distance from Subway Station
Citi Bike
Divvy Bikes
Capital Bikeshare
Rudin Center for Transportation
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 1 5
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Washington, DC
Capital Bikeshare
308 Stations
2,500 Bikes
70.45 Miles Station Coverage
2
4.37 Stations/Mile2
Chicago
Divvy Bikes
300 Stations
3,000 Bikes
44.12 Miles2 Station Coverage
2
6.8 Stations/Mile
New York City
Citi Bike
330 Stations
5,000 Bikes
16.75 Miles Station Coverage
2
19.7 Stations/Mile
Three maps above produced at equal scales with bike share systems and rail transit lines
to illustrate system coverage and density.
Station coverage equals the total ground area of a 1/2 mile buffer around all bikeshare stations in each system.
2
1 6 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Shortening The Last Mile
Citi Bike’s extension of the transportation network is especially
evident in areas with moderate subway access where residents and workers
walk ten or fifteen minutes to access transit. On Manhattan’s far west side,
subways are accessed on 6th, 7th, and 8th Avenues on the 1/2/3, A/C/E,
and F/M trains.
Citi Bike can cut down on trip times for New Yorkers. Accessing the
Citi Bike station at 27th Street and 11th Avenue and riding to Penn Station
at 33rd Street and 8th Avenue, a distance of 0.8 miles, turns a 16 minute
walk into a 6 minute bike ride.
In Fort Greene, Williamsburg, the East Village, and even Midtown,
Citi Bike reduces travel times for people commuting and for people taking
local trips to a meeting, lunch date, or even the grocery store. The following
maps illustrate the connections Citi Bike is making in neighborhoods not
directly located on subway lines. For commuters, bike share has the potential to reduce commuting times.
Figures 4-7 on the subsequent pages illustrate how Citi Bike extends
the reach of transit in New York City by shortening trips from neighborhoods in Manhattan and Brooklyn and connecting workers and residents
to some of the city’s largest transit hubs. Connections to Grand Central
Terminal, Penn Station, and Atlantic Avenue-Barclays Center connect riders
to 14 subway lines as well as Amtrak, MetroNorth, Long Island Rail Road,
and New Jersey Transit.
Legend for following neighborhood maps
A
B
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Ending Point
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C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 2 1
Activity Hubs
Citi Bike’s density, cost, and integration with diverse modes of travel
contribute to the system’s adoption as a regular mode choice by New Yorkers,
not just for leisure or recreation, but as an integral part of their commuting
patterns. This integration becomes evident through an analysis of the system’s
busiest stations. Figures 8 and 9 highlight stations with more than 35,000 trip
starts and ends between July 1 and December 1, 2013.
The busiest stations are adjacent to transit hubs, including those surrounding
Grand Central Station, Pennsylvania Station, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal.
Together, these transit hubs carry more than a million passengers in and out
of the city each day from the surrounding regions via New Jersey Transit Buses
and Commuter Rail, Long Island Rail Road, MetroNorth Railroad, and Amtrak.
In Midtown, Union Square, Flatiron, SoHo, and Downtown, the busiest stations
are linked not only to commuter rail lines but also to the city’s subways as well.
Table 1. Top 10 Stations: Trip Starts
Table 2. Top 10 Stations: Trip Ends
7/1/2013 - 12/1/2013 (Total)
7/1/2013 - 12/1/2013 (Total)
Station Trips
StationTrips
Pershing Square (Grand Central)
78,224
Pershing Square (Grand Central)
57,795
Lafayette St & E 8 St (Astor Place)47,297
E 17 St & Broadway (Union Square)
50,756
E 17 St & Broadway (Union Square)46,045
Lafayette St & E 8 St (Astor Place)
46,775
8 Ave & W 31 St (Penn Station)
8 Ave & W 31 St (Penn Station)
42,377
44,224
W 21 St & 6 Ave
41,406
W 21 St & 6 Ave
40,522
West St & Chambers St
38,507
West St & Chambers St
39,387
Broadway & E 14 St (Union Square)37,325
Cleveland Pl & Spring St
36,686
Cleveland Pl & Spring St
36,733
Broadway & E 14 St (Union Square)36,229
Broadway & E 22 St
34,211
Broadway & E 22 St
35,492
Broadway & W 24 St
33,954
Broadway & W 60 St
35,225
2 2 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Active
Start Start
Stations
Figure
8. Active
Stations:
35,000
Stations
with over 35,000
starts
starts
Stations
a day
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July 1 - December 1, 2013
July 1 - December 1, 2013
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C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 2 3
Figure
9. Active
Stations:
Active
End End
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Stations
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a day
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July 1 - December 1, 2013
July 1 - December 1, 2013
!
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2 4 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
The bike-mass transit commuting patterns are apparent when studying
the busiest stations in the morning and evening rush hours. Figures 10 and
11 show the 25 stations with the most trip starts in the morning and the
25 stations with the most trip ends in the evening. The similar clustering of
stations show that riders are starting their days in one place and returning
to comparable locations in the evening. These maps also reveal one of the
system’s greatest challenges: rebalancing.
Commuting Patterns: Where are people riding to and from?
Table 3.
Top 10 Stations: Total Morning Rush
Hour Trip Starts
Table 4.
Top 10 Stations: Total Evening Rush
Hour Trip Ends
7/1/2013 - 12/1/2013
7/1/2013 - 12/1/2013
StationTrips
StationTrips
Pershing Square (Grand Central) 25,367
Pershing Square (Grand Central) 20,536
8 Ave & W 31 St (Penn Station)
17,724
8 Ave & W 31 St (Penn Station)
17,453
W 41 St & 8 Ave
13,144
W 41 St & 8 Ave
13,479
E 43 St & Vanderbilt Ave
12,458
Lafayette St & E 8 St (Astor Place)13,216
8 Ave & W 33 St
11,930
E 17 St & Broadway
13,069
W 33 St & 7 Ave
10,734
W 33 St & 7 Ave
12,526
Lafayette St & E 8 St (Astor Place)8,175
West St & Chambers St
11,221
Barclay St & Church St
8,098
8 Ave & W 33 St
10,807
W 38 St & 8 Ave
7,607
Barrow St & Hudson St
10,530
W 31 St & 7 Ave
7,441
W 21 St & 6 Ave
10,485
Morning Rush Hour : start time 6-10am, weekdays only
Evening Rush Hour : start time 4-8pm, weekdays only
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 2 5
Figure 10.Morning
MorningRush
Bike Share
Hour Rush Hour
r
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East Midtown
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City Hall
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Rudin Center for
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Top 25 Morning Origins
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1 Miles
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2 6 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Figure 11.Evening
Evening Rush
Bike Share
HourRush Hour
r
Columbus Circle
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on
Ri
ve
$$
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SoHo
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Rudin Center for
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C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 2 7
Rebalancing
Citi Bike’s popularity has created such a demand that stations often lack
bikes or are completely full, making it hard to take or park a Citi Bike. Rebalancing
is the process of redistributing bikes between ‘attractive’ and ‘repulsive’ stations.
As commuters ride to work in the morning, ‘repulsive’ stations empty out and
leave few to no bikes. Conversely, ‘attractive’ stations in busy neighborhoods fill
up, leaving no place for riders to dock their bikes. Stations that are full or empty
are considered to be an “outage.”
Under contract with the City, NYC Bike Share faces financial penalties
when adjacent station outages occur for more than one hour. To avoid outages,
dozens of rebalancing teams shuttle bikes between full and empty stations using
big box trucks, sprinter vehicles, and bicycle trailers.
New smartphone apps built by ‘civic hackers’ mitigate these issues by
helping Citi Bike riders find stations with open docks or available bikes. These
apps include the official Citi Bike app as well as NYC Bikes, Availabike, and NYC
Bike Share.
Despite the varied forms of rebalancing, Citi Bike still struggles to
meet demand for riders. Although the main bike warehouse is in Sunset Park,
Brooklyn, Citi Bike opened three hubs near Penn Station, Pier 40, and Delancey
Street where broken bikes can be repaired and working bikes can be staged
for vehicle pickup. This proximity shortens the travel distances of rebalancing
vehicles, avoiding the potentially hour-long trip from Sunset Park to Midtown,
which could exceed the one-hour outage limit.
While surveyed users expressed frustration with bike distribution, officials
at the City’s Department of Transportation believe commuters are tweaking their
schedules and destinations to ensure easier access to bikes and docks during
the morning and evening rushes.
The system’s success has created its greatest
challenge: Rebalancing bikes
2 8 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Workers unload a moving-truck full of Citi Bikes near Penn Station
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 2 9
Citi Bike: A New, Flexible
Mode of Mobility
As Citi Bike riders seek the warmth of spring, many ask when the system
will expand to meet the needs of more riders – those who live throughout the five
boroughs and beyond – and ease the rebalancing difficulties. Representatives from
the City’s Department of Transportation note that significant time has elapsed
since they conducted initial public outreach and staff would need to revisit sites
and possibly hold new public meetings.
System expansion would also require new funding sources and a possible
discussion of additional private partners. Additionally, Citi Bike mechanics continue
to repair equipment and bicycles damaged by Superstorm Sandy; NYC Bikeshare
representatives report that it costs $800 to repair a bicycle and $1150 to purchase
a new one.
New York City’s density and rich transit network are keys to the system’s
strength; however, thoughtful planning and oversight from city administrators and
staff built a system with a density to match its surroundings. Strong marketing and
wayfinding make finding stations and noticing bikes easy and the relatively low
cost gives the system the opportunity to unite New Yorkers across income brackets,
something New York’s diverse transportation network already encourages.
The integration of Citi Bike into New Yorkers’ daily travel routines, and the
commuting patterns that contribute to rebalancing woes, demonstrate the ability
of transportation systems to reinforce one another. The addition of Citi Bike to the
New York landscape means more choices - of mode, destination, and payment - for
visitors and residents.
3 0 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
Figures
1. Citi Bike Stations and Hubs
9
2. Citi Bike Stations within 1/4 Mile of Subway Entrance
10
3. Citi Bike Stations within 200 and 500 Feet of Subway Entrance
12
4. East Village Neighborhood Connections17
5. Chelsea Neighborhood Connections18
6. Fort Greene Neighborhood Connections
19
7. East Midtown Neighborhood Connections
20
8. Active Start Stations22
9. Active End Stations23
10. Morning Bike Share Rush Hour
25
11. Evening Bike Share Rush Hour 26
Tables
1. Top 10 Stations: Trip Starts21
2. Top 10 Stations: Trip Ends21
3. Top 10 Stations: Morning Rush Hour Trip Starts
24
4. Top 10 Stations: Evening Rush Hour Trip Ends
24
C I T I B I K E TA K E S N E W Y O R K | 3 1
References
1. NYCDOT. “NYC BikeShare: Designed by New Yorkers.” 2012
2. NYCDOT. “Suggestion Archive.” New York City Bikeshare.
a841-tfpweb.nyc.gov/bikeshare/suggestion-archive/
3. Grynbaum, Michael M. & Connelly, Marjorie. “Most New Yorkers Say Bikes
Lanes are a Good Idea.” The New York Times. August 21, 2012.
4. Open Plans. “NYC Bike Share Map.”
openplans.org/case-study/nyc-bike-share-map/
5. Bernstein, Andrea. “Survey: 64% of CitiBike Users Unhappy
About Full or Empty Docks.” Transportation Nation. October 2013.
6. Sandler, Ross. “No Dedicated Lane in Court for Bike Riders.” City Land. March 5, 2014.
Data Sources: NYCDOT, NYC Open Data, Chicago Data Portal, DC Data Catalog, US Census
Before the launch of Citi Bike, a “last mile” analysis was conducted by Steven Romalewski on
the Spatiality Blog (spatialityblog.com) on May 14, 2012, using the proposed station locations.
That analysis can be found here:
http://spatialityblog.com/2012/05/14/citibikenyc_firstlastmile_quantified/
3 2 | R U D I N C E N T E R F O R T R A N S P O R TAT I O N
About the Rudin Center for Transportation
The Rudin Center for Transportation at NYU’s Wagner Graduate School of Public Service school aims to strengthen our
understanding of all modes of transportation through research, public forums, and educational programs. The Center
draws upon faculty, students, and visiting scholars at NYU. Current areas of inquiry include:
•
The flow of people, goods and information in and through New York City
•
Information technology and transportation systems
•
Inequality and access to employment
•
Urban bike share systems
•
The future of supercommuting
The Rudin Center for Transportation was named in recognition of a gift from civic leader Lewis Rudin and receives support
from leading firms in transportation, finance, and communications. The director of the Center is Mitchell L. Moss, Henry
Hart Rice Professor of Urban Policy and Planning.
Rudin Center for Transportation
295 Lafayette Street, Second Floor New York, NY 10012 udincenter
Website: nyurudincenter.com
Twitter: @nyurudin
Facebook: facebook.com/NYURudinCenter
Email: [email protected]
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