Lesson 3 • GPP 3 Key Terms

Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Lesson 3 • GPP 3
Use Antibiotics Responsibly
Key learning objectives:
• Identify the principles and guidelines for the responsible use of antibiotics
Estimated teaching time: 15 minutes
Number of activities provided: 1
Key Terms
Antibiotic
Antibiotic resistance
Antimicrobial
Clinical
Medication
Microorganisms
204
Lesson 3
Slide 1 • Introduction
Advisor’s Guide
Speaker’s Notes
Welcome to lesson number
three of the Youth Pork Quality
Assurance PlusTM program, “Use
antibiotics responsibly”.
Slide 2 • Objective
Speaker’s Notes
The U.S. pork industry has a
proud tradition of producing
safe and nutritious pork
for consumers all over the
world. That tradition includes
addressing issues arising
from the use of animal health
products, including antibiotics.
At the end of this lesson you
will be able to identify important
principles and guidelines for
using antibiotics responsibly.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 3 • Responsible Antibiotic Use
Speaker’s Notes
Review Question
Q. T/F: Antibiotics are made from molds or
bacteria.
A. TRUE
You may be wondering what type
of medication an antibiotic is.
Antibiotics are substances that
are produced by microorganisms
(such as molds or bacteria)
and kill or inhibit the growth of
other microorganisms, such as
bacteria, that cause infections.
Antimicrobials are substances
that include antibiotics but
also include synthetic agents
that are created in a laboratory
and work in the same manner
as antibiotics. Antibiotics
and antimicrobials are both
types of medication and the
term antibiotic is often used
to describe antibiotics and
antimicrobials.
Antibiotics specifically attack bacteria without harming cells belonging to the
organism that produced them. Antibiotics, such as penicillin, kill bacteria by inhibiting
the bacteria from making cell walls that are needed for their survival, other antibiotics
interfere with a bacteria’s ability to synthesize DNA or specific proteins.
The use of antibiotics may lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that
may not be killed by antibiotics and may be more difficult to treat if they infect animals
or humans. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every pork producer to use antibiotics
responsibly. Involving your veterinarian will help ensure that you are making the
proper medication decisions.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 4 • Responsible Antibiotic Use
Speaker’s Notes
Review Question
You and your veterinarian share
a responsibility to use antibiotics
properly to help prevent
resistance. Whether antibiotics
are used for disease treatment,
disease prevention or to improve
nutritional efficiency, you and
your veterinarian should carefully
consider the issue of antibiotic
resistance and the potential
impact for particular situations.
Resistance is the ability of
bacteria to withstand the effects
of an antibiotic.
Q. T/F: Antibiotics can be used in swine to
improve nutritional efficiency.
A. TRUE
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 5 • Responsible Antibiotic Use
Speaker’s Notes
Suggested Group Activity
Properly Administering Medications
Age: All
Time: 5-10 minutes
Review Questions
Q. T/F: Antibiotics can be used as a method of
good management.
A. FALSE - Antibiotics should only be used to
supplement good management.
Q. T/F: Responsible antibiotic use is good for
animals and humans.
A. TRUE
Producers like yourself,
veterinarians and other food
chain participants share the
concerns regarding the use
of antibiotics as tools utilized
in the production of our food
supply. The responsible use
of these products is beneficial
both for the health and wellbeing of the animal and for food
safety and human health. It is
important that you use antibiotics
responsibly to minimize the
development of antibiotic
resistance, prevent drug residues,
preserve their effectiveness and
to maintain availability of these
products. Antibiotics and other
animal health products, while
important tools for good animal
health management, are only
one component of a complete
herd health plan. Antibiotics are
very important for keeping our
animals healthy.
Antibiotics should not be used
to replace good management,
but rather as a supplement to
management and should only be used when appropriate.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 6 • Responsible Antibiotic Use
Speaker’s Notes
Pork producers, like you, use
antibiotics for three purposes:
treatment of illness, prevention
of disease and to improve the
nutritional efficiency of their
animals.
Antibiotics can be delivered
through injection, feed or water
when used as a treatment to help
overcome an illness in animals.
Review Questions
Q. T/F: Antibiotics can be administered
through food, water, or injection.
A. TRUE
Q. T/F: Antibiotics are only used for the
treatment of illness.
A. FALSE - Antibiotics can also be used to
prevent bacterial infection and improve
nutritional efficiency.
Antibiotics are also used for
prevention of disease in animals
that have been, or are being,
exposed to a bacterial infection,
or when there is a history
of disease in an operation.
Antibiotics used for prevention
are typically given in feed or
water although some injectable
antibiotics are used to prevent
respiratory disease.
Improvement of nutritional
efficiency is another reason
for using antibiotics. When an
antibiotic is used to improve
nutritional efficiency it is usually
in an attempt to enhance pigs’ feed conversion and is delivered in their feed.
Q. What are two methods of delivering
antibiotics?
A. Injection, Feed, Water
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 7 • Principles & Guidelines
Speaker’s Notes
The National Pork Board
has developed the following
principles and guidelines to help
you use antibiotics responsibly:
Review Question
Q. T/F: Taking steps to ensure biosecurity can
also help prevent illness or disease in your
animals.
A. TRUE
First, take appropriate steps
to decrease the need for the
application of antibiotics.
You can do this through good
management by having a herd
health plan and by providing
proper shelter, feed and water for
your animals. By taking steps to
ensure biosecurity, you can also
help prevent illness or disease in
your animals.
Second, assess the advantages
and disadvantages of all uses
of antibiotics. Advantages may include improvements in animal health and welfare,
while disadvantages might be the development of resistant bacteria.
Use antibiotics only when they provide measurable benefits. Be sure to only use an
antibiotic if it benefits your animal(s).
Use professional veterinary input as the basis for all medication decision-making. If
your veterinarian is helping you choose your medications, he or she may suggest a
medication or treatment that is not an antibiotic. Involving your veterinarian will help
you make the right medication and care decisions for the health and safety of your
animal(s). Having a veterinary/client/patient relationship will help ensure that your
veterinarian is involved in your production practices and decision-making.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 8 • Principles & Guidelines
Speaker’s Notes
Another principle to follow is
making sure antibiotics are being
used for treatment only when
there is an appropriate clinical
diagnosis. Your veterinarian
will be able to help make this
decision.
Review Question
Q. T/F: It is okay to treat all animals with
antibiotics, even if they are not considered
at-risk.
A. FALSE - Limit antibiotic use to ill or at-risk
animals.
Limit antibiotic treatment to ill
or at-risk animals, treating the
fewest animals indicated. You
should only treat animals that
need medication. If an animal
does not need medication,
antibiotic use should be avoided.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 9 • Principles & Guidelines
Speaker’s Notes
Review Question
Antibiotics that are important
in treating antibiotic-resistant
infections in human or veterinary
medicine should only be used
in animals after careful review
and reasonable justification.
Diagnostic results are one tool
that you and your veterinarian
can use as justification. You
and your veterinarian share a
responsibility to use antibiotics
properly to help prevent
antibiotic resistance from
developing.
Q. T/F: It is okay to use antibiotics that are
important in treating antibiotic resistant
infections in people for your pigs without
justification.
A. FALSE - Such decisions should be
consulted with your veterinarian, along with
careful review and justification.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 10 • Principles & Guidelines
Speaker’s Notes
If animal health products are
mixed together they may cause
problems at the injection site,
decrease their efficacy, or require
a longer withdrawal period.
Only a veterinarian can, under
certain circumstances, legally
mix together injectable or water
medications.
Review Question
Q. T/F - It is okay for a producer to mix
together two different antibiotics.
A. False – When antibiotics are mixed
together there is a potential for problems
with injection site reactions, reduced efficacy,
or withdrawal times. Only a veterinarian can
legally mix together animal health products
under certain circumstances.
It is important to properly handle,
store and dispose of medication
and medicated feed. When using
medicated feed or water, feeders
and waterers should be adjusted
so the medicated feed or water is
not wasted and spilled where it
might end up in the environment
outside the barn. Be responsible
when handling and storing
medication.
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Slide 11 • National Pork Board’s Principles & Guidelines
Speaker’s Notes
Review Question
Q. T/F: Implementing biosecurity measures
may decrease the need for antibiotics.
A. TRUE
Using preventive strategies,
such as implementing a
biosecurity program, using
appropriate animal husbandry,
proper hygiene, routine health
monitoring and vaccination
programs can help decrease
the need for antibiotics. You
should consider the advantages
and disadvantages of all uses
of antibiotics, including animal
health, well-being, environmental,
food safety, and economic impact.
The healthier your animals are,
the fewer the antibiotics you may
need to use, resulting in spending
less money and reducing the
chances of the development
antibiotic resistance.
For example, if you watch your pigs every day you may notice one of your animals
is sick. You decide, early on, to treat the sick pig with antibiotics. If you were not
monitoring your animals closely you may not have noticed the sick pig until the entire
pen of pigs became sick. By noticing and treating the pig early you may have prevented
the need to treat an entire group of animals.
Slide 12 • Take Home Message
Speaker’s Notes
Some antibiotic-use objectives
that you may implement in your
operation include:
1. Follow responsible antibiotic
use guidelines.
2. Consult your veterinarian
before using antibiotics.
3. Implement a herd health plan
to help reduce the need for
antibiotics.
Teacher’s Note: For a full version of
National Pork Board’s Principles and
Guidelines for antibiotic use please reference
National Pork Board’s Take CareTM Program.
As a pork producer it is your
responsibility to use antibiotics
properly.
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Lesson 3
Slide 13 • Summary
Advisor’s Guide
Speaker’s Notes
As a producer, you have taken
on the responsibility to properly
care for your animals, following
the Responsible Antibiotic Use
Principles and Guidelines and
using medications properly will
help prevent antibiotic resistance
as well as violative residues.
Slide 14 • Youth Pork Quality Assurance Plus
Speaker’s Notes
Are there any questions?
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Lesson 3
Advisor’s Guide
Review Questions:
Q1. T/F: Antibiotics are made from molds or bacteria.
A. TRUE
Q2. T/F: Antibiotics can be used in swine to improve nutritional efficiency.
A. TRUE
Q3. T/F: Antibiotics can be used as a method of good management.
A. FALSE - Antibiotics should only be used to supplement good management.
Q4. T/F: Antibiotics can be given through food, water or injection.
A. TRUE
Q5. T/F: Antibiotics are only used for the treatment of illness.
A. FALSE - Antibiotics are also used for disease prevention and for increasing feed
efficiency.
Q6. What are two methods of delivering antibiotics?
A. Injection, Feed, Water
Q7. T/F: Taking steps to ensure biosecurity can also help prevent illness or
disease in your animals.
A. TRUE
Q8. T/F: It is okay to treat all animals with antibiotics, even if they are not at
risk.
A. FALSE - Limit antibiotic use to ill or at-risk animals.
Q9. T/F: It is okay to use human antibiotics for your pigs without justification.
A. FALSE - Such decisions should be consulted with your vet, along with careful
review and justification.
Q10. T/F - It is all right if a healthy pig finds and eats medicated feed.
A. FALSE - Medicated feed should be stored in a place where pigs can not eat it.
However, if a healthy pig does eat medicated feed be sure to follow withdrawal times
or test for medication residue if you are unsure of the withdrawal time and medication
residue level.
Q11. T/F: Implementing biosecurity measures may decrease the need for
antibiotics.
A. TRUE
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