Two ways to apply optical fibers in textile structures emitting light

Two ways to apply optical fibers in textile structures
textile structures actively
emitting light
optical fibers emitting
light on their jackets
sensors applied in
textile structures
sensor-optical fibers
(SOF)
Dipl.Dipl.-Ing. Elke Thiele, Dipl.Dipl.-Ing. Reinhard Helbig,
Helbig, Dipl.Dipl.-Ing. Frank Weigand,
Dipl.Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Rolf Arnold, Dr.Dr.-Ing. Monika Seeger
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Content
•
•
•
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Terminology
Motivation
Potential
Applications
– Shining textiles
– Sensing textiles
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
1
Terminology- What a textile fibre-optical lighting system is
made up of
Source of light (LED, metal vapour lamp, halogen
lamp)
~
Connecting systems (fibers, plugs, directly bonded
joint)
Optical fibers emitting light on their jackets (glass,
plastic material)
textile component to position optical fibers
(Stfi variant:
weaving/warp-knitting/knitting/embroidering)
characteristics
No emission of heat or UV radiation
Electric current is separated from place of light
emission
Structures can be applied in slightly wet areas
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Basics
• Fiber optic cable construction is characterized by
•core
•cladding
•coating
• Total internal reflection confines light within optical
fibers.
• the cladding has a lower refractive index, light rays
reflect back into the core if they encounter the
cladding at a shallow angle (blue lines)
• A ray that exceeds a certain critical angle escapes
from the fiber (pink line)
• The surface of the fiber starts to shine.
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Textile structures actively emitting light –
luminescent net
In 2000, STFI- first
developed product
based on optical
fibers;
Distribution by
bedea akzent
Net manufacturer:
Sächsische
Netzwerke Huck
GmbH
Double needle bar
warp-knitting machine
GWM,
OF- PMMA Ø = 1mm
150W- metal vapour
lamp
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Textile structures actively emitting light –
luminescent net
credits: bedea
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Textile structures actively emitting light
Knits:
e.g. special-purpose clothes,
children`s wear, safety clothes;
Machine used:
Universal double needle bar
flat knitting machine Universal
weft-insertion of optical fibers
Jacquard wovens:
e.g. structures to decorate walls,
structures to serve as wall partition,
luminescent sails, stage lighting systems
Machine used:
STB jacquard loom
Optical fibers inserted in warp direction,
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Textile structures actively emitting light
Dot-type or line-shape type
embroidered structures:
e.g. table cloths,window slats,
Machine used:
ZSK
Ribbon-type knits:
e.g. ribbons to serve as lighting
elements on table cloths
Machine used:
Raschelina single needle bar warpknitting machine RD3MT2 8/420
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Textile structures actively emitting lightsources of light
SZMS e.V. LED
LED for portable textile structures of
up to about 0.5m²
Light projector for large
stationary textile structures of
up to 250 m²
Light projector with bedea metal vapour
lamp
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Textile structures actively emitting light – range of
luminous power
Minolta exposure meter
applied directly on textile structure (captures about 70 cm²)
straight positioned optical fibers: from about 0.5 lx to 5 lx
arch-like positioned optical fibers: about 50 lx
compare:
sunlight
127.000 lx
Daylight in workshop
640 lx
Electric light in workshop at night 180 lx
Night of a full moon
0,2 lx
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Terminology
What a textile structure with sensor-optical fibers is made up of
~
Measuring instrument
Connecting system (forerunner
fibers, end-runner fibers, plugs, ..
FBG
Sensor-optical fibers (glass, plastic
materials)
Textile structure to position sensoroptical fibers
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Motivation
Motivation of integrating fiber optical sensors in textile
structures
combination of reinforcement and monitoring
To achieve:
• optimized connection of the sensor and the structure
• simple application process of the sensors
• The whole textile structure becomes a sensor
• three- dimensional sensor
• Protection of the sensors against overload
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Potential
Options of positioning the sensors in textiles
textile processing
•
weaving
•
warp knitting
•
knitting
•
nonwoven
•
embroidering
Examples of sensor positioning
finishing
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Potential
The sensor systems used by stfi so far
OTDR based on silica optical fibers
OTDR based on polymer optical fibers
FBG based on silica optical fibers
Brillouin scattering based on silica optical fibers
Chemical sensing silica or polymer optical fibers
Measuring of attenuation on silica optical fibers
Measuring of attenuation on polymer optical fibers
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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• Only light is transported, no electric current
• No puncture in case of lightning
• System works under extreme conditions (moisture, wetness, vibration,
radioactivity)
• The same fibers as used in telecommunication = low priced
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
• Silica optical fibers are sensitive to bending and mechanical stress
• Minimum bending radius without increase of optical attenuation is 32 mm
• Fibers would break if they were not protected by coating and cabling materials
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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schedule
Design
Sensortechnische
Gestaltung
Bautechnische
der
of the textile
Zielstellungen
Textilstruktur
Zielstellung
structure
processing
Sensortechnische
Bautechnische
Installation
Zielstellung
Materials
Design
testing
Modification of: machines
and technology
testing
Installation technology
Testing / calibration
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Application- structural engineering
Motivation
During lifetime, buildings lose their initial stability either because of aging
or overload. Reliable systems for reconstruction of buildings are needed
to ensure safety.
Objective
Development of textile structure
for application on the building
site. The tasks of the textiles
are to reinforce and monitor
structures at risk.
Application
For reconstruction to reinforce and monitor the structural health of
buildings.
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Application- structural engineering
2D- composite, sensor integrated
reinforcement
strengthening system
based on carbon plates
monitoring
measuring
system based on
FBG- sensors
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Application- structural engineering
Design
Sensortechnische
Gestaltung
Bautechnische
der
of the textile
Zielstellungen
Textilstruktur
Zielstellung
structure
processing
Sensortechnische
Bautechnische
Installation
Zielstellung
Materials
Design
testing
Modification of: machines
and technology
testing
Installation technology
Testing / calibration
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
10
Application- structural engineering
embroidery ground
Fiber optical sensor
Woven fabric, carbon
length: 0.60 m-50m
width: 150 mm; 10mm-1000mm
thickness: 0.90 mm-5 mm
E-module:30 kN/mm²
tensile strength: 300kN/m
Corning ® SMF-28e ®
diameter 125 µm
Minimal bending radius 30 mm
FBG produced by AOS GmbH
wave-length: 1550 nm
threads
PES (Grilon, Alterfil)
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Application- structural engineering
ZSK STICKTRONIC SGW
0100 – 800
W- Kopf; 800rev/min
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Application- structural engineering
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Application- structural engineering
Test of the function of the sensors
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Application- structural engineering
reference block: ferroconcrete strengthened with a composite
Test equipment : FBG, redundancy by strain gauge; inductive displacement
transducer
optical fiber
strain gauge
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Application- geosynthetics
Motivation
Stabilization and monitoring of critical soil structures
Objective
Development of a geotextile with integrated optical fiber sensors
Application
Dams
Dikes
Coal mines
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Vliesraschelmaschine RS 3 MSUS-V with weft insertion
Specification
special warp knitting
machine
parameters
- gauge 6 E
- 3 bars (1 ground bar,
2 guide bars to take up
the sensors and the
strengthening fibres)
- working width 165 inches
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Critical mechanical impacts on fiber optical sensors
tube
Sensor fibers or
reinforcing fibers
Weft insertion
Ground yarn
Nonwoven
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
14
Analysing methods of critical mechanical impacts on fiber
optical sensors
Test with special Polymer optical fiber (POF)
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Analysing methods of critical mechanical impacts on fiber
optical sensors
OTDR equipment used to check the quality of fiber
optical sensors during the manufacturing process
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
15
Textile machine adaptation
Analysing methods of critical mechanical impacts on fiber
optical sensors are the basis for the textile machine adaptation
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Single needle bar raschel knitting machine RS 3 MSUS-V
Advantages:
- very dense,
- semi-open or
- open structures can be produced
0° direction
90° direction
Reinforcing fibers in 0°
and 90° direction
sensors in 0° direction
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Application- geosynthetics
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
FIELD TESTS
Dike of the river
Mulde
1st test in Sollnitz near the town of Dessau
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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FIELD TESTS
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
FIELD TESTS
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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FIELD TESTS
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
FIELD TESTS
gravity dam in
Solina, Poland
2nd test in Solina, Poland downriver of a retaining wall
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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Optimization of the measurement system
Calibration of the geotextile- fiber optical
sensor system
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
Thank you for your attention !
T-Pot Workshop Technical Textiles & Textile Recycling 30 Nov – 04 Dec 2009 – Chemnitz (DE)
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