Childhood Obesity - University of Texas at El Paso

Childhood Obesity
Definition—Obesity results when a child consumes more calories than the child uses. It is a
serious health concern for children and adolescents.1
Trends in Childhood1
Over the past three decades,
childhood obesity rate has:
more than doubled for
preschool children aged 2-5
years and adolescents aged
12-19 years
more than tripled for children
aged 6-11 years
Children & Diabetes (Type 2)
Most often occurs in the 2nd decade
of life– mean age ~35 yrs2
Who it affects:2
Black African Descent, Native North
American, Hispanic (especially
Mexican-American), Asian, Native
Pacific Islanders
Today, approximately nine million
children over 6 years of age are
considered obese2
BMI (Body Mass Index– can be
calculated using height and weight) is
above the 85th percentile for age and
Incidence of obesity among children
between 6 to 11 years of age
increased from 65% in 1980 to 196%
in 2008
In greater than 75% of cases diagnosed
in the USA, there is a 1st or 2nd degree
relative with Type 2 Diabetes2
Incidence of obesity among
adolescents between 12 to 19 years
of age increased from 50% to 181%
In 2000, about 30% of boys and 40% of
girls born in the US are at risk for
being diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes
at some point in their lives2
They are more likely than children of
normal weight to become
overweight or obese adults
In newly diagnosed diabetic children,
8% to 50% have Type 2 Diabetes 3
Consequences of
Childhood Obesity1
The population of children with Type 2
Diabetes is expected to grow and to
mirror the current obesity epidemic3
Contributing Factors to Obesity1
Behavioral Factors
Energy Intake - excessive consumption of
food, frequent snacking, and consuming
sugar beverages contributes to excess
energy intake
Physical Activity - affects body weight,
blood pressure and bone strength
Sedentary Behavior - Studies have found
viewing television has increased prevalence
of obesity in children
Media, specifically television viewing, may:
displace time children spend in physical
contribute to increased energy
consumption through excessive
snacking and eating meals in front of
the TV
Physical complications:
Type 2 diabetes
influence children to make unhealthy
food choices through exposure to food
Heart Disease
High cholesterol and high blood pressure
Genetic Factors
Asthma and other breathing problems
Does not contribute unless
environmental and behavioral factors
also exist
Sleep disorders
Degeneration of cartilage and bone of joints
Early puberty or menstruation
Environmental Factors
Children are likely to develop habits similar
to their parents
Social and emotional complications:
Low self-esteem and bullying
Behavior and learning problems
Retrieved from Microsoft Word Clip Art
Schools provide an ideal setting to adapt
healthy eating and physical activity behaviors
Revised on 12/1/2010
Exercise Recommendations
for Children1
Children and adolescents should do 1 hour or more of physical activity that includes
aerobic activity, muscle and bone
strengthening everyday
Aerobic activity
Brisk walking
Running, swimming
Muscle Strengthening
Bone Strengthening
Jumping rope
Prevention of Childhood Obesity5
Childhood obesity begins in infancy: A
positive feeding relationship between
the parents and the baby is important
Breast fed infants have more control
and will stop feeding when they feel
are full7
You can over feed with bottle feeding
Limit bottle use
Offer 2% milk at meals
After the age of 2 offer juice as a snack,
and water for thirst6
Parents must model what they expect
their child to eat
Serve small portions of nutritious foods
as healthy snacks
When the child refuses to eat what is
served, do not provide an alternative
Role model healthy food choices
Do not use food as a reward
Do not severely restrict sweets
Encourage physical activity using activities
that the child enjoys
Limit television to 2 hours a day
School Age:
Prepare healthy balanced meals
Use child-sized portions not
adult-sized portions
Limit going back for seconds after
Choose healthy snacks: fruits,
yogurt, granola, baby carrots
Limit unhealthy
snacking: chips,
candy, cookies,
Retrieved from Microsoft Word Clip Art
Most intervention programs should
focus on self-management of
eating habits and weight loss
Bariatric Surgery as a treatment
option for children who are
morbidly obese
Adolescents with a BMI of 35 and
associated health problems should
be considered for treatment
Limit high calorie foods and provide plenty
of fruits and vegetables
Avoid high fat fast food
Eat meals together at home
Limit television, video games, and
computer time to a total no more than 2
hours a day
Encourage physical activity that increases
the interaction between parents and
children like bike riding
Give choices of different physical activities 7
Do not eat meals and snacks in front of the
By: Stephanie Marmolejo SPT, Magnolia Dela Cruz SPT, Desiree Munoz SPT. University of Texas at El Paso Physical Therapy Program
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Retrieved at: http://wwwcdcgov/HealthyYouth/obesity/indexhtm Accessed August 31, 2010
2 Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS Childhood obesity: public health crisis, common sense cure Lancet 2002;360: 473-482 Retrieved at
http://wwwmjacomau/public/issues/182_03_070205/bat10421_fmhtml Accessed August 31, 2010
3 Rosenbloom AL,Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, Zeitler P and
Klingensmith GJ Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents Pediatr Diabetes2009;10: 17–32 Accessed September 1, 2010 at wwwispadorg
4 Must A and Anderson SE Effects of Obesity on Morbidity in Children
and AdolescentsNutr Clin Care 2003;6:4-12 Accessed September 1,2010 at UTEP library online
5 MacKenzie N Childhood obesity: strategies for prevention Pediatric Nursing 2000;26(5):527-530cc
6 Satter E How to get your child to eat…but not too much Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing Company 1987
7 Strauss R Childhood obesity Current Problems in Pediatrics1999;29(3):4-29
8 Birch L, Fisher J Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents Pediatrics 1998;101:539-549
9 Henry L Childhood obesity: what can be done to help today’s youth? Pediatric Nursing 2005;31(1):13-25
Revised on 12/1/2010