High Impact Donor Funding of Higher Education in Post

High Impact Donor Funding of Higher Education in Post-conflict sub-Saharan Africa: A
Contextual Reference to the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and
University of Rwanda Partnership
(Draft)
Chika Ezeanya Ph.D.*
University of Rwanda
*Chika A. Ezeanya is a College Director of Research and Postgraduate Studies in the University
of Rwanda. She holds a PhD in African Development and Policy Studies from Howard
University in Washington D.C. and has worked as a consultant for the World Bank Africa
Region in Rwanda, Nigeria and out of the head office in Washington D.C.
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Abstract
Periods of sustained violence, conflict and intense insecurity create unique challenges for nations
in the drive towards growth and advancement. Education is often considered as foundational in
efforts to re-establish or provide a nurturing environment among a scarred population and can
even accelerate growth. Higher education is crucial in the search for solutions to knotty
challenges and in the creation of new directions for post-conflict communities. On their own,
however, many post-conflict nations are unable to provide the necessary funding needed to
strengthen the higher education sector, thereby halting speedy, enduring and sustainable postconflict reconstruction. Many international donors, previously suspicious of higher education are
gradually experiencing paradigm reconsideration and in that regard, the need is ever present and
widening, for practices that can be explored. The growth of the nascent higher education funding
as a result of increased appreciation among development partners demands experiential
knowledge. This paper, using interviews, content analysis and literature review explores the
partnership between the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) and Rwanda’s only
public institution of higher learning, the University of Rwanda (former National University of
Rwanda). It tries to establish that that from the beginning of the partnership in 2002 until last
available data in 2013, there has been in depth and far-reaching transformation of the University
and the entire research and development environment in Rwanda. By focusing on postgraduate
education, capacity building, Infrastructural development, gender equity and administrative and
governance support, Sida, in partnership with stakeholders in the higher education sector of
Rwanda, has created a high impact framework that could serve several lessons to donors
interested in increasing their stake in higher education across post-conflict nations, especially in
Africa, south of the Sahara
2
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
1. Introduction
The present era marks the first time in the past 50 years of African history when there are more
cases of post-conflict than conflict countries. For the time being, the worst seems to be over as
far as conflicts and active violence in Africa is concerned. Hoeffler (2008) noted identified two
peaks in the African violence and conflict series, first in 1989 with nine wars and again in
1991/1992 with eight civil wars. By 2006, however, the number of outright wars in Africa has
dropped to two. In recent times, therefore, many countries in that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are
engaged in ongoing post-conflict reconstruction.
Quality higher education is foundational in the rebuilding efforts of nations emerging from
periods of sustained violence and intense conflict. Post-conflict reconstruction is dependent on
several key factors for sustainable and long lasting impact. For nations aiming at stability and
growth, it is exceptionally important that a critical segment of the population be skilled and well
equipped to address existing and emerging issues of national interest, conduct research on key
areas and apply results in policy making and problem solving. In this regard, higher education is
where the level of skills needed for post-conflict reconstruction is mostly qualitatively available.
Higher education has been stated to be foundational in the quest for technological catch-up by
nations lagging behind, and is necessary as a platform to launch into accelerated and far-reaching
economic growth (Bloom, Canning, & Chan, 2006).
Globally however, SSA though the most affected by previous conflicts and in need of postconflict rebuilding, remains the least developed region in terms of the higher education sector.
Most countries in SSA have few institution of higher learning, oftentimes with poor standards
and available facilities. For post-conflict economies in SSA, the need for higher education is
even much more important if effects of previous conflicts are to be addressed adequately and
reversed. In Somalia, for instance, the eruption of a civil war in 1988 led to not only the physical
destruction of a greater percentage of the higher education infrastructure, but also the fleeing of
over 80% of the nation’s educated elite. The nation is presently among the ten countries with the
worst literacy rates (The Heritage Institute for Policy Studies, 2013). However, post-conflict
reconstruction effort in that nation has targeted higher education. Prior to the war, there was only
one public university in the city of Mogadishu with a 4,000 student enrollment, by 2010
3
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
however, there are over 50 higher education institutions across the country with an enrollment
size of over 50,000 students (Hoehne, 2010). South Sudan is a more recent case of post-conflict
nation in SSA. Understandably, higher education in that nation remains in a dismal state. A 54%
budget cut in 2012 due to austerity measures resulted in shutting down of several of the few
universities established a year earlier during Independence, and when the country stated its
interest in prioritizing education (Green, 2013). Institutions of higher learning continue to
experience severe shortage of infrastructure and human resources. In the case of Rwanda, the
genocide was a period that halted activities in the higher education sector. Thousands of students,
lecturers, university administrator were either killed, fled the country as refugees or were
implicated in the genocide and jailed afterwards. After one year of closure, the only university in
the country re-opened to start a rebuilding process where libraries, laboratories, classrooms
administrative building and practically any infrastructural thing of value were destroyed.
Government of Rwanda was therefore left with the huge task of virtually rebuilding a higher
education sector from the scratch and with very little available funds.
Most post-conflict nations in SSA began their nation-building efforts at a time when donors were
most reluctant to fund higher education. Convinced that within primary and post primary
education were the key to widespread economic growth and development, donors denied funding
to higher education and strongly encouraged governments to do same. Bloom, Canning and Chan
note that, “from 1985 to 1989, 17 percent of the World Bank’s worldwide education-sector
spending was on higher education. But from 1995 to 1999, the proportion allotted to higher
education declined to just 7 per cent” (Bloom, Canning, & Chan, 2006). In more recent times,
however, there is increasing evidence that higher education is necessary for the building of a
nation’s tax base, increased entrepreneurship drive, increase in savings, good governance, a
healthy population that grows at an appropriate rate and for improved technology (Bloom,
Hartley, & Rosovsky, 2006). This increasing realization is leading to a paradigm shift among
development partners where funding of higher education is concerned. Donors such the World
Bank, United Nations Development Program, USAID, DFID, SIDA, and others are becoming
increasingly involved in higher education.
4
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Since contemporary higher education funding can be adjudged a nascent field for many donors,
the knowledge gap is enormous and the search for workable and impactful practices is ongoing.
In post-conflict countries, there is even a more pressing need for donor involvement in higher
education owing to the struggles for re-establishment of even the most basic social, economic
and political necessities. This paper hopes to contribute to bridging the knowledge gap in higher
education funding for donors and development partners. Using primary sources such as
interviews with key players, document analysis and literature review and through an in-depth
study of the cooperation that exists between the only public university in Rwanda, the University
of Rwanda and the Swedish International Development Agency, this paper highlights certain
exceptional and successful solutions to Rwanda’s post-conflict higher education development, as
offered by the partnership.
Chronologically, the paper begins by exploring the state of higher education in SSA and from
there delves into higher education in post-conflict nations within that region. Emphasis is
thereafter placed on Rwanda’s experience with post-conflict reconstruction with attention given
to the higher education sector. Challenges with financing higher education in Rwanda are
stressed prior to commencing discussions on the University of Rwanda and Sida partnership.
Within this partnership, eight segments are highlighted which are postgraduate training, research
and publications, capacity building, gender issues, infrastructural development, governance and
administrative support, sustainability and donor cooperation. The final segment offers
concluding remarks.
2. Higher Education in sub-Saharan Africa
Higher education in many countries in SSA has improved astronomically from what it was about
a decade and half ago. Rate of enrollment has grown from roughly 200,000 in the 1970s to an
estimated ten million today (Hayward & Ncayiyana, 2014). Privatization of that sector, despite
certain acknowledged shortcoming has been instrumental in granting access to many who could
not be publicly educated. Whether public or private higher education, the fact is that much of
sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a boom in higher education enrollment. Studies show that the
sub-continent, at the present rate of growth, will be unable to finance the expansion in the
number of citizens demanding higher education (World Bank, 2010). The effect will be a steep
5
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
decline in instructional quality and with that a loss of focus and absence in innovation. The end
result will be the turning out of higher education recipients who are lacking in the needed skills
to address the continent’s unique challenges.
In many African countries south of the Sahara, funding for higher education comes from public
funds, accounting for sometimes up to 95% of total operating budget of public universities; fees,
tuition, services, consultancy, rents account for a minor percentage of funding for public
institutions. Public funds in much of sub-Saharan Africa is unable to provide the most basic
services such as health, infrastructure and basic education to the population, expecting more
from that for the financing of higher education will be considered unrealistic. Already, “in 2006,
African countries’ average public expenditure per university student was US$2,000 per year —
more than twice as much as non-African developing countries invest in tertiary education”
(Friesenhahn, 2014). Still, the annual expenditure on education across many SSA countries does
not meet halfway, the endowments made to some of the wealthiest universities in the United
States. Many individual universities in the developed world actually present annual budgets that
far surpass the entire education budget presented by Ministries of Education in quite a few subSaharan African countries. The result of poor funding of higher education across sub-Saharan
Africa is all too glaring across campuses. Shortage of published materials, absence of teaching
facilities and laboratory equipments for teaching and research is widespread. Salaries are
considered insufficient and often delayed leading to widespread industrial action and while
several countries such as Nigeria and Ghana have vastly improved public higher education in the
past decade, there is still a lot to be done in many other countries within the sub-region most
especially post-conflict nations such as Liberia, Sierra Leone and Rwanda where major conflicts
wiped away much of whatever infrastructures and systems that were previously in place. In
essence, while most sub-Saharan African countries, in varying degrees are faced with serious
higher education funding challenges, at the bottom of the grind are those countries that have
emerged from major conflicts in the past two decades.
2.1.Higher Education in Post-Conflict Nations of SSA
According to the World Development Report 2011, when countries are affected by severe and
prolonged conflict, the aftermath of such is usually weak institutional capacity in addition to long
6
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
term and often time difficult-to-manage political instability (World Bank, 2011). Studies have
however, established educational communities as critical in the promotion of resilience in postconflict situation by providing a much needed platform for provision of needed services and for
ongoing social interaction among stakeholders with the aim of acquiring knowledge and
improving wellbeing (World Bank, 2013, p. 7). Higher education is crucial in this regard
although it has received little by way of policy articulation in post-conflict reconstruction efforts
in Africa. An example is that the African Union (AU) and the New Partnership for Africa’
Development (NEPAD) Post-Conflict Policy Framework, which calls for concerted effort in the
rehabilitation of education did not mention higher education all through the document. The PostConflict Policy Framework reflects, donors emphasis on funding of primary and post-primary
education.
Although “International donors and partners regarded universities, for the most part, as
institutional enclaves without deep penetration into the development needs of African
communities” (Cloete, 2012), there is however, an increased participation of donors in
reconstruction efforts in Africa’s higher education. Donor funding for higher education in Africa
is about US$600 million annually, with a percentage of it going to fund countries emerging from
conflict and violence (World Bank, 2010). Certain criticisms leveled against donor funding in
higher education are not strange to the aid industry. This includes questions of sustainability,
duplication of projects and relevance. More unique to funding higher education in post-conflict
situations is the criticism that in sub-Saharan Africa, there is an “oversupply of university
courses geared around post-conflict recovery” (Times Higher Education, 2013). Donors
providing funds for higher education in post-conflict sub-Saharan Africa tend to concentrate on
areas where international aid agencies are desperate need of skill and manpower which will
prove too expensive to import expatriates to fill. In countries such as Liberia, Democratic
Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone and South Sudan, courses in “disarmament, security reform,
governance, peace studies and counseling for former combatants and war victims” overload the
higher education system (Times Higher Education, 2013).
7
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
3. Higher Education in Post-conflict Rwanda:
3.1.Country Profile
Branded a “Land of a Thousand Hills” due to the many hills that runs across much of the
nation’s geographical terrain, Rwanda’s population of 11.8 million is wedged in only 26,338
square kilometers (10,169 miles) making the country the most densely populated in Africa
(World Bank, 2013). The historical struggle for farmlands and settlement space by Rwanda’s
population has been a source of constant conflict and social upheavals, the height of which was
the genocide of 1994.
The roots of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda can be traced to the days of Belgian colonization
when the 10 percent minority Tutsis were used by colonial authorities to extort labor, land and
financial resources from the 90 percent majority Hutu population. When during Independence in
1962 the Hutu majority came to power under a democratic arrangement, many of them felt it was
time to exact vengeance on the Tutsi minority (Mamdani, 2002). Several massacres occurred
around that period, which led to the killing of thousands of Tutsis, while hundreds of thousands
went into exile in neighboring countries, mostly Uganda, but also Tanzania, DRC, Burundi and
ever farther on the continent. Pockets of harassments, intimidation and killings of the Tutsi
continued throughout the years but escalated between 1990 – 1993 (Mamdani, 2002). The
escalation was as a result of the arming of some Tutsi Ugandan exiles who had joined forces
with Yoweri Museveni of Uganda to topple the Milton Obote led government. These now
demobilized “freedom fighters” decided to mobilize other Tutsis across the region to “retake”
Rwanda. The Rwanda Patriotic Army was thus formed and by 1990, the first attempt was made
to push into Rwanda and unseat the government. Ethnic Hutus within Rwanda retaliated by
killing Tutsis who were resident in that nation and a series of conflicts ensued and lasted from
1990 - 1993. An agreement was signed in Arusha Tanzania in August 1993 between the
government of Rwanda led by Juvenal Habyarimana and the leader of the Rwanda Patriotic
Army, Paul Kagame (Mamdani, 2002). The mysterious death in a plane crash of Juvenal
Habyarimana in April of 1994 marked the beginning of a three month pogrom that saw close to a
million Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead, mostly at the hands of Hutu militia. The killings ended
when the Rwanda Patriotic Army launched an intense counterstrike that resulted in the capture of
the capital city of Kigali on July 4, 1994.
8
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
The damage done during the period of 1990 – 1994, but most especially within the three months
the killings lasted were enormous; infrastructures were demolished, human capacity decimated
and more than two million refugees poured into Uganda, Tanzania and DRC.
3.2.Post-Conflict Nation Building in Rwanda
Post-conflict nation building in Rwanda has been widely acknowledged as remarkable and quite
successful. Rwanda has been ranked one of the ten most improved economies in Africa, and
holds its place among the top three easiest places to do business on the continent (World Bank
Group, 2015). A combination of policies which included zero tolerance for corruption, improved
agricultural production with tea as the major export, improved tourism industry, and improved
tax collection has helped the nation transit to its current place with even higher prospects for
growth. In health, Rwanda is instructive for reducing childhood malnutrition from a high 43% in
2006 to 21% in 2012. Security within the country has steadily improved since the end of the
genocide and Rwanda is widely acknowledged as one of the safest countries in the region.
Government of Rwanda has embarked on several economic development and poverty reduction
strategies in order to set the nation on course to achieving what it terms Vision 2020. Vision
2020 is government of Rwanda’s key development and holds aspirations of transforming
Rwanda “from a low-income agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based, service-oriented
economy with a middle-income country status by 2020” (MINECOFIN, 2002) In Rwanda’s
Vision 2020, education has been identified as holding a critical place in achieving the national
vision. Government of Rwanda has invested much in higher education and this is spelt out in the
numerous plans, strategies and documents that have been crafted over the years, and which have
been largely instrumental. One of the key strategies the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper spelled
out a key role for education as fundamental in the improvement of the social and economic wellbeing of majority of the nation’s population (MINECOFIN, 2002). The document was preceded
by Rwanda’s signing of the United Nation’s 2000 Millennium Declaration, together with its
operational definition as embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
9
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
4. Education in Post-Conflict Rwanda
Government of Rwanda has shown much commitment to rebuilding the education sector since
the end of hostilities in that nation. According to a UNESCO report, Rwanda invests 22.1% of its
annual budget in education, which is beyond the recommended budget allocation of 20% by
Education for All Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) (UNESCO, 2012). Rwanda’s education
system has a 6-3-3-4 structure and has witnessed a remarkable increase in public spending, rate
of enrollment and in overall output and even quality. Just before the genocide, total enrollment in
primary education stood at 1.2 million children, however the genocide resulted in a temporary
halt in learning and upon resumption of schooling after the conflict, there was 30 per cent less
children in schools (World Bank, 2003). Concerted efforts by governments in partnership with
development partners brought enrollment rates up to 1.5 million by 2001 (World Bank, 2003).
Secondary education has likewise noted a high increase in enrollment from a low 50,000
students soon after the genocide to more than 141,000 by 2001 which signifies an over 20
percent annual growth (World Bank, 2003). Government of Rwanda’s most recent education
strategy document, the Rwanda Education Sector Strategic Plan 2013 -2018 (ESSP) was
developed “to support Rwanda achieve national aspirations for economic transformation, rural
development, accountable governance and improved productivity and youth employment. The
plan is centered on three overarching goals: expanding access to education at all levels,
improving the quality of education and training, and strengthening the relevance of education
and training to meet labor market demands” (MINEDUC, 2013, p. 9).
4.1.Higher Education in Post-conflict Rwanda
By the time hostilities, which began in 1990 and climaxed with the genocide of 1994 ended,
higher education in Rwanda was all but almost non-existent. Indeed, educated individuals were
specifically targeted during the conflict in Rwanda. A study conducted on the demography of
dead and missing persons established that highly educated individuals were “missing at a rate
that is 19.4% higher than the less educated” (Aguero & Majid, 2014). Prior to the genocide,
Rwanda had only one public university, The National University of Rwanda. National University
of Rwanda lost several members of staff and students during the conflict of 1990 – 1993, but
most especially during the genocide. An estimated 2,000 staff and students of the National
10
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
University of Rwanda were killed during the genocide (Masanja et al., 2013). In addition,
laboratories were ransacked, looted and destroyed, computers and other equipments and
academic infrastructure were either destroyed or stolen, classrooms windows and doors were
hewn for firewood and glasses shattered, libraries were looted and burnt down. For one year, the
National University of Rwanda shut and was reopened in January, 1995.
At the end of hostilities, NUR was faced with severe challenges. Outside of shortage of
infrastructural facilities, recruiting qualified students into the university was a huge challenge. Of
the “1,836 primary and secondary schools in Rwanda prior to the genocide, 65 percent were
damaged and only 648 were operation in October 1994” (World Bank, 2013). Many of the
schools were occupied by returning refugees and displaced persons, which presented difficulties
in getting the education system up and running. Many Teachers had been killed during the
genocide, but many also killed their fellow teachers, pupils, and neighbors leading to a deep lack
of trust in the system. Indeed, after the genocide ended only about a third of teachers were still
in Rwanda who have not been killed, fled the country or imprisoned. Out of that number, less
than a third, it was discovered by the post-genocide government who conducted due diligence,
actually possessed the required qualification to teach (World Bank, 2013). The Ministry of
Education, which itself was supposed to coordinate rebuilding efforts in the higher education
sector was in serious need of rebuilding itself. Physically, the building housing the Ministry was
unfit for human habitation; bullet holes littered the parts of the walls that were not shattered,
windows were blown out, office properties were either smashed or looted, and many officers
were killed during the conflict or had fled (World Bank, 2013) . The entire education system was
indeed the perfect picture of shambles and disintegration.
4.2.Rebuilding Higher Education in Post-conflict Rwanda
Higher education became emphasized in Rwanda in the decade after the genocide of 1994.
Evidence to prove is that from the time of Independence until 1994, less than 2,000 students
graduated from the only university in Rwanda, The National University of Rwanda and as at
1994, a total of 3, 261 students were enrolled in the University (MINEDUC, 2008, p. 4). By the
end of 2013, a total of 84,448 students were enrolled in different institutions of higher learning
spread across the country (MINEDUC, 2014, p. 6).
11
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Efforts of the government of Rwanda to transform higher education include the granting of
support to private education entrepreneurs and a strong partnership with development partners to
fund, equip and improve the quality of public higher education. By 2001, improvements could be
seen in the enrollment figure of 17,000 students spread across six public and nine private
institutions. Enrollments in public higher education in pre-genocide Rwanda grew at about 10.6
percent year, but jumped to 30% a year in the years following the genocide. In private education,
the jump is as high as 38 percent in a post-conflict Rwanda (World Bank, 2003). It should be
noted that despite these remarkable improvements, there is still a wide gap between availability
of spaces in institutions of higher learning and demand for placements. Higher education
participation rate in Rwanda at less than one percent is one of the lowest in Africa where the
average is between five and seven percent, against a World Bank recommended average of 10
percent (MINEDUC, 2008, p. 13). Government of Rwanda is therefore burdened with twin
responsibility of ensuring increased rate of enrollment in addition to improving quality.
Public spending on higher education can be said to be at the foundation of improvements noticed
in public higher education in Rwanda over the years since the genocide ended in 1994.
This is
especially so as Rwanda is a largely rural population with much of the inhabitants living off
subsistence farming and unable to afford the cost of higher education. So government must also
bear the burden of tuition and fees for several citizens in addition to paying some form of bursary
to the most needy but promising students. Rwanda’s Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) is
under a huge burden to source for funds to fund higher education. Government of Rwanda is
therefore continuously in search of partnerships with donors who can assist it in bearing the
burden for higher education in the nation.
4.3. Funding Higher Education in Post-conflict Rwanda
The Rwanda Education Sector Strategic Plan 2013 -2018 (ESSP) makes clear the important role
of development partners in the education sector. The document notes the crucial role donors play
“in increasing the flow of funds through budget support, funding education programs and
projects, and providing technical assistance where necessary” (MINEDUC, 2013, p. 35). The
ESSP document outlines the roles expected of donors as :
12
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
·
Chika Ezeanya PhD
To render support MINEDUC in its effort to promote strategies, plans and policies
related to the educational sector;
·
To assist the ministry in education service delivery;
·
To establish platforms for collaboration and coordination with other agencies, NGOs,
governments and actors to ensure the successful implementation of the ESSP;
·
To build and strengthen community participation in the implementation of educational
activities;
·
To actively participate in evaluating policies and programmes;
·
To support research in education in Rwanda (MINEDUC, 2013, p. 73).
Rwanda’s higher education budget has fluctuated over the years, mostly depending on
availability of donor support. Rwanda’s conflict ended at a time when donors had already hands
off higher education across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Rwanda’s existing Higher Education
Policy Document makes it clear that “donors have been prioritizing investing in basic education
although in recent years they have recognized that higher education does support social and
economic development; the challenge is to persuade donors to invest in post basic education”
(MINEDUC, 2008, p. 14).
A huge chunk of Rwanda’s higher education budget goes to the payment of fees and tuition for
majority of qualified students who are unable to pay their way through school. Rwanda depends
on aid for over 40% of its budget, but it should be noted that since most donors are still not very
strongly supporting higher education, that sector is starved of donor funds. Since most donors
are inclined to support basic education, government of Rwanda is “forced” to allocate no less
that 42% of Rwanda’s education budget to the 9 year basic education sector as according to the
demands of donors (UNESCO, 2012). When funding is allocated to secondary education,
technical and vocational education and also adult education, very little is left for the higher
education sector in Rwanda. A breakdown of funding available for higher education in Rwanda
would reveal that in 2008, funding for higher education amounted to USD 42,737,627.42, but
this reduced to 43. 1% in 2009, and then increased by 60% in 2010; it then reduced by 6% in
2011 and it went up by 9.5% in 2012 (MINECOFIN, 2012). Rwanda’s ministry of education
13
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
continue to court development partners and donors especially in the higher education sector, with
emphasis on sector budget support (MINEDUC, 2013, p. 96).
5. University of Rwanda and Sida Partnership
5.1.University of Rwanda: a Background
The University of Rwanda came into existence after a decision taken by the Government of
Rwanda to merge all existing public higher institutions into one singular university. The former
National University of Rwanda (NUR) was the largest and most notable institution of all the
seven public higher learning institutions. The rest were much smaller specialized colleges with
concentrations on Health (Kigali Health Institute), Business (School of Finance and Banking),
Education (Kigali Institute of Education), Science and Technology (Kigali Institute of Science
and Technology), a polytechnic (Umutara Polythecnic) and a School of Agriculture and
Veterinary Medicine. This study focuses mostly on the partnership that has been in existence
between former NUR (now University of Rwanda) and Sida.
It is important to emphasize that before the genocide, NUR was the only existing public
institution of higher learning in Rwanda. All other schools mentioned in the previous paragraph
were established after the genocide. In 2013, government of Rwanda, through law no 71/2013 of
10/09/2013 established the University of Rwanda to consist of six colleges; College of Arts and
Social Sciences (CASS); College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
(CAVM); College of Business and Economics; College of Education (CE); College of Medicine
and Health Sciences (CMHS) and College of Science and Technology (CST). University of
Rwanda has a student population of 28, 800 and a staff population of 2,709 with 1,481 academic
staff and the rest being administrative staff (University of Rwanda, 2014).
The University of Rwanda was created in order to “enhance the quality of Rwanda’s higher
education provision, while achieving economies of scale and efficiencies in operation”
(University of Rwanda , 2014). The Ministry of Education in promoting the merger of all public
institutions notes that the exercise will lead to “increased institutional efficiency and
coordination in the provision of public higher education” (MINEDUC, 2013, p. 56). It is also
expected that the merging will lead to a bigger university which can attract more grants and
14
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
funding and partnerships with international organizations, institutions, and universities especially
in the area of “quality, joint research projects and sharing of latest educational technology,
resources and innovative best practice” (MINEDUC, 2013).
5.2.The Partnership with Sida
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is an agency that works on
behalf of the Swedish government in its efforts to contribute to poverty reduction globally. Sida
can be regarded as a development partner to 33 countries approximately half of which can be
located in Africa, south of the Sahara. Sida’s relationship with the University of Rwanda began
in 2002 with the former NUR. An initial three year agreement was signed between the two
organization, which was aimed at rendering support for the publication of a journal for the
National University of Rwanda, upgrade internet connectivity and ensure prompt payment of
expatriate staff hired in the absence of available locals to teach in the Faculty of Medicine,
Science and Technology. From this narrowly defined scope, the partnership with University of
Rwanda has grown to constitutes 52% of the funds from donors and development partners which
are directly administered by the University of Rwanda (Masanja, et al., 2013, p.19). About
twenty other partners come within the 48 percent bracket. For the purposes of this study, Sida’s
involvement in Rwanda’s higher education system, through the University of Rwanda will be
analyzed from six major perspectives: Research and Publication, Postgraduate Training,
Capacity Building, Gender Issues, Infrastructural Development, Governance and Administrative
Support. Issues of sustainability and donor cooperation will also be highlighted towards the end.
5.2.1. Post-graduate training
Postgraduate training most especially at the doctorate level has been closely linked to R&D
(OECD, 2002). After the genocide, when NUR reopened in 1995, NUR was only an
undergraduate teaching institution and most academic staff members had only Bachelors degree;
there was an urgent need to increase the number of staff with postgraduate degrees. By 2002, the
Sida/NUR partnership was launched with the aim of transforming NUR from an undergraduate
to a research and postgraduate training university.
15
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
From not having any postgraduate programs, NUR by 2012 has over 26 programs at the Masters
and PhD levels enrolling 1,092 students. Prior to Sida support, teaching staff of NUR who held
only Bachelors degree was about 56%, but this number was reduced to less than 25% by 2012,
with the number of academic staff with Masters or PhD risen to over 76% by March 2012.
As Sida supported more and more PhDs to be trained outside the country, these PhDs returned to
establish Masters and Doctorate programs within their areas of specialization. The result being
that NUR established different PhD programs and in 2008 graduated its first set of PhD students
with several students and candidates currently enrolled (Masanja et al., 2013 p. 14).
Sida was the first partner to directly fund in its entirety, the establishment of a Masters program
in NUR and in all of Rwanda (no other private institution of higher learning in Rwanda offered
postgraduate degrees prior to NUR). The organization was also directly instrumental in
establishing other subsequent Masters programs. The successes recorded with the direct funding
and establishment of Masters and PhD programs has encouraged other donors to do same.
Graduates of several Sida supported postgraduate programs such as the Master of Science
program in ICT which was established by Sida in 2004 are currently the ones in charge of most
ICT related sectors across Rwanda, this is one among many examples (Masanja et al,. 2013, p
19). In terms of postgraduate programs, the number rose from 1 program with an enrollment of
19 students in 2004 to 26 masters programs with a student population of 1,092 in 2012. 590
graduates have also left the National University of Rwanda and are all gainfully employed. From
not having a PhD program, National University of Rwanda had by July 2012, 26 Phd and 14
MPhil students (Masanja et al. 2013, p.31).
Training University of Rwanda PhDs Abroad
In addition to establishing several postgraduate studies within the university of Rwanda, several
academic faculty from the University of Rwanda are currently being trained in different parts of
the world under the NUR/Sida partnership. The table below shows the most recent data on Sida
supported PhD program output in the University of Rwanda.
16
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Table 1: Output PhD training under NUR-Sida programme 2007-2013
Sub-programme
Graduated
Dropped out
On-going students Gra
Fema
Mal Tot
Fema
Mal Tot
Fema
Mal Tot
nd
le
e
al
le
e
le
e
al
total
1
1
1
4
5
6
Applied Mathematics
al
Education
2
7
9
Environment
1
5
6
1
1
1
1
2
9
ICT research
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
5
Medicine
1
1
4
4
2
2
7
Peace and Conflict
3
3
2
4
3
3
6
13
1
9
9
10
11
16
27
59
Research
Training
for
9
2
1
Female Staff
Grand total
3
18
21
3
8
11
Source: (University of Rwanda, 2013, p. 15)
It is instructive to note that of the 30 PhD students with a February 2014 graduation date, 22
graduated successfully while eight dropped out of the program. All successful graduates returned
to Rwanda although only 19 returned to the University of Rwanda to take up teaching
appointment. Two of the candidates took up appointments with Rwanda’s Higher Education
Council and Rwanda Education Board, respectively, while one candidate took up a position with
the World Food Program (Ndikumana, 2014).
5.2.2. Research and publications
Research and publication is an area where Africa is lagging behind others in the global index.
During the years 2000 - 2004, Africa produced only 1.8 % of the world’s publications, with
South Africa and Egypt accounting for over 50% of that figure. It has also been established that
the top 8 countries in Africa account for over 80% of the continent’s research output
(Lwakabamba, 2011). Many African governments have been reluctant to support research,
especially in higher institution due to its capital intensive nature. This is despite several
agreements to do so, which include for instance, the commitment to set aside 1% GDP to R&D
17
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
by 2009 (AU-NEPAD, 2010). Many donors, as already stated are unwilling to fund higher
education and this has created a huge void across sub-Saharan Africa, most especially in
Research and Development. This is more especially so in post-conflict countries where R&D
across sectors is considered critical in the search for information and best practices in the
rebuilding process.
In Rwanda, Sida has been instrumental in directly supporting the University of Rwanda in the
area of research and development. In 1997 prior to Sida support, the number of academic staff
involved in research was zero. With the commencement of SIDA support in 2002, the number of
academic staff involved in research grew to 11% in 2006 and then to 58% in December 2011
(Masanja et al., 2013 p.14). Sida has also supported the production of numerous academic
materials and international conferences, which has increased the ranking of National University
of Rwanda and gained it international recognition as a research institution. Specifically, Sida has
supported the publication of NUR journal and the publication of several books of international
quality by academic staff of NUR.
As a result of Sida support, research funding in the National University of Rwanda increased
from USD1.8 million in 2006 to USD 11.3 million in 2011 and the proportion of academic staff
that took up research during that period likewise improved from a poor 11.3% in 2006 to 58.6%
in 2011. By way of publications, annual per capita publications by NUR staff in peer reviewed
journals increased from 0.08 in 2006 to 0.33 in December 2011” (Masanja et al., p. 31). With
Sida support, National University of Rwanda has been able to organize 9 international
conferences with participants coming from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, north America and
Asia.
5.2.3. Capacity Building
Sida has supported the much needed development of both academic and administrative staff of
the University of Rwanda. Since 2003, there has been intense and sustained effort in the training
of managers and administrators in the necessary skills needed to support their roles.
Library staff, top and middle level managers, administrative and financial personnel, Heads of
Departments, directors, deans, vice-rectors and Rector all undergo various annual international
18
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
standard training on leadership and management. Training include ICT skills and others
necessary to support research activities.
A breakdown of specific annual figures indicate that over 80 top and middle level leaders have
been trained in academic leadership, 60 secretaries have been trained in office management and
customer service skills, 40 administrative staff have been trained in customer service and public
procurement principles while over 160 lecturers have been trained in language, pedagogy and
other necessary skills. It is instructive that trainings have been conducted in several countries,
which include Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, South Africa, UK, Netherlands, Kenya, India,
Uganda, Swaziland and Senegal (Masanja et al., p. 28)
Research methodology is an area where capacity is still lacking across much of Africa south of
the Sahara, in this regard, Sida has tried to bridge this gap in the University of Rwanda by
training 603 staff in Research Methodology. The same number of staff have also been trained in
proposal and grant writing and in the writing of academic papers for publication. In addition, the
organization assisted in developing a Research Methodology curriculum for teaching at the
graduate and undergraduate levels (Masanja et al., p. 18).
Since 2003, Sida has given annual research grants on a competitive basis to researchers in the
University of Rwanda. Between 2003 and 2013, Over 85 research grants have been awarded
ranging in amount from 20,000 USD – 30,000 USD per researcher or research team, and cutting
across sectors. These researchers have also been supported by Sida to attend and make
presentations at international conferences abroad. Ideas for Sida sponsored researchers are
generated “through discussion with key stakeholders in [Rwanda’] public and private sectors,
and research results are fed into policy and development practice especially in the areas on
Medicine, Public Health, Agriculture, Environment and Land, ICT and Education” (Masanja et
al., 2013). The research output has therefore largely focused on addressing the several
challenges facing Rwanda as a nation.
19
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
5.2.4. Gender Responsiveness
In Africa south of the Sahara, there is often a glaring gender imbalance among senior academic
staff members. Owing to cultural, sociological, historical and economic factors, women are often
unable to advance up to doctoral level study and this entrenches inequality among researchers in
academic institutions across the region. In Ghana in 2008, for instance, only 15% of staff in
public institutions, and 13% of their counterparts in private institutions, is female. In Kenya’s
Jomo Kenyatta University, the percentage stood at 30% female academic staff in 2008 (Tettey,
2009)
The post-conflict nature of Rwanda makes for a very high percentage of female headed
households. More men than women were killed during the genocide and 95% of those jailed for
participating in the genocide are male. The situation makes it tough for women to abandon
family responsibilities in pursuit of postgraduate education. University of Rwanda is still very
much minimally equipped to admit a high number of doctoral students, making it inevitable that
most women must travel outside of Rwanda to pursue further studies – a tough conditionality for
most women. Indeed, the thought of leaving their young children and behind in Rwanda in order
to pursue a PhD is something most Rwandan women would hardly consider. In Rwanda
therefore, there is an unusually high level of gender imbalance in the higher education sector.
In recognition of the difficult situation faced by Rwandan women interested in pursuing their
doctorate, the National University of Rwanda in 2008 applied to Sida for a grant that would
render necessary support to female academic staff to pursue their doctoral training anywhere in
the world.
Although the initial plan was to enroll 15 women, there were issues with getting
enough qualified applicants. At the end of the competitive selection process, 10 female academic
staff were supported to travel to Sweden (4) and other parts of Africa (6) together with their
children. These successful female candidates were paid enough living allowance to enable them
get day care and other necessities needed to keep children comfortable and growing in a foreign
land (University of Rwanda, 2013). Mentorship was also provided to all admitted women, in
that they were paired with female senior faculty members with families of their own, to assist
them during tough times. The scheme also aims to support enrollment of female students in the
Masters program at NUR; In 2008, 18 percent of female students were enrolled in different
Masters programs and 23 percent of female students enrolled in PhD programs. By 2011,
20
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
however, 26 percent were enrolled in the Masters program and 31 percent, in the PhD program
(Masanja et al., 2013).
Figure 1: Total Enrolment by Gender 2003-2013
Enrollment situation, 2013
76%
63%
37%
24%
Female Program Excl
Female Program Incl
male
female
Source: (University of Rwanda, 2013)
Very important also, is that in partnership with Sida, University of Rwanda has developed a
Gender Equality Policy and strategic plan. The Policy was developed after a baseline survey and
gender audit was conducted in the National University of Rwanda. With the policy in place,
University of Rwanda is now positioned to “scientifically institutionalize gender into its policies,
plans, systems and mechanisms” (Masanja et al., p. 20)
5.2.5. Infrastructural development
Since the University of Rwanda Sida cooperation began in 2002, there has been a lot of
investment in infrastructure. Prior to the Sida cooperation, internet connectivity across NUR
campuses did not have widespread coverage and was sporadic and unreliable. Computer labs,
when in existence lacked computers, while the library was lacking in books and journal
subscription. In addition to fibre optic cabling of University of Rwanda campuses, various ICT
materials including over 1,600 computers have been supplied to the university. Sida was the sole
provider of internet connectivity across all NUR campuses until 2007 when the institution
became financially and technically capable of taking on that challenge. Sida made subscription to
over 33,000 e-journals on behalf of the university library, in addition to hundreds of hard copy
books and journals (Masanja et al., p. 19). Sida has also purchased over 76 software applications
21
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
on behalf of the University of Rwanda. These include : “Pastel Accounting Software, Library
Management System(XREF), Tin Client Computers User Licence, University Wide Macfee
Antivirus, Celcat Timetabling Software, Norton Ghost 12.0, Recover My Files Software,
University Antivirus-Kaspersky, Project Management Software, Integrator 2-MIS and University
Auditing Software. Furthermore, the cooperation funded licences for XREF, Celcat and Pastel”
(Masanja et al., p. 24). In the past ten years, student computer user ration has increased from 1:25
in 2001 to 1:12. For staff, computer user ration has increased from 1:10 in 2011 to 1:3 in 2010.
The impact on learning, research and administration has been very impactful.
Tables 2, 3 & 4 below show some infrastructural support from Sida to University of Rwanda :
Table 2: Sida ICT related infrastructural support to the University of Rwanda
Masters programme
ICT
Type of lab
Communication
Systems Research
Laboratory
ICT
ICT
Radio Propagation
Research Laboratory
Mathematics
Peace and Conflict
Software Laboratory
Speciality
Advanced mobile and
wireless simulation
communication
Advanced
microprocessor and
micro-controller
Rainfall attenuation
research laboratory
Space weather
research laboratory
(jointly built with the
support from ICTP Trieste and Boston
College - USA)
Open Source software
development
laboratory
Status
Operational
In progress
Operational
Operational
Operational
Source: (Ndikumana, 2014)
Table 3: Sida ICT related infrastructural support to the University of Rwanda
Medicine
Type of infrastructure
Ultra-Sound
Audio Visual and Multimedia Lab
Source: (Ndikumana, 2014)
Location
Kigali University Teaching Hospital
Instructional Technology
Huye-CIT lab
22
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Table 4: Sida support to the University of Rwanda for environmental monitoring, teaching and
learning
Type of infrastructure
Location
Comments
Mounted on 15 m towers in
2# Large permanent weather
Butare (CGIS) and
stations
Nyungwe (Uwinka)
3# Large permanent weather Nyungwe
1# Portable photosynthesis
instrument (Licor 6400)
Biology department
1# Soil respiration
instrument (Licor 8100)
Biology department
1# Grinder for plant
samples
Biology department
1# Drying cabinet
Biology department
15# Permanent forest plots
(monitoring of tree growth,
leaf production, root
growth, photosynthesis and
respiration)
Nyungwe
Data from this stations supports
researcher with data on local
climate
Data from this stations supports
researcher with data on local
climate
This instrument has been used in
two PhD project and approximately
6 student projects.
This instrument has been used in
one PhD project and one post doc
project.
Used in several PhD and student
projects
Used in several PhD and student
projects
These permanent plots are set up to
facilitate PhD studies, student
projects. Currently 6 Bachelor and
Master projects are connected to
these. They are also a part of the
global monitoring network
http://gem.tropicalforests.ox.ac.uk/
Source: (Ndikumana, 2014)
5.2.6. Governance and Administrative Support
Efficient management and administrative systems are fundamental to the smooth running of any
organization and to ensure expected output. Several studies have established African universities
as being huge in bureaucracy, usually with an over-bloated workforce. Many “African
universities suffer from poor, inefficient, and highly bureaucratic management systems. Poorly
trained and poorly qualified personnel; inefficient, ineffective, and out-of-date management and
administrative infrastructures; and poorly remunerated staff are the norm throughout the many
systems” (Teferra & Altbach, 2004).
23
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Sida has been instrumental in establishing a much needed lean but effective organization
structure for the University of Rwanda. Sida has worked closely with University of Rwanda
management to enshrine principles of strategic planning in policy development and execution
and assisted in the development of management tools and in the introduction of Management
Information System (MIS) in NUR core business (Masanja et al., p. 13). The result was that as a
result of Sida support, the first ever strategic plan for the National University of Rwanda was
established forty years after the institutions was established. The 2004 – 2009 NUR strategic
plan focused on “program coordination, donor coordination and co-supported management
information system” (Masanja et al., 2013 p. 20)
5.2.7. Sustainability
Sida support has aimed at reducing dependency on expatriates by training Rwandan researchers,
IT specialists, and creating these programs at home. The retention rate is likewise high. Evidence
of sustainability can be glimpsed from the ICT fibre optic cabling and ICT process where Sida
supported that project until 2007 and staff, trained under the Sida supported Masters in ICT, took
over the systems administration and network management, leading to even vastly improved
delivery of ICT services (Masanaja, et al., p. 23). In addition, the numerous Masters programmes
established by Sida has gone on to become self-sufficient from student tuition fees and from
attracting grants and funds from other agencies. In addition, sustainability strategies are build
into all projects undertaken by Sida with University of Rwanda.
5.2.8. Donor cooperation
One of major criticism of aid is lack of coordination, which oftentimes leads to ineffectiveness
and waste. The 2005 Paris declaration on aid effectiveness and 2008 Accra Plan of Action both
try to address this very important issue. Despite the two documents, there is still an ongoing lack
of coordination within recipient countries and institutions. Sida by working closely with
university of Rwanda has assisted the university to attract funding from numerous other sources.
Improved research capacity and an improved research environment have led many donors who
would previously not deal with University of Rwanda to offer their cooperation. Sida has also, in
that regard supported NUR to build capacity to effectively administer research fund.
24
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Increased support from donors led Sida to assist the University to establish a Directorate of
Planning and Development in 2007 with the purpose of coordinating all planning within the
former National University of Rwanda, and to act as in a “one-stop unit for all external funding”
(University of Rwanda, 2013). DPD is now housed under the office of the Vice-Chancellor in
the University of Rwanda and is tasked with coordinating all external funds receiving within the
institution, planning strategically, overseeing all MUOs the university signs with all other
domestic and international organizations as well providing annual reports and statistics and
exploring, designing and developing new relationships. The unit also collaborates closely with
“Directorate of Finance on budgeting and especially University Action Plans and providing the
operational link with the government and international organizations” (University of Rwanda,
2013)
6. Conclusion
Rebuilding higher education in post-conflict nations is a huge task that is nevertheless
fundamental in pursuant of normalcy and growth. Most post-conflict nations are unable to fund
the huge cost required in giving higher education the prime place it demands in post-conflict
nation building. This situation is especially so in many post-conflict nations in sub-Saharan
Africa where nations who have been spared the violence and conflict in their recent history
struggle to provide adequate funds for that sector. Clearly, higher education in post-conflict subSaharan Africa is an area where even those suspicious of foreign aid would consent is in need of
external assistance.
External assistance for the higher education sector in post-conflict sub-Saharan Africa has been
slow in coming. This situation is traceable to the decades of reluctance on the part of donors to
back higher education, choosing instead to focus on primary and post-primary education.
Several credible studies establishing a direct link between higher economic growth and
development on the one hand and the level of higher education among a population on the other,
have come to the notice of donors who are very gradually beginning to reconsider higher
education support. There is need for best practices to be explored and benchmarked and that,
informed the writing of this paper.
25
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
Sida’s partnership with the only public university in Rwanda, the University of Rwanda has
transformed the institution from being a small a purely undergraduate institution with a little less
than 4,000 students and lecturers with mostly bachelor’s degree to an appreciable research based
institution. The partnership has trained many PhDs in and outside of Rwanda, 96 percent of who
have returned to help establish several postgraduate programs in the . The Sida/UR partnership
has helped to bridge severe infrastructural needs of the university across departments and units.
The recognition of the gap that exists between male and female researcher in Rwanda led to the
establishment of a gender scheme that has seen some funding dedicated to the training and
capacity building of Rwandan female researchers. Other worthy achievements of the UR/Sida
partnership is the establishment of an office for coordination of all donor funds and external
relationships between the university and funding agencies, in line with the Paris Declaration on
Aid and the Accra Plan of Action.
It is important to note that Sida’s involvement with the University of Rwanda is founded on a
framework developed out of active interaction between management and staff of the University
of Reanda and management and staff of Sida. It is not an outside-in approach where Sida
approached University of Rwanda with an already made model, developed via consultancy or
other means and within which University of Rwanda was expected to wedge in their needs.
Sida’s partnership is founded on the creation of a model of assistance that was founded on an
intimate understanding of the needs of post-conflict higher education in Rwanda, developed out
of a period of conscious interaction and close partnership with local stakeholders in that sector.
On the whole, Sida’s model of engagement with the University of Rwanda presents a unique
frontier that other donors ought to explore in order to ensure high impact funding of higher
education within countries of engagement.
26
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
References
Aguero, J. M., & Majid, M. F. ( 2014). War and the Destruction of Human Capital. Households
in Conflict Network HiCN Working Paper 163. Sussex: The Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex.
AU-NEPAD. (2010). African Innovation Outlook 2010. Pretoria: African-Union - New
Partnership for Africa's Development.
Bloom, D., Canning, D., & Chan, K. (2006). Higher Education and Economic Development in
Africa. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Bloom, D., Hartley, M., & Rosovsky, H. (2006). Beyond Private Gain: The Pubic Benefits of
Higher Education. In J. Forest, & P. Altbach, International Handbook of Higher Education.
Cloete, N. (2012). Higher Education and Development in Africa: The Academic Core. In M. C.
Kehm, & M. Vukasova, Effects of Higher Education Reforms: Change Dynamics (pp. 137-152).
Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Friesenhahn, I. (2014, June 25). Making Higher Education Work for Africa: Facts and Figues.
Retrieved January 31, 2015, from Science Development:
http://www.scidev.net/global/education/feature/higher-education-africa-facts-figures.html
Green, A. (2013, June 22). South Sudan: Higher Education System is Falling Apart. Retrieved
January 31, 2015, from University World News:
http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20130622124200919
Hayward, F., & Ncayiyana, D. (2014, March). Confronting the Challenges of Graduate
Education in Sub-Saharan Africa and Prospects for the Future. Chronicle of African Higher
Education .
Hoeffler, A. (2008). Dealing with the Consequences of Violent Conflicts in Africa. African
Development Bank Report.
Hoehne, M. (2010). Diasporic Engagement in the Educational Sector in Post-conflict
Somaliland: A Contribution to Peacebuilding . Jyvaskyla: University of Jyvaskyla.
Lwakabamba, S. (2011). Initiative to Build Capacity in Research and Postgraduate Training.
World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 8, 2/3 , 241 - 249.
Mamdani, M. (2002). When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism and the Genocide in
Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Masanja, V. G., Ndikumana, R., Nsengimana, H., & Ntaganira, V. (2013). a Decade of Research
Cooperation 2002 - 2013 : National University of Rwanda (NUR) and Swedish International
Development Agency. Kigali: Unpublished.
27
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
McWha, J. (2013). Higher Education in Rwanda. Kigali: Rwanda Ministry of Education .
MINECOFIN. (2002). Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Kigali: Rwanda Ministry of Finance
and Economic Planning.
MINECOFIN. (2002). Rwanda Vision 2020. Kigali: Rwanda Ministry of Finance and Economic
Planning.
MINEDUC. (2014). 2013 Education Statistical Yearbook. Kigali: Rwanda Ministry of
Education.
MINEDUC. (2013). Education Sector Strategic Plan 2013/14 - 2017/18. Kigali: Rwanda
Ministry of Education.
MINEDUC. (2008). Higher Education Policy. Kigali: Rwanda Ministry of Education
(MINEDUC).
MINEDUC. (2008, July). Higher Education Policy. Retrieved June 28, 2014, from Rwanda
Ministry of Education: http://mineduc.gov.rw/IMG/pdf/Higher_Educ.pdf
Ndikumana, R. (2014). Summary UR-Sweden Programme Results: Final Review Meeting for the
Agreement 2007-2013. Kigali: University of Rwanda.
OECD. (2002). The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Frascati Manual
2002: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development.
Brussels: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Teferra, D., & Altbach, P. (2004). African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.
Higher Education 47 , 21-50.
Tettey, W. (2009). Deficits in Academic Staff Capacity in Africa and Challenges of Developing
and Retaining the Next Generation of Academics. Partnership for Higher Education in Africa.
The Heritage Institute for Policy Studies. (2013). The State of Higher Education in Somalia:
Privatization, Rapid Growth and the need for Regulation. Mogadishu: The Heritage Institute for
Policy Studies.
Times Higher Education. (2013, March 14). Gloing Global Delegates Debate Post-conflict
Education. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from Times Higher Education Website:
http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/news/going-global-delegates-debate-post-conflicteducation/2002541.article
UNESCO. (2012). Rwanda EFA Profile. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from www.unesco.org:
http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Dakar/pdf/EFA%20country%20p
rofile%20%202102-%20Rwanda.pdf
28
Sida and University of Rwanda Partnership
Chika Ezeanya PhD
University of Rwanda . (2014). Retrieved January 28, 2015, from University of Rwanda website:
www.ur.ac.rw
University of Rwanda. (2014, June). University of Rwanda Statistics Office: Facts and Figures
June 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from University of Rwanda Website: www.ur.ac.rw
University of Rwanda. (2013). UR-Sweden Program for Research, Higher Education and
Institutional Advancement: Completion Report 2007 -2013. Kigali: Univeristy of Rwanda.
World Bank. (2003). Education in Rwanda: Rebalancing Resources to Accelerate Post-Conflict
Development and Poverty Reduction. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
World Bank. (2010). Financing Higher Education in Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.
World Bank Group. (2015). Doing Business: Measuring Business Regulations. Washington
D.C.: World Bank Group.
World Bank. (2013). Rwanda Education Resilience Report. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
World Bank. (2011). World Development Report. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
29
`